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Battle of Stalingrad
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-W0506-316, Russland, Kampf um Stalingrad, Siegesflagge.jpg
Soviet soldier waving the Red Banner over the central plaza in Stalingrad in 1943.
Date 17 July 1942 – 2 February 1943[1]1
Location Stalingrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Result Decisive Soviet victory
Belligerents
 Germany
Romania Romania
 Italy
Hungary Hungary
Croatia Croatia[2]:183, 281, 413
 Soviet Union
Commanders
Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Nazi Germany Friedrich Paulus #
Nazi Germany Erich von Manstein
Nazi Germany Wolfram von Richthofen
Romania Petre Dumitrescu
Romania Constantin Constantinescu
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) Italo Gariboldi
Hungary Gusztáv Vitéz Jány
Croatia Viktor Pavičić 
Soviet Union Joseph Stalin
Soviet Union Vasily Chuikov
Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov
Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky
Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko
Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky
Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky
Soviet Union Andrei Yeremenko
Soviet Union Hazi Aslanov
Strength
Army Group B:
Romanian 3rd Army
Romanian 4th Army
Italian 8th Army
Hungarian 2nd Army
Croatian Legion

Initial:
270,000 men
3,000 artillery pieces
500 tanks
600 aircraft, 1,600 by mid-September (Luftflotte 4)[3][4]:72

At the time of the Soviet counter-offensive:
1,011,000 men
10,250 artillery pieces
675 tanks
732 (402 operational) aircraft[5]:225[6]:87
Stalingrad Front
Southwestern Front
Don Front
Soviet 62nd Army




Initial:
187,000 men
2,200 artillery pieces
400 tanks
300 aircraft[4]:72

At the time of the Soviet counter-offensive: 1,103,000 men
15,501 artillery pieces
1,463 tanks
1,115[5]:224 aircraft
Casualties and losses
750,000 killed or wounded
91,000 captured
Aircraft: 900 (including 274 transports and 165 bombers used as transports)[4]:122-123
Total: 841,000 casualties
478,741 killed or missing
650,878 wounded and sick
40,000+ civilian dead
4,341 tanks
15,728 guns and mortars
2,769 combat aircraft [7]
Total: 1,129,619 casualties
1 Over 11,000 Axis soldiers continued to fight until early March, 1943.
Operation Blau: German advances from 7 May 1942 to 18 November 1942      to 7 July 1942      to 22 July 1942     to 1 August 1942     to 18 November 1942
.The Battle of Stalingrad was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in southwestern Russia.^ The battle of Stalingrad was fought between the invading forces of Nazi Germany and the forces of Soviet Union who were defending the city.
  • Stalingrad, the decisive battle. 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC users.telenet.be [Source type: Original source]

^ Battles and operations of World War II .
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Related subjects: World War II .

.The battle took place between 17 July 1942 and 2 February 1943, and is often cited as one of the turning points of the war.^ It was the major turning point of the war .
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The battle of Stalingrad was fought from August 1942 to February of 1943.
  • Stalingrad, the decisive battle. 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC users.telenet.be [Source type: Original source]

^ Kolombangara, Battle of (13 July 1943) .

[1] .The battle was among the bloodiest in the history of warfare, with the upper estimates of combined casualties coming to nearly two million.^ Total casualties for both sides are estimated to be over two million.

^ Stalingrad, the bloodiest battle in the history of warfare, cost the lives of nearly two million men and women.
  • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

^ The Battle of Stalingrad is considered the bloodiest battle with the largest battlefield casualties in the history of conventional warfare.
  • www.outlookindia.com | The Spectre Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.outlookindia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The battle involved more participants than any other, and was marked by brutality and disregard for military and civilian casualties.^ PM Why is it more interesting than any other battle?
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The battle was marked by brutality and disregard for military and civilian casualties by both sides.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M is for military and much more than that is civilian.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The German offensive to take Stalingrad, the battle inside the city and the Soviet counter-offensive—which eventually trapped and destroyed the German 6th Army and other Axis forces around the city—was the first substantial German land defeat of World War II.[8][9] The battle was arguably the most important turning point in not only the Eastern Front, but the War itself, as it marked the beginning of the Soviet counter-offensive that greatly contributed to the surrender of Nazi Germany around two-and-a-half years later.^ Sunday the 31 st of January marks the surrender of the remnants of the German 6th Army to the Soviets at Stalingrad.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ It was the major turning point of the war .
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The battle of Stalingrad was fought between the invading forces of Nazi Germany and the forces of Soviet Union who were defending the city.
  • Stalingrad, the decisive battle. 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC users.telenet.be [Source type: Original source]

.The German offensive to capture Stalingrad proceeded rapidly in the late summer of 1942, supported by Luftwaffe bombing which reduced much of the city to rubble.^ The city was reduced to rubble first, by the German air force.
  • Enemy at the gates: The Battle for Stalingrad (Hardcover) by William Craig - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ The German forces took much of the city.
  • Stalingrad, the decisive battle. 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC users.telenet.be [Source type: Original source]

^ The Germans were still on the offensive after Stalingrad.
  • Greatest Battle of WW2 [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the German offensive bogged down in house-to-house fighting; despite controlling over 90% of the city at times, the Wehrmacht was unable to dislodge the last Soviet defenders, who clung tenaciously to the west bank of the Volga River as the weather turned rainy and cold.^ Fourth, Stalingrad was a strategic city on the bank of river Volga.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elsewhere, the German advance was also bogged down.

^ By October 7, 1941, the German offensive in this area was bogged down.

.In November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack on the exposed flanks of the German 6th Army in Stalingrad.^ Operation URANUS, a two pronged Soviet attack is launched against the 6th Army.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ Operation Uranus December 12, 1942 .
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ On November 19, the Red Army unleashed Uranus.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This operation dramatically turned the tables, as the weakly held German flanks collapsed and the German 6th Army was cut off and surrounded inside Stalingrad.^ The entire German 6th army was now trapped in and near Stalingrad.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The German 6th Army try to defend Stalingrad against the Russian.
  • SC Military Museum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.scguard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in "Stalingrad", we are confronted by the German Wermacht army.

.As the Russian winter set in, the 6th Army weakened rapidly from cold, starvation, and ongoing Soviet attacks, but command ambiguity coupled with Adolf Hitler's resolute belief in the "power of the will" and the value of standing fast prevented it from breaking out.^ The last volume will contain the start of Zhukov's offensive to entrap and destroy 6th Army in Stalingrad, Hitler's decision to forbid Paulus to break out, Manstein's futile attempt to relieve 6th Army, the attempted airlift of the pocket, squeezing the pocket and the final surrender to name some of the obvious coverage.
  • Math.com Store: Math Books: Armageddon in Stalingrad: September-November 1942 (The Stalingrad Trilogy, Volume 2) (Modern War Studies) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC store.math.com [Source type: General]

^ Along with this, the German high command knew that time was running out for them, as the United States had entered WWII following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour .

^ The extreme conditions of the battle, including the paralyzing Soviet winter that precipitated massive German fatalities due to starvation and freezing, have been immortalized in several films of German, Russian, and American origin.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During December, a German attempt to break the encirclement failed, and subsequently all attempts at supply collapsed.^ This encirclement attempt failed.
  • The Battle of Budapest - Stormfront 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.stormfront.org [Source type: General]

^ Two German break-out attempts failed.
  • RW ONLINE:The Red Street Fighters of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC revcom.us [Source type: Original source]

^ By the last week in December, the Luftwaffe delivered only an average 129 tons of supplies a day, condemning the German forces in the pocket to slow starvation and death.

.By early February 1943, German resistance in Stalingrad had ceased, and the surrounded 6th Army had been destroyed.^ The entire German 6th army was now trapped in and near Stalingrad.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Final resistance ended on 2 February 1943.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The German 6th Army try to defend Stalingrad against the Russian.
  • SC Military Museum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.scguard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

Contents

Background

.On 22 June 1941, Germany launched Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa), the invasion of the Soviet Union.^ I was called up in 1941 when Operation Barbarossa was put into action on 22 June.

^ On June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany launched Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa).
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation (22 June 19 .

.The armed forces of Germany and its allies quickly advanced deep into Soviet territory.^ On June 22, 1941, Germany and its Axis allies invaded the Soviet Union, quickly advancing deep into Soviet territory.

^ The armed forces of Germany and its allies invaded the Soviet Union, quickly advancing deep into Soviet territory.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November, after three months of carnage and slow and costly advance, the Germans finally reached the river banks, capturing 80% of the ruined city and splitting the remaining Soviet forces into two narrow pockets.

.During December, after suffering multiple defeats in the summer and autumn, Soviet forces counter-attacked during the Battle of Moscow and successfully drove the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) from the environs of Moscow.^ During December, having suffered multiple defeats during the summer and autumn, Soviet forces counter-attacked during the Battle of Moscow and successfully drove the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) from the environs of Moscow.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here in the summer of 1943, the Soviet army not only won a battle.
  • Embassy of Russia in Ghana 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ghana.mid.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ One of bloodiest battles ever, it was the German army's greatest defeat .
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

[11]
.By spring 1942, the Germans had stabilized their new front in a line running roughly from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south.^ In the south the German Spring Offensive continued with the taking of Rostov-on-Don.
  • Russian, Front, Barbarossa, Kursk, Arctic, Convoys, Smolensk, Kiev, Moscow, Stalingrad, Battle 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Germans stabilized their front by spring 1942.

^ I think I heard somewhere that the German tiger machine gunners got shell shock from shooting all the Russians running directly in front of their tanks.
  • Greatest Battle of WW2 [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.There were a number of salients in the line where Soviet offensives had pushed the Germans back, notably to the northwest of Moscow and south of Kharkov, but neither was particularly threatening.^ Hence the Soviet salient protruding into German lines.
  • The Battle of Kursk 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Germans pushed on beyond Kharkov ready for the main Spring Offensive.
  • Russian, Front, Barbarossa, Kursk, Arctic, Convoys, Smolensk, Kiev, Moscow, Stalingrad, Battle 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To the south they drove a deep salient into the German lines south of Kharkov in the Ukraine.
  • Russian, Front, Barbarossa, Kursk, Arctic, Convoys, Smolensk, Kiev, Moscow, Stalingrad, Battle 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the far south, the Germans were in control of most of Ukraine and much of the Crimea, although Sevastopol remained in Soviet hands along with a small portion of the Kerch Peninsula.^ Only a small portion of the German defense was in the remains of Stalingrad.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Germans, despite taking heavy losses, were able to push the Soviets back against the river to the extent that they eventually controlled about ninety percent of the city.
  • Enemy at the gates: The Battle for Stalingrad (Hardcover) by William Craig - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ Camouflaging of these positions and minefields was excellent; the first warning most German units would have of the presence of Soviet minefields or dug-in guns would be their own vehicles exploding.
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Germans were confident they could master the Red Army when winter weather no longer impeded their mobility.^ By spring 1942, the Germans had stabilized their front and were confident they could master the Red Army when winter weather no longer impeded their mobility.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Red Army was making the Germans pay.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The initial German plans concentrated on the destruction of the Red Army, and the offensive against Moscow.
  • WW2 Russian battlefield military trip of Moscow, Stalingrad and Kursk. Great Patriotic War group package tour. 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.threewhales.ru [Source type: General]

.There was some substance to this belief: while the German Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) had suffered heavy punishment, 65% of its infantry had not been engaged during the winter fighting, and had been rested and reequipped; and Army Groups North and South had not been particularly hard pressed over the winter.^ There was some substance to this belief: while Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) had suffered heavy punishment, 65 percent of its infantry had not been engaged during the winter fighting, and had been rested and reequipped.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the central front, a massive attack of the Red army, called operation Bagration, starting on June 22 led eventually to the destruction of the German Army Group Centre the next year.
  • Embassy of Russia in Ghana 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ghana.mid.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ As part of the overall Soviet operational plan for the Summer of 1943, the Red Army would absorb the (obvious) German attack while simultaneously launching its own attacks against the 2 nd Army (to the left and behind the 9 th Army on the north face) and to the south of Kharkov (to outflank the 4 th Panzer Army and Army Group Kempf).
  • The Battle of Kursk 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]

Importance of Stalingrad

.The capture of Stalingrad was important to Hitler, and Mussolini, for two primary reasons.^ Stalingrad was more important for 3 reasons .
  • which battle u think is one of the worst ever? | Battlestations.net 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.battlestations.net [Source type: General]

^ The capture of Stalingrad was important to Hitler for primarily two reasons.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The capture of Stalingrad was important to Hitler for several reasons.

.First, it was a major industrial city on the Volga River – a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia.^ First, it was a major industrial city on the Volga River a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and Northern Russia.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the River Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia) and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the river Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia).

.As a result, the German capture of the city would effectively sever the transportation of resources and goods to the north.^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the River Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia) and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By mid 1942, the German invasion had already cost Russia over six million soldiers, half killed and half captured by the Germans, and a large part of its vast territory and resources.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Adolf Hitler had declared in a public speech (in the Berlin Sportpalast) on September 30 that the German army would never leave the city.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Second, its capture would secure the East flank of the German armies as they advanced into the oil-rich Caucasus region – with the strategic goal of cutting off fuel to Stalin's war machine.^ If Germany captured Stalingrad, it meant the Soviet army would be cut off from oil supply.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Advance far South-East, through the mountainous Caucasus region, to capture the rich oil fields on the Caspian Sea.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ They would take the war into the North.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

[13] .The fact that the city bore the name of the leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, would make its capture an ideological and propaganda coup.^ Finally, the fact that the city bore the name of Hitler’s nemesis, I. V. Stalin, would make the city’s capture an ideological and propaganda coup.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That the city bore the name of Hitlers nemesis, Joseph Stalin, would make the citys capture an ideological and propaganda coup.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, the fact that the city bore the name of Hitler's nemesis, Joseph Stalin , would make the city's capture an ideological and propaganda coup.

.The Soviets realized that they were under tremendous constraints of time and resources and ordered that anyone strong enough to hold a rifle be sent to defend the city.^ Stalin realized this and ordered anyone that was strong enough to hold a rifle be sent out to war.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin also had an ideological and propaganda interest in defending the city which bore his name in honor of his defense of the city during the Russian Civil War, but the fact remains that Stalin was under tremendous constraints of time and resources.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In another part of the city, a Soviet platoon under the command of Yakov Pavlov turned an apartment building into an impenetrable fortress.
  • Battle of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .At this stage of the war, the Red Army was less capable of highly mobile operations than the German Army; however, combat inside a large urban area, which would be dominated by hand-held small arms rather than armored and mechanized tactics, minimized the Red Army's disadvantages.^ The Red Army, at this stage of the war, was less capable of highly mobile operations than the German Army, but the prospect of combat inside a large urban area, which would be dominated by short-range small firearms and artillery rather than armored and mechanized tactics, minimized the Red Armys disadvantages against the Germans.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prospect of combat inside a large urban area, which would be dominated by infantry and artillery, maximized the Red Army’s advantages against the Germans.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Red Army was making the Germans pay.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

Case Blau (Blue)

.If I do not get the oil of Maikop and Grozny then I must end this war.^ This opinion is not isolated, Beevor Quotes Paulus “If we don’t take Maikop and Gronzy…then I must put an end to the war.” (Beevor pp.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

—Adolf Hitler[15]

.Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there.^ STALINGRAD: How the Red Army Survived the German Onslaught Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the south, Group A was pushing far into the Caucasus, but their advance slowed.

^ Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields.

.The planned summer offensive was code-named Fall Blau ("Case Blue").^ The planned summer offensive was code-named Fall Blau (trans.: Case Blue).
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The summer offensive was code-named Fall Blau (literally: "Case Blue").

^ On October 2, 1941, Army Group Centre, under Fedor von Bock, launched its final offensive towards Moscow, code-named Operation Typhoon .

.It was to include the German 6th, 17th, 4th Panzer and 1st Panzer Armies.^ Within four days the German 6th and 4th Panzer armies were surrounded.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was to include the 6th and 17th Armies and the 4th and 1st Panzer Armies.

^ German Field Marshall Paulus was forced to surrender, the 6th Army and 4th Panzer Army.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Army Group South had overrun the Ukrainian SSR in 1941. Poised in Eastern Ukraine, it was to spearhead the offensive.^ Poised in the Eastern Ukraine, it was to spearhead the offensive.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1941, Army Group South had conquered Ukraine, and was positioned at the area of the planned offensive.

^ Army Group South had overrun the Ukrainian SSR in 1941.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hitler intervened, however, ordering the Army Group to be split in two.^ Hitler intervened, however, ordering the Army Group to be split in two.
  • Battle of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a recent work on Stalingrad , for example, Franz Kurowski repeats many errors and concludes: What had moved Hitler to give this death order to Sixth Army?
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Hitler sent General Fedor von Bock's Army Group South east from around Kursk to secure Voronezh, which fell to the Germans on 6 July.

.Army Group South (A), under the command of Wilhelm List, was to continue advancing south towards the Caucasus as planned with the 17th Army and First Panzer Army.^ Army Group A was to the south with 17 th Army and 1 st Panzer Army.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Army Group South (A), under the command of Wilhelm List, was to continue advancing south towards the Caucasus as planned with the Seventeenth Army and First Panzer Army.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It effectively nullified/destroyed army group central, forced army group south to be divided into two commands (for a second time) and resulted in Germany being pushed backwards for the last time.
  • which battle u think is one of the worst ever? | Battlestations.net 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.battlestations.net [Source type: General]

.Army Group South (B), including Friedrich Paulus’ 6th Army and Hermann Hoth's 4th Panzer Army, was to move east towards the Volga and Stalingrad.^ By the end of August, Army Group South (B) had finally reached the Volga to the north of Stalingrad.

^ German Field Marshall Paulus was forced to surrender, the 6th Army and 4th Panzer Army.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of August, Army Group South (B) had finally reached the Volga, north of Stalingrad.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Army Group B was commanded initially by Field Marshal Fedor von Bock and later by General Maximilian von Weichs.^ Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian .

^ General von Kluge Commander of the 4th Army.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Army Group B was commanded initially by Field Marshal Fedor von Bock and later by General Maximilian von Weichs.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.The start of Case Blau had been planned for late May 1942. However, a number of German and Romanian units that were involved in Blau were then in the process of besieging Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula.^ However, a number of German and Romanian units that were involved in Blau were then in the process of besieging Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula.
  • Battle of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The start of Operation Blau had been planned for late May 1942.
  • Battle of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The German northern flank was particularly vulnerable, since it was defended by Italian, Hungarian, and Romanian units that suffered from inferior training, equipment, and morale when compared with their German counterparts.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Delays in ending the siege pushed back the start date for Blau several times, and the city did not fall until the end of June.^ Delays in ending the siege pushed back the start date for Blau several times, and the city did not fall until the end of June.
  • Battle of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October, snow would begin falling and that would be the end of serious military operations in the region until spring.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Arctic, the Russians started a series of attacks and amphibious hops which by the end of the month had driven the Germans back from the Murmansk area just over the border into Norway .
  • Russian, Front, Barbarossa, Kursk, Arctic, Convoys, Smolensk, Kiev, Moscow, Stalingrad, Battle 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: Original source]

.A smaller action was taken in the meantime, pinching off a Soviet salient in the Second Battle of Kharkov, which resulted in the pocketing of a large Soviet force on 22 May.^ A smaller action was taken in the meantime, pinching off a Soviet salient in the Second Battle of Kharkov, which resulted in the pocketing of a large Soviet force on 22 May.
  • Battle of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet bomber force, the Aviatsiya Dalnego Destviya (ADD), having taken crippiling losses over the past 18 months, was restricted to flying at night.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all, the battle resulted in an estimated total of 1.7 million to 2 million Axis and Soviet casualties, making it by far the largest in human history.

The German advance to the Don River between 7 May and 23 July.
.Blau finally opened as Army Group South began its attack into southern Russia on 28 June 1942. The German offensive started well.^ Blau finally opened as Army Group South began its attack into southern Russia on June 28, 1942.
  • Battle of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The German offensive started well.
  • Battle of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commencing on June 28 , 1942, the attack started off well.
  • Battle of Stalingrad - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Battle of Stalingrad? What is Battle of Stalingrad? Where is Battle of Stalingrad? Definition of Battle of Stalingrad. Meaning of Battle of Stalingrad. 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soviet forces offered little resistance in the vast empty steppes and started streaming eastward.^ Soviet forces offered little resistance in the vast empty steppes and started streaming eastward in disarray.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet forces offered little resistance in the vast empty steppes, and started streaming eastward in disarray.

