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Battle of Thermopylae
Part of the Greco-Persian Wars
.Thermopylae ancient coastline large.jpg
The site of the battle today.
^ The image above is the site of the Battle of Cynoscephalae today.
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The site of the battle today.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See what the Battle of Thermopylae site looks like today .
  • Frank Miller 300 Movie vs. 300 Spartans History - Battle of Thermopylae 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.chasingthefrog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


The road to the right is built on reclaimed land and approximates the 480BC shoreline.
Date August 7[1] or September 8–10,[2] 480 BC
Location Thermopylae, Greece
Result Persian victory.
Territorial
changes
Persians gain control of .Boeotia and march for Athens.^ Boeotia and march for Athens.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A rapid march through Phocis and Boeotia brought Xerxes to Athens, soon after the Athenians, knowing that resistance would be vain, had evacuated it.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

Belligerents
Greek city-states Persian Empire
Commanders
Leonidas I  ,
Demophilus 
Xerxes I of Persia,
Mardonius,
Hydarnes
Strength
Total
5,200+ (Herodotus)
7,400+ (Diodorus)
11,200 (Pausanias)
Total
1,800,000 (Herodotus)[3]
~800,000 (Ctesias)[4]
70,000–250,000 (modern estimates)a[›]
Casualties and losses
1,000 to 4,000 (Herodotus)[5] ~20,000 (Herodotus)[6]
.The Battle of Thermopylae (pronounced /θərˈmɒpɨliː/, thər-MOP-i-lee; Greek: Θερμοπύλαι) was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.^ Xerxes, launched a second invasion.
  • Ancient Society of Creative Anachronism - Spartans 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spartanwarband.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Greek city-states .
  • Thermopylae 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ An alliance of Greek City States fought the Persian Imperial Army at the pass of Thermopylae in central Greece.
  • Iran Politics Club: 300 Spartans, The Real Story - Historically Accurate Review - Ahreeman X 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It took place simultaneously with the naval battle at Artemisium, in August or September 480 BC, at the pass of Thermopylae ('The Hot Gates').^ This battle took place in 490 BC at Marathon in Attica.
  • Persian Empire Presentation 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Battle at the pass of Thermopylae .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The battle of Thermopylae 480 BC .
  • History of Ancient Athens - The Persian Wars 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sikyon.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, which had been ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon.^ Athenians, who looked upon the victory of Marathon as the end .
  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, THUCYDIDES 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, which had been ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon.
  • Leonidas of Sparta 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ For, after sacking Athens, Xerxes is defeated in two decisive battles: Salamis, in which the Athenian navy destroys the Persian fleet, deprives Xerxes of much needed supplies; Plataea, in which the combined armies of Sparta and other allies defeats the Persian army.
  • Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae (Paperback) by Steven Pressfield - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

.Xerxes had amassed a huge army and navy, and set out to conquer all of Greece.^ Xerxes army and navy .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Xerxes has assembled his huge army and fleet, and is on the march for Greece.
  • Powell's Books - Review-a-Day - Thermopylae: The Battle That Changed the World by Paul Cartledge, reviewed by New York Review of Books 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.powells.com [Source type: General]

^ Xerxes had amassed a huge army and navy, and set out to conquer all of Greece.
  • Leonidas of Sparta 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The Athenian general Themistocles had proposed that the Allied Greeks block the advance of the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae, and simultaneously block the Persian navy at the Straits of Artemisium.^ Meanwhile the Athenians gather the Greek navy nearby at Artemisium .
  • EDSITEment LaunchPad! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Artemesium : camp of the Greek navy in the Strait of Artemesium.

^ Persian army advanced.
  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, THUCYDIDES 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.An Allied force of approximately 7,000 men thus marched north to block the pass in the summer of 480 BC. The Persian army, alleged by the ancient sources to have numbered in the millions, arrived at the pass in late August or early September.^ An Allied force of approximately 7,000 men thus marched north to block the pass in the summer of 480 BC. The Persian army, alleged by the ancient sources to have numbered in the millions, arrived at the pass in late August or early September.
  • Leonidas of Sparta 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Frank Miller Has A Plot For The 300 Prequel - CB Movie Discussion Forum & Message Board 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cinemablend.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Persian army, which consisted of three millions of men: the .
  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, THUCYDIDES 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ March of the army from Lydia north to Mt.
  • Herodotus: Book Seven 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC academic.reed.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Vastly outnumbered, the Greeks held off the Persians for seven days in total (including three of battle), before the rear-guard was annihilated in one of history's most famous last stands.^ The Battle of Rorke's Drift was not a "last stand."
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - The 300 in History: 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fiction: Persians outnumbered Greeks by 3:1 at Battle of Platea.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vastly outnumbered, the Greeks delayed the enemy in one of the most famous last stands of history.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

.During two full days of battle, the small force led by King Leonidas I of Sparta blocked the only road by which the massive Persian army could pass.^ Leonidas, one of the two kings of Sparta.
  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, THUCYDIDES 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Leonidas, king of Sparta, had one great battle, but it was a whopper!
  • Leonidas of Sparta 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ A small force led by King Leonidas of Sparta blocked the only road through which the massive army of Xerxes I of Persia (Xerxes the Great) could pass.
  • The Big Apple: “Thermopylae had her messenger of defeat, but the Alamo had none” 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.barrypopik.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Top 10 Battle Scenes in Movies - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the second day of battle, a local resident named Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks by revealing a small path that led behind the Greek lines.^ After three days of battle, a hunch back recluse Spartan named Ephialtes betrays the Greeks, by revealing a mountain path that led behind the Greek lines.
  • 300 - Human Science - a Wikia wiki 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC humanscience.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the thrid day Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks revealing a mountain path which led behind the Greek lines.
  • Iran Politics Club: 300 Spartans, The Real Story - Historically Accurate Review - Ahreeman X 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A local resident named Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks, revealing a mountain path that led behind the Greek lines.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

.Aware that his force was being outflanked, Leonidas dismissed the bulk of the Greek army, and remained to guard the rear with 300 Spartans, 700 Thespians, 400 Thebans and perhaps a few hundred others, the vast majority of whom were killed.^ Dismissing the rest of the army, King Leonidas stayed behind with 300 Spartans and 700 Thespian volunteers.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]
  • The Big Apple: “Thermopylae had her messenger of defeat, but the Alamo had none” 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.barrypopik.com [Source type: Original source]
  • George Papayiannis 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sematopia.com [Source type: General]

^ Dismissing the rest of the army, King Leonidas stayed behind with 300 Spartans.
  • 300 - Human Science - a Wikia wiki 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC humanscience.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In dismissing the other Greeks, Leonidas retained with him a body of Thebans.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.After this engagement, the Allied navy at Artemisium received news of the defeat at Thermopylae.^ After this engagement, the Allied navy at Artemisium received news of the defeat at Thermopylae.
  • Leonidas of Sparta 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Since their strategy required both Thermopylae and Artemisium to be held, and given their losses, the Allied navy decided to withdraw to Salamis.
  • Leonidas of Sparta 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The defeat at Thermopylae trumped the previous victory at Marathon for the Greeks, excepting always the Athenians and their doughty Plataian allies who fought there.
  • Michigan War Studies Review - book reviews, literature surveys, essays, and commentary 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.michiganwarstudiesreview.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since their strategy required both Thermopylae and Artemisium to be held, and given their losses, the Allied navy decided to withdraw to Salamis.^ After this engagement, the Allied navy at Artemisium received news of the defeat at Thermopylae.
  • Leonidas of Sparta 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Since their strategy required both Thermopylae and Artemisium to be held, and given their losses, the Allied navy decided to withdraw to Salamis.
  • Leonidas of Sparta 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus, Xerxes won at Thermopylae and forced the Greeks to withdraw from Artemisium.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Persians overran Boeotia and then captured the now-evacuated Athens.^ In 490 B.C. a Persian force lead by Darius captured the island enroute to Athens.
  • Marathon's Story... Facts and puzzling things about 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC marathon.bungie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A rapid march through Phocis and Boeotia brought Xerxes to Athens, soon after the Athenians, knowing that resistance would be vain, had evacuated it.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Seeing that his job was done and that they could not possibly defeat the Persian navy they headed back to Athens and evacuated the city.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