^ To the south the Germans were held up by lack of fuel and increased Soviet resistance including the introduction of a force of 800 bombers.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

.Several attempts to re-establish a defensive line failed when German units outflanked them.^ Several attempts to form defensive lines failed when other German units flanked Soviet defensive lines.

^ Several attempts to re-establish a defensive line failed when German units outflanked them.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manstein responded to this threat by shortening the German defense line with an evacuation of Rostov, "and [taking] up a much shorter front along the Mius River .
  • Kursk 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC userwww.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two major pockets were formed and destroyed: the first, northeast of Kharkov, on 2 July, and a second, around Millerovo, Rostov Oblast, a week later.^ Two major pockets were formed and destroyed, the first northeast of Kharkov on June 2, a second around Millerovo, Rostov Oblast a week later.

^ Two major pockets were formed and destroyed: the first northeast of Kharkov on July 2 and a second, around Millerovo, Rostov Oblast, a week later.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orel fell on 5 August, and two weeks later Soviet forces "had reached the powerful German defense line 'Hagen,' where they were stopped.
  • Kursk 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC userwww.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile, the Hungarian 2nd Army and the German 4th Panzer Army had launched an assault on Voronezh, capturing the city on 5 July.^ Meanwhile, the Hungarian Second Army and the German 4th Panzer Army had launched an assault on Voronezh, capturing the city on the 5th of July.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assault on Voronezh , Russia , 2nd - 7th July 1942 .
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the River Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia) and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The initial advance of the 6th Army was so successful that Hitler intervened and ordered the 4th Panzer Army to join Army Group South (A) to the south.^ The initial advance of the Sixth Army was so successful that Hitler intervened and ordered the Fourth Panzer Army to join Army Group South (A) to the south.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Army Group A was to the south with 17 th Army and 1 st Panzer Army.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ It was to include the 6th and 17th Armies and the 4th and 1st Panzer Armies.

.A massive traffic jam resulted when the 4th Panzer and the 6th both required the few roads in the area.^ A massive traffic jam resulted when the Fourth Panzer and the Sixth both required the few roads in the area.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A massive traffic jam resulted when the 4th Army and the 6th Army both required the few roads in the area.

^ Within four days the German 6th and 4th Panzer armies were surrounded.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both armies were stopped dead while they attempted to clear the resulting mess of thousands of vehicles.^ Both armies were stopped dead while they attempted to clear the resulting mess of thousands of vehicles.
  • Battle of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wear and tear in vehicles, the supply nightmare, the communications quagmire and the resulting casualties that plagued the German army were instrumental in the defeat.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ Stalingrad proved to the Russians and their allies that they could both stop and defeat the great German army.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The delay was long, and it is thought that it cost the advance at least one week.^ The delay was long, and it is thought that it cost the advance at least one week.
  • Battle of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One pattern is the tendency to follow certain natural long-term and rhythmic, almost wave-like patterns, where a major advance is followed up by a retreat to a certain level.
  • bizzXceleration: Performance, Value and Profit: Between Stalingrad and Kursk: Not Quite the Beginning of the End 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC llinlithgow.com [Source type: News]

^ The truth can be unpalatable, Beevor discovered, when he wrote that Russian soldiers, most of them drunk, had raped at least 2m German women during the long advance on Berlin.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the advance now slowed, Hitler changed his mind and re-assigned the 4th Panzer Army back to the attack on Stalingrad.^ With the advance now slowed, Hitler changed his mind and re-assigned the 4th Panzer back to the attack on Stalingrad.

^ Hitler changed his mind and directed the 4 th Panzer Army to assist Paulus by advancing on Stalingrad from the south.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the advance now slowed, Hitler changed his mind and re-assigned the Fourth Panzer Army back to the attack on Stalingrad.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Infantry and a supporting StuG III assault gun advance towards the city center.
.By the end of July, the Germans had pushed the Soviets across the Don River.^ By the end of July, the Germans had pushed the Soviets across the Don River.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of July the Germans had pushed the Soviets across the Don River.

^ Now German intentions became clear to the Soviet commanders: in July Soviet plans were developed for the defense in Stalingrad.

.At this point, the Don and Volga Rivers were only 40 miles apart, and the Germans left their main supply depots west of the Don, which was to have important implications later in the course of the battle.^ In the course of the defensive operation, in the area between the Don and the Volga, and also in Stalingrad itself, the Wehrmacht forces were worn out and then routed in a brilliant encirclement operation, with the Soviet and German sides being of approximately equal strength.
  • Embassy of Russia in Ghana 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ghana.mid.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the River Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia) and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the last week in December, the Luftwaffe delivered only an average 129 tons of supplies a day, condemning the German forces in the pocket to slow starvation and death.

.The Germans began using the armies of their Italian, Hungarian, and Romanian allies to guard their left (northern) flank.^ At this point, the Germans began using the armies of their Italian, Hungarian, and Romanian allies to guard their left (northern) flank.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The German northern flank was particularly vulnerable, since it was defended by Italian, Hungarian, and Romanian units that suffered from inferior training, equipment, and morale when compared with their German counterparts.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the River Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia) and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Italians are not often credited with bravery in the fighting, but they won several accolades in official German communiques.^ When Zhukov briefed Stalin on 12 September on the specific difficulties of fighting in Stalingrad, he mentioned that the Germans held several key elevations.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if the Germans won Stalingrad (and they did practically capture the city) its another question whether they could have got the oil-fields.
  • Greatest Battle of WW2 [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon won several of the initial fights, even defeating the Prussians at Lutzen on May 2.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

[17][18][19][20] .They were held in little regard by the Germans, and were often accused of cowardice and low morale: in reality, their ineffectiveness in combat was due to their very scarce equipment, obsolete weaponry, and primitive tactics of Italian officers, thus often being obliged to retreat or flee.^ Thus they deliberately sacrificed tactical surprise.
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those same subjective factors led him to ignore the dissenting voices of commanders he ordinarily trusted and to listen to those of men he held in low regard.

^ German generals had proposed that these foreign divisions be braced up by German officers and troops, but the Rumanian and Italian governments had refused it as an insult to their national sovereignty.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

They distinguished themselves in numerous battles, as in the battle of Nikolayevka. .The German 6th Army was only a few dozen kilometers from Stalingrad, and 4th Panzer Army, now to their south, turned northwards to help take the city.^ Within four days the German 6th and 4th Panzer armies were surrounded.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It take only a few steps."

^ The German Sixth Army was only a few dozen kilometers from Stalingrad, and Fourth Panzer Army, now to their south, turned northwards to help take the city.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To the south, Army Group A was pushing far into the Caucasus, but their advance slowed as supply lines grew overextended.^ To the south, Army Group A was pushing far into the Caucasus, but their advance slowed as supply lines grew overextended.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It effectively nullified/destroyed army group central, forced army group south to be divided into two commands (for a second time) and resulted in Germany being pushed backwards for the last time.
  • which battle u think is one of the worst ever? | Battlestations.net 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.battlestations.net [Source type: General]

^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the River Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia) and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two German army groups were not positioned to support one another due to the great distances involved.^ The two German army groups were not positioned to support one another due to the great distances involved.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the Soviet field armies now had a multilayered defense with at least two rifle divisions in second echelon positions.

^ The bypassed 13th and 50th Armies, together with the headquarters of the Briansk Front, were pushed into two large pockets by German 2nd Army.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After German intentions became clear in July, Stalin appointed Marshall Andrey Yeryomenko as commander of the Southeastern Front on 1 August 1942. Yeryomenko and Commissar Nikita Krushchev were tasked with planning the defense of Stalingrad.^ Yeremenko and Commissar Nikita Krushchev were tasked with planning the defense of Stalingrad.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Road to Stalingrad August 1942; 14.

^ After German intentions became clear in July, Stalin appointed Marshall Andrei Yeremenko as commander of the Southeastern Front on August 1, 1942.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]:25, .48 The eastern border of Stalingrad was the wide Volga River, and over the river, additional Soviet units were deployed.^ The eastern border of Stalingrad was the wide Volga River, and over the river additional Soviet units were deployed.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet command moved the Red Army's strategic reserves from the Moscow area to the lower Volga, and transferred all available aircraft from the entire country to Stalingrad.

^ Before the Wehrmacht reached the city itself, the Luftwaffe had rendered the Volga River, vital for bringing supplies into the city, virtually unusable to Soviet shipping.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These units became the newly formed 62nd Army, which Yeryomenko placed under the command of Lt. Gen. Vasiliy Chuikov on September 11, 1942. The situation was extremely dire. .When asked how he interpreted his task, he responded "We will defend the city or die in the attempt."^ He replied simply: "We will defend the city or die in the attempt."
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Chuikov's answer was "We will defend the city or die".
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Before he left, he was asked "How do you interpret your mission?".
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

[2]:127 .The 62nd Army's mission was to defend Stalingrad at all costs.^ The 62nd Army's mission was to defend Stalingrad at all costs.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet command moved the Red Army's strategic reserves from the Moscow area to the lower Volga, and transferred all available aircraft from the entire country to Stalingrad.

^ The Hungarian Second Army, consisting of mainly ill-equipped and ill-trained units, was given the task of defending a 200 km section of the front north of Stalingrad.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chuikov's generalship during the battle earned him one of his two Hero of the Soviet Union awards.^ For me, it is an interesting battle for many reasons, one of which was that my dad was in one of the dive bomber squadrons on board Saratoga during the battle.
  • Battle of the Eastern Solomon's - NWS ONLINE GAMING STORE / NAVAL WARFARE SIMULATIONS FORUMS 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC forums.navalwarfare.org [Source type: General]

^ Plus two years ago documents came out that showed the Soviet union was planning to invade Germany.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "These two classic accounts of the victorious campaigns of these Armies during the periods they were under his command were written by him shortly after the end of the war.
  • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

Beginning of the battle

The aftermath of a bombing raid in the city
.The Soviets had enough warning of the Germans' advance to ship virtually all the city's grain, cattle, and railroad rolling stock across the Volga and out of harm's way.^ With no end in sight, the Germans started transferring heavy artillery to the city, including the gigantic 800 mm railroad gun nicknamed Dora.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the River Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia) and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November, after three months of carnage and slow and costly advance, the Germans finally reached the river banks, capturing 80% of the ruined city and splitting the remaining Soviet forces into two narrow pockets.

.This "harvest victory" left the city short of food even before the German attack began.^ For example, the German 653rd Heavy Panzerjäger Battalion began the attack with 49 Ferdinand self-propelled guns; 37 of them had been lost in the minefields before 17:00 on July 5 .
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Germans advanced just 60 kilometers in the direction of Stalingrad, before they were pushed back by a Russian counter attack.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if the Germans won Stalingrad (and they did practically capture the city) its another question whether they could have got the oil-fields.
  • Greatest Battle of WW2 [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.Production continued in some factories, particularly the one producing T-34 tanks.^ Some one million men and 900 tanks were to conduct a classic double envelopment of the German 6 th Army by breaking through the hapless 3 rd and 4 th Rumanian Armies.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One flanking attack by commandos achieved some success, but the other and the frontal assault with tanks were total failures.
  • World War 2 - Midway, Alamein, Guadalcanal, Torch, Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC wow.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The city was quickly turned to rubble, although some factories survived and continued production whilst workers joined in the fighting.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before the Wehrmacht reached the city itself, the Luftwaffe had rendered the Volga River, vital for bringing supplies into the city, unusable to Soviet shipping.^ Before the Wehrmacht reached the city itself, the Luftwaffe had rendered the Volga River, vital for bringing supplies into the city, virtually unusable to Soviet shipping.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the River Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia) and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November, after three months of carnage and slow and costly advance, the Germans finally reached the river banks, capturing 80% of the ruined city and splitting the remaining Soviet forces into two narrow pockets.

.Between 25 and 31 July, 32 Soviet ships were sunk, with another nine crippled.^ Between 25 July and 31 July, 32 Soviet ships were sunk with another nine crippled.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Von Paulus’ 6 th Army now attempted to rush Stalingrad between the 25 th and 29 th of July, while Hoth milled about on the lower Don.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

[4]:69
.The battle began with the heavy bombing of the city by Generaloberst Wolfram von Richthofen's Luftflotte 4, which in the summer and autumn of 1942 was the mightiest single air squadron in the world.^ The battle began with the heavy bombing of the city by the Generaloberst von Richthofen's Luftflotte 4, which in the summer and autumn of 1942 was the mightiest single air command in the world.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another prominent air leader shared Fiebig's view: the highly decorated Generaloberst Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, commander of Luftflotte 4, the air fleet in charge of all Luftwaffe operations in southern Russia (including the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Black Sea, the Caucasus and, of course, the Stalingrad sector).

^ The head of the Fourth Air Fleet (Luftflotte 4), Wolfram von Richthofen, tried to have this decision overturned without success.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some 1,000 tons of bombs were dropped.^ Some 1,000 tons were dropped.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luftwaffe carpet bombing at the end of August killed some 40,000 people, but it also turned the city into defensive bastions of ruined buildings and rubble.

^ On March 9, 1945, an armada of 234 B-29s descended to less than 7,000 feet and dropped 1,667 tons of incendiaries on Tokyo.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]:122 .The city was quickly turned to rubble, although some factories continued production whilst workers joined in the fighting.^ The city was quickly turned to rubble, although some factories survived and continued production whilst workers joined in the fighting.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luftwaffe carpet bombing at the end of August killed some 40,000 people, but it also turned the city into defensive bastions of ruined buildings and rubble.

^ Nevertheless, the fighting, especially on the slopes of Mamayev Kurgan and inside the factory area in the northern part of the city, continued as fiercely as ever.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Croatian 369th Reinforced Infantry Regiment was the only non-German unit[22] selected by the Wehrmacht to enter Stalingrad city during assault operations.^ Hitler did tell the field marshal to expect reinforcements totaling six infantry and four panzer divisions, a Luftwaffe field division, and some flak units.

^ By September 22, the Germans occupied the center of Stalingrad, but the beleaguered Russian soldiers and civilians refused to surrender.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if the Germans won Stalingrad (and they did practically capture the city) its another question whether they could have got the oil-fields.
  • Greatest Battle of WW2 [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

It fought as part of the 100th jager division.
.Stalin rushed all available troops to the east bank of the Volga, some from as far away as Siberia.^ Soviet command moved the Red Army's strategic reserves from the Moscow area to the lower Volga, and transferred all available aircraft from the entire country to Stalingrad.

^ East of the factories along the bank of the Volga, the Russians had increased their presence with frequent incursions along the riverbank.

^ Advance East, to Stalingrad, a major industrial and transportation center on the West bank of the wide Volga river, the main waterway of inner Russia, that runs all the way from North of Moscow to the Caspian Sea in the South.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.All the regular ferries were quickly destroyed by the Luftwaffe, which then targeted troop barges being towed slowly across the river by tugs.^ And finally, the ground troops wanted to be better informed of what targets the Luftwaffe were going after, so they could deploy sufficient light and signals equipment to protect themselves.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, ice-floes on the Volga now prevented boats and tugs from supplying the Soviet defenders across the river.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Stalingrad Campaign 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.euronordspa.com [Source type: General]

^ In the centre/south all the Ukraine east of the Dnieper River together with deep bridgeheads across much of its length were now in Russian hands.
  • Russian, Front, Barbarossa, Kursk, Arctic, Convoys, Smolensk, Kiev, Moscow, Stalingrad, Battle 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: Original source]

.Many civilians were evacuated across the Volga.^ Most of the surviving citizens fled across the Volga if they could, though many of the fugitives were killed by attacks of Luftwaffe aircraft.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

[21] .It has been said that Stalin prevented civilians from leaving the city in the belief that their presence would encourage greater resistance from the city's defenders.^ Soviet factory workers heading to the front lines.Stalin prevented civilians from leaving the city on the premise that their presence would encourage greater resistance from the city's defenders.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin refused to allow the evacuation of the civilian population, believing that this would force the defenders, especially local militia forces, to fight more tenaciously.

^ Adolf Hitler had declared in a public speech (in the Berlin Sportpalast) on September 30 that the German army would never leave the city.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]:106 .Civilians, including women and children, were put to work building trenchworks and protective fortifications.^ Civilians, including women and children, were put to work building trenchworks and protective fortifications.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were demonstrations where red flags were carried, women carrying children and pushing pushchairs, shouting 'Give us bread, give us work', workers shouting Revolution and Lenin.

.A massive German air bombardment on 23 August caused a firestorm, killing thousands and turning Stalingrad into a vast landscape of rubble and burnt ruins.^ A massive German air bombardment on August 23 caused a firestorm, killing thousands and turning Stalingrad into a vast landscape of rubble and burnt ruins.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A massive German air bombardment on 23 August had caused a firestorm in the city, killing thousands of civilians and turning the city into a vast landscape of rubble and burnt ruins.

^ Luftwaffe carpet bombing at the end of August killed some 40,000 people, but it also turned the city into defensive bastions of ruined buildings and rubble.

[2]:102-108 .Ninety percent of the living space in the Voroshilovskiy area was destroyed.^ Ninety percent of the living space in the Voroshilovskiy area was destroyed.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eighty percent of the living space in the city was destroyed.

.Between 23 and 26 August, Soviet reports indicate 955 people were killed and another 1,181 wounded as a result of the bombing.^ Luftwaffe carpet bombing at the end of August killed some 40,000 people, but it also turned the city into defensive bastions of ruined buildings and rubble.

^ Only about one hundred and fifty of his soldiers had been killed and another three hundred wounded, but he knew that future action was futile.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, 23 August 1939–10 January 1941 .

[4]:73 .Casualties of 40,000 were exaggerated,[23] and after 25 August, the Soviets did not record civilian and military casualties as a result of air raids.^ Luftwaffe carpet bombing at the end of August killed some 40,000 people, but it also turned the city into defensive bastions of ruined buildings and rubble.

^ According to British military historian Anthony Bevoir, 1.1 million Soviet soldiers died in the Battle of Stalingrad — and that does not include the at least 100,000 (and possibly three times as many civilian) inhabitants massacred by waves of indiscriminate Luftwaffe air attacks.
  • Stalingrad Revisited by Martin Sieff - The Globalist 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.theglobalist.com [Source type: General]

^ A massive German air bombardment on 23 August had caused a firestorm in the city, killing thousands of civilians and turning the city into a vast landscape of rubble and burnt ruins.

[24]
German soldier with a Russian PPSh 41 sub machine-gun taking cover in rubble.
.The Soviet Air Force, the Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily (VVS), was swept aside by the Luftwaffe.^ The Luftwaffe still held the upper hand over the Red Air Force in the skies, but the Soviets were now contesting them bitterly for the right.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the first air raids in August the Luftwaffe has hammered away at the Soviets entrenched in the ruins of Stalingrad.

^ The Luftwaffe helped the German forces repulse the offensive by subjecting Soviet artillery positions and defensive lines to heavy attack.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The VVS assembly in the immediate area lost 201 aircraft between 23–31 August, and despite meager reinforcements of some 100 aircraft in August, it was left with just 192 serviceable aircraft, 57 of which were fighters.^ The VVS unit in the immediate area lost 201 aircraft from 23-31 August, and despite meager reinforcements of some 100 aircraft in August, it was with just 192 servicable aircraft which included just 57 fighters.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SpeakingFreely Says: August 5th, 2009 at 7:57 pm I think that comments left on articles that are over two weeks old are generally the stupidest.
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Soviet forward positions were on small hills overlooking German assembly areas, so it is likely surprise would have been lost in any case.
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]:74 .The Soviets continued to pour aerial reinforcements into the Stalingrad area in late September, but continued to suffer appalling losses; the Luftwaffe had complete control of the skies.^ By the time he concentrated the offensive against Stalingrad, the Soviets had reinforced the area.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviets poured aerial reinforcements into the Stalingrad area in late September but continued to suffer appalling losses.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Luftwaffe had complete control of the skies.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, due to the relocation of Soviet industry in 1941, Soviet aircraft production reached 15,800 in the second half of 1942. The VVS was able to preserve significant strength and build up a strategic reserve that would eventually overpower the Luftwaffe.^ Soviet command moved the Red Army's strategic reserves from the Moscow area to the lower Volga, and transferred all available aircraft from the entire country to Stalingrad.