.However, seeking a decisive victory over the Persian fleet, the Allied Greek fleet attacked and defeated the invaders at the Battle of Salamis in late 480 BC. Fearing to be trapped in Europe, Xerxes withdrew with much of his army to Asia, leaving Mardonius to complete the conquest of Greece.^ In September the Greeks defeated the Persians at the naval Battle of Salamis, which led to the rapid retreat of Xerxes.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]
  • Thermopylae 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mlahanas.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Xerxes has assembled his huge army and fleet, and is on the march for Greece.
  • Powell's Books - Review-a-Day - Thermopylae: The Battle That Changed the World by Paul Cartledge, reviewed by New York Review of Books 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.powells.com [Source type: General]

^ The result of Xerxes' attack was a decisive defeat for the Persians.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The following year, however, saw an Allied army decisively defeat the Persians at the Battle of Plataea, thereby ending the Persian invasion.^ The Persian invasion would end the following year.
  • Ancient Society of Creative Anachronism - Spartans 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spartanwarband.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following year, however, saw an Allied army decisively defeat the Persians at the Battle of Plataea, thereby ending the Persian invasion.
  • Leonidas of Sparta 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The following year, however, saw an Allied army decisively defeat the Persians at the Battle of Plataea , thereby ending the Persian invasion.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both ancient and modern writers have used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the power of a patriotic army of freemen defending native soil.^ The Wikipedia accounting of the Thermopylae battle states: "Both ancient and modern writers have used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the power of a patriotic army of freemen defending native soil."
  • Bottleneck at Thermopylae 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.summitlake.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both ancient and modern writers have used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the power of a patriotic army of freemen defending native soil.
  • Leonidas of Sparta 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, ancient writers first used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the superior power of a patriotic army of free men defending native soil.
  • 300 - Human Science - a Wikia wiki 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC humanscience.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The performance of the defenders at the battle of Thermopylae is also used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds.^ The performance of the defenders at the battle of Thermopylae is often used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment and good use of terrain to maximise an army's potential, as well as a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The performance of the defenders at the battle of Thermopylae is also used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds.
  • Leonidas of Sparta 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The performance of the defenders at the battle of Thermopylae is often used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers, and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds.
  • 300 - Human Science - a Wikia wiki 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC humanscience.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Sources

.The main source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus.^ Main article: Herodotus The main primary source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That led to a translation of an ancient Greek work, “The Persian Wars” by Herodotus.
  • San Marcos Record, San Marcos, TX - Answers To Go - Nov. 1, 2009 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sanmarcosrecord.com [Source type: General]

^ Greek/Persian wars.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Last Stand of the 300: The Legendary Battle at Thermopylae 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Herodotus, who has been called the 'Father of History',[7] was born in 484 BC in Halicarnassus, Asia Minor (then under Persian overlordship).^ Herodotus, who has been called the 'Father of History', [7] was born in 484 BC in Halicarnassus, Asia Minor (then under Persian overlordship).
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greek spies who had travelled to Asia to watch the Persian army had said that it was millions strong, and that the entire continent was emptying.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a12889146 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Greek historian Herodotus, who lived through and wrote shortly after the Persian Wars (as the Greeks came to call them), claimed that the Persian host numbered at 1 million fighting men.
  • Ancient Society of Creative Anachronism - Spartans 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spartanwarband.com [Source type: Original source]

.He wrote his 'Enquiries' (Greek—Historia; English—(The) Histories) around 440–420 BC, trying to trace the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars, which would still have been relatively recent history (the wars finally ending in 450 BC).^ Trojan War 13th BC. Greco - Persian wars 500-448 BC .
  • Products of the Grenada Studio (Grenada Figures) - Historical Miniature Gallery, St. Petersburg 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC grenada.spb.ru [Source type: Academic]

^ The Greek-Persian Wars, 499-448 BC .
  • http://homepage.ntlworld.com/neil.shuck/artwss.html 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC homepage.ntlworld.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He wrote his "Enquiries" (Greek – Historia ; English – (The) Histories ) in around 440-430 BC, trying to trace the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars, which would still have been relatively recent history (the wars finally ending in 449 BC).
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .Herodotus's approach was entirely novel.^ Herodotus's approach was entirely novel, and at least in Western society, he does seem to have invented 'history' as we know it.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He does seem to have invented history as we know it.^ Herodotus's approach was entirely novel, and at least in Western society, he does seem to have invented 'history' as we know it.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The book is based on the Battle of Thermopylae, and though I do not know how true to history the graphic novel is, it does make a gripping story.
  • Amazon.ca: Customer Reviews: 300 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.ca [Source type: General]

[8] .As Holland has it: "For the first time, a chronicler set himself to trace the origins of a conflict not to a past so remote so as to be utterly fabulous, nor to the whims and wishes of some god, nor to a people's claim to manifest destiny, but rather explanations he could verify personally."^ As Holland has it: "For the first time, a chronicler set himself to trace the origins of a conflict not to a past so remote so as to be utterly fabulous, nor to the whims and wishes of some god, nor to a people's claim to manifest destiny, but rather explanations he could verify personally."
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the people of Pylos voted him some unusually high honours, he wrote in reply that time increases modest honours, but obliterates those that are extravagant.
  • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It even allows for some historical explanations after the fact – even after Xeo dies (spoiler alert, lots of people die), there is a historian that finishes the story for us.
  • Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae (Paperback) by Steven Pressfield - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

[8]
.Some subsequent ancient historians criticised Herodotus, starting with Thucydides.^ Many subsequent ancient historians, despite following in his footsteps, derided Herodotus, starting with Thucydides .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greco-Roman and particularly Greek Historians such as Herodot (Herodotus), Thucydides, Ctesias, Plutarch, Ephorus, and Diodorus claim many lies.
  • Iran Politics Club: 300 Spartans, The Real Story - Historically Accurate Review - Ahreeman X 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Become familiar with the version of the story told by the ancient historian Herodotus, the father of history.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9][10] .Nevertheless, Thucydides chose to begin his history where Herodotus left off (at the Siege of Sestos); Finley thought this implied "that there was no need to go over that ground again".[10] Plutarch criticised Herodotus in his essay "On The Malignity of Herodotus", describing Herodotus as "Philobarbaros" (barbarian-lover), for not being pro-Greek enough, which suggests that Herodotus might actually have done a reasonable job of being even-handed.^ This actually suggests that Herodotus might have done a reasonable job of being even-handed.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plutarch criticised Herodotus in his essay "On The Malignity of Herodotus", describing Herodotus as " Philobarbaros " (barbarian-lover), for not being pro-Greek enough.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless Thucydides chose to begin his history where Herodotus left off (at the Siege of Sestos ), and must therefore have felt that Herodotus had done a reasonable job of summarising the preceding history.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .A negative view of Herodotus was passed on to Renaissance Europe, though he remained well read.^ A negative view of Herodotus was passed on Renaissance Europe, though he remained well read.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You might enjoy reading Herodotus' account of the battle (below) as well.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is also a link from the map as well as one from the Herodotus reading to an interactive reconstruction of the bridges across the Hellespont built by Xerxes' engineers.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, since the 19th century his reputation has been dramatically rehabilitated by archaeological finds which have repeatedly confirmed his version of events.^ However, since the 19th century his reputation has been dramatically rehabilitated by archaeological finds which have repeatedly confirmed his version of events.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .The prevailing modern view is that Herodotus generally did a remarkable job in his Historia, but that some of his specific details (particularly troop numbers and dates) should be viewed with skepticism.^ The prevailing modern view is perhaps that Herodotus generally did a remarkable job in his Historia , but that some of his specific details (particularly troop numbers and dates) should be viewed with skepticism.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This number needs to be nearly doubled in order to account for support troops and thus Herodotus reports that the whole force numbered 5,283,220 men, a figure which has been rejected by modern historians.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Archaeological evidence, such as the Serpent Column , also supports some of Herodotus's specific claims.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Nevertheless, there are still some historians who believe Herodotus made up much of his story.^ However, there are still some historians who believe Herodotus made up much of his story.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The time - 480 B.C.: There's no disputing the battle took place in 480 B.C. Some historians believe it was August, though many, citing lunar cycles, put it in mid-September.
  • Directing "300" a long dream come true - The Denver Post 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.denverpost.com [Source type: General]

^ The Greek historian Herodotus, who lived through and wrote shortly after the Persian Wars (as the Greeks came to call them), claimed that the Persian host numbered at 1 million fighting men.
  • Ancient Society of Creative Anachronism - Spartans 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spartanwarband.com [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.The Sicilian historian Diodorus Siculus, writing in the 1st century BC in his Bibliotheca Historica, also provides an account of the Greco-Persian wars, partially derived from the earlier Greek historian Ephorus.^ The Sicilian historian Diodorus Siculus , writing in the 1st century BC in his Bibliotheca Historica , also provides an account of the Greco-Persian wars, partially derived from the earlier Greek historian Ephorus .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Herodotus The main primary source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trojan War 13th BC. Greco - Persian wars 500-448 BC .
  • Products of the Grenada Studio (Grenada Figures) - Historical Miniature Gallery, St. Petersburg 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC grenada.spb.ru [Source type: Academic]

.This account is fairly consistent with Herodotus's.^ This account is fairly consistent with Herodotus's.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .The Greco-Persian wars are also described in less detail by a number of other ancient historians including Plutarch, Ctesias of Cnidus, and are referred to by other authors, such as the playwright Aeschylus.^ The Greco-Persian wars are also described in less detail by a number of other ancient historians including Plutarch, Ctesias of Cnidus , and are alluded by other authors, such as the playwright Aeschylus .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sicilian historian Diodorus Siculus , writing in the 1st century BC in his Bibliotheca Historica , also provides an account of the Greco-Persian wars, partially derived from the earlier Greek historian Ephorus .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leonidas took with him the 300 men of the royal bodyguard, the Hippeis , and a larger number of support troops drawn from other parts of Lacedaemon (including helots ).
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Archaeological evidence, such as the Serpent Column, also supports some of Herodotus's specific claims.^ Archaeological evidence, such as the Serpent Column , also supports some of Herodotus's specific claims.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greco-Roman and particularly Greek Historians such as Herodot (Herodotus), Thucydides, Ctesias, Plutarch, Ephorus, and Diodorus claim many lies.
  • Iran Politics Club: 300 Spartans, The Real Story - Historically Accurate Review - Ahreeman X 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Herodotus claimed that there were, in total, 2.5 million military personnel, accompanied by an equivalent number of support personnel.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]

Background

.The Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria had supported the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt against the Persian Empire of Darius I in 499-494 BC. The Persian Empire was still relatively young, and prone to revolts amongst its subject peoples.^ Greek city-states .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Growth of Greek City-States  17a .

^ The Ionic revolt 499 - 494 BC .
  • History of Ancient Athens - The Persian Wars 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sikyon.com [Source type: Original source]

[16][17] .Moreover, Darius was an usurper, and had spent considerable time extinguishing revolts against his rule.^ The Persian Empire was enormous, and one portion or another was regularly in revolt, so it was some time before Darius was able to turn his attention to Asia Minor.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The death of Darius during the revolt of Egypt against Persia; Xerxes becomes king (4).
  • Herodotus: Book Seven 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC academic.reed.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway, the use of an Ionian Greek would be easier to believe, because by the time of the first meeting at Rhodes, the great Ionian revolt against benign Persian rule, which started the whole cycle of Greco-Persian wars, was then 9 years in the past.
  • The Emperor Has no Clothes - Steven Pressfield - Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae - Epinions.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.epinions.com [Source type: General]

[16] .The Ionian revolt threatened the integrity of his empire, and Darius thus vowed to punish those involved (especially those not already part of the empire).^ The Ionian revolt threatened the integrity of his empire, and Darius thus vowed to punish those involved (especially those not already part of the empire).
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Persian Empire was enormous, and one portion or another was regularly in revolt, so it was some time before Darius was able to turn his attention to Asia Minor.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius did not hold the same tolerance for other cultures, especially those of Greece.

[18][19] .Darius also saw the opportunity to expand his empire into the fractious world of Ancient Greece.^ Darius also saw the opportunity to expand his empire into the fractious world of Ancient Greece.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In ancient times it was used as an entrance into Greece from the north.
  • Thermopylae: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This book in my opinion is a rare one as it manages to transport you into the mind and soul of ancient greece.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[19] .A preliminary expedition under Mardonius in 492 BC, to secure the land approaches to Greece, re-conquered Thrace, and forced Macedon to become a client kingdom of Persia.^ A preliminary expedition under Mardonius in 492 BC, to secure the land approaches to Greece, re-conquered Thrace , and forced Macedon to become a client kingdom of Persia.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mardonius was anxious to retrieve his former failure, and expected, if Greece were conquered, that the rich prize would become his own satrapy.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ And after he had become master of the passes by means of his land forces, he resolved to make trial of contest at sea.
  • LacusCurtius • Diodorus Siculus — Book XI Chapters 1‑19 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[20]
.In 491 BC, Darius sent emissaries to all the Greek city-states, asking for a gift of 'earth and water' in token of their submission to him.^ Greek city-states .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 491 BC, Darius sent emissaries to all the Greek city-states, asking for a gift of 'earth and water' in token of their submission to him.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Persians wanted all of the Greek cities to give them earth and water as a symbol of subjugation.
  • The 300 movie is a gloriously camp video game | Film | guardian.co.uk 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

[21] .Having had a demonstration of his power the previous year, the majority of Greek cities duly obliged.^ Having had a demonstration of his power the previous year, the majority of Greek cities duly obliged.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And--looking at the longterm picture--having a navy would give Athens much more power over other Greek city-states who weren't so up-and-coming.
  • AO Plutarch Themistocles AmblesideOnline.org 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amblesideonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The other chief Greek power was Sparta-"the shining city by the reedy banks of Eurotas"-in the south.
  • Sparta Pages: Thermopylae, the Alamo of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC uts.cc.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In Athens, however, the ambassadors were put on trial and then executed by throwing them in a pit; in Sparta, they were simply thrown down a well.^ In Athens, however, the ambassadors were put on trial and then executed; in Sparta, they were simply thrown down a well.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the rebellion was put down, the Persians attempted to punish Athens and European Greece for meddling in the rebellion.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 5th century Sparta and Athens were reluctant allies against the Persians, but after the foreign threat was over, they soon became rivals.

[21][22] .This meant that Sparta was also effectively at war with Persia.^ This meant that Sparta was also effectively at war with Persia.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They won only one war; Peloponnesian War, just because after serial of defeats against Athenians, Persia significantly helped Sparta with ships and supplies.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, during Peloponnesian war, even Sparta allied Persia!
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.Darius thus put together an amphibious task force under Datis and Artaphernes in 490 BC, which attacked Naxos, before receiving the submission of the other Cycladic Islands.^ In 490 BC, the Persians attacked Athens.
  • Persian Empire Presentation 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Darius thus put together an amphibious task force under Datis and Artaphernes in 490 BC, which attacked Naxos , before receiving the submission of the other Cycladic Islands .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marathon Greek Historians claim that at Marathon (Darius' Era) on 490 BC, over 6,400 Persians died for the loss of approximately 192 Greeks-Athenians!
  • Iran Politics Club: 300 Spartans, The Real Story - Historically Accurate Review - Ahreeman X 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The task force then moved on Eretria, which it besieged and destroyed.^ The task force then moved on Eretria, which it besieged and destroyed.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Finally, it moved to attack Athens, landing at the bay of Marathon, where it was met by a heavily outnumbered Athenian army.^ The Persians landed their army on the plain of Marathon.

^ Persian army then landed at Marathon.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And finally, another point that I haven’t brought in is that part of the Athenian calculation was based on their cynical, but accurate assessment of their allies, that the Peloponnesians and the Spartans would never be willing to risk their army in central Greece to defend Athens.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

.At the ensuing Battle of Marathon, the Athenians won a remarkable victory, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Persian army to Asia.^ Persian army then landed at Marathon.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At the ensuing Battle of Marathon , the Athenians won a remarkable victory, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Persian army to Asia.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Athenians had won at Marathon, but they certainly had not destroyed the Persian army, and they knew it.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

[24]
A map showing the Greek world at the time of the battle
.Darius therefore began raising a huge new army with which he meant to completely subjugate Greece; however, in 486 BC, his Egyptian subjects revolted, indefinitely postponing any Greek expedition.^ A map showing the Greek world at the time of the battle Darius therefore began raising a huge new army with which he meant to completely subjugate Greece; however, in 486 BC, his Egyptian subjects revolted, indefinitely postponing any Greek expedition.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Darius then died whilst preparing to march on Egypt, and the throne of Persia passed to his son Xerxes I. [25] Xerxes crushed the Egyptian revolt, and very quickly re-started the preparations for the invasion of Greece.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, seeking a decisive victory over the Allied fleet, the Persians were defeated at the Battle of Salamis in late 480 BC. Fearing to be trapped in Europe, Xerxes withdrew with much of his army to Asia, leaving Mardonius to complete the conquest of Greece.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .Darius then died whilst preparing to march on Egypt, and the throne of Persia passed to his son Xerxes I.[25] Xerxes crushed the Egyptian revolt, and very quickly re-started the preparations for the invasion of Greece.^ Xerxes starts to march .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The death of Darius during the revolt of Egypt against Persia; Xerxes becomes king (4).
  • Herodotus: Book Seven 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC academic.reed.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By this time, Darius' son Xerxes ruled.
  • Sparta Pages: Thermopylae, the Alamo of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC uts.cc.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