^ Both sides had their losses, but only the Soviets had the manpower and the industrial production to recover fully, as well as the increased aid from the American Lend-Lease program.
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the Wehrmacht reached the city itself, the Luftwaffe had rendered the Volga River, vital for bringing supplies into the city, virtually unusable to Soviet shipping.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]:86
.The burden of the initial defense of the city fell on the 1077th Anti-Aircraft (AA) Regiment, a unit made up mainly of young female volunteers who had no training for engaging ground targets.^ The burden of the initial defense of the city fell on the 1077th Anti-Aircraft (AA) Regiment, a unit made up mainly of young women volunteers who had no training on engaging ground targets.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The men who made up Churchill's inner circle.
  • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

^ The Hungarian Second Army, consisting of mainly ill-equipped and ill-trained units, was given the task of defending a 200 km section of the front north of Stalingrad.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite this, and with no support available from other units, the AA gunners stayed at their posts and took on the advancing panzers.^ Despite this, and with no support available from other Soviet units, the AA gunners stayed at their posts and took on the advancing Panzers.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other nations promised smaller support units.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The German 16th Panzer Division reportedly had to fight the 1077ths gunners "shot for shot" until all 37 AA batteries were destroyed or overrun.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The German 16th Panzer Division reportedly had to fight the 1077th’s gunners "shot for shot" until all 37 AA batteries were destroyed or overrun.^ The German 16th Panzer Division reportedly had to fight the 1077ths gunners "shot for shot" until all 37 AA batteries were destroyed or overrun.
  • Battle Of Stalingrad World War Two 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.paralumun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the west of Butovo the going proved tougher for Großdeutschland and the 3rd Panzer Division , which met stiff Soviet resistance and did not secure their objectives until midnight.
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With little help from outside, least of all the Russians, the fight went on through August and September 1944 until the Poles were finally crushed with great brutality.
  • Russian, Front, Barbarossa, Kursk, Arctic, Convoys, Smolensk, Kiev, Moscow, Stalingrad, Battle 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: Original source]

.The German 16th Panzer Division was shocked to find that, due to Soviet manpower shortages, it had been fighting female soldiers.^ I am always struck by the majesty and solumn strengh of the “Soviet Soldier” memorial to the fallen heros in the fight for Berlin.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the west of Butovo the going proved tougher for Großdeutschland and the 3rd Panzer Division , which met stiff Soviet resistance and did not secure their objectives until midnight.
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This book portrays the gradual awakening in the mind of a young Hitler Youth `educated' soldier of a Panzer Division, bogged down in the bitterest fighting on the Eastern Front, to the truth of the criminal character of what he was involved in.
  • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

[2]:108[25] .In the beginning, the Soviets relied extensively on "Workers' militias" composed of workers not directly involved in war production.^ The beginning of world war II for russians was at 22st of June of 1941 when germans invaded the western territory of soviet union.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over 300 ships were therefore directly involved in what at that time was the greatest amphibious operation in history, and the forerunner of even greater ones to come before the war was won.
  • World War 2 - Midway, Alamein, Guadalcanal, Torch, Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For a short time tanks continued to be produced and then manned by volunteer crews of factory workers.^ Around the Bread Factory to the south, the crews of two KV heavy tanks finally succumbed to concentrated fire from the long barrelled Panzers.

^ These are the articles that I have produced so far and will as time goes on continue to add to.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

.They were driven directly from the factory floor to the front line, often without paint or even gunsights.^ Pioneers and engineers clashed as they tried to establish a front line and a little breathing space.

^ This harrowing book takes the reader to the front line and paints a very human picture of what life was like under relentless Russian attacks in freezing conditions.

^ As they did so, they began to hinder the movements of German reconnaissance aircraft, preventing them from observing Red Army activities behind the front lines.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

[2]:109-110
Soviets preparing to ward off a German assault in Stalingrad's suburbs
.By the end of August, Army Group South (B) had finally reached the Volga, north of Stalingrad.^ Nonetheless, the Sixth Army reached the Volga north of Stalingrad on 23 August.

^ Operation BLUE. Leaving the Northern and Central armies to hold their ground, Group army South split into two Groups would advance into the Caucasus, seizing Russia's oil supply and cut the Volga river at Stalingrad.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ The threat to the Group Army Center was real, as a gaping hole existed in German line south of Kaluga.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another advance to the river south of the city followed.^ To the south of the city, Hoth had finally grown tired of smashing his head against the "damned hills" that blocked his line of advance.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

.By 1 September the Soviets could only reinforce and supply their forces in Stalingrad by perilous crossings of the Volga under constant bombardment by artillery and aircraft.^ The theme of this second Battle Pack shifts to the East Front in late 1942 as German and Soviet forces clash in and around the vaunted city of Stalingrad.
  • Combat Commander: Battle Pack #2 – Stalingrad | Board Game | BoardGameGeek 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.boardgamegeek.com [Source type: General]

^ By the last week in December, the Luftwaffe delivered only an average 129 tons of supplies a day, condemning the German forces in the pocket to slow starvation and death.

^ Jeschonnek's spontaneous and ill--considered assurance that the air force could sustain Sixth Army at Stalingrad pleased Hitler.

.On 5 September, the Soviet 24th and 66th Armies organised a massive attack against XIV Panzerkorps.^ Red Army forces had attempted to drive on the Germans from the north of the city on 18 and 19 September, but the attacks were halted in their tracks by Luftwaffe airpower.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Operation URANUS, a two pronged Soviet attack is launched against the 6th Army.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ The II SS Panzer Corps attacked on a narrower frontage against two Soviet rifle regiments.
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Luftwaffe helped repulse the offensive by heavily attacking Soviet artillery positions and defensive lines.^ In the attack divisional artillery was not that helpful.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Germans would have had the same problems that 21st army had if they had attacked a defensive position.
  • Greatest Battle of WW2 [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the south the Soviets had not been able to pinpoint the German attack sectors; this forced them to spread out their defenses more evenly.
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Soviets were forced to withdraw at midday after only a few hours.^ Soviet ski battalions harrassed the German withdrawal in the snow, but the Soviet main forces were too weak and immobile to encircle the bulge completely before the Germans escaped.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of the 120 tanks the Soviets had committed, 30 were lost to air attack.^ In all, the Soviets committed 1.9 million men, almost 4,000 tanks and more than 3,000 aircraft.
  • Kursk 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC userwww.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the 13th , aircraft torpedoed nine ships, but next day "Avenger's" Hurricanes ensured only one more ship was lost to air attack.
  • World War 2 - Midway, Alamein, Guadalcanal, Torch, Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC wow.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Paulus’s piecemeal commitment of his divisions and failure to concentrate in the face of unexpectedly strong Soviet resistance caused the attacks to fail.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

[4]:75
Soviet operations were constantly hampered by the Luftwaffe. .On 18 September, the Soviet 1st Guards and 24th Army launched an offensive against VIII. Armeekorps at Kotluban.^ Three Soviet armies launched the first offensive on 24 August.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red Army forces had attempted to drive on the Germans from the north of the city on 18 and 19 September, but the attacks were halted in their tracks by Luftwaffe airpower.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Operation URANUS, a two pronged Soviet attack is launched against the 6th Army.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

.VIII. Fliegerkorps dispatched wave after wave of Stuka dive-bombers to prevent a breakthrough.^ Stuka dive-bombers were able to drop bombs 100 meters in front of their own lines.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The offensive was repulsed. .The Stukas claimed 41 of the 106 Soviet tanks knocked out that morning, while escorting Bf 109s destroyed 77 Soviet aircraft.^ The Soviet Union will and must be knocked out, no matter how long that may take.
  • Kursk 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC userwww.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The delicate command system collapses if the command tank is knocked out.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German Kursk : 50,000 dead, wounded, or captured 300 tanks 200 aircraft , Soviet Kursk : 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 900 tanks 200 aircraft .
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]:80 .Amid the debris of the wrecked city, the Soviet 62nd and 64th Armies, which included the Soviet 13th Guards Rifle Division, anchored their defense lines with strongpoints in houses and factories.^ After promising initial gains by the Germans, Chiukov landed reinforcements in the nick of time, bringing 13th Guards, 92nd Naval Marine Bde and the 95th Rifle division across the Volga to try and halt the German attack.
  • Stalingrad 50 Turn Scenario 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.matrixgames.com [Source type: General]

^ Despite their effort, the Russian 62nd and 64th armies West of Stalingrad could not stop the advancing Germans before the city.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The surviving defenders of Stalingrad could finally leave the destroyed city, and the 62nd army was renamed a "guards" army, an honor indicating an elite unit.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

Fighting within the ruined city was fierce and desperate. .Lieutenant General Alexander Rodimtsev was in charge of the 13th Guards Rifle Division, and received one of two Heroes of the Soviet Union awarded during the battle for his actions.^ The 6th Army's 16th Panzer Division, under Lieutenant General Hans Hube, charged ahead, encountering only ineffective Red Army resistance that was quickly brushed aside.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Plus two years ago documents came out that showed the Soviet union was planning to invade Germany.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has other excellent features all of which total up to be a costly option to add on one's battle rifle.
  • SgForums :: Singapore's Online Community - Small Arms in SAF Section 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC sgforums.com [Source type: General]

Stalin's Order No. .227 of 27 July 1942 decreed that all commanders who ordered unauthorized retreat would be subject to a military tribunal.^ It is foolish to go on talking any more about a breakout by Sixth Army…” [cviii] and a Führer decree was issued ordering that the front be held at all costs.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Ruweisat Ridge, Battles of (1–27 July 1942) .

^ But instead of breaking out of the encirclement, General von Paulus, the 6th army's commander, was immediately ordered by Hitler to remain in his position and hold it at all cost.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.227">Not a step back!” and "There is no land behind the Volga!"^ It is testament to their sheer doggedness that the Americans landed no fewer than 18,772 men there that day.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Substantiating and testing it though should be very possible; but I have no time going back finding the specific examples but believe me they are there.

^ Stalin issued Stavka Order 227, better known as “No Step Back” on 28 July.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

were the slogans. .The Germans pushing forward into Stalingrad suffered heavy casualties.^ The Germans discovered that when they did that, the Russians moved forward into the vacated ground.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chuikov funneled massed German attacks into “breakwaters” where the panzers and infantry could be separated from each other causing heavy German casualties.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ The continued weakening of the German flanks behind Stalingrad, as more and more German units were pushed to the city, was the anticipated opportunity for which General Zhukov prepared since the battle of Stalingrad began.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

The German advance to Stalingrad between 24 July and 18 November.
.German military doctrine was based on the principle of combined-arms teams and close cooperation between tanks, infantry, engineers, artillery, and ground-attack aircraft.^ The Soviets used their air superiority to attack German army positions and for bombing raids on the main Ju-52 base at Zverevo, where they destroyed a substantial number of German transport aircraft.

^ If the enemy has time to make preparations for action and the ground is such as to preclude a mounted attack, the motorized infantry will be assembled for attack.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One such attack by Group Belov against Guderian's right flank, caught the German 112th Infantry Division with no anti-tank weapons that were effective against the attacking T-34s.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To counter this, Soviet commanders adopted the tactic of always keeping the front lines as close to the Germans as physically possible; Chuikov called this "hugging" the Germans.^ Duels were sometimes conducted between Soviet and German batteries, with the German guns sited well behind their own lines.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His temperament was ideally suited to the nature of the warfare on the Soviet-German front, and Stalin knew it.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Chuikov had to move his command post in the city from place to place to avoid being killed or captured, usually in the last possible moments.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.This forced the German infantry to either fight on their own or risk taking casualties from their own supporting fire; it neutralized German close air support and weakened artillery support.^ If all German forces were concentrated either towards Moscow or towards the Caspian oilfields chances of success would be considerably higher.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ However, the German forces failed to take one crucial element into mind - The Russians were going to fight to the last man to save their city and their homeland.
  • ***White River Paintball Presents: Battle for Stalingrad! October 3rd & 4th -Indiana* - PbNation 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.pbnation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other estimates bring up the Axis casualties of all types among all branches of the German armed forces and its allies to 850,000.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

.The Soviets understood that, in Stalingrad, the best defense would depend on anchoring their defense lines in numerous buildings overseeing strategically important streets and squares.^ Yes, Stalingrad was definitely not strategically important in late 1942.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ The bigger part of the problem was that the Soviets had sensibly decided to give up undefendable land and focus all their efforts on building up their defenses along the mountain regions where their military resources would have the greatest advantage.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By 20 November, the second day of uranus , the Soviets committed between 1,350 and 1,414 combat aircraft (depending on the source) to Stalingrad.

.Such a strategy would hold for as long as possible all the ground the Soviets could take in the city.^ Their defeat in the city on the Volga River marked the beginning of a long series of battles that would lead the Russians to Berlin and Hitter's Third Reich to defeat.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The capture of the city was not considered necessary.” [vii] German planners “expected that the Soviets would again accept decisive battle to defend these regions.” [viii] .
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ As the army could not hold out for long, he again requested freedom of decision.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, they converted multi-floored apartment blocks, factories, warehouses, street corner residences, and office buildings into strongholds bristling with machine guns, anti-tank rifles, mortars, mines, barbed wire, snipers, and small 5- to 10-man units of submachine gunners and grenadiers prepared for house-to-house combat.^ U.S. gunner fires a machine gun .

^ I think I heard somewhere that the German tiger machine gunners got shell shock from shooting all the Russians running directly in front of their tanks.
  • Greatest Battle of WW2 [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The cavalry division consisted of 4 cavalry regiments (with each regiment having 4 cavalry and 1 machine-gun squadron), 1 light tank regiment, and sappers, signal troops, anti-aircraft and anti-tank guns.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bitter fighting raged for every ruin, street, factory, house, basement, and staircase.^ Neither attacks succeeded in merciless factory-to-factory, house-to-house, room-to-room fighting.
  • Russian, Front, Barbarossa, Kursk, Arctic, Convoys, Smolensk, Kiev, Moscow, Stalingrad, Battle 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russians had an advantage in night fighting among the ruined buildings and factories, sometimes using just knives or grenades instead of guns.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Neither attacks succeed in merciless factory-to-factory, house-to-house, room-to-room fighting.
  • World War 2 - Midway, Alamein, Guadalcanal, Torch, Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC wow.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The sewers were the sites of labyrinthine firefights. .The Germans, calling this unseen urban warfare Rattenkrieg ("Rat War"), bitterly joked about capturing the kitchen but still fighting for the living room.^ The Germans called the struggle "Rattenkrieg": war of the rats.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The worst of trench warfare during World War One where 275,000 Allies and 200,000 Germans were casualties in an area that was not of particular importance.
  • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

^ Of the 90,000 Germans captured at Stalingrad, only about 5,000 survived the harsh conditions of the Soviet prisoner-of-war camps.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.In such desperate chaos, all battle lines vanished, and the major, armor-supported mobility to which the German soldiers were accustomed degenerated into vicious, fast-paced skirmishes ranging through bombed-out debris of residential neighborhoods, office blocks, basements, and apartment high-rises.^ It starts out with the start of Barbarossa and includes the Romanians air force, Italian motor boats and German submarines in the Black Sea as they required air support.
  • [TMP] "Your top 10 WW2 books?" Topic 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC theminiaturespage.com [Source type: General]

^ Nazi propaganda films played up videos of German soldiers raising their banner on top of high peaks, but prying the Red Army out of such fortifications was going to take more than small groups of mountain troops.
  • [8.0] The Battle For Stalingrad (1) 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: Original source]

^ German armor was committed piecemeal rather than in strength and often without sufficient infantry support.
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the taller buildings, blasted into roofless shells by earlier German aerial bombardment, saw floor-by-floor, close-quarters combat, with the Germans on one level, Soviets on the next, Germans on the next and so on, firing at each other through holes in the floors.^ More than 150,000 Axis soldiers, most of them German, had been killed or wounded in the city's approaches or ruins; 108,000 others stumbled into Soviet captivity, 91,000 in the battle's last three days alone.

^ Luftwaffe carpet bombing at the end of August killed some 40,000 people, but it also turned the city into defensive bastions of ruined buildings and rubble.

^ However, the German forces failed to take one crucial element into mind - The Russians were going to fight to the last man to save their city and their homeland.
  • ***White River Paintball Presents: Battle for Stalingrad! October 3rd & 4th -Indiana* - PbNation 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.pbnation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
Soviet soldiers in the Red October Factory
Soviet marines landing on the west bank of the Volga River.
.Fighting on Mamayev Kurgan, a prominent hill above the city, was particularly merciless, and the position changed hands many times.^ There is a direct positive correlation to how many idiots are commenting and how many times you see “ROFL” and “LOL” .
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighting on Margaret Island, in the middle of the Danube, was particularly merciless.
  • The Battle of Budapest - Stormfront 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.stormfront.org [Source type: General]

^ Some key positions in Stalingrad changed hands up to fifteen times during the battle, with terrible bloodshed.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

[21]:p? .By 12 September, the Soviet 62nd Army had been reduced to 90 tanks, 700 mortars and just 20,000 men.^ For the northern pincer, the Soviets assembled 3,500 guns and heavy mortars to blast a hole for 3 tank and 2 cavalry corps and a dozen infantry divisions.

^ In addition, they massed a huge army of their own, including some 1,300,000 men, 3,600 tanks, 20,000 artillery pieces and 2,400 aircraft .
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the south against 4 th Rumanian Army and weak element of 4 th Panzer Army another force of over 160,000 men including 430 tanks were deployed.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

[2]:128
The 13th Guards Rifle Division, assigned to retake Mamayev Kurgan and Railway Station No. 1 on 13 September suffered particularly heavy losses. .Over 30 percent of its soldiers were killed in the first 24 hours, and just 320 out of the original 10,000 survived the entire battle.^ The entire Austrian garrison numbered only about 20,000 soldiers supported by 72 cannons.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jeschonnek's original figures were not accurate, however, as Gring learned just hours later.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon deployed 30,000 soldiers to act as a rear guard to protect the crossing, but they were stranded when the bridge was destroyed.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

[2]:135 Both objectives were retaken, but only temporarily. .The railway station changed hands 14 times in six hours.^ Some key positions in Stalingrad changed hands up to fifteen times during the battle, with terrible bloodshed.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Clashes over the city's Mamaev Mound resulted in the hill changing hands eight times as the battle line advanced and retreated.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Near the center of the city, the Stalingrad Central Railway station changed hands fifteen times in bitter, close infantry combat.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the following evening, the 13th Guards Rifle Division had ceased to exist, but its men had killed approximately an equal number of Germans.^ The German flank, however, stood unprotected as the Soviet 7th Guards Army stalled Kempf's divisions, aided by heavy rain, after the Germans had crossed the Donets River .
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One unit which perhaps sacrificed most in the battle of Stalingrad was the elite 13th Guards division, which was sent across the Volga into Stalingrad just in time to repel a German attack that reached the Volga near the center of the city.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ With their 10,670 men and 36 guns (in Dec 1942) the guards divisions were stronger than their standard counterpart.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Combat raged there for weeks near the giant grain silo. .When German soldiers finally took the position, only forty dead Soviet fighters were found, though the Germans had thought there were many more due to the ferocious resistance.^ Many German soldiers thought the war against Russia was won.

^ More than 150,000 Axis soldiers, most of them German, had been killed or wounded in the city's approaches or ruins; 108,000 others stumbled into Soviet captivity, 91,000 in the battle's last three days alone.

^ There were no survivors and only postwar-captured German records revealed her fate.
  • World War 2 - Midway, Alamein, Guadalcanal, Torch, Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC wow.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Soviets burned heaps of grain during their retreat. .In another part of the city, a Soviet platoon under the command of Yakov Pavlov turned an apartment building that oversaw a square in the city center into an impenetrable fortress, later called "Pavlov's House". The soldiers surrounded it with minefields, set up machine-gun positions at the windows, and breached the walls in the basement for better communications.^ More than 150,000 Axis soldiers, most of them German, had been killed or wounded in the city's approaches or ruins; 108,000 others stumbled into Soviet captivity, 91,000 in the battle's last three days alone.

^ Luftwaffe carpet bombing at the end of August killed some 40,000 people, but it also turned the city into defensive bastions of ruined buildings and rubble.

^ Camouflaging of these positions and minefields was excellent; the first warning most German units would have of the presence of Soviet minefields or dug-in guns would be their own vehicles exploding.
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]:198 .The soldiers found about ten Soviet civilians hiding in the basement.^ A third of these soldiers were killed and the rest would end up in Soviet captivity along with numerous civilians, most of whom would end up perishing in Soviet POW camps.
  • The Battle of Budapest - Stormfront 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.stormfront.org [Source type: General]

^ As a result of the Soviet link-up, nearly 33,000 German and 37,000 Hungarian soldiers, as well as over 800,000 civilians, became trapped within the city.
  • The Battle of Budapest - Stormfront 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.stormfront.org [Source type: General]

^ Actual uniforms of Marshals of the Soviet Union, to private soldiers of all services are to be found in this extensive volume.

.They were not relieved, and not significantly reinforced, for two months.^ For two months, the Allies harassed the French but avoided a pitched battle while they solidified their plans for a major attack.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Well after the battle, Chuikov liked to joke that more Germans died trying to capture Pavlov's House than died capturing Paris.^ The capture of the city was not considered necessary.” [vii] German planners “expected that the Soviets would again accept decisive battle to defend these regions.” [viii] .
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Staturn 03-19-2008, 06:42 PM rofl i know its hardly like what is portrayed in 300 but i find it interesting Why is it more interesting than any other battle?
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Each day, the depth of the German advance slowed: 5 kilometers on the first day, 4 on the second, never more than 2 km each succeeding day.
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Beevor, throughout the second month, after each wave of German assault against the building, the Soviets had to run out and kick down the piles of German corpses in order for the machine and anti-tank gunners in the building to have clear firing lines across the square.^ U.S. gunner fires a machine gun .

^ I think I heard somewhere that the German tiger machine gunners got shell shock from shooting all the Russians running directly in front of their tanks.
  • Greatest Battle of WW2 [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon ordered his most experienced battalions forward from their reserve position for another assault against the Allied center.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

The building was labeled Festung ("Fortress") on German maps. Sgt. Pavlov was awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union for his actions.
.With no end in sight, the Germans started transferring heavy artillery to the city, including the gigantic 800 mm railroad gun nicknamed Dora, but made no attempt to send a force across the Volga, allowing the Soviets to build up a large number of artillery batteries on the east side.^ He could hardly allow the army to abandon that city after he had proclaimed to the entire German nation in September that “you can be certain no one will get us away from there!” 14 and, only two weeks earlier, had trumpeted in the Munich Lwenbrukeller that his forces had taken that “vitally--important city .

^ He had numerous heavy batteries for covering fire, and his men could carry his 20 mm flak guns (160 of them) and their ammunition across the steppes.

^ It is true that they will not mass large numbers of tanks and artillery as the Soviets did against the Germans, but the principle of speed, concentration at the critical point and surprise can inflict defeats, even small ones like the attack on the US outpost in Wanat that can turn public sentiment in the U.S. and Europe against further commitments and against the war and force the NATO governments as well as the U.S. to give up the effort.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

.This artillery continued to bombard the German positions.^ In the northern face, the Central Front artillery fired mostly against German artillery positions and managed to suppress 50 of the 100 German batteries they targeted.
  • Battle of Kursk - WarWiki 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC war.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Photo: Russian artillery firing positions wiped out by German artillery.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As escort destroyer "ERIDGE" returned from bombarding Axis positions west of El Alamein, she was torpedoed and badly damaged by a German E-boat.
  • World War 2 - Midway, Alamein, Guadalcanal, Torch, Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC wow.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.German tanks became useless amid heaps of rubble up to eight meters high.^ Of the thirty million who fought, eight million died, driven forward in suicidal charges, shattered by German shells and tanks.

^ In doing so the Germans gave up the advantage of uncertainty and once their “aim became obvious…the Russian Command could commit its reserves with assurance.” [lxxxii] .
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

.Snipers on both sides used the ruins to inflict heavy casualties.^ Losses were heavy on both sides.
  • Russian, Front, Barbarossa, Kursk, Arctic, Convoys, Smolensk, Kiev, Moscow, Stalingrad, Battle 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.naval-history.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But, instead of using the time to consider a peace deal, both sides redoubled their efforts to build up their forces in the region.
  • Khalkhin-Gol: The forgotten battle that shaped WW2 | Siberian Light 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.siberianlight.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both sides lost a destroyer, and the Japanese a heavy cruiser.
  • World War 2 - Midway, Alamein, Guadalcanal, Torch, Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC wow.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most successful, and most famous, sniper was Vasily Zaytsev with 242[27] to 400[28] confirmed kills during the battle.^ Red_Communist 08-27-2006, 04:38 AM battle of the bulge is not even close to being the biggest of the most spectacular battle of that war.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Twenty thousand French civilians were killed during the battle, on top of the 15,000 who died during the preparatory bombing.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South African Military 04-23-2005, 09:27 PM Do you want us to vote for favorite battle or for what you think was the most decisive?
  • Greatest Battle of WW2 [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.Zaytsev was one of a whole corps of snipers and had over 30 students, who were credited with killing over 3,000 German soldiers.^ More than 150,000 Axis soldiers, most of them German, had been killed or wounded in the city's approaches or ruins; 108,000 others stumbled into Soviet captivity, 91,000 in the battle's last three days alone.

^ Among the hundreds of thousands of soldiers killing each other on the Eastern Front, one solitary war correspondent was taking notes.

^ Napoleon deployed 30,000 soldiers to act as a rear guard to protect the crossing, but they were stranded when the bridge was destroyed.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was also said to have killed the specially-sent German sniper Erwin König, though this is most likely fictional.^ Most were killed, but they enabled Chuikov to keep holding at least part of Stalingrad despite the tremendous German pressure.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The ruined city was a perfect killing zone for a large number of snipers, of both sides, including the head of the German army's sniper school who was sent to Stalingrad to hunt the Russian snipers and was killed by one of them.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact was that Stalingrad (though, like you said, was named after Stalin) was an industrial city.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

.Zaytsev was awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union, primarily for his actions in this battle.^ But when Germany betrayed Japan by signing a nonaggression pact with the soviet union, Japan had no choice but to quit the battle.
  • Khalkhin-Gol: The forgotten battle that shaped WW2 | Siberian Light 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.siberianlight.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The soviet union’s army was set up for an invasion not for a defencive battle.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is no wonder then that, having flown 80 combat sorties against the Germans, Emelianenko was awarded the highest decoration the Hero of the Soviet Union.

Soviet infantry storming a factory in Stalingrad.
.For both Stalin and Hitler, Stalingrad became a matter of prestige over and above its actual strategic significance.^ Once his forces entered the city named after Stalin, the Soviet dictator and Hitler's arch enemy, Hitler became obsessed with occupying Stalingrad, and remained obsessed with it despite everything, until the large German force in and near Stalingrad was destroyed to the last man.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, Hitler became obsessed with Stalingrad, and he wore down his army in repeated attempts to capture that symbol of defiance.

^ Stalin's name, where the real war was being fought.15 Unable to eat his words, Hitler now found himself committed to holding Stalingrad.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet command moved the Red Army's strategic reserves from the Moscow area to the lower Volga, and transferred aircraft from the entire country to the Stalingrad region.^ Named at the time after Soviet Premier Josef Stalin, it was the dramatic apparent last stand of the Soviet Red Army against an apparently invincible Wehrmacht that had conquered the entire European continent in less than three years.
  • Stalingrad Revisited by Martin Sieff - The Globalist 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.theglobalist.com [Source type: General]

^ In a recent work on Stalingrad , for example, Franz Kurowski repeats many errors and concludes: What had moved Hitler to give this death order to Sixth Army?
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ I replied that supplying an entire army by air was impossible, particularly when our transport aircraft were already heavily committed in North Africa.

.The strain on both military commanders was immense: Paulus developed an uncontrollable tic in his eye, which eventually afflicted the left side of his face, while Chuikov experienced an outbreak of eczema that required him to have his hands completely bandaged.^ The main battery was eventually to be replaced by six 15” guns but this never occurred although Gneisenau was taken in hand to mount the new weapons but the conversion was never completed.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Both sides quickly mobilized and aggressive Confederate commanders achieved success against the more reluctant and cautious Union leaders.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am a graduate of the Marine Corps Command and Staff College, the Jordanian Peace Operations Training Center and have recently completed a Masters of Arts in Military History.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

Troops on both sides faced the constant strain of close-range combat.
.Determined to crush Soviet resistance, Luftflotte 4's Stukawaffe flew 900 individual sorties against Soviet positions at the Dzerzhinskiy Tractor Factory on 5 October.^ Hitler's original intent was merely to control the river by gunfire and to destroy the city's arms factories, notably the Tractor, Red October, and Barricades works, but now he demanded a full occupation of the Soviet dictator's namesake city.

^ It is no wonder then that, having flown 80 combat sorties against the Germans, Emelianenko was awarded the highest decoration the Hero of the Soviet Union.

^ The breakthrough imperiled the Soviet position they had concentrated their strongest forces against Hoth.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

.Several Soviet regiments were wiped out; the entire staff of the Soviet 339th Infantry Regiment were killed the following morning during an air raid.^ The quiet was shattered on 27 June by a daring Japanese air-raid on the Soviet air base at Tamsak-Bulak in Mongolia.
  • Khalkhin-Gol: The forgotten battle that shaped WW2 | Siberian Light 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.siberianlight.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chiang even had air superiority during the entire battle but was unable to coordinate ground and air actions to secure any advantage.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A classic combined arms assault followed, as thousands of Soviet infantry attacked the Japanese centre, Soviet armour encircled the Japanese flanks, and the Soviet air-force and artillery pounded the Japanese from long-range.
  • Khalkhin-Gol: The forgotten battle that shaped WW2 | Siberian Light 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.siberianlight.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]:83
German troops near the wreck of a T-34.
.In mid-October, the Luftwaffe intensified its efforts against remaining Red Army positions holding the west bank.^ Despite their effort, the Russian 62nd and 64th armies West of Stalingrad could not stop the advancing Germans before the city.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It cannot be said that victory in the west sealed the fate of Hitlers Germany the Red Army achieved that.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But instead of breaking out of the encirclement, General von Paulus, the 6th army's commander, was immediately ordered by Hitler to remain in his position and hold it at all cost.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

By now, Soviet aerial resistance had ceased to be effective. .Luftflotte 4 flew 2,000 sorties on 14 October and 600 tons of bombs were dropped while German infantry surrounded the three factories.^ In the 30 minutes before H-hour, the US 8th Air Force dropped 13,000 tons of bombs there, but because they did not want to hit the oncoming armada and flew in across the beaches rather than along them, the bombs missed, and German machine-gunners wreaked terror and chaos as the invaders disembarked.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hitler was no doubt misled by Luftwaffe success the previous winter in supplying by parachute drops 5,000 German troops surrounded at Kholm near Moscow and 100,000 men at Demyansk.

^ On August 23, 1942, more than a thousand German airplanes began dropping incendiary and explosive bombs.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Stukageschwader 1, 2, and 77 had largely silenced Soviet artillery on the eastern bank of the Volga before turning their attention to the shipping that was once again trying to reinforce the narrowing Soviet pockets of resistance.^ By turns solemn and grisly, empathetic and scholarly, this inspired work provides a unique window on Soviet history through the brutality, ceremony and silences of death."

^ PM Stalingrad, arguably the turning point of the European theatre's Eastern front where Hitler's armies started to get repulsed from Soviet lands.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the very edge of defeat before their capital and into the bloodbath along the banks of the Volga, the Soviet commanders carefully assembled their operational reserves in order to inflict a crippling counter-strike.

.The 62nd Army had been cut in two, and, due to intensive air attack on its supply ferries, was now being paralyzed.^ I replied that supplying an entire army by air was impossible, particularly when our transport aircraft were already heavily committed in North Africa.

^ The two Russian forces will meet far Southwest of Stalingrad and encircle the entire German 6th army near Stalingrad and cut its supply lines.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Malta Supply - Early in the month carrier Eagle ferried over 50 Spitfires to Malta in two operations.
  • World War 2 - Midway, Alamein, Guadalcanal, Torch, Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC wow.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the Soviets forced into a 1,000-yard (910 m) strip of land on the western bank of the Volga, over 1,208 Stuka missions were flown in an effort to eliminate them.^ And so they're forced to flee; 200,000 have crossed over the border into neighboring Chad.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They broke into the suburbs in September 1942 and fighting increased in intensity as the Russians struggled to hold on to the west bank of the Volga.
  • World War 2 - Midway, Alamein, Guadalcanal, Torch, Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC wow.naval-history.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Details of the struggle between the Soviet forces and the Axis powers can now be seen through the efforts of veterans such as Colonel Dmitriy Loza.

[4]:84 .Despite the heavy air bombardment (Stalingrad suffered heavier bombardment than Sedan or Sevastopol), the Soviet 62nd Army, with 47,000 men and 19 tanks, prevented the VI Armee and IV Panzerarmee from taking the west bank.^ The invasion involved fewer than 100,000 Italian troops, and by late November, the Greek army had driven the Italian army back into Albania, where both forces suffered heavily in a bloody stalemate during the winter.

^ When the Soviet Fifth Tank and Twenty--first Armies launched their massive counteroffensive northwest of Stalingrad (code--named Uranus) on 19 November, an exhausted Hitler was enjoying a brief holiday at the Berghof, his mountain retreat in Berchtesgaden, southern Bavaria.

^ It is true that Soviet tanks were better than Sherman and Mathilda provided by Allies.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers over Stalingrad.
.The Luftwaffe retained air superiority into early November and Soviet daytime aerial resistance was nonexistent, but after flying 20,000 individual sorties, its original strength of 1,600 serviceable aircraft had fallen to 950. The Kampfwaffe (bomber force) had been hardest hit, having only 232 out of a force of 480 left.^ Only 20,000 survived.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Royal Air Force bomber .

^ The Soviets used their air superiority to attack German army positions and for bombing raids on the main Ju-52 base at Zverevo, where they destroyed a substantial number of German transport aircraft.

[5]:95 .Despite enjoying qualitative superiority against the VVS and possessing eighty percent of the Luftwaffe's resources on the Eastern Front, Luftflotte 4 could not prevent Soviet aerial power from growing.^ The superior generalship of Manstein and Von Kleist prevented the wholesale destruction of German forces in southern Russia and Manstein’s counter offensive inflicted a severe defeat on the Soviets.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Tokyo 's major goal was not so much to achieve a German-Soviet reconciliation, as to make a goodwill gesture to Moscow that would prevent it from intervening against Japan .
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ PM Stalingrad, arguably the turning point of the European theatre's Eastern front where Hitler's armies started to get repulsed from Soviet lands.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the time of the counter-offensive, the Soviets outnumbered it.^ By the time he concentrated the offensive against Stalingrad, the Soviets had reinforced the area.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The superior generalship of Manstein and Von Kleist prevented the wholesale destruction of German forces in southern Russia and Manstein’s counter offensive inflicted a severe defeat on the Soviets.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

.The Soviet bomber force, the Aviatsiya Dal'nego Deystviya (ADD), having taken crippling losses over the past 18 months, was restricted to flying at night.^ To the south the Germans were held up by lack of fuel and increased Soviet resistance including the introduction of a force of 800 bombers.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Further, the presence of the VVS ( Voyenno--vozdushnyye sily , the Soviet Air Force) at Demyansk had been negligible, allowing almost uninterrupted German air operations with low losses.

.The Soviets flew 11,317 night sorties over Stalingrad and the Don-bend sector between 17 July and 19 November.^ The Russian counter attack began on November 19, 1942, three months after the battle of Stalingrad began.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Reply mike says: August 5, 2009 at 11:38 am The 7th photo is not from Stalingrad - That is the photo of soviet marines (naval infantry) training and it belongs to the Defence of Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From November 1942 through early February 1943 at Stalingrad and along the Don River, 17 Soviet armies with 1,143,000 men, over 160 divisions, and 3,500 tanks destroyed or badly damaged five Axis armies ...
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These raids caused little damage and were of nuisance value only.[4]:82[29]
The situation for the Luftwaffe was now becoming increasingly difficult. .On 8 November, substantial units from Luftflotte 4 were withdrawn to combat the Allied landings in North Africa.^ If the units sent to the Soviet Union had been added to forces in North Africa, they might well have affected the outcome of the struggle there.

^ Allied defeats in north Africa were as much from disorganization as from nazi superiority).
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force, Portsmouth; June 7, 1944: The landings in the Cherbourg-Havre area have failed to gain a satisfactory foothold and I have withdrawn the troops.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The German air arm found itself spread thinly across Europe, and struggling to maintain its strength in the other southern sectors of the Soviet-German front.^ Other estimates bring up the Axis casualties of all types among all branches of the German armed forces and its allies to 850,000.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ The Germans never came close to winning air-superiority (i'm sure others will disagree) 2.
  • Greatest Battle of WW2 [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His temperament was ideally suited to the nature of the warfare on the Soviet-German front, and Stalin knew it.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .Meanwhile, the Soviet Army was being supplied by the American government under the Lend-Lease program.^ How’d that lend lease program go?
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. supplied the Brits pre-1941 with equipment under Lend-Lease–when we could have hoarded it ourselves.
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply ubermensch says: February 7, 2007 at 4:00 pm The Soviet government under Stalin was anything but heroic.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the last quarter of 1942, the United States sent the Soviet Union 60,000 trucks, 11,000 jeeps, 2 million pairs of boots, 50,000 tons of explosives, 450,000 tons of steel, and 250,000 tons of aviation gas.^ During the war, Iran was ocupied, and a lot of supplies could be sent to the Soviet Union.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the units sent to the Soviet Union had been added to forces in North Africa, they might well have affected the outcome of the struggle there.

^ The Stalingrad Campaign may have cost the Soviets 1.1 million casualties, more than 485,000 dead.

[31] .However, only a small fraction[citation needed] of it ever reached the sea ports of Soviet Union; before America’s entry in the war the Allied Lend-Lease ships were easy prey for German U-boats, see, for example, Convoy PQ-17.^ Tokyo was concerned that after defeating Germany , or even before, the U.S.S.R. might help its Allies and intervene against Japan to end World War II as quickly as possible.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalingrad did not even survive to see the demise of the Soviet Union.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even before poor weather arrived, however, a series of Soviet counterattacks along the entire front helped stabilize the situation.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After three months of slow advance, the Germans finally reached the river banks, capturing 90% of the ruined city and splitting the remaining Soviet forces into two narrow pockets.^ Over a period of two months, the Communists destroyed each of the three Nationalist forces.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearby, Soviet and German forces were fighting for the city cemetery.
  • The Battle of Budapest - Stormfront 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.stormfront.org [Source type: General]

^ More than 150,000 Axis soldiers, most of them German, had been killed or wounded in the city's approaches or ruins; 108,000 others stumbled into Soviet captivity, 91,000 in the battle's last three days alone.

.Ice floes on the Volga now prevented boats and tugs from supplying the Soviet defenders.^ In mid-December, the Volga froze, allowing the Soviets to use vehicles to cross the ice.

Nevertheless, the fighting, especially on the slopes of Mamayev Kurgan and inside the factory area in the northern part of the city, continued as fiercely as ever. .The battles for the Red October Steel Factory, the Dzerzhinsky tractor factory, and the Barrikady gun factory became world-famous.^ All the major Victory Point objectives are labeled in red: The Tractor Factory, Barricade Works, Red October Plant, Lazur Chemical Works, Mamayev Kurgan, Red Square, The Grain Elevator, the Rail stations and many others.
  • Stalingrad 50 Turn Scenario 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.matrixgames.com [Source type: General]

Soviet counter-offensives

Stalingrad Strategic Offensive Operation

Recognizing that German troops were ill prepared for offensive operations during the winter and that most of them were redeployed elsewhere on the southern sector of the Eastern Front, the Stavka decided to conduct a number of offensive operations which took place between 19 November 1942 and 2 February 1943.
.Seen in post-war history as a pivotal strategic period of war that began the Second Period of the Great Patriotic War (19 November 1942 – 31 December 1943), these operations opened the Winter Campaign of 1942-1943 (19 November 1942 – 3 March 1943), which involved some 15 Armies operating on several fronts.^ The Soviet winter campaign began on 5 December 1941.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bougainville Campaign (1 November 1943–15 August 1945) .

^ Gilbert Islands Campaign (November 1943) .