[26] .Since this was to be a full scale invasion, it required long-term planning, stock-piling and conscription.^ Since this was to be a full scale invasion, it required long-term planning, stock-piling and conscription.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ India would then stretch before them, and their long-term plan was to move westwards to Calcutta - relying on political unrest in India to pave the way for their advance into the Delhi.
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

[26] .Xerxes decided that the Hellespont would be bridged to allow his army to cross to Europe, and that a canal should be dug across the isthmus of Mount Athos (rounding which headland, a Persian fleet had been destroyed in 492 BC).^ On the crossing of Xerxes into Europe (chaps.
  • LacusCurtius • Diodorus Siculus — Book XI Chapters 1‑19 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Xerxes' army crosses the Hellespont .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Xerxes decided that the Hellespont would be bridged to allow his army to cross to Europe, and that a canal should be dug across the isthmus of Mount Athos (rounding which headland, a Persian fleet had been destroyed in 492 BC).
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .These were both feats of exceptional ambition, which would have been beyond any contemporary state.^ These were both feats of exceptional ambition, which would have been beyond any contemporary state.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .By early 480 BC, the preparations were complete, and the army which Xerxes had mustered at Sardis marched towards Europe, crossing the Hellespont on two pontoon bridges.^ On the crossing of Xerxes into Europe (chaps.
  • LacusCurtius • Diodorus Siculus — Book XI Chapters 1‑19 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Xerxes' army crosses the Hellespont .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman pontoon bridge, similiar to the one Xerxes used to cross the Hellespont .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[28]
.The Athenians had also been preparing for war with the Persians since the mid-480s BC, and in 482 BC the decision was taken, under the guidance of the Athenian politician Themistocles, to build a massive fleet of triremes that would be necessary for the Greeks to fight the Persians.^ Greek and Persian fighting, from a Greek vase .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The Athenians had also been preparing for war with the Persians since the mid-480s BC, and in 482 BC the decision was taken, under the guidance of the Athenian politician Themistocles , to build a massive fleet of triremes that would be necessary for the Greeks to fight the Persians.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greek-Persian Wars, 499-448 BC .
  • http://homepage.ntlworld.com/neil.shuck/artwss.html 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC homepage.ntlworld.com [Source type: Academic]

[29] .However, the Athenians did not have the manpower to fight on land and sea; and therefore combating the Persians would require an alliance of Greek city states.^ Greek city-states .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Growth of Greek City-States  17a .

^ However, the Athenians did not have the manpower to fight on land and sea; and therefore combatting the Persians would require an alliance of Greek city states.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 481 BC, Xerxes sent ambassadors around Greece asking for earth and water, but making the very deliberate omission of Athens and Sparta.^ In 481 BC, Xerxes sent ambassadors around Greece asking for earth and water, but making the very deliberate omission of Athens and Sparta.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the expedition to Greece had got under way, Xerxes sent messengers to all the states offering blandishments if they would submit and asking earth and water from their soil as a token of submission.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ In 480 BC, led by the Persian king Xerxes, son of Darius, the Persians arrived on the border of Thessaly and Greece with an invading force totalling over 2 million.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[30] .Support thus began to coalesce around these two leading states.^ Support thus began to coalesce around these two leading states.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Xerxes, who witnessed all these things from among the group of officers around him upon the eminence, was kept continually in a state of excitement and irritation.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.A congress of city states met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 BC,[31] and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed.^ Greek city-states .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A congress met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 BC, and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ A congress of city states met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 BC, [31] and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It had the power to send envoys asking for assistance and to dispatch troops from the member states to defensive points after joint consultation.^ It had the power to send envoys asking for assistance and to dispatch troops from the member states to defensive points after joint consultation.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ These p127 commanders dispatched ambassadors to the states and asked them to send soldiers to join in the common defence of the passes; for they eagerly desired that all the Greek states should each have a share in the defence and make common cause in the war against the Persians.
  • LacusCurtius • Diodorus Siculus — Book XI Chapters 1‑19 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This was remarkable for the disjointed Greek world, especially since many of the city-states in attendance were still technically at war with each other.^ Greek city-states .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Growth of Greek City-States  17a .

^ This was remarkable for the disjointed Greek world, especially since many of the city-states in attendance were still technically at war with each other.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
.The 'congress' met again in the spring of 480 BC. A Thessalian delegation suggested that the allies could muster in the narrow Vale of Tempe, on the borders of Thessaly, and thereby block Xerxes's advance.^ The 'congress' met again in the spring of 480 BC. A Thessalian delegation suggested that the allies could muster in the narrow Vale of Tempe , on the borders of Thessaly, and thereby block Xerxes's advance.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the spring of 480 B.C., Xerxes set forth.
  • Sparta Pages: Thermopylae, the Alamo of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC uts.cc.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Greece was in turmoil in the spring of 480 BC .
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a12889146 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[33] .A force of 10,000 hoplites was dispatched to the vale of Tempe, through which they believed the Persian army would have to pass.^ A force of 10,000 hoplites was dispatched to the vale of Tempe , through which they believed the Persian army would have to pass.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So they went through this pass.
  • 300 Trailer - Video 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Persian army first encountered a joint force of 10,000 Athenian and Spartan hoplites led by Euanetus and Themistocles in the vale of Tempe.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

.However, once there, they were warned by Alexander I of Macedon that the vale could be bypassed through the Sarantoporo Pass, and that the army of Xerxes was overwhelming, the Greeks retreated.^ Other armies could risk this, but Xerxes could not.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So they went through this pass.
  • 300 Trailer - Video 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hoplites, warned by Alexander I of Macedon, vacated the pass.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

[34] .Shortly afterwards, they received the news that Xerxes had crossed the Hellespont.^ Xerxes' army crosses the Hellespont .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Shortly afterwards, they received the news that Xerxes had crossed the Hellespont.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The timeline of 480, B.C., you can see that in May and June the Persians crossed the Hellespont, or the Dardanelles, which they literally bridged with two bridges of boats.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[33]
.A second strategy was therefore suggested by Themistocles to the allies.^ A second strategy was therefore suggested by Themistocles to the allies.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The route to southern Greece (Boeotia, Attica and the Peloponnesus) would require the army of Xerxes to travel through the very narrow pass of Thermopylae.^ The route to southern Greece (Boeotia, Attica and the Peloponnesus) would require the army of Xerxes to travel through the very narrow pass of Thermopylae .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ File:Thermopylae map 480bc.png Map of Thermopylae area with modern shoreline and reconstructed shoreline of 480 BC At the time, the pass of Thermopylae consisted of a track along the shore of the Gulf of Malis so narrow that only one chariot could pass through at a time.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The site was strategically located; guarded from three sides by mountains and controlling the routes by which invading armies could penetrate Laconia and the southern Peloponnesus via the Langhda Pass over Mt Taygetus.

.This could easily be blocked by the Greek hoplites, despite the overwhelming numbers of Persians.^ This could easily be blocked by the Greek hoplites, despite the overwhelming numbers of Persians.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greek historian Herodotus, who lived through and wrote shortly after the Persian Wars (as the Greeks came to call them), claimed that the Persian host numbered at 1 million fighting men.
  • Ancient Society of Creative Anachronism - Spartans 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spartanwarband.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On land, the Spartans had once again shown that the Persians were not the equals of Greek hoplites.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, to prevent the Persians bypassing Thermopylae by sea, the Athenian and allied navies could block the straits of Artemisium.^ After this engagement, the Allied navy at Artemisium received news of the defeat at Thermopylae.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Athenian general Themistocles had proposed that the Allied Greeks block the advance of the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae , and simultaneously block the Persian navy at the Straits of Artemisium .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, to prevent the Persians bypassing Thermopylae by sea, the Athenian and allied navies could block the straits of Artemisium.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This dual strategy was adopted by the congress.^ This dual strategy was adopted by the congress.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .However, the Peloponnesian cities made fall-back plans to defend the Isthmus of Corinth should it come to it, whilst the women and children of Athens had been evacuated en masse to the Peloponnesian city of Troezen.^ However, the Peloponnesian cities made fall-back plans to defend the Isthmus of Corinth should it come to it, whilst the women and children of Athens had been evacuated en masse to the Peloponnesian city of Troezen .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Peloponnesians, however, wanted to evacuate Salamis and make their stand in what they would have thought of as “Fortress Peloponnesus.” They were building a makeshift wall across the Isthmus of Corinth about 50 miles to the West of Athens, and they wanted their fleet to be near the wall so that, as they said, if they got defeated they could get home on foot – not a very optimistic attitude.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When someone else remarked that he while king had been made hostage with those in the prime of life, and not their children or their women, he said, "That is but just, for it is good that we ourselves should bear the consequences of our own mistakes."
  • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[36]