Soviet order of battle

  • Operation Uranus 19 November 1942 – 30 November 1942
    • Southwestern Front 1st Guards, 21st, 5th Tank, 17th Air Armies, and the 25th Tank Corps
    • Don Front 24th,558 65th, 66th, 16th Air Armies
    • Stalingrad Front 28th, 51st, 57th, 62nd, 64th, 8th Air Armies
  • Kotelnvo Offensive Operation 12 December 1942 – 31 December 1942
    • Stalingrad Front 2nd Guards, 5th Shock, 51st, 8th Air Armies
  • Middle Don Offensive Operation (Operation Little Saturn) 16 December 1942 – 30 December 1942
    • Southwestern Front
    • Don Front
  • Operation Koltso (English: Operation Ring) 10 January 1943 – 2 February 1943
    • Don Front 21st, 24th, 57th, 62nd, 64th, 65th, 66th, 16th Air Armies

German order of battle

German exhaustion prior to Operation Uranus

.The German offensive to take Stalingrad had been halted by a combination of stubborn Red Army resistance inside the city and local weather conditions.^ The Germans were still on the offensive after Stalingrad.
  • Greatest Battle of WW2 [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The struggle for the city became an obsession for Hitler, and served to eventually consume the bulk of two full German Armies, marking the turning point for the war in Russia.
  • Stalingrad 50 Turn Scenario 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.matrixgames.com [Source type: General]

^ Created by John Schettler In mid-September 1942, after driving to the outskirts of Stalingrad the Germans launch their first major assaults to take the city.
  • Stalingrad 50 Turn Scenario 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.matrixgames.com [Source type: General]

.The Soviet counter-offensive planning used deceptive measures that eventually trapped and destroyed the 6th Army and other Axis forces around the city, becoming the second large scale defeat of the German Army during the Second World War.^ The entire German 6th army was now trapped in and near Stalingrad.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearby, Soviet and German forces were fighting for the city cemetery.
  • The Battle of Budapest - Stormfront 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.stormfront.org [Source type: General]

^ Soviet forces meet at Kalach trapping the bulk of the 6th Army.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

[32] .During the siege, the German and allied Italian, Hungarian, and Romanian armies protecting Army Group B's flanks had pressed their headquarters for support.^ The Germans advanced rapidly in a Blitzkrieg of armor and air power, and were followed by their Italian, Romanian, and Hungarian allies, whose task was to secure the long German flanks.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Hitler sent General Fedor von Bock's Army Group South east from around Kursk to secure Voronezh, which fell to the Germans on 6 July.

^ We used these foreigners to protect our flanks behind Stalingrad, but our allies were not as well disciplined or as well armed as we were, so they got attacked.

[33] .The Hungarian 2nd Army, consisting of mainly ill-equipped and ill-trained units, was given the task of defending a 200-kilometre (120 mi) section of the front north of Stalingrad between the Italian Army and Voronezh.^ Over reliance on axis allies that were neither trained nor equipped for such task further undermined Operation Blue.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ Sixth Army (which he now designated Fortress Stalingrad) would stay and defend itself vigorously.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Supporting Hungarian, Italian and Romanian allied armies which lacked motorization, modern armor or anti-tank units were unable to fulfill the gaps left by the loss of experienced German divisions and the expectations of Hitler.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This resulted in a very thin line, with some sectors where 1–2-kilometre (0.6–1.2 mi) stretches were being defended by a single platoon. Soviet forces held several bridgeheads on the western bank of the river and presented a potentially serious threat to Army Group B.[34]
.Similarly, on the southern flank of the Stalingrad sector the front south-west of Kotelnikovo was held only by the Romanian VII Corps, and beyond it, a single German division, the 16th Motorized Infantry.^ They encountered Romanian infantry divisions.

^ The Russians attacked the sectors of the German flanks held by the 3rd and 4th Romanian armies.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In the south, the 48th Panzer Korps of Hoths 4th Pz Army sent the 29th Motorized, 24th Panzer and 94th Infantry divisions against the suburbs of Yelshanka and Kupersnoye.
  • Stalingrad 50 Turn Scenario 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.matrixgames.com [Source type: General]

.However, Hitler was so focused on the city itself that requests from the flanks for support were refused.^ Through the course of the campaign, however, possession of the city somehow came to dominate Hitlers thinking.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Hitler insisted the city itself be physically taken.

^ Refusing to authorize a withdrawal, German dictator Adolf Hitler had declared Budapest a fortress city (Festung Budapest), which had to be defended to the last man.
  • The Battle of Budapest - Stormfront 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.stormfront.org [Source type: General]

.The Chief of the Army General Staff, Franz Halder, expressed concerns about Hitler's preoccupation with the city, pointing out that if the situation on the weak German flanks was not rectified, "there would be a disaster". Hitler told Halder that Stalingrad would be captured and the weakened flanks would be held with "national socialist ardour, clearly I cannot expect this of you (Halder)", and replaced him with General Kurt Zeitzler in mid-October.^ German army High Command Chief of Staff General Franz Halder and other German generals grew more and more alarmed.

^ Many German generals regarded him as "the Russian Army's best general."
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sixth Army must hold out!” he repeatedly told Hitler.

[35]

Operation Uranus: the Soviet offensive

The Soviet counter-attack at Stalingrad                      German front, 19 November                      German front, 12 December                      German front, 24 December      Russian advance, 19–28 November
.In autumn, the Soviet generals Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy and Georgy Zhukov, responsible for strategic planning in the Stalingrad area, concentrated massive forces in the steppes to the north and south of the city.^ By the time he concentrated the offensive against Stalingrad, the Soviets had reinforced the area.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalingrad was lost in July 1941 The delays in operation Typhoon resulting from the absence of clear strategic planning and Hitlers constant redeployment of Panzer forces from Leningrad to Moscow and from Moscow to Kiev condemned the whole operation.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ Nevertheless, perhaps the most important revelation of Stalingrad was how city fighting impinged upon the strategic level of warfare.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The German northern flank was particularly vulnerable, since it was defended by Italian, Hungarian, and Romanian units that suffered from inferior equipment, morale, and leadership when compared with their German counterparts.^ The Germans advanced rapidly in a Blitzkrieg of armor and air power, and were followed by their Italian, Romanian, and Hungarian allies, whose task was to secure the long German flanks.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ He exchanged divisions with his northern flank and used the new units to renew the offensive.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plan involved an attack against 3 rd Romanian Army on the northern flank by 5 th Tank Army and two infantry armies with supporting units.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

.This weakness was known and exploited by the Soviets, who preferred to face off against non-German troops whenever possible, just as the British preferred attacking Italian troops instead of German ones in North Africa.^ German Stukas and low-flying bombers struck ahead of the advancing columns, bombing Russian defenses, known troop concentrations, airfields, towns, and cities.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Germans advanced just 60 kilometers in the direction of Stalingrad, before they were pushed back by a Russian counter attack.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In North Africa, Field Marshal Rodolfo Graziani commanded some 236,000 Italian troops.

.The plan was to keep pinning the Germans down in the city, then punch through the overstretched and weakly defended German flanks and surround the Germans inside Stalingrad.^ Even if the Germans won Stalingrad (and they did practically capture the city) its another question whether they could have got the oil-fields.
  • Greatest Battle of WW2 [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although they suffered great casualties, they succeeded in slowing down the arrival of German divisions in Stalingrad.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite their effort, the Russian 62nd and 64th armies West of Stalingrad could not stop the advancing Germans before the city.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.The flanks were to be attacked far enough away from Stalingrad so that the bulk of the 6th Army in Stalingrad could not redeploy to defend against the attack.^ Sixth Army (which he now designated Fortress Stalingrad) would stay and defend itself vigorously.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ We used these foreigners to protect our flanks behind Stalingrad, but our allies were not as well disciplined or as well armed as we were, so they got attacked.

^ Despite their effort, the Russian 62nd and 64th armies West of Stalingrad could not stop the advancing Germans before the city.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

[2]:221,226 .During the preparations for the attack, Marshal Zhukov personally visited the front, which was rare for such a high-ranking general.^ If the enemy has time to make preparations for action and the ground is such as to preclude a mounted attack, the motorized infantry will be assembled for attack.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Berchtesgaden, and during his long train journey to East Prussia on the 23d, Hitler had no contact—personal or telegraphic—with the army and air force commanders at the front.

^ In the national level, Stalin ordered General Zhukov to leave the Moscow front and simply go to South Russia and save what he can.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

[2]:222–223 .The operation was code-named “Uranus” and launched in conjunction with Operation Mars, which was directed at Army Group Center.^ When the Soviet Fifth Tank and Twenty--first Armies launched their massive counteroffensive northwest of Stalingrad (code--named Uranus) on 19 November, an exhausted Hitler was enjoying a brief holiday at the Berghof, his mountain retreat in Berchtesgaden, southern Bavaria.

^ The threat to the Group Army Center was real, as a gaping hole existed in German line south of Kaluga.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In April 1942, Hitler issued "war directive 41", which detailed his plan for the Russian front for summer 1942, code named Operation Blue.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.The plan was similar to the one Zhukov had used to achieve victory at Khalkin Gol three years before, where he had sprung a double envelopment and destroyed the 23rd Division of the Japanese army.^ It cannot be said that victory in the west sealed the fate of Hitlers Germany the Red Army achieved that.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Read the US Army Manual published on the Russian Spetsnaz and one of the things that stand out is their willingness to do whatever it takes to achieve victory - even if it meant certain death of the entire squad.
  • SgForums :: Singapore's Online Community - Small Arms in SAF Section 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC sgforums.com [Source type: General]

^ Some one million men and 900 tanks were to conduct a classic double envelopment of the German 6 th Army by breaking through the hapless 3 rd and 4 th Rumanian Armies.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .Zhukov and Vasilyevskiy were awarded the "Hero of the Soviet Union" for their generalship.^ It is no wonder then that, having flown 80 combat sorties against the Germans, Emelianenko was awarded the highest decoration the Hero of the Soviet Union.

.On 19 November 1942, the Red Army unleashed Operation Uranus.^ Operation Uranus December 12, 1942 .
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ November 19, 1942 .
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ On December 19, after a necessary break, the Red Army resumed its offensive.
  • The Battle of Budapest - Stormfront 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.stormfront.org [Source type: General]

.The attacking Soviet units under the command of Gen.^ European colonists, including some Blackshirt troops, formed part of the units under the duke's command.

^ They could pick up newly deployed units; however, the Germans did not know the scope of the deployment or where or when the Soviets would attack.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nikolay Vatutin consisted of three complete armies, the 1st Guards Army, 5th Tank Army, and 21st Army, including a total of 18 infantry divisions, eight tank brigades, two motorized brigades, six cavalry divisions and one anti-tank brigade.^ For the northern pincer, the Soviets assembled 3,500 guns and heavy mortars to blast a hole for 3 tank and 2 cavalry corps and a dozen infantry divisions.

^ Chuikov stated that another division had a total of 1,500 menthe motorized infantry brigade had 666 men, including no more than 200 infantrymen; the Guards Division of Colonel Dubyanski on the left flank had no more than 250 infantrymen.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hitler did tell the field marshal to expect reinforcements totaling six infantry and four panzer divisions, a Luftwaffe field division, and some flak units.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.The preparations for the attack could be heard by the Romanians, who continued to push for reinforcements, only to be refused again.^ A linkup could succeed only if Sixth Army pushed from the other side against the Soviets, but this could not be done without shrinking the Stalingrad pocket, which Hitler forbade.

^ I thought of the officer who said I had only heard one tank being driven back and forth, not the hundreds now advancing.

^ The continued weakening of the German flanks behind Stalingrad, as more and more German units were pushed to the city, was the anticipated opportunity for which General Zhukov prepared since the battle of Stalingrad began.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.Thinly spread, outnumbered and poorly equipped, the Romanian 3rd Army, which held the northern flank of the German 6th Army, was shattered.^ The Russians attacked the sectors of the German flanks held by the 3rd and 4th Romanian armies.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the River Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia) and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two Russian forces will meet far Southwest of Stalingrad and encircle the entire German 6th army near Stalingrad and cut its supply lines.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.On 20 November a second Soviet offensive (two armies) was launched to the south of Stalingrad, against points held by the Romanian IV Corps.^ Three Soviet armies launched the first offensive on 24 August.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation URANUS, a two pronged Soviet attack is launched against the 6th Army.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ By the time he concentrated the offensive against Stalingrad, the Soviets had reinforced the area.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

The Romanian forces, made up primarily of infantry, collapsed almost immediately. .Soviet forces raced west in a pincer movement, and met two days later near the town of Kalach, sealing the ring around Stalingrad.^ On November 23, the two pincers linked up west of Stalingrad, trapping more than 300,000 German soldiers in a pocket thirty-five miles wide and twenty miles long.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ German units moved to face the advancing Russians, but it was too late, and in four days the two spearheads of the Russian pincer movement met each other about 100km West of Stalingrad.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The two Russian forces will meet far Southwest of Stalingrad and encircle the entire German 6th army near Stalingrad and cut its supply lines.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

[37] .This was not filmed at the time; the Soviets re-enacted the link-up for a propaganda film, which achieved worldwide fame.^ I saw this film (split into 3 parts) few years ago -nice movie to watch but unfortunately riddled with Soviet WWII propaganda.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

The Sixth Army encircled

Soviet forces attacking north of Stalingrad in late November of 1942
.About 290,000 German and Romanian soldiers,[38] the Croatian 369th Reinforced Infantry Regiment,[22] and other volunteer subsidiary troops were surrounded.^ By September 22, the Germans occupied the center of Stalingrad, but the beleaguered Russian soldiers and civilians refused to surrender.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The entire Austrian garrison numbered only about 20,000 soldiers supported by 72 cannons.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since this was one of the most powerful, best-equipped German divisions, one wonders about both the German and Russian infantry units, which had much less maneuverability and striking power.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Inside the pocket (German: Kessel, literally "cauldron"), there were also around 10,000 Soviet civilians[2] and several thousand Soviet soldiers the Germans had taken captive during the battle.^ Soldiers and civilians celebrate German surrender .

^ The total number of civilians killed in the regions inside and outside the city is unknown but estimates put it as high as 150,000.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ The resulting battle pocketed over 300,000 troops, shattering the front and sending the Germans into a desperate defensive retreat that was only stabilized by the genius of Eric Von Manstein in the spring of 1943.
  • Stalingrad 50 Turn Scenario 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.matrixgames.com [Source type: General]

.Not all of the 6th Army was trapped; 50,000 soldiers were brushed aside outside the pocket.^ On November 23, the two pincers linked up west of Stalingrad, trapping more than 300,000 German soldiers in a pocket thirty-five miles wide and twenty miles long.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But instead of breaking out of the encirclement, General von Paulus, the 6th army's commander, was immediately ordered by Hitler to remain in his position and hold it at all cost.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ On January 10, 1943, 47 Russian divisions attacked the 6th army from all directions.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.The Red Army units immediately formed two defensive fronts: a circumvallation facing inward and a contravallation facing outward.^ The bypassed 13th and 50th Armies, together with the headquarters of the Briansk Front, were pushed into two large pockets by German 2nd Army.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boldin's operational group, consisting of three divisions and two tank brigades, counterattacked the flanks of 3rd Panzer group (Army) on 3-4 October, and attempted to cover the withdrawal of other Western Front units on 6 October.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over two million Soviet prisoners of war were liberated by the Red Army.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.Adolf Hitler had declared in a public speech (in the Berlin Sportpalast) on 30 September 1942 that the German army would never leave the city.^ The speech of 28 September 1942 is in vol.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Hitler made one of his rare public appearances on 30 September at the Sportpalast in Berlin.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the River Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia) and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At a meeting shortly after the Soviet encirclement, German army chiefs pushed for an immediate breakout to a new line on the west of the Don, but Hitler was at his Bavarian retreat of Obersalzberg in Berchtesgaden with the head of the Luftwaffe, Hermann Göring.^ Stalin versus German army The Soviet army/ .
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As each of the service chiefs had direct access to Hitler, OKW did not have the capability to assert authority without Hitler's immediate support."
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bypassed 13th and 50th Armies, together with the headquarters of the Briansk Front, were pushed into two large pockets by German 2nd Army.
  • Battle of Moscow 1941 : Schlacht um Moskau : Hitler : Stalin : Zhukov : Guderian : Blitzkrieg 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC web2.airmail.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When asked by Hitler, Göring replied, after being convinced by Hans Jeschonnek,[5]:234 that the Luftwaffe could supply the 6th Army with an "air bridge". This would allow the Germans in the city to fight on while a relief force was assembled.^ He promised Hitler that the Luftwaffe would resupply Stalingrad by air .
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Hitler forbade any withdrawal, convinced that the Sixth Army could be resupplied from the air.

^ Deciding to supply Sixth Army by air was not Hitler's only mistake.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

[37]
.A similar plan had been used successfully a year earlier at the Demyansk Pocket, albeit on a much smaller scale: a corps at Demyansk rather than an entire army.^ In 1940, the Italian army had more than 8,000 artillery pieces, which were classified as divisional (field), corps (medium), and army (heavy).

^ Michael Lee Lanning retired from the United States Army after more than twenty years of service.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The German navy, being much smaller than it had been in World War I, was not powerful enough to face the British Royal Navy in open combat.

.Also, Soviet fighter forces had improved considerably in both quality and quantity in the intervening year.^ The storm broke on 19 November as Soviet forces attacked rapidly crushing Romanian armies in both sectors [xciv] linking up on the 23 rd .
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Subsequently all the mentioned countries were invaded, occupied or forced to cede part of their territory by either the Soviet Union, Germany, or both.” .
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But the mention of the successful Demyansk air supply operation reinforced Hitler's own views, and was endorsed by Göring several days later.^ The firmness of Hitler's conviction that the fortress should stand fast and that the Luftwaffe could keep it adequately supplied had grown considerably in the two days since Jeschonnek had first mentioned it.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Deciding to supply Sixth Army by air was not Hitler's only mistake.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Before it was too late, Hitler should have reexamined the tables and graphs drawn up by Jeschonnek, Zeitzler, and the army quartermaster--general; and he should have spoken to von Richthofen, whose air fleet was to carry out the air supply operation.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.The head of the 4th Air Fleet (Luftflotte 4), Wolfram von Richthofen, tried unsuccessfully to get this decision overturned.^ Another prominent air leader shared Fiebig's view: the highly decorated Generaloberst Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, commander of Luftflotte 4, the air fleet in charge of all Luftwaffe operations in southern Russia (including the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Black Sea, the Caucasus and, of course, the Stalingrad sector).
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ To their right, the city of Stalingrad blazed from the first of General von Richthofen's air raids, which ultimately killed 40,000 civilians.

^ Before it was too late, Hitler should have reexamined the tables and graphs drawn up by Jeschonnek, Zeitzler, and the army quartermaster--general; and he should have spoken to von Richthofen, whose air fleet was to carry out the air supply operation.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.The 6th Army was the largest unit of this type in the world and almost twice as large as a regular German army unit, plus there was also a corps of the 4th Panzer Army trapped in the pocket.^ The entire German 6th army was now trapped in and near Stalingrad.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Sunday the 31 st of January marks the surrender of the remnants of the German 6th Army to the Soviets at Stalingrad.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ The two Russian forces will meet far Southwest of Stalingrad and encircle the entire German 6th army near Stalingrad and cut its supply lines.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.It should have been clear that supplying them by air was impossible – the maximum 117.5 tons they could deliver a day—based on the number of available aircraft and with only the airfield at Pitomnik to land at—was far less than the minimum 800 tons needed.^ If one hundred thousand men had needed three hundred tons of supplies per day, then, logically, 250,000 men would need around 750 tons, an almost impossible tonnage to deliver (as calculations made at Hitler's headquarters a few days later confirmed).13 Second, the Luftwaffe did not possess anywhere near enough transport aircraft and available bombers to deliver such tonnages.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The air supply operation continued until the 6th army's surrender, but it flew less than 100 tons per day, much less than needed, and the Luftwaffe lost 488 cargo aircraft in it.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ We won’t get it back once it’s lost.” [cvi] Goering promised the Luftwaffe would be able to meet the re-supply needs of 6 th Army by air, even though his Generals knew that it was impossible with the number of transport aircraft available.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

[5][39] .To supplement the limited number of Junkers Ju 52 transports, the Germans used aircraft wholly inadequate for the role, such as the He-177 bomber (some bombers performed adequately – the Heinkel He-111 proved to be quite capable and was much faster than the Ju 52).^ The Soviets used their air superiority to attack German army positions and for bombing raids on the main Ju-52 base at Zverevo, where they destroyed a substantial number of German transport aircraft.

^ More importantly, he had not been able to replace much of his cavalry lost in the Russian winter, limiting his reconnaissance and intelligence-gathering capabilities.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Much of the artillery was left over from World War I, and some guns were modernized World War I prizes, such as pieces manufactured at Skoda.

.But Hitler backed Göring's plan and reiterated his order of "no surrender" to his trapped armies.^ Finally, several days before Pauluss surrender, Hitler directed Schmundt to assist in creating a new 6 th Army and 20 divisions.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is no secret that Hitler was deeply superstisious, (he lived with Borodino's nightmare) and that is also the reason he was unwilling to order an attack on Moscow;just in order to avoid Buonaparte's steps.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ Hitler, unable to face the truth of his own disaster, refused his starved and frozen army permission to surrender.

The air supply mission failed. .Appalling weather conditions, technical failures, heavy Soviet anti-aircraft fire and fighter interceptions led to the loss of 488 German aircraft.^ The German advantage in heavy fire by tanks and dive bombers was gradually matched by Russian artillery reinforcements of all types, from mortars to rocket launchers, which were concentrated East of the Volga, where the German tanks could not sweep them, and were protected from the Stuka dive bombers by many anti aircraft guns.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In Stalingrad, in addition to its heavy losses, the German army also lost its formidable image of being invincible.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The final Soviet offensive began on 10 January, after a particularly heavy artillery barrage, which cut most of the German communication wires and cables.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Luftwaffe failed to achieve even the daily supply of 117 tons that it had aircraft for.^ By the last week in December, the Luftwaffe delivered only an average 129 tons of supplies a day, condemning the German forces in the pocket to slow starvation and death.

^ Goering and his Luftwaffe failed to deliver even 150 tons a day while the Russians destroyed more than 500 transport aircraft during the supply effort.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The air supply operation continued until the 6th army's surrender, but it flew less than 100 tons per day, much less than needed, and the Luftwaffe lost 488 cargo aircraft in it.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.An average of 94 tons of supplies per day was delivered.^ By the last week in December, the Luftwaffe delivered only an average 129 tons of supplies a day, condemning the German forces in the pocket to slow starvation and death.

^ Goering and his Luftwaffe failed to deliver even 150 tons a day while the Russians destroyed more than 500 transport aircraft during the supply effort.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The air supply operation continued until the 6th army's surrender, but it flew less than 100 tons per day, much less than needed, and the Luftwaffe lost 488 cargo aircraft in it.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.The most successful day, 19 December, delivered only 289 tons of supplies in 154 flights.^ By the last week in December, the Luftwaffe delivered only an average 129 tons of supplies a day, condemning the German forces in the pocket to slow starvation and death.

^ They stated that it would need 750 tons of supplies per day (reducing this figure to five hundred tons within a few days).
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ During the last days of the battle, supplies were dropped only by parachute, and many of the supplies fell into Soviet hands.

.The supplies that did get through were often useless: one aircraft arrived with 20 tonnes of vodka and summer uniforms, another with supplies of black pepper and marjoram.^ The southern Soviet prong of 2 corps, one mechanized and the other cavalry, broke through on 20 November against 2 Romanian infantry divisions.

^ Turkish army had no enough food supplies,mine, weapons , they did not even have war uniform equipped with cap or things such as this to protect them.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[21] .Hitler's indecision on the purpose of Operation Winter Storm (either to allow a breakout or to open a corridor) meant that large quantities of fuel that would have helped with a breakout were shipped when food and ammunition would have been more useful.^ Operation WINTER STORM, fails to break the Soviet encirclement, and is called off after four days by Manstein.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ They helped Germany invade Poland, invaded Finland themselves and supplied Hitler with plenty of fuel for the blitzkrieg.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Christmas, the Germans were low on ammunition, nearly out of food, and freezing in the winter cold.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

[40]:153 .The transport aircraft that did land safely were used to evacuate technical specialists and sick or wounded men from the besieged enclave (some 42,000 were evacuated in all).^ Early in the battle some 10,000 men of the 13 th Guards Rifle Division crossed the Volga, but without their heavy weapons.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, an unknown but large number were wounded, and some 600,000 were taken as prisoners.

^ Afrikaners held off 10,000 Zulu, sustaining only 3 wounded men while killing thousands of Zulu.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Initially, supply flights came in from the field at Tatsinskaya, called 'Tazi' by the German pilots. .On 23 December 1942, the Soviet 24th Tank Corps, commanded by Major-General Vasily Mikhaylovich Badanov, reached nearby Skassirskaya and in the early morning of 24 December, the tanks reached Tatsinskaya.^ For the northern pincer, the Soviets assembled 3,500 guns and heavy mortars to blast a hole for 3 tank and 2 cavalry corps and a dozen infantry divisions.

^ A relief attempt by 57 th Panzer Corps under Hoth on 12 December made some headway until a massive Soviet counterattack on 24 December drove it back.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To meet the German thrust toward Stalingrad, on 12 July 1942 the Soviet General Staff had formed the Stalingrad Front.

.Without any soldiers to defend the airfield it was abandoned under heavy fire; in a little under an hour, 108 Ju-52s and 16 Ju-86s took off for Novocherkassk--leaving 72 Ju-52s and many other aircraft burning on the ground.^ Within days he set off for Israel to research a novel and came under fire for the first time at a kibbutz near the Lebanese border.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, on 16 January 1943, the Soviets took Pitomnik, the principal airfield within the Stalingrad pocket.

^ Yet no less remarkable was the meticulous organisation that made it possible to land 70,000 soldiers under fire within a few hours.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

.A new base was established some 200 miles from Stalingrad at Salsk, the additional distance another obstacle to the resupply efforts.^ He also relieved List, and from a distance of 1,200 miles, Hitler took personal command of Army Group A, which was nominally under General Paul L. E. von Kleist.

^ The great city of Stalingrad curved for some 20 miles along the high western bank of the Volga River.

^ Some Soviet forces wheeled in against Stalingrad, while others expanded the advance westward to limit any Axis relief efforts.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Salsk was abandoned in turn by mid-January for a rough facility at Zverevo, near Shakhty. .The field at Zverevo was attacked repeatedly on 18 January and a further 50 Ju-52s were destroyed.^ The Soviets used their air superiority to attack German army positions and for bombing raids on the main Ju-52 base at Zverevo, where they destroyed a substantial number of German transport aircraft.

.The 6th Army slowly starved.^ On January 22, 1943, the starved, frozen, and exhausted 6th army began to collapse.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The 6th army quickly ran out of fuel, ammunition, and food, and the German soldiers starved severely.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

Pilots were shocked to find the troops too exhausted and hungry to unload. Germans fought over the slightest scraps of bread. General Zeitzler, moved by their plight, began to limit himself to their slim rations at meal times. .After a few weeks on such a diet, he had lost 26 pounds and had become so emaciated that Hitler, annoyed, personally ordered him to start eating regular meals again.^ There were only three persons able to give this order: Paulus himself, Manstein as his immediate superior and Hitler.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ Hitler now ordered Manstein from the Leningrad Front and gave him a new formation—Army Group Don, drawn from Army Group A—with instructions to rectify the situation.

^ Peter Hutt starts his portrayal of Chauvelin at such a high pitch of villainy there's nowhere for him to go.
  • 2002 Reviews: Les Pecheurs des perles; Battle of Stalingrad, Counterfeit Secretes, Well, Therac 25, Threepenny Opera - | - All's Well that Ends Well - | - The Scarlet Pimpernel 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC stage-door.org [Source type: General]

The toll on the Transportgruppen was heavy. .Some 266 Junkers Ju 52s were destroyed, one-third of the fleet's strength on the Eastern Front.^ One of the epic battles of the war; some hold that the Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point on the Eastern Front.

^ One should note, however, that after several weeks of combat, TO & Es had very little to do with combat on the Eastern Front.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The He 111 gruppen lost 165 aircraft in transport operations. Other losses included 42 Junkers Ju 86s, nine Fw 200 "Condors", five He 177 bombers and a Ju 290. The Luftwaffe also lost close to 1,000 highly experienced bomber crew personnel.[5]:310 So heavy were the Luftwaffe's losses that four of Luftflotte 4s transport units (KGrzbV 700, KGrzbV 900, I./KGrzbV 1 and II./KGzbV 1) were "formally dissolved".[4]:122

Luftwaffe losses

Aircraft losses of the Luftwaffe for the supply of the 6th Army at Stalingrad, and the recovery of wounded from 24 November 1942 to 31 January 1943:
Aircraft losses Aircraft type
269 Junkers Ju 52
169 Heinkel He 111
42 Junkers Ju 86
9 Focke-Wulf Fw 200
5 Heinkel He 177
1 Junkers Ju 290
A total of 495 machines = 5 squadrons worth and more than 1 Air Corps
These losses amounted to about 50% of the total used units. .In addition, the air supply was stopped for the training program and Luftwaffe sorties in other theaters of war had been significantly reduced to save fuel for use at Stalingrad.^ It is frequently seen as the turning point in the European theater of war, the decisive defeat from which the Wehrmacht could never recover, but militarily Stalingrad was not irredeemable.

^ During a telephone conversation on 23 November 1942 , he asked Gring directly whether the supply of Stalingrad by air was possible.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russian Air Force also significantly increased its attacks, with much more aircraft than before and better trained pilots.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

Operation Little Saturn

.Soviet forces consolidated their positions around Stalingrad, and fierce fighting to shrink the pocket began.^ After the disaster at Stalingrad , Berlin indeed wanted to ascertain the Soviet position on "reconciliation" with Germany .
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviet units overran Pitomnik on 12 January, ending resupply in the pocket, after which the defenders position was hopeless.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, while the fighting for Stalingrad raged, Hitler consolidated his power at the expense of the military professional class.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Operation Winter Storm (Operation Wintergewitter), a German attempt to relieve the trapped army from the south, was successfully fended off by the Soviets in December.^ Hitler sent General Fedor von Bock's Army Group South east from around Kursk to secure Voronezh, which fell to the Germans on 6 July.

^ Operation URANUS, a two pronged Soviet attack is launched against the 6th Army.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ The Soviets held higher ground to the west, meaning that Sixth Army would be exposed to their guns if it attempted to break out.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.The full impact of the harsh Russian winter set in.^ Also, like in the battle of Moscow a year before, the harsh Russian winter returned, sharply reducing the German army's mobility and observation capabilities.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.The Volga froze solid, allowing the Soviets to supply their forces more easily.^ Stalin refused to allow the evacuation of the civilian population, believing that this would force the defenders, especially local militia forces, to fight more tenaciously.

^ The Rumanian defense broke rather easily, allowing Soviet armor to begin the exploitation about 1400.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In spite of German countermeasures, the Soviets continued to move supplies across the Volga at night.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The trapped Germans rapidly ran out of heating fuel and medical supplies, and thousands started to die of frostbite, malnutrition, and disease.^ All the German motorized forces periodically ran out of fuel.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was ear-hunting by the Yanks, prisoners shot out of hand by the Brits and cold-blooded booby-trapping by the Germans.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The 6th army quickly ran out of fuel, ammunition, and food, and the German soldiers starved severely.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

Soviet gains (shown in blue) during Operation Little Saturn
.On 16 December, the Soviets launched a second offensive, Operation Little Saturn, which attempted to punch through the Axis army on the Don and take Rostov.^ Three Soviet armies launched the first offensive on 24 August.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He never solved this task because the Soviets held a number of bridgeheads, from which they launched numerous offensives.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ardennes Offensive (Battle of the Bulge) (16 December 1944–16 January 1945) .

.If successful, this offensive would have trapped the remainder of Army Group South, one third of the entire German army in Russia, in the Caucasus.^ The entire German 6th army was now trapped in and near Stalingrad.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the River Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia) and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the lack of success by the German army to capture the cities of Moscow and Leningrad in their blitzkrieg offensive in the fall and winter of 1941, Hitler remained determined to conquer Russia in order to destroy Communism and gain access to natural resources for the Third Reich.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Germans set up a "mobile defense" in which small units were to hold towns until supporting armor could arrive.^ Supporting Hungarian, Italian and Romanian allied armies which lacked motorization, modern armor or anti-tank units were unable to fulfill the gaps left by the loss of experienced German divisions and the expectations of Hitler.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than any proscenium staging ever could, this set-up reinforces the themes of the play.
  • 2002 Reviews: Les Pecheurs des perles; Battle of Stalingrad, Counterfeit Secretes, Well, Therac 25, Threepenny Opera - | - All's Well that Ends Well - | - The Scarlet Pimpernel 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC stage-door.org [Source type: General]

^ Although his army outnumbered the Americans two to one, Cornwallis fortified the small town and waited for additional men and supplies to arrive by ship.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.From the Soviet bridgehead at Mamon, fifteen divisions supported by at least 100 tanks attacked the Italian Cosseria and Ravenna Divisions, and although outnumbered 9 to 1, the Italians resisted until 19 December when ARMIR headquarters finally ordered the battered divisions to withdraw.^ Sometimes these attacks were supported by tanks.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was also necessary to withdraw the tanks before sunset for logistical support, because the support vehicles were not armored.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the German 6 th Army methodically attacked Stalingrad, Chuikov ferried over the Volga the equivalent of nine rifle divisions and two tank brigades.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .The Soviets never got close to Rostov, but the fighting forced von Manstein to extract Army Group A from the Caucasus and re-establish the frontline some 250 km away from the city.^ He promptly ordered Generaloberst Maximilian von Weichs, commander of Army Group B, to abandon all further offensive operations within Stalingrad and transfer forces from the city to the broken flank.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Army Group A was halted by the Russians along the crests of the Caucasus on August 28 th .
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The siege of Stalingrad provided sufficient time for the German Army Group A to withdraw from the Caucasus.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

The Tatsinskaya Raid also caused significant losses to Luftwaffe’s transport fleet.
.The 6th Army now was beyond all hope of German reinforcement.^ The entire German 6th army was now trapped in and near Stalingrad.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Sunday the 31 st of January marks the surrender of the remnants of the German 6th Army to the Soviets at Stalingrad.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They pointed out to Hitler that the German army in Russia now had to maintain a front of more than 2,000 miles.

.The German troops in Stalingrad were not told this, however, and continued to believe that reinforcements were on their way.^ In addition, a stream of fresh reinforcements, including elite units, began to arrive and cross the Volga under German fire into Stalingrad.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The continued weakening of the German flanks behind Stalingrad, as more and more German units were pushed to the city, was the anticipated opportunity for which General Zhukov prepared since the battle of Stalingrad began.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Germans might have easily captured Stalingrad had Hitler not continued to redirect units to the Caucasus.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some German officers requested that Paulus defy Hitler’s orders to stand fast and instead attempt to break out of the Stalingrad pocket.^ No, Schmidt concluded, the army has been ordered to stand fast at Stalingrad .
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Schmidt explained that Hitler had expressly ordered Sixth Army to stand fast at Stalingrad , that the army lacked sufficient fuel for a proper breakout attempt, and that the terrain itself complicated matters.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ General Paulus has been blamed for refusing to disobey Hitler's order to stand firm and extracting his army before it was too late, but his and Hitler's greatest failing lay in not anticipating the Soviet encirclement.

Paulus refused, as he abhorred the thought of disobeying orders. .Also, while a motorised breakout might have been possible in the first few weeks, the 6th Army now had insufficient fuel and the German soldiers would have faced great difficulty breaking through the Soviet lines on foot in harsh winter conditions.^ The entire German 6th army was now trapped in and near Stalingrad.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The historical Battle of Stalingrad (August 1942-February 1943) was a turning point in World War II. The Soviet victory at what is now Volgograd halted the advance of the German army and initiated a series of offensives that would take the Soviets into Germany.
  • 2002 Reviews: Les Pecheurs des perles; Battle of Stalingrad, Counterfeit Secretes, Well, Therac 25, Threepenny Opera - | - All's Well that Ends Well - | - The Scarlet Pimpernel 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC stage-door.org [Source type: General]

^ Sunday the 31 st of January marks the surrender of the remnants of the German 6th Army to the Soviets at Stalingrad.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]

Soviet victory

759,560 Soviet personnel were awarded this medal for the defence of Stalingrad from 22 December 1942.
.The Germans inside the pocket retreated from the suburbs of Stalingrad to the city itself.^ Created by John Schettler In mid-September 1942, after driving to the outskirts of Stalingrad the Germans launch their first major assaults to take the city.
  • Stalingrad 50 Turn Scenario 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.matrixgames.com [Source type: General]

^ Despite their effort, the Russian 62nd and 64th armies West of Stalingrad could not stop the advancing Germans before the city.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The main effort north of Stalingrad planned to cut the citys main LOC north along the Volga, although German planners knew this would not cut off all supplies.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The loss of the two airfields, at Pitomnik on 16 January 1943 and Gumrak on either 25 January[4]:p96–97 or the night of 21/22 January,[42] meant an end to air supplies and to the evacuation of the wounded.^ Of the Axis losses, 150,000 were killed or wounded by January 1943.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Buna, Battle of (16 November 1942–22 January 1943) .

^ Zach Says: July 21st, 2009 at 9:25 pm Yahoo Answers actually forces a question mark at the end, so either you’re too lazy to put a question mark or you actually do and look like a jackass with two question marks.
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] The third and last serviceable runway was at the Stalingradskaja flight school, which reportedly had the last landings and takeoffs on the night of 22–23 January.[22] .After daybreak on 23 January, there were no more reported landings except for continuous air drops of ammunition and food until the end.^ It is testament to their sheer doggedness that the Americans landed no fewer than 18,772 men there that day.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Godwin had inflicted the most decisive defeat on the Vikings in more than two centuries, but there was no time to celebrate.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Simultaneously, the Russian Air Force began to receive considerably more and better aircraft, while their anti-aircraft forces continued to improve.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Germans were now not only starving, but running out of ammunition.^ C Company of the 116th Infantry lost only 20 out of 194 men, and were soon overrunning German positions from the rear.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By Christmas, the Germans were low on ammunition, nearly out of food, and freezing in the winter cold.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Paulus noted that artillery ammunition would run out on 13 January.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, they continued to resist stubbornly, in part because they believed the Soviets would execute any who surrendered.^ Because I have reports & they know who I am.
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So trolls do start fights they know only people who believe them is themself because they have not one but a number of accounts.
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Don’t do a thing they say because they are whimps who can’t even join the military much less anything.
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In particular, the so-called "HiWis", Soviet citizens fighting for the Germans, had no illusions about their fate if captured.^ The correspondent cited the picture, and said she would be glad of any information about the fate of the German depicted with his hands up.
  • D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.arlindo-correia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the 90,000 Germans captured at Stalingrad, only about 5,000 survived the harsh conditions of the Soviet prisoner-of-war camps.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There may have been 294,000 men trapped at Stalingrad, including Hiwis (Soviet auxiliaries working with the Germans) and Romanians.

.The Soviets were initially surprised by the number of Germans they had trapped, and had to reinforce their encircling troops.^ He never solved this task because the Soviets held a number of bridgeheads, from which they launched numerous offensives.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They could pick up newly deployed units; however, the Germans did not know the scope of the deployment or where or when the Soviets would attack.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They provided Soviet General Georgi Zhukov time to reinforce the city's flanks with additional soldiers, tanks, and artillery pieces.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bloody urban warfare began again in Stalingrad, but this time it was the Germans who were pushed back to the banks of the Volga.^ The siege of Stalingrad provided sufficient time for the German Army Group A to withdraw from the Caucasus.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fourth, Stalingrad was a strategic city on the bank of river Volga.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uh… I’m fairly sure it was the Russians who took Berlin in the end, and the reason Churchill said that at the time was that the Russian forces had not yet rallied and started beating back the Germans in December ‘41.
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They fortified their positions in the factory districts and the Soviets encountered almost the same tooth-and-nail ferocity that they themselves displayed a month earlier.^ The breakthrough imperiled the Soviet position they had concentrated their strongest forces against Hoth.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Germans adopted a simple defense of fixing wire nets over all windows to protect themselves from grenades. The Soviets responded by fixing fish hooks to the grenades so they stuck to the nets when thrown. .The Germans now had no usable tanks in the city.^ In the tradition of the German General Staff, the plan had no contingent scenarios it provided no details on fighting in the city.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now Witzleben said: No honourable man can lead the German people into such a situation.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.Those tanks which still functioned could at best be used as stationary cannons.^ Rome still had sizeable reserves that could have been used effectively against the besiegers.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviets did not bother employing tanks in areas where the urban destruction restricted their mobility.^ Nor did Paulus possess mobile tank reserve to counter such a Soviet effort and keep open a supply corridor.