Prelude

Map showing Greek & Persian advances to Thermopylae and Artemisium
.The Persian army seems to have made rather leisurely progress through Thrace and Macedon, but finally, in August, news of the imminent Persian approach reached Greece.^ Leonidas, one of two kings of Sparta, leads 300 Spartans to Thermopylae in the attempt to delay the Persian army from reaching Greece before the Greeks have time to prepare the resistance.
  • Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae (Paperback) by Steven Pressfield - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ When the Persian army reached the entrance to Thermopylae, the Greeks instigated a council meeting.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Another theory is that the land army was to hold the Persian army in the north for as long as possible, and defeat it through attrition, epidemics, and food deprivation.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

[37] .At this time of year the Spartans, de facto military leaders of the alliance, were celebrating the festival of Carneia.^ At this time of year the Spartans, de facto military leaders of the alliance, were celebrating the festival of Carneia .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All military leaders should read it and pay attention to the Leadership of the Spartan Army.
  • Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae (Paperback) by Steven Pressfield - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ Saragarhi Day , is a Sikh military commemoration day celebrated on the 12th of September every year to commemorate The Battle of Saragarhi.
  • Battle of Saragarhi - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sikhiwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the Carneia, military activity was forbidden by Spartan law; the Spartans had arrived too late at the Battle of Marathon because of this requirement.^ During the Carneia, military activity was forbidden by Spartan law; the Spartans had arrived too late at the Battle of Marathon because of this requirement.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A monument at the site of the battle is marked with Simonides' epigram, which reads thus: Go tell the Spartans, stranger passing by, that here, obedient to their laws, we lie.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a12889146 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spartans were famously pious and would not risk the gods' wrath by marching in full force during Carneia.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a12889146 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[38] .It was also the time of the Olympic Games, and therefore the Olympic truce, and thus it would have been doubly sacrilegious for the whole Spartan army to march to war.^ It was also the time of the Olympic Games , and therefore the Olympic truce, and thus it would have been doubly sacrilegious for the whole Spartan army to march to war.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fierce resistance of Leonidas and Spartans bought Athens and other Greek States time to prepare for a naval battle, which would change the outcome of the war.
  • Iran Politics Club: 300 Spartans, The Real Story - Historically Accurate Review - Ahreeman X 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Persian army marched on to Athens and burned it to the ground, but was soon defeated by the Athenian navy at the battle of Salamis and the Spartan army at the battle of Plataea.

[38][39] .On this occasion, the ephors decided the urgency was sufficiently great to justify an advance expedition to block the pass, under one of its kings, Leonidas I.^ Leonidas, one of the two kings of Sparta.
  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, THUCYDIDES 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On this occasion, the ephors decided the urgency was sufficiently great to justify an advance expedition to block the pass, under one of its kings, Leonidas I .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A small force led by King Leonidas of Sparta blocked the only road through which the massive army of Xerxes I of Persia (Xerxes the Great) could pass.
  • Top 10 Battle Scenes in Movies - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Leonidas took with him the 300 men of the royal bodyguard, the Hippeis, and a larger number of support troops drawn from other parts of Lacedaemon (including helots).^ Fiction: Spartans numbered 300 troops.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This number needs to be nearly doubled in order to account for support troops and thus Herodotus reports that the whole force numbered 5,283,220 men, a figure which has been rejected by modern historians.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Leonidas secretly decides to take his personal bodyguard of 300 men to the pass, who are exempt from the decisions of the Ephors and the Gerousia.
  • TWU Local 721 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC local721.twu.org [Source type: Original source]

[39] .This expedition was to try and gather as many other allied troops along the way as possible, and to await the arrival of the main Spartan army.^ This expedition was to try and gather as many other allied troops along the way as possible, and to await the arrival of the main Spartan army.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the other Greeks laughed as he tried to make his way through.

^ The Spartans were famous for their disciplined army, their law-abiding citizenry, and their plain-spoken ways.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
.The legend of Thermopylae, as told by Herodotus, has it that the Spartans consulted the Oracle at Delphi earlier in the year.^ The legend of Thermopylae, as told by Herodotus, has it that the Spartans consulted the Oracle at Delphi earlier in the year.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The legend of Thermopylae, as told by Herodotus, has it that Sparta consulted the Oracle at Delphi before setting out to meet the Persian army.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spartans had consulted the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi for a prediction of the successes of the League, and had received this typically cryptic answer: .
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a12889146 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

The Oracle is said to have made the following prophecy:
.O ye men who dwell in the streets of broad Lacedaemon!
Either your glorious town shall be sacked by the children of Perseus,
Or, in exchange, must all through the whole Laconian country
Mourn for the loss of a king, descendant of great Heracles.
^ The Oracle is said to have made the following prophecy : O ye men who dwell in the streets of broad Lacedaemon!
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Oracle had told them that they must mourn the loss of a king who is descended from Heracles, or mourn all Sparta.

^ Either your glorious town shall be sacked by the children of Perseus, Or, in exchange, must all through the whole Laconian country Mourn for the loss of a king, descendant of great Heracles .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
.Herodotus tells us that Leonidas, in line with the prophecy, was convinced he was going to certain death since his forces were not adequate for a victory, and so he selected only Spartans with living sons.^ He was convinced that he was going to certain death, which he would not have been if he had thought the forces given him were adequate for a victory.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Herodotus tells us that Leonidas, in line with the prophecy, was convinced he was going to certain death since his forces were not adequate for a victory, and so he selected only Spartans with living sons.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now there lived in this city a certain Pythius, the son of Atys, a Lydian.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[41]
.En route to Thermopylae, the Spartan force was reinforced by contingents from various cities (see below) and numbered more than 5,000 by the time it arrived at the pass.^ En route to Thermopylae, the Spartan force was reinforced by contigents from various cities (see below) and numbered more than 5,000 by the time it arrived at the pass.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being Spartan was more than being a king!
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So it's more than just 300 Spartans.
  • A Critical View of Miller's Blockbuster '300' : NPR 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

[42] .Leonidas chose to camp at, and defend, the 'middle gate', the narrowest part of the pass of Thermopylae, where the Phocians had built a defensive wall some time before.^ Leonidas chose to camp at, and defend the 'middle gate', the narrowest part of the pass of Thermopylae, where the Phocians had built a defensive wall some time before.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thermopylae to defend the pass.
  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, THUCYDIDES 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Allies fought in front of the Phocian wall, at the narrowest part of the pass.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .News also reached Leonidas, from the nearby city of Trachis, that there was a mountain track which could be used to outflank the pass of Thermopylae; in response, Leonidas stationed 1,000 Phocians on the heights to prevent such a maneuver.^ Leonidas had stationed 1000 Phocian volunteers on the heights to guard this path.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ At Thermopylae, the cavalry could not be used.