.A Soviet envoy party (comprising Major Aleksandr Smyslov, Captain Nikolay Dyatlenko and a trumpeter) carried a generous offer to Paulus on honourable terms: if he surrendered within 24 hours, he would receive a guarantee of safety for all prisoners, medical care for the sick and wounded, prisoners allowed to keep their personal belongings, "normal" food rations, and repatriation to whatever country they wished to go to after the war — but Paulus, ordered not to surrender by Adolf Hitler, did not respond, ensuring the destruction of the 6th Army.^ Hitler radioed Paulus, "Surrender is forbidden.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most writers place the argument in the early hours of 24 Novemberthat is, shortly after Hitler arrived from Berchtesgaden and shortly before he issued his fateful order to Paulus that his army must stand fast, that a relief operation was being launched, and that the Luftwaffe, bolstered by a hundred more Junkers, would keep the army supplied.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, Hitler didnt care about all those western capitalised countries like France, Spain, Italy and others, he was irrational and wanted to concour the Soviet Union by whatever means, especially Stalingrad because it was named after Stalin, this city didnt have any significant importance what so ever, but Stalin ordered Red Army troops to protect this city by whta ever means.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]
Generalfeldmarschall Friedrich Paulus (right) and his aides, Generalleutnant Arthur Schmidt (middle) and Wilhelm Adam (left) after their surrender.
.On 30 January 1943, the 10th anniversary of his coming to power, Hitler promoted Paulus to Generalfeldmarschall.^ One last point and this is related to Stalingrads nick; on the 30th of January 1943 Göring announced that Germany was winning the battle of Stalingrad and the German Supreme commander was promoted a Field Marshall (Paulus).

^ Rennell Island, Battle of (29–30 January 1943) .

^ A week later Hitler promoted von Paulus to Field Marshal, and reminded him that no German Field Marshal was ever captured alive, but von Paulus was captured the next day in a cellar in Stalingrad.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.Since no German Field Marshal had ever been taken prisoner, Hitler assumed that Paulus would fight on or take his own life.^ One last point and this is related to Stalingrads nick; on the 30th of January 1943 Göring announced that Germany was winning the battle of Stalingrad and the German Supreme commander was promoted a Field Marshall (Paulus).

^ Hitler did tell the field marshal to expect reinforcements totaling six infantry and four panzer divisions, a Luftwaffe field division, and some flak units.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Take Kursk, for instance: if you look around during Kursk, there’s virtually no German troops anywhere else.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, when Soviet forces closed in on his headquarters in the ruined GUM department store the next day, Paulus surrendered.^ However, Paulus replied with a pessimistic assessment of his army's ability to close the short distance to reach Manstein's relief force.

^ Three days later the last German (still in formation) forces surrendered to their Russian counterparts.

^ The next day, the Sixth German Army, commanded by General Friedrich Paulus, pressed into the edge of the town and assumed victory when they found it mostly in ruins.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The remnants of the Axis forces in Stalingrad surrendered on 2 February; 91,000 tired, ill, and starving prisoners were taken, including 3,000 Romanians, the survivors of the 20th Infantry Division, 1st Cavalry Division and “Col.^ They encountered Romanian infantry divisions.

^ Other estimates bring up the Axis casualties of all types among all branches of the German armed forces and its allies to 850,000.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ For the northern pincer, the Soviets assembled 3,500 guns and heavy mortars to blast a hole for 3 tank and 2 cavalry corps and a dozen infantry divisions.

Voicu” Detachment.[45] .To the delight of the Soviet forces and the dismay of the Third Reich, the prisoners included 22 generals.^ The Soviet forces continued their advance nearly unopposed and on 22 November met at Kalach, encircling Pauluss 6 th Army.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of only 91,000 men (including 22 generals) taken prisoner by the Soviets, fewer than 5,000 survived the war and Soviet captivity.

.Hitler was furious and confided that Paulus "could have freed himself from all sorrow and ascended into eternity and national immortality, but he prefers to go to Moscow."^ Hitler was furious, accusing von Paulus and Gring for the tremendous losses, instead of accusing himself.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ But instead of breaking out of the encirclement, General von Paulus, the 6th army's commander, was immediately ordered by Hitler to remain in his position and hold it at all cost.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Russians freed Poland from Naciz freed all Jews in POland so as Baltic states but they consider it as an invasion coz they were supporting hitler!
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]
.The German public was not officially told of the disaster until the end of January 1943, though positive media reports had stopped in the weeks before the announcement.^ At a meeting in Ankara in January 1943, the heads of the Japanese information offices in Europe decided that their main task was to contribute to the end the Soviet-German war by means of an agreement between the two warring states.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviet units overran Pitomnik on 12 January, ending resupply in the pocket, after which the defenders position was hopeless.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite their effort, the Russian 62nd and 64th armies West of Stalingrad could not stop the advancing Germans before the city.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

[47] .Stalingrad marked the first time that the Nazi government publicly acknowledged a failure in its war effort; it was not the first major setback of the German military, but the crushing defeat where German losses were almost equal to those of the Soviets was unprecedented.^ This was the first of four German attacks in Stalingrad.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, to come to be viewed by many as the turning point in the war, a battle in which the Germans came to be trapped by their own advances, and the point at which a serially successful Nazi military began its decline.
  • Sderot as Stalingrad, Hamas as blind Samson

    - Haaretz - Israel News
    6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: General]

^ Sunday the 31 st of January marks the surrender of the remnants of the German 6th Army to the Soviets at Stalingrad.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior losses of the Soviet Union were generally three times as high as the German ones.^ The beginning of world war II for russians was at 22st of June of 1941 when germans invaded the western territory of soviet union.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And the less role of the Soviet Union than role of countries-friends became a general.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To meet the German thrust toward Stalingrad, on 12 July 1942 the Soviet General Staff had formed the Stalingrad Front.

[47] On 31 January, regular programming on German state radio was replaced by a broadcast of the somber Adagio movement from Anton Bruckner's Seventh Symphony, followed by the announcement of the defeat at Stalingrad.[47]
.On 18 February, Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels gave his famous Sportpalast speech in Berlin, encouraging the Germans to accept a total war which would claim all resources and efforts from the entire population.^ If all German forces were concentrated either towards Moscow or towards the Caspian oilfields chances of success would be considerably higher.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ The dictator announced that he would no longer eat his meals with the officers and directed that stenographers be brought in from Berlin to take down all conversations.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany dedicated a lot of resources to fight against UK and USA. All of those resources would had been really useful for Germany against the Soviet Union.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Red Army soldier marches a German soldier into captivity.
.According to the German documentary film Stalingrad, over 11,000 soldiers refused to lay down their arms at the official surrender, presumably believing that fighting to the death was better than a slow end in Soviet camps.^ The Germans simultaneously surrendered at Stalingrad .
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin refused to allow the evacuation of the civilian population, believing that this would force the defenders, especially local militia forces, to fight more tenaciously.

^ By the last week in December, the Luftwaffe delivered only an average 129 tons of supplies a day, condemning the German forces in the pocket to slow starvation and death.

.They continued to resist, hiding in cellars and sewers, but by early March 1943, the remaining small and isolated pockets of resistance had surrendered.^ Hitler demanded that they'll keep on even after it was clear that they will remain isolated after von Manstein's rescue attempt failed.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The remaining Nationalist army and government continued to retreat until they finally withdrew to the island of Formosa.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pizarro and his men had their wealth assured but not their safety, as they remained an extremely small group of men surrounded by a huge army.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to Soviet intelligence documents shown in the documentary, 2,418 of the men were killed and 8,646 captured.^ Also The soviets were first in Berlin, where Hitler didin have any choice but to kill himself, but that was a major cost to the red army as the lost a lot of men!
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.Of the 91,000 German prisoners captured in Stalingrad, only about 5,000 ever returned.^ Of the 90,000 Germans captured at Stalingrad, only about 5,000 survived the harsh conditions of the Soviet prisoner-of-war camps.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only 5,000 of them returned home after years in Russian prison camps.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The entire Austrian garrison numbered only about 20,000 soldiers supported by 72 cannons.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Already weakened by disease, starvation and lack of medical care during the encirclement, they were sent to labour camps all over the Soviet Union, where most of them died of disease (particularly typhus), cold, overwork, mistreatment, and malnutrition.^ They all agreed that they must gather all their strength for an attempt to break through the encirclement.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ During the war, Iran was ocupied, and a lot of supplies could be sent to the Soviet Union.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It took both sides to win WWII, the USA knew it would take both sides and we supplied equipment and nessesities to the soviet union during the war, if they werent needed then we wouldnt have helped them out during the war.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some were kept in the city to help with rebuilding. In March 1943, 40,000 Germans were buried in a mass grave, victims of a typhus epidemic.[21]:369 .A handful of senior officers were taken to Moscow and used for propaganda purposes, and some of them joined the National Committee for a Free Germany.^ Most of Schmundts time was taken up with reforming the officer corps into a younger, more National Socialist body.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some, including Paulus, signed anti-Hitler statements which were broadcast to German troops.^ The Germans on the other hand committed numerous unforced errors mostly caused by Hitler and or von Paulus.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ European colonists, including some Blackshirt troops, formed part of the units under the duke's command.

^ Hitler refused a request by Paulus on 23 November to move troops to prepare for a possible a break out attempt, assuring him that he would be relieved.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Paulus lived in the Soviet Union until 1952, then moved to Dresden in East Germany, where he spent the remainder of his days defending his actions at Stalingrad and was quoted as saying that Communism was the best hope for postwar Europe.^ This study focuses on the struggle between Germany and The Soviet Union where a majority of Germans troops fought on the eastern front in WWII. 238 pages.
  • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

^ Reply Michael says: February 7, 2007 at 10:57 am The D-Day invasion hasted Germany’s demise, but as someone else pointed out it was also because of a distrust of Stalin.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply Flanger says: February 8, 2007 at 1:56 pm The American armies have landed during that moment when Germany has been already exhausted by war with Soviet Union.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]:280 .General Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach offered to raise an anti-Hitler army from the Stalingrad survivors, but the Soviets did not accept.^ In a recent work on Stalingrad , for example, Franz Kurowski repeats many errors and concludes: What had moved Hitler to give this death order to Sixth Army?
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Sunday the 31 st of January marks the surrender of the remnants of the German 6th Army to the Soviets at Stalingrad.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hitler sent General Fedor von Bock's Army Group South east from around Kursk to secure Voronezh, which fell to the Germans on 6 July.

.It was not until 1955 that the last of the handful of survivors were repatriated after a plea to the Politburo by Konrad Adenauer.^ The last Germans taken prisoner at Stalingrad were not released until 1955.

Legacy

Casualties

.Various scholars have estimated the Axis suffered 850,000 casualties (killed, disabled, captured) among all branches of the German armed forces and its allies, many of them POWs who died in Soviet captivity between 1943 and 1955. 400,000 Germans, 120,000 Romanians, 120,000 Hungarians, and 120,000 Italians were killed, wounded or captured.^ Of the Axis losses, 150,000 were killed or wounded by January 1943.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How many civilians and POWs were killed?
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allied casualties totaled 22,000.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]:p? .Of the 91,000 German POWs taken at Stalingrad, 27,000 died within weeks[49] and only 5,000 returned to Germany in 1955. The remainder of the POWs died in Soviet captivity.^ The last Germans taken prisoner at Stalingrad were not released until 1955.

^ By the last week in December, the Luftwaffe delivered only an average 129 tons of supplies a day, condemning the German forces in the pocket to slow starvation and death.

^ The Red Army captured some 91,000 Axis troops at Stalingrad.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]:430[50][51] .According to Soviet sources, the Axis lost 1.5 million killed, wounded or captured in the whole Stalingrad area.^ Of the Axis losses, 150,000 were killed or wounded by January 1943.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Red Army captured some 91,000 Axis troops at Stalingrad.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the 90,000 Germans captured at Stalingrad, only about 5,000 survived the harsh conditions of the Soviet prisoner-of-war camps.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

[52][53] .50,000 ex-Soviets Hiwis (local volunteers incorporated into the German forces in supporting capacities) were killed or captured by the Red Army.^ It was a major industrial city on the banks of the River Volga (a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and northern Russia) and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the Caucasus.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The invasion involved fewer than 100,000 Italian troops, and by late November, the Greek army had driven the Italian army back into Albania, where both forces suffered heavily in a bloody stalemate during the winter.

^ Other estimates bring up the Axis casualties of all types among all branches of the German armed forces and its allies to 850,000.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

.According to archival figures, the Red Army suffered a total of 1,129,619 total casualties;[53] 478,741 men killed or missing and 650,878 wounded.^ The Italian army suffered substantial casualties in the war.

^ Also The soviets were first in Berlin, where Hitler didin have any choice but to kill himself, but that was a major cost to the red army as the lost a lot of men!
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since 22 June 1941, the Red Army had also suffered enormous losses, and it had yet to overcome Stalins massive purge of the officer corps from the late 1930s.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These numbers are for the whole Stalingrad Area; in the city itself 750,000 were killed, captured, or wounded.^ Luftwaffe carpet bombing at the end of August killed some 40,000 people, but it also turned the city into defensive bastions of ruined buildings and rubble.

^ The total number of civilians killed in the regions inside and outside the city is unknown but estimates put it as high as 150,000.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ August 9, 1945, they dropped the atomic device known as "Fat Man" that destroyed most of the city and killed more than 60,000 of its inhabitants.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Red Army penal battalions (Strafbaty) executed 278 Soviet soldiers for cowardice during the battle.^ Reply Flanger says: February 8, 2007 at 1:56 pm The American armies have landed during that moment when Germany has been already exhausted by war with Soviet Union.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each book in this series is focused on a particular campaign, battle or aspect of the U.S. Army's history or efforts during the war.
  • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

^ Over two million Soviet prisoners of war were liberated by the Red Army.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

[54]Also, more than .40,000 Soviet civilians died in Stalingrad and its suburbs during a single week of aerial bombing as the German 4th Panzer and 6th armies approached the city; the total number of civilians killed in the regions outside the city is unknown.^ The aerial bombardment during the week killed an estimated 40,000 Russians.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 40,000 of the 600,000 Stalingrad civilians died in the fiery attack.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviets used their air superiority to attack German army positions and for bombing raids on the main Ju-52 base at Zverevo, where they destroyed a substantial number of German transport aircraft.

.In all, the battle resulted in an estimated total of 1.7 million to 2 million Axis and Soviet casualties.^ The Stalingrad Campaign may have cost the Soviets 1.1 million casualties, more than 485,000 dead.

^ Including casualties in Allied units and the rescue attempts, Axis forces lost upward of half a million men.

^ The Battle of Stalingrad resulted in the death or capture of more than a quarter million German soldiers, and denied the rich Caucasus oil fields to the Nazis.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

Scope of the battle

The aftermath of the Battle of Stalingrad
.At different times, the Germans had held up to 90% of the city, yet the Soviet forces fought on fiercely.^ The capture of the city was not considered necessary.” [vii] German planners “expected that the Soviets would again accept decisive battle to defend these regions.” [viii] .
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ To the south the Germans were held up by lack of fuel and increased Soviet resistance including the introduction of a force of 800 bombers.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ This study focuses on the struggle between Germany and The Soviet Union where a majority of Germans troops fought on the eastern front in WWII. 238 pages.
  • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

.At the end of the battle, the Soviet armies had encircled and besieged the 6th Army.^ The soviet union’s army was set up for an invasion not for a defencive battle.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sunday the 31 st of January marks the surrender of the remnants of the German 6th Army to the Soviets at Stalingrad.
  • The Anniversary of Disaster: Stalingrad 67 Years Later « Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ The two Russian forces will meet far Southwest of Stalingrad and encircle the entire German 6th army near Stalingrad and cut its supply lines.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.Some elements of the German 4th Panzer Army also suffered casualties in operations around Stalingrad during the Soviet counter-offensive.^ The historical Battle of Stalingrad (August 1942-February 1943) was a turning point in World War II. The Soviet victory at what is now Volgograd halted the advance of the German army and initiated a series of offensives that would take the Soviets into Germany.
  • 2002 Reviews: Les Pecheurs des perles; Battle of Stalingrad, Counterfeit Secretes, Well, Therac 25, Threepenny Opera - | - All's Well that Ends Well - | - The Scarlet Pimpernel 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC stage-door.org [Source type: General]

^ Three Soviet armies launched the first offensive on 24 August.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Take Kursk, for instance: if you look around during Kursk, there’s virtually no German troops anywhere else.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.German mobility had been a significant factor in the Wehrmacht's earlier victories.^ Stalingrad had not originally been a major factor in German planning and the 4 th Panzer Army could have reached it much earlier.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before Stalingrad, the Soviets had been able to amass their forces in sufficient numbers to achieve victory only around Moscow.^ A linkup could succeed only if Sixth Army pushed from the other side against the Soviets, but this could not be done without shrinking the Stalingrad pocket, which Hitler forbade.

^ During the Russian Civil War he played a prominent role in the Soviet defense of Tsaritsyn (as Stalingrad was then known), from White forces.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German forces had been crushed before in Stalingrad and Kursk.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stalingrad, which had limited military value and had already been stripped of its assets, could have been bypassed and invested by the 6th Army in its drive to the Caucasus with Army Group A. Instead, Hitler chose to sacrifice many of his most experienced troops in vicious street fighting among urban rubble, which favoured the defenders and gave the Soviet Union time to amass and concentrate its forces for its pincer movement.^ The siege of Stalingrad provided sufficient time for the German Army Group A to withdraw from the Caucasus.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time he concentrated the offensive against Stalingrad, the Soviets had reinforced the area.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union had already suffered millions of losses, including most of its prewar military.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some Germans felt Hitler had sacrificed one of his largest and finest armies for prestige.^ Hitler sent General Fedor von Bock's Army Group South east from around Kursk to secure Voronezh, which fell to the Germans on 6 July.

^ One of bloodiest battles ever, it was the German army's greatest defeat .
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ When considering Hitler's responsibility for the decision to supply Sixth Army by air, one should note that he was unable to focus solely on that matter.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.The 6th Army was reconstituted in time for the Battle of Kursk, but was made up mostly of conscripts, and was never the force it had once been.^ The two Russian forces will meet far Southwest of Stalingrad and encircle the entire German 6th army near Stalingrad and cut its supply lines.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ This hyperactive form of defense forced the Germans to repeatedly shift from offense to defense and made the battle of attrition ever more costly.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some key positions in Stalingrad changed hands up to fifteen times during the battle, with terrible bloodshed.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

[21]:386
A significant factor in Germany's failure at Stalingrad was Hitler's pursuit of too many simultaneous objectives. .To the South of Stalingrad, Army Group A was committed to capturing oilfields in the Caucasus and in particular at Baku in Azerbaijan.^ Hitler sent General Fedor von Bock's Army Group South east from around Kursk to secure Voronezh, which fell to the Germans on 6 July.

^ In the local level, General Vasily Chuikov, the deputy commander of the 64th army South of Stalingrad, and an aggressive and determined commander, was called to the regional command post.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ He issued Directive #45 on 23 July, which sent Army Group A south to the Caucasus region, which left the 6 th Army unsupported to advance on to Stalingrad (see Map 1 ).
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These oil fields were the original objective of the 1942 campaign, and were seen as vital to winning the war.^ To summarize developments, Hitler had sent the strongest force available towards an objective that would not necessarily win the war.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hitler’s goal in 1942 was not to capture Stalingrad, but to capture the oil fields in the Caucuses.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Capture of the oilfields may have been achievable if Army Group B were also committed to them rather than to Stalingrad.^ The siege of Stalingrad provided sufficient time for the German Army Group A to withdraw from the Caucasus.
  • The History Place - Top Ten Battles of All Time 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He issued Directive #45 on 23 July, which sent Army Group A south to the Caucasus region, which left the 6 th Army unsupported to advance on to Stalingrad (see Map 1 ).
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Had he chosen to concentrate on Stalingrad and the security of the Don/Donets region, strategically more important than Tunisia , he may have made different choices than the ones that eventually led to the loss of an entire army.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

As a result, Baku was never in serious threat from the Germans. .If Hitler had cancelled the Caucasus campaign, he could have used Army Group A to bolster Army Group B's flanks around Stalingrad and perhaps to aid in fighting within the city.^ Operation BLUE. Leaving the Northern and Central armies to hold their ground, Group army South split into two Groups would advance into the Caucasus, seizing Russia's oil supply and cut the Volga river at Stalingrad.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ In a recent work on Stalingrad , for example, Franz Kurowski repeats many errors and concludes: What had moved Hitler to give this death order to Sixth Army?
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Through the course of the campaign, however, possession of the city somehow came to dominate Hitlers thinking.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Clearly Hitler's ambitions were well beyond German means.[40]
.Besides being a turning point in the war, Stalingrad revealed the discipline and determination of both the German Wehrmacht and the Soviet Red Army.^ Instead, to come to be viewed by many as the turning point in the war, a battle in which the Germans came to be trapped by their own advances, and the point at which a serially successful Nazi military began its decline.
  • Sderot as Stalingrad, Hamas as blind Samson

    - Haaretz - Israel News
    6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: General]

^ The historical Battle of Stalingrad (August 1942-February 1943) was a turning point in World War II. The Soviet victory at what is now Volgograd halted the advance of the German army and initiated a series of offensives that would take the Soviets into Germany.
  • 2002 Reviews: Les Pecheurs des perles; Battle of Stalingrad, Counterfeit Secretes, Well, Therac 25, Threepenny Opera - | - All's Well that Ends Well - | - The Scarlet Pimpernel 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC stage-door.org [Source type: General]

^ The beginning of world war II for russians was at 22st of June of 1941 when germans invaded the western territory of soviet union.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Soviets first defended Stalingrad against a fierce German onslaught.^ This was the first of four German attacks in Stalingrad.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To meet the German thrust toward Stalingrad, on 12 July 1942 the Soviet General Staff had formed the Stalingrad Front.

^ Soviet guards launch a Human Wave attack on beleaguered German defenders at Stalingrad , Autumn 1942.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.So great were Soviet losses that at times, the life expectancy of a newly arrived soldier was less than a day,[2] and the life expectancy of a Soviet officer was three days.^ And the less role of the Soviet Union than role of countries-friends became a general.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 150,000 Axis soldiers, most of them German, had been killed or wounded in the city's approaches or ruins; 108,000 others stumbled into Soviet captivity, 91,000 in the battle's last three days alone.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The average life expectancy of a reinforcement soldier in Stalingrad was as low as 24 hours !!.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

Their sacrifice is immortalized by one of General Rodimtsev's soldiers, about to die, who scratched on the wall of the main railway station – which changed hands 15 times during the battle – “Rodimtsev’s Guardsmen fought and died here for their Motherland.”
.For the heroism of the Soviet defenders of Stalingrad, the city was awarded the title Hero City in 1945. Twenty-four years after the battle, in October 1967,[55] a colossal monument, Mother Motherland, was erected on Mamayev Kurgan, the hill overlooking the city.^ The Battle of Stalingrad, the first large encirclement of a German army in the war, gave the Soviets a psychological lift and the military initiative.

^ Then the attack from 14 October to early November from the north reduced the Soviet hold in Stalingrad to two small bridgeheads.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ West of the oil complex was Stalingrads dominant feature, the Mamayev Kurgan (on German maps Height 102), on the northern edge of the residential sector, which overlooks the Volga River.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The statue forms part of a War memorial complex which includes ruined walls deliberately left the way they were after the battle.^ EVERYONE thinks they had the biggest part in the War (s), I DO commend you for your patriotism, but you just made yourself look like a knuckledrag.
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First of all, allies didn take part in the war til they were threatened by Hitler’s forces.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because no British, Commonwealth, or American forces took part in the battle, they can number none of their own among its many heroes, martyrs, prisoners, and victims.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

.The Grain Silo, as well as Pavlov's House, the apartment building whose defenders eventually held out for two months until they were relieved, can still be visited.^ Russian soldiers everywhere now knew that they were victorious, and their morale boosted and remained high until the end of the war, which was still 2 1/2 years away.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The actors in the other two major roles don't bring as much out in their characters as they could.
  • 2002 Reviews: Les Pecheurs des perles; Battle of Stalingrad, Counterfeit Secretes, Well, Therac 25, Threepenny Opera - | - All's Well that Ends Well - | - The Scarlet Pimpernel 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC stage-door.org [Source type: General]

^ Germany especially has some concerns despite that they are still building a pipeline to get Siberian gas into Central European homes.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even today, one may find bones and rusty metal splinters on Mamayev Kurgan, symbols of both the human suffering during the battle and the successful yet costly resistance.^ The Second World War battle, said to have been the bloodiest in human history, was intended by the Germans to have been a crucial strategic and symbolic victory over their Soviet enemies to the east.
  • Sderot as Stalingrad, Hamas as blind Samson

    - Haaretz - Israel News
    6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: General]

^ Others might suffer from a mental illness and may be desperately seeking any kind of attention, even if it’s negative.
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other side, the German Army showed remarkable discipline after being surrounded.^ At the time, in Germany the propaganda was that Stalingrad was in German hands, but for a tiny part (which was true only temporarily) and the admission that the 6th army was surrounded came much later...
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ This is an qoute from that book showing the problems the Germans had on relying on their Italian and Rumanian allies to protect the 6th Armies flanks at Stalingrad.
  • Stop Dancing! Stalingrad Has Fallen. - Total War Center Forums 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

^ German army High Command Chief of Staff General Franz Halder and other German generals grew more and more alarmed.

.It was the first time that it had operated under adverse conditions on such a scale.^ "For the First Time the Chief of Operations Reveals the Truth."
  • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

.During the latter part of the siege, short of food and clothing, many German soldiers starved or froze to death.^ During World War II the Germans laid seige to the Russian city of Leningrad for 515 days, the longest military siege in modern times.
  • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

^ German soldiers rest during Poland Campaign .

[2] Yet, discipline was maintained until the very end, when resistance no longer served any useful purpose. .Friedrich Paulus obeyed Hitler's orders, against many of Hitler's top generals' counsel and advice, including that of von Manstein, and did not attempt to break out of the city.^ In a recent work on Stalingrad , for example, Franz Kurowski repeats many errors and concludes: What had moved Hitler to give this death order to Sixth Army?
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Hitler was furious, accusing von Paulus and Gring for the tremendous losses, instead of accusing himself.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Hitler sent General Fedor von Bock's Army Group South east from around Kursk to secure Voronezh, which fell to the Germans on 6 July.

.German ammunition, supplies, and food became all too scarce.^ The main effort north of Stalingrad planned to cut the citys main LOC north along the Volga, although German planners knew this would not cut off all supplies.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 6th army quickly ran out of fuel, ammunition, and food, and the German soldiers starved severely.
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

Paulus knew that the airlift had failed and that Stalingrad was lost. .He asked for permission to surrender to save the lives of his troops, but Hitler refused and instead promoted him to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall.^ Even in this hopeless situation, Paulus refused to disobey Hitler and order a surrender.

.No German officer of this rank had ever surrendered, and the implication was clear: if Paulus surrendered, he would shame himself and would become the highest ranking German officer ever to be captured.^ The capture of the city was not considered necessary.” [vii] German planners “expected that the Soviets would again accept decisive battle to defend these regions.” [viii] .
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1943, an attempt was made by the Germans to exchange Jakov for Field Marshal Paulus who was captured after the fall of Stalingrad .
  • The Battle Of Stalingrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC greyfalcon.us [Source type: Original source]

^ France lost 10 cruisers, the majority scuttled in order to prevent their capture by the Germans following the surrender of France in 1940.

.Hitler believed that Paulus would either fight to the last man or commit suicide.^ Stalin refused to allow the evacuation of the civilian population, believing that this would force the defenders, especially local militia forces, to fight more tenaciously.

^ However, the German forces failed to take one crucial element into mind - The Russians were going to fight to the last man to save their city and their homeland.
  • ***White River Paintball Presents: Battle for Stalingrad! October 3rd & 4th -Indiana* - PbNation 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.pbnation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Germans on the other hand committed numerous unforced errors mostly caused by Hitler and or von Paulus.
  • Padresteve's World…Musings of a Passionate Moderate 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC padresteve.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

Choosing to live, Paulus surrendered, commenting that, "I have no intention of shooting myself for that Austrian corporal".

In popular culture

.The extreme conditions of the battle, including the paralyzing Soviet winter that precipitated massive German fatalities due to starvation and freezing, have been immortalized in several films of German, Russian, British and American origin.^ The beginning of world war II for russians was at 22st of June of 1941 when germans invaded the western territory of soviet union.
  • English Russia » Battle For Staliningrad 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If any single battle denied Germany victory, it was Kursk, still six months and several German successes away.

^ The British owe more to the Russians than the Americans for the outcome of WW2.
  • Which Site Has The Stupidest Commenters On The Web? | Cracked.com 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The struggle is also remembered and reflected upon in numerous books, for its significance in thwarting the German invasion, as well as its significance as a landmark of military barbarism and human suffering in which the loss of life was unprecedented.^ Before the offensive began, the German Army had already suffered losses it could not replace.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union had already suffered millions of losses, including most of its prewar military.
  • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Battle of Stalingrad." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 6 May. 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Beevor, Antony (1998). Stalingrad or Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege: 1942–1943 (in the US). New York: Viking, 1998 (hardcover, ISBN 0-670-87095-1); London: Penguin Books, 1999 (paperback, ISBN 0-14-028458-3).
  3. ^ This force grew to 1,600 in early September by withdrawing forces from the Kuban region and Southern Caucasus: Hayward 1998, p195
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Bergström, Christer, (2007), Stalingrad - The Air Battle: 1942 through January 1943, Chevron Publishing Limited ISBN 978-1-85780-276-4
  5. ^ a b c d e f Hayward, Joel S.A. Stopped at Stalingrad: The Luftwaffe and Hitler's Defeat in the East, 1942–1943 (Modern War Studies). University Press of Kansas, 1998 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7006-0876-1); 2001 (paperback, ISBN 0-7006-1146-0).
  6. ^ Bergstrom 2005
  7. ^ Россия и СССР в войнах ХХ века - Потери вооружённых сил, Russia and USSR in wars of the XX century - Losses of armed forces, Moskow, Olma-Press, 2001. in English [1]
  8. ^ Blanning, T. C. W.. The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern Europe. pp. 219. http://books.google.com/books?id=wCh0z7tl3o8C&pg=PP1&dq=#PPA219,M1. 
  9. ^ Roberts, Geoffrey. Stalin's Wars. pp. 154. http://books.google.com/books?id=5GCFUqBRZ-QC&pg=PA154&dq=. 
  10. ^ Shirer (1990), p.932
  11. ^ Shirer (1990), p.864
  12. ^ A.J.P Taylor & Alan Clark 1974, p. 144.
  13. ^ Shirer (1990), p.909
  14. ^ McDonald 1986, p. 94.
  15. ^ Joel Hayward. (2000)Too Little, Too Late: An Analysis of Hitler's Failure in August 1942 to Damage Soviet Oil Production. The Journal of Military History, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 769-794
  16. ^ Shirer (1990), p.915
  17. ^ German High Command (communique) (27 October 1941). "Text of the Day's War Communiques.". New York Times (28 October 1941). http://collections.civilisations.ca/warclip/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=5000808. Retrieved 2009-04-27. 
  18. ^ German High Command (communique) (10 November 1942). "Text of the Day's War Communiques on Fighting in Various Zones.". New York Times (10 November 1942). http://collections.civilisations.ca/warclip/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=5001262. Retrieved 2009-04-27. 
  19. ^ German High Command (communique) (26 August 1942). "Text of the Day's War Communiques on Fighting in Various Zones.". New York Times (26 August 1942). http://collections.civilisations.ca/warclip/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=5001240. Retrieved 2009-04-27. 
  20. ^ German High Command (communique) (12 December 1942). "Text of the Day's War Communiques.". New York Times (12 December 1942). http://collections.civilisations.ca/warclip/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=5001290. Retrieved 2009-04-27. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h Craig, William (1973). Enemy at the Gates: the Battle for Stalingrad. New York: Penguin Books (ISBN 0-14-200000-0 & ISBN 1-56852-368-8).
  22. ^ a b c Pojić, Milan. Hrvatska pukovnija 369. na Istočnom bojištu 1941. - 1943.. Croatian State Archives. Zagreb, 2007.
  23. ^ Hayward 2001, p. 188-189.
  24. ^ Bergström quotes: Soviet Reports on the effects of air raids between 23–26 August 1942. This indicates 955 people were killed and another 1,181 wounded
  25. ^ "Stalingrad 1942". http://stalingrad-info.com/stalingrad1942.htm. Retrieved 31 January 2010. 
  26. ^ TV Novosti. "Crucial WW2 battle remembered". http://www.russiatoday.com/Top_News/2009-02-02/Crucial_WW2_battle_remembered.html. Retrieved 2009-02-19. 
  27. ^ Top WW2 Snipers at the Russian "War is Over" web site. Retrieved 2009-12-05.
  28. ^ World War II Sniper List at SniperCentral.com. Retrieved 2009-12-05.
  29. ^ Golovanov 2004, p. 265.
  30. ^ 8,314 German aircraft were produced from July-December 1942, but this could not keep pace with a three-front aerial war of attrition
  31. ^ Goodwin, p. 404
  32. ^ pp.108–119, Glantz, Soviet Military Deception
  33. ^ pp.209–211, Haupt, Army Group South
  34. ^ Shirer (1990), p.915
  35. ^ Shirer (1990), p.917–918
  36. ^ Maps of the conflict. Leavenworth Papers No. 2 Nomonhan: Japanese-Soviet Tactical Combat, 1939; MAPS. Retrieved 2009-12-05.
  37. ^ a b Shirer (1990), p.926
  38. ^ Manstein (2004)
  39. ^ Shirer p.926 says that "Paulus radioed that they would need a minimum of 750 tons of supplies day flown in," while Craig p.206–207 quotes Zeitzler as pressing Goering about his boast that the Luftwaffe could airlift the needed supplies: "Are you aware ... how many daily sorties the army in Stalingrad will need? ... Seven hundred tons! Every day!"
  40. ^ a b Walsh, Stephen. (2000). Stalingrad 1942-1943 The Infernal Cauldron. London, New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-743-20916-8.
  41. ^ Paoletti, Ciro (2008). A Military History of Italy. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International. p. 177. ISBN 0275985059. http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=Uz8eiwzEMHQC&pg=PA182&dq=Ariete+tanks+fight!#PPA177,M1. Retrieved 2009-12-04. 
  42. ^ Deiml, Michael (1999). Meine Stalingradeinsätze (My Stalingrad Sorties). Einsätze des Bordmechanikers Gefr. Michael Deiml (Sorties of Aviation Mechanic Private Michael Deiml). Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  43. ^ MacDonald 1986, p. 98.
  44. ^ Clark 1995, p. 283.
  45. ^ Pusca, Dragos; Nitu, Victor. The Battle of Stalingrad — 1942 Romanian Armed Forces in the Second World War (worldwar2.ro). Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  46. ^ Victor, George (2000). Hitler: Pathology of Evil. Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc. p. 208. ISBN 1574882287. http://books.google.com/books?id=JnB7cM1zUG4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=george+victor. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  47. ^ a b c Sandlin, Lee (1997). "Losing the War". Originally published in Chicago Reader, March 7 and 14, 1997. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  48. ^ Google Video: (in Finnish; interviews in German & Russian, with Finnish subtitles) (Adobe Flash) Stalingrad — OSA III — Stalingradin taistelu päättyy (Stalingrad, Part 3: Battle of Stalingrad ends). [Television documentary. German original: "Stalingrad" Episode 3: "Der Untergang", 53 min, Sebastian Dehnhardt, Manfred Oldenburg (directors) IMDB]. broadview.tv GmbH, Germany 2003. http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=8717261858113724758. Retrieved 2007-07-16. 
  49. ^ Rayfield 2004, p.396.
  50. ^ J W. Baird, 1969, pp. 196.
  51. ^ Jorg Bernig, 1997, pp. 36
  52. ^ Bloodiest Battle in History Remembered. Russia Today, 2 February 2008. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  53. ^ a b Сталинградская битва (Russian). Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  54. ^ Igor' Pykhalov, "Pravda o zagraditel'nykh otriadakh". Spetsnaz Rossii 6 (93) June 2004
  55. ^ Historical Memorial Complex "To the Heroes of the Stalingrad Battle" at Mamayev Hill. Official web site. Retrieved 2008-07-17.

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    • Urban Operations - An Historical Casebook 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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      - Haaretz - Israel News
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    re-edited and added-to, Moscow, Science publishing. Russian: Самсонов А.М. Сталинградская битва, 4-е изд., испр. и доп.— М.: Наука, 1989. (in Russian)
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  • Snyder, David R. (2005).^ Rothbart, David A SOLDIER'S JOURNAL. With the 22nd Infantry Regiment in WWII Simon and Schuster 2003 .
    • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Ambrose, Stephen E. Jr. CITIZEN SOLDIERS: The U.S. Army from the Normandy Beaches to Bulge to the Surrender of Germany, June 7, 1944-May 7, 1945 Simon & Schuster 1997 .
    • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich.
    • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

    Review in The Journal of Military History 69 (1), 265–266.
  • Taylor, A.J.P. and Mayer, S.L., eds. .(1974) A History Of World War Two.^ The Second World War battle, said to have been the bloodiest in human history, was intended by the Germans to have been a crucial strategic and symbolic victory over their Soviet enemies to the east.
    • Sderot as Stalingrad, Hamas as blind Samson

      - Haaretz - Israel News
      6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Navigation links here: World War One Military Books World War Two Military Books Korea, Vietnam and Cold War Military Books Book Ordering Information ORDER FORM E-MAIL HERE .
    • TORPEDO JUNCTION Military Books - World War Two 1 2 WW I II Books 6 February 2010 10:26 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

    ^ ABC-CLIO's Encyclopedia of World War II: A Political, Social, and Military History .

    London: Octopus Books. ISBN 0-70640-399-1.

External links

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Simple English

Battle of Stalingrad
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II
File:German pows stalingrad
Soviet soldiers lead German POWs past the famous Stalingrad Grain Silo in February 1943.
Date 17 July 1942February 2 1943 [1]
Location Stalingrad, USSR
Result Decisive Soviet victory
Commanders
Adolf Hitler
Friedrich Paulus
Erich von Manstein
Wolfram von Richthofen
Petre Dumitrescu
Constantin Constantinescu
File:Flag of Italy (1861-1946) Italo Gariboldi
Gusztáv Vitéz Jány
Josef Stalin
Vasily Chuikov
Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy
Georgiy Zhukov
Semyon Timoshenko
Konstantin Rokossovskiy
Rodion Malinovskiy
Andrei Yeremenko
Strength
Army Group B:
German Sixth Army
German Fourth Panzer Army
Romanian Third Army
Romanian Fourth Army
Italian Eighth Army
Hungarian Second Army

Initial: 270,000 men
3,000 artillery
500 tanks
600 aircraft, 1,600 by mid-September (Luftflotte 4)[2][3]

At the time of the Soviet counter-attack:
1,011,000 men
10,250 artillery
675 tanks
732 (402 operational) aircraft[4][5]
Stalingrad Front
Southwestern Front
Don Front
Soviet 62nd Army

Initial: 187,000 men
2200 artillery
400 tanks
300 aircraft[6]

At the time of the Soviet counter-attack: 1,103,000 men
15,501 artillery
1463 tanks
1,115[7] aircraft
Casualties
740,000 killed or wounded
110,000 captured
Aircraft: 900 (including 274 Transports and 165 Bombers used as Transports)[8]
over 750,000 killed, wounded or captured,
40,000+ civilian dead
Aircraft: 2,846 (28 June to 19 November[9][10], approx. 300 (20 November - 31 December), 942 (1 January - 4 February)[11]. Total: 4,088

The Battle of Stalingrad is a battle fought during the Second World War between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. They were fighting for control of the city of Stalingrad. The battle was fought between 17 July 1942 and 2 February 1943. It was one of the most important battles of the Second World War.

Stalingrad, now Volgograd, was a city on the Volga River. It was an important industrial city. If the Germans had won the battle then they would also have been able to control the Caucasus area of Russia which had a lot of oil. Hitler also wanted to capture Stalingrad because it was named after Josef Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union.

In June 1942, Adolf Hitler launched Operation Blue, which was an offensive attack in southern Russia. By the end of July the German army had reached Stalingrad and the German air force, the Luftwaffe, started bombing the city. During the Summer and Autumn of 1942, the Germans dropped 1,000 tonnes of bombs on Stalingrad. A bombing raid on 23 August 1942 caused a huge fire. The bombing turned the city into ruins. However, the rubble gave the Russians hiding places from which they could attack the Germans, using snipers.

Hitler and Stalin sent in large numbers of soldiers. They ordered that there was to be no retreat.

1.6 million casualties were reported in battle in total, with more Russian deaths, but it was a good morale victory for the Russians, because they had defeated so many Germans.

Stalingrad was known as Tsaritsyn until 1925 and is Volgograd since 1961.

References

  1. Glantz
  2. This force grew to 1,600 in early September by withdrawing forces from the Kuban region and Southern Caucasus: Hayward, p195
  3. Bergström 2007, p.72.
  4. J. S. A Hayward 1998, p. 225.
  5. Bergstrom 2005, p. 87.
  6. Bergström 2007, p. 72.
  7. J. S. A Hayward 1998, p. 224.
  8. Bergstom 2007, p. 122-123.
  9. Figures of losses of 28 June- 19 November were for the Don-Stalingrad area)
  10. Bergstrom 2005, p. 86.
  11. Bergström 2005, p. 126.

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Citable sentences

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