^ News also reached Leonidas, from the nearby city of Trachis , that there was a mountain track which could be used to outflank the pass of Thermopylae; in response, Leonidas stationed 1,000 Phocians on the heights to prevent such a maneuver.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]
.Finally, in mid-August, the Persian army was sighted across the Malian Gulf, approaching Thermopylae.^ Finally, in mid-August, the Persian army was sighted across the Gulf of Malis , approaching Thermopylae.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thermopylae is where 300 Spartans, led by King Leonidas, fought a valiant battle to keep the million-strong Persian army at bay.
  • Godswar Online : Revisiting Thermopylae - Godswar Online for PC at MMORPG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]
  • Godswar Online - Revisiting Thermopylae - MMORPG.com - Your Headquarters for Online Multiplayer Games, GWO, RPG Online Games, Online Role Playing Free Games! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

^ File:Battle of Thermopylae and movements to Salamis, 480 BC.gif Battle of Thermopylae and movements to Salamis, 480 BC The Persian army seems to have made rather leisurely progress through Thrace and Macedon, but finally, in August, news of the imminent Persian approach reached Greece.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .With the Persian army's arrival at Thermopylae, the Allies held a council of war.^ Thermopylae is where 300 Spartans, led by King Leonidas, fought a valiant battle to keep the million-strong Persian army at bay.
  • Godswar Online : Revisiting Thermopylae - Godswar Online for PC at MMORPG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]
  • Godswar Online - Revisiting Thermopylae - MMORPG.com - Your Headquarters for Online Multiplayer Games, GWO, RPG Online Games, Online Role Playing Free Games! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

^ BBC - h2g2 - The Graeco-Persian Wars: The Battle of Thermopylae Skip to main content Text Only version of this page Access keys help Home .
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a12889146 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The allied Greeks judged that the next strategic choke point where the Persian army could be stopped was Thermopylae.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

[46] .Some Peloponnesians suggested withdrawal to the Isthmus of Corinth and blocking the passage to Peloponnesus.^ The Peloponnesians advised withdrawing to the isthmus and defending only the Peloponnesus there.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Some Peloponnesians suggested withdrawal to the Isthmus of Corinth and blocking the passage to Peloponnesus.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Isthmus of Corinth was west of Salamis, some fifteen miles, across the bay.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[46] .The Phocians and Locrians, whose states were located nearby, became indignant and advised defending Thermopylae and sending for more help.^ The Phocians and Locrians, whose states were located nearby, becoming indignant, advised defending Thermopylae and sending for more help.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The Phocians and Locrians , whose states were located nearby, became indignant and advised defending Thermopylae and sending for more help.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leonidas chose to camp at, and defend the 'middle gate', the narrowest part of the pass of Thermopylae, where the Phocians had built a defensive wall some time before.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Leonidas calmed the panic and agreed to defend Thermopylae.^ Leonidas calmed the panic and agreed to defend Thermopylae.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leonidas chose to camp at, and defend the 'middle gate', the narrowest part of the pass of Thermopylae, where the Phocians had built a defensive wall some time before.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]
.A Persian emissary was sent by Xerxes to negotiate with Leonidas; the allies were offered their freedom and the title "Friends of the Persian People," moreover they would be re-settled on better land than they currently possessed.^ A Persian emissary was sent by Xerxes to negotiate with Leonidas; the allies were offered their freedom and the title "Friends of the Persian People", moreover they would be re-settled on better land than they currently possessed.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Thespians, on the contrary, stayed entirely of their own accord, refusing to retreat, and declaring that they would not forsake Leonidas and his followers.
  • Ancient Greek Online library | Polymnia by Herodotus | page 50 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.greektexts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With Xerxes, the Persian God-King, determined to conquer Greece, all Leonidas and his men could hope to do was put up a good fight.
  • Godswar Online : Revisiting Thermopylae - Godswar Online for PC at MMORPG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]
  • Godswar Online - Revisiting Thermopylae - MMORPG.com - Your Headquarters for Online Multiplayer Games, GWO, RPG Online Games, Online Role Playing Free Games! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

[47] .When these terms were refused by Leonidas, the ambassador asked him more forcefully to lay down his weapons; Leonidas's famous response was for the Persians to "Come and get them" (Μολὼν λαβέ).^ Then Xerxes asked him more forcefully to surrender their arms.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Leonidas learns that the Persians have outflanked him.
  • 300 Trailer - Video 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When these terms were refused by Leonidas, the ambassador asked him more forcefully to lay down his weapons; Leonidas's famous response was for the Persians to "Come and get them" ( Μολὼν λἀβε ).
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] With the Persian embassy returning empty-handed, battle became inevitable. .However, Xerxes delayed attacking for four days, waiting for the Allies to disperse, before sending troops to attack them.^ However, Xerxes delayed attacking for four days, waiting for the Allies to disperse, before sending troops to attack them.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Xerxes waited four days for the Greek force to disperse.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ On the second day, Xerxes again sent in the infantry to attack the pass, "supposing that their enemies, being so few, were now disabled by wounds and could no longer resist."
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]

Opposing forces

Persian army

For a full discussion of the size of the Persian invasion force, see Second Persian invasion of Greece
.The numbers of troops which Xerxes mustered for the second invasion of Greece have been the subject of endless dispute, because the numbers given in ancient sources are very large indeed.^ Upon the arrival of Xerxes they doubled the number, and to that fleet Greece .
  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, THUCYDIDES 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They prepared food dumps in northern Greece down to pretty much the border with what is now the border of Thessaly – huge numbers of food dumps to feed their troops.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, arrow attacks are usual at first stages of battle because they rarefy enemy troops, not usual for final stages.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Herodotus claimed that there were, in total, 2.5 million military personnel, accompanied by an equivalent number of support personnel.^ With support troops it is probable that there would have been over 5 million men - about 7% of the Empire's population (given the estimate that the Empire was home to around 70 million people at the time).
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/a12889146 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Herodotus, the Greeks had 180 triremes, Ctesias claims there Greeks had 110 .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[3] .The poet Simonides, who was a near-contemporary, talks of four million; Ctesias gave 800,000 as the total number of the army that was assembled by Xerxes.^ The poet Simonides, who was a near-contemporary, talks of four million.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The poet Simonides , who was a near-contemporary, talks of four million; Ctesias gave 800,000 as the total number of the army that was assembled by Xerxes.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facing invasion by the mighty Persian army, the little Greek City States unite to confront the Persian King Xerxes and his army of 100,000 soldiers, includi...
  • Guild of Blades Publishing Group - Board/Card Games | Brett-/Kartenspiele | Jeux de Carte/Plateau | Juegos de tablero/cartas - 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC guildofblades.rpgnow.com [Source type: General]

[4]
.Modern scholars tend to reject the figures given by Herodotus and other ancient sources as unrealistic, and as a result of miscalculations or exaggerations on the part of the victors.^ Numbers from the ancient sources b Modern estimates .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern scholars tend to reject the figures given by Herodotus and other ancient sources as completely unrealistic, and as a result of miscalculations or exaggerations on the part of the victors.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This number needs to be nearly doubled in order to account for support troops and thus Herodotus reports that the whole force numbered 5,283,220 men, a figure which has been rejected by modern historians.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

[50] .Estimates of modern military historians vary drastically, ranging from as low as 25,000 (Hans Delbrück) to as high as 100,000–200,000 (Ulrich Wilcken and Tom Holland), modern estimates generally revolve around aforementioned figures.^ The topic has been hotly debated but the modern consensus revolves around the figure of 200–250,000.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many modern historians, who usually consider Herodotus more reliable, [59] add the 1,000 Lacedaemonians and the 900 Helots to Herodotus' 5,200 to obtain 7,100 or about 7,000 men as a standard number, neglecting Diodorus' Melians and Pausanias' Locrians.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If we consider modern estimates of original number of Persian troops, Persians numbered less then 70 000 troops.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]a[›] .These estimates usually come from studying the logistical capabilities of the Persians in that era, the sustainability of their respective base of operations, and the overall manpower constraints affecting them.^ Modern scholars have proposed different numbers for the invasion force, estimations based on knowledge of the Persian military systems, their logistical capabilities, the Greek countryside, and supplies available along the army's route.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You refuse to discuss history with someone who weighs more than one source of information and based on these sources, comes to their own conclusion.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Whatever the real numbers were, however, it is clear that Xerxes was anxious to ensure a successful expedition by mustering an overwhelming numerical superiority by land and by sea.^ Whatever the real numbers were, however, it is clear that Xerxes was anxious to ensure a successful expedition by mustering an overwhelming numerical superiority by land and by sea.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does my land army seem to thee too small in number, and will the Greeks, thinkest thou, bring into the field a more numerous host?
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the Athenians did not have the manpower to fight on land and sea; and therefore combatting the Persians would require an alliance of Greek city states.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .The number of Persian troops present at Thermopylae is therefore as uncertain as the number for the total invasion force.^ The number of Persian troops present at Thermopylae is therefore as uncertain as the number for the total invasion force.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern scholars have proposed different numbers for the invasion force, estimations based on knowledge of the Persian military systems, their logistical capabilities, the Greek countryside, and supplies available along the army's route.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the remaining Spartans and a noteworthy number of Thebans remained behind to hold off the Persian force.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

.For instance, it is unclear whether the whole Persian army marched as far as Thermopylae, or whether Xerxes left garrisons in Macedon and Thessaly.^ The losses of the Persian army alarmed Xerxes.
  • Thermopylae private taxi tour|The Hot Gates of Greece 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.greecetaxi.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ Facing invasion by the mighty Persian army, the little Greek City States unite to confront the Persian King Xerxes and his army of 100,000 soldiers, includi...
  • DriveThruRPG.com - Guild of Blades - Board/Card Games | Brett-/Kartenspiele | Jeux de Carte/Plateau | Juegos de tablero/cartas - The Largest RPG Download Store! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC rpg.drivethrustuff.com [Source type: General]
  • Guild of Blades Publishing Group - Board/Card Games | Brett-/Kartenspiele | Jeux de Carte/Plateau | Juegos de tablero/cartas - 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC guildofblades.rpgnow.com [Source type: General]

^ Thermopylae is where 300 Spartans, led by King Leonidas, fought a valiant battle to keep the million-strong Persian army at bay.
  • Godswar Online - Revisiting Thermopylae - MMORPG.com - Your Headquarters for Online Multiplayer Games, GWO, RPG Online Games, Online Role Playing Free Games! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

Greek army

According to Herodotus,[42][53] and Diodorus Siculus,[54] the Allied army included the following forces:
Group Number - Herodotus Numbers - Diodorus Siculus
Spartans 300 300
Lacedaemonians/
Perioeci
900?[55] 1,000
(including the Spartans?)
Spartan helots 900?[55] -
Mantineans 500 3,000
(other Peloponnesians sent with Leonidas)
Tegeans 500
Arcadian Orchomenos 120
Other Arcadians 1,000
Corinthians 400
Phlians 200
Mycenaeans 80
Total Peloponnesians 3,100[42] or 4,000[56] 4,000 or 4,300
Thespians 700 -
Malians - 1,000
Thebans 400 400
Phocians 1,000 1,000
Opuntian Locrians "All they had" 1,000
Grand Total 5,200 (or 6,100) plus the Opuntian Locrians 7,400 (or 7,700)
Notes:
  • The number of Peloponnesians
.Diodorus suggests that there were 1,000 Lacedemonians and 3,000 other Peloponnesians, for a total of 4,000. Herodotus agrees with this figure in one passage, quoting an inscription by Simonides saying there were 4,000 Peloponnesians.^ Herodotus agrees with this figure in one passage, quoting an inscription by Simonides saying there were 4,000 Peloponnesians.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of Peloponnesians Diodorus suggests that there were 1,000 Lacedemonians and 3,000 other Pelopennesians, for a total of 4,000.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, elsewhere, in the passage summarized by the above table, Herodotus tallies 3,100 Peloponnesians at Thermopylae before the battle [42] Herodotus also reports that at Xerxes' public showing of the dead, "helots were also there for them to see", [57] but he does not say how many or in what capacity they served.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .However, elsewhere, in the passage summarized by the above table, Herodotus tallies 3,100 Peloponnesians at Thermopylae before the battle[42] Herodotus also reports that at Xerxes' public showing of the dead, "helots were also there for them to see",[57] but he does not say how many or in what capacity they served.^ That many of them died there, however, is not the same thing as saying that they were hanged.
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They had submitted to Xerxes before the battle of Thermopylae, and they considered themselves, accordingly, as his allies.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ How about the battle of Thermopylae?
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.Thus, the difference between his two figures can be squared by supposing (without proof) that there were 900 helots (three per Spartan) present at the battle.^ Thus, the difference between his two figures can be squared by supposing (without proof) that there were 900 helots (three per Spartan) present at the battle.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If helots were present at the battle, there is no reason to doubt that they served in their traditional role as armed retainers to individual Spartans.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 26, 2007 1:58 PM · Direct link from the view point of the victims, there is no difference between colonialists, nazi, communists etc.
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

[55] .If helots were present at the battle, there is no reason to doubt that they served in their traditional role as armed retainers to individual Spartans.^ There was no doubt it had to be number 1.
  • Top 10 Battle Scenes in Movies - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IIRC, there were no Spartans in that one.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A narrow passage between a cliff and the sea, known as the “Hot Gates,” served to funnel the Persians as they tried to get past the Spartans’ phalanx formation.
  • Godswar Online : Revisiting Thermopylae - Godswar Online for PC at MMORPG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]
  • Godswar Online - Revisiting Thermopylae - MMORPG.com - Your Headquarters for Online Multiplayer Games, GWO, RPG Online Games, Online Role Playing Free Games! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

.Alternatively, Herodotus's 'missing' 900 troops might have been Perioeci, and could therefore correspond to Diodorus's 1,000 Lacedemonians.^ Alternatively, Herodotus's 'missing' 900 troops might have been Perioeci , and could therefore correspond to Diodorus's 1,000 Lacedemonians.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Herodotus and Diodorus, the king, having taken the measure of the enemy, threw his best troops into a second assault the same day: the Immortals , an elite corps of 10,000 men.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of Lacedemonians Further confusing the issue is Diodorus's ambiguity about whether his 1,000 Lacedemonians include the 300 Spartans.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55]
  • The number of Lacedemonians
.Further confusing the issue is Diodorus's ambiguity about whether his 1,000 Lacedemonians include the 300 Spartans.^ The number of Lacedemonians Further confusing the issue is Diodorus's ambiguity about whether his 1,000 Lacedemonians include the 300 Spartans.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seventy thousand Greeks not only defeated but destroyed the army of 300,000 barbarians, which melted away and disappeared making no further stand anywhere.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ You want be accurate about the History of Spartans better get used to the word = Homosexuality and that includes lesbians.
  • 300 Trailer - Video 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At one point he says: "Leonidas, when he received the appointment, announced that only one thousand men should follow him on the campaign'".[54] However, he then says that: "There were, then, of the Lacedaemonians one thousand, and with them three hundred Spartiates".[54] It is therefore impossible to be clearer on this point.^ Amilcar, which consisted of three hundred thousand men.
  • Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, THUCYDIDES 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ DAMNIT. I thought was going to be able to say I was the only one to point it out.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only one came with him that was recorded.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

.Pausanias' account agrees with that of Herodotus (whom he probably read) except that he gives the number of Locrians, which Herodotus declined to estimate.^ These accounts are probably interpreted from the Greek historian Herodotus (484 BC–424 BC) and his compendium The Histories .
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

Residing in the direct path of the Persian advance, they gave all the fighting men they had; according to Pausanias 6,000 men, which added to Herodotus' 5,200 would have given a force of 11,200.[58]
.Many modern historians, who usually consider Herodotus more reliable,[59] add the 1,000 Lacedaemonians and the 900 Helots to Herodotus' 5,200 to obtain 7,100 or about 7,000 men as a standard number, neglecting Diodorus' Melians and Pausanias' Locrians.^ Many modern historians, who usually consider Herodotus more reliable, [59] add the 1,000 Lacedaemonians and the 900 Helots to Herodotus' 5,200 to obtain 7,100 or about 7,000 men as a standard number, neglecting Diodorus' Melians and Pausanias' Locrians.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Battle at Imphal happened at the same time as Kohima and although the territory wasn’t quite as strategic as Kohima, the terrain permitted far larger concentrations of men and material resulting in even more numerous casualties - Of the 100,000 Japanese who raced with sword and grenade for Imphal, 50,000 were dead.
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Herodotus and Diodorus, the king, having taken the measure of the enemy, threw his best troops into a second assault the same day: the Immortals , an elite corps of 10,000 men.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60][61] .However, this is only one approach, and many other combinations are plausible.^ However, this is only one approach, and many other combinations are plausible.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And when the man said that his own was, Theopompus said, "How, then, can that State be saved in which, among many citizens, only one is a good man?"
  • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And yet thou wilt want, not one such harbour only, but many in succession, along the entire coast by which thou art about to make thy advance.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Furthermore, the numbers changed later on in the battle when most of the army retreated and only approximately 3,000 men remained (300 Spartans, 700 Thespians, 400 Thebans, probably 900 helots and 1,000 Phocians stationed above the pass; less the casualties sustained in the previous days).^ Furthermore, the numbers changed later on in the battle when most of the army retreated and only approximately 3,000 men remained (300 Spartans, 700 Thespians, 400 Thebans, probably 900 helots and 1,000 Phocians stationed above the pass; less the casualties sustained in the previous days).
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle lasted for about 3 days and after which all 300 Spartans were killed.
  • myFILM.gr - Entertainment News, Movie Reviews, Previews, Trailers & Photos - Frank Miller's 300 (2007) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC myfilm.gr [Source type: General]

^ The Spartans and the Thebans remained in the pass.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[59]

Strategic and tactical considerations

.From a strategic point of view, by defending Thermopylae, the Allies were making the best possible use of their forces.^ From a strategic point of view, by defending Thermopylae, the Allies were making the best possible use of their forces.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The performance of the defenders at the battle of Thermopylae is also used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both ancient and modern writers have used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the power of a patriotic army of freemen defending native soil.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .As long as they could prevent further Persian advance into Greece, they had no requirement to seek a decisive battle, and could thus remain on the defensive.^ As long as they could prevent further Persian advance into Greece, they had no requirement to seek a decisive battle, and could thus remain on the defensive.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, seeking a decisive victory over the Allied fleet, the Persians were defeated at the Battle of Salamis in late 480 BC. Fearing to be trapped in Europe, Xerxes withdrew with much of his army to Asia, leaving Mardonius to complete the conquest of Greece.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Battle of Thermopylae of 480 BC, an alliance of Greek city-states fought the invading Persian Empire at the pass of Thermopylae in central Greece.
  • Top 10 Battle Scenes in Movies - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, by defending two constricted passages (Thermopylae and Artemisium), the Allies' inferior numbers became less problematic.^ Moreover, by defending two constricted passages (Thermopylae and Artemisium), the Allies' inferior numbers became less problematic.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From a strategic point of view, by defending Thermopylae, the Allies were making the best possible use of their forces.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since their strategy required both Thermopylae and Artemisium to be held, and given their losses, the Allied navy decided to withdraw to Salamis .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .Conversely, for the Persians the problem of supplying such a large army meant that the Persians could not remain in the same place for too long.^ Conversely, for the Persians the problem of supplying such a large army meant that the Persians could not remain in the same place for too long.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He believed, correctly, that the Athenian Army and a Greek army could never stop the Persians from invading Attica and from taking the city of Athens.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Was this the same retreating army, backing into India proper, that practiced a burn and slash policy to prevent the food supply from falling into the hands of the Japanese forces?
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

[63] .The Persians must therefore retreat or advance; and advancing required the pass of Thermopylae to be forced.^ The Persians must therefore retreat or advance; and advancing required the pass of Thermopylae to be forced.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Battle of Thermopylae of 480 BC, an alliance of Greek city-states fought the invading Persian Empire at the pass of Thermopylae in central Greece.
  • Top 10 Battle Scenes in Movies - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of Persian troops present at Thermopylae is therefore as uncertain as the number for the total invasion force.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]
.Tactically, the pass at Thermopylae was ideally suited to the Greek style of warfare.^ Tactically, the pass at Thermopylae was ideally suited to the Greek style of warfare.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Battle of Thermopylae of 480 BC, an alliance of Greek city-states fought the invading Persian Empire at the pass of Thermopylae in central Greece.
  • Top 10 Battle Scenes in Movies - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Athenian general Themistocles had proposed that the Allied Greeks block the advance of the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae , and simultaneously block the Persian navy at the Straits of Artemisium .
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .A hoplite phalanx would be able to block the narrow pass with ease, with no risk of being outflanked by cavalry.^ No, better for Sparta to be unwalled, so that helot rebels would be defenseless against returning Spartan hoplites.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is possible that he hoped that a certain number of them would intreat for mercy, and others being encouraged by their example to submit, no further serious battle would have to be fought.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.In the pass, the phalanx would have been very difficult to assault for the more lightly armed Persian infantry.^ Had the Persians won at Salamis, it is very likely that Xerxes would have succeeded in conquering all the Greek nations and passing to the European continent, thus preventing Western civilization’s growth (and even existence).
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The Persians were more numerous, he admitted, than they, but still the Greeks would conquer them.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Without there support an armed struggle against British imperialism would have been difficult.
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

[62] .The major weak point for the Allies was the mountain track which led across the highland parallel to Thermopylae, and which would allow their position to be outflanked.^ The major weak point for the Allies was the mountain track which led across the highland parallel to Thermopylae, and which would allow their position to be outflanked.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From a strategic point of view, by defending Thermopylae, the Allies were making the best possible use of their forces.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of the existing satraps were to give their loyalty to Alexander, and be allowed to keep their positions, however, the Persian Empire is traditionally considered to have fallen with the death of Darius.
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.Although probably unsuitable for cavalry, this path could easily be traversed by the Persian infantry (many of whom were versed in mountain warfare).^ Although probably unsuitable for cavalry, this path could easily be traversed by the Persian infantry (many of whom were versed in mountain warfare).
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the Athenians knew that the Persian cavalry wasn’t there, they weren’t particularly afraid of the Persian infantry because Greek had heavy-armed infantry; the Persians only had light-armed infantry.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was covered with many thousands of dead bodies, nearly all of whom, of course, were Persians.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[64] .Leonidas was made aware of this path by local people from Trachis, and he positioned a detachment of Phocian troops there in order to block this route.^ Leonidas was made aware of this path by local people from Trachis , and he positioned a detachment of Phocian troops there in order to block this route.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ News also reached Leonidas, from the nearby city of Trachis , that there was a mountain track which could be used to outflank the pass of Thermopylae; in response, Leonidas stationed 1,000 Phocians on the heights to prevent such a maneuver.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The path was a secret one, and known to very few He knew it, however, and was willing to conduct a detachment of troops through it, on condition of receiving a suitable reward.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[44]

Topography of the battlefield

Map of Thermopylae area with modern shoreline and reconstructed shoreline of 480 BC
.At the time, the pass of Thermopylae consisted of a track along the shore of the Malian Gulf so narrow that only one chariot could pass through at a time.^ File:Thermopylae map 480bc.png Map of Thermopylae area with modern shoreline and reconstructed shoreline of 480 BC At the time, the pass of Thermopylae consisted of a track along the shore of the Gulf of Malis so narrow that only one chariot could pass through at a time.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Spartan defeat was not the one expected as a local shepherd named Ephialtes defected to the Persians and informed Xerxes of a separate path through Thermopylae, which the Persians could use to outflank the Greeks.
  • myFILM.gr - Entertainment News, Movie Reviews, Previews, Trailers & Photos - Frank Miller's 300 (2007) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC myfilm.gr [Source type: General]

^ A small force led by King Leonidas of Sparta blocked the only road through which the massive army of Xerxes I of Persia (Xerxes the Great) could pass.
  • Top 10 Battle Scenes in Movies - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .On the southern side of the track stood the cliffs that overlooked the pass, and on the north side was the Malian Gulf.^ On the southern side of the track stood the cliffs, while on the north side was the gulf.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Along the path itself was a series of three constrictions, or "gates" (pylai), and at the center gate a short wall that had been erected by the Phocians in the previous century to aid in their defense against Thessalian invasions.[65] .The name "Hot Gates" comes from the hot springs that were located there.^ The name "Hot Gates" comes from the hot springs that were located there.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]
.Today, the pass is not near the sea but is several miles inland because of sedimentation in the Malian Gulf.^ Today, the pass is not near the sea but is several miles inland because of sedimentation in the Gulf of Malis.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The old track appears at the foot of hills around the plain, flanked by a modern road.^ The old track appears at the foot of hills around the plain, flanked by a modern road.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recent core samples indicate that the pass was only 100 meters wide and the waters came up to the gates; "Little do the visitors realize that the battle took place across the road from the monument."[66] The pass still is a natural defensive position to modern armies, and British Commonwealth forces in World War II made a defense in 1941 against the Nazi invasion meters from the original battle field.^ Recent core samples indicate that the pass was only 100 meters wide and the waters came up to the gates; " Little do the visitors realize that the battle took place across the road from the monument.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AM Battle of the Somme in world war one.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The pass still is a natural defensive position to modern armies, and British Commonwealth forces in World War II made a defense in 1941 against the Nazi invasion meters from the original battle field.
  • Battle of Thermopylae - Wikinfo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Maps of the region:[67][68]
  • Image of the battlefield, from the east[69]

Battle

First day

Greek phalanx formation based on sources from The Perseus Project.
.On the fifth day after the Persian arrival at Thermopylae (which would become the first day of the battle), Xerxes finally resolved to attack the Allies.^ Battle of kursk would be the final nail.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thermopylae is where 300 Spartans, led by King Leonidas, fought a valiant battle to keep the million-strong Persian army at bay.
  • Godswar Online - Revisiting Thermopylae - MMORPG.com - Your Headquarters for Online Multiplayer Games, GWO, RPG Online Games, Online Role Playing Free Games! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

^ They had, besides, a special interest in conducting the Persian army, on account of the hostile feel- ings which they entertained toward the people immediately south of the pass, into whose territories Xerxes would first carry his ravages.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.First of all he sent Medes and Cissians against the Allies, to take them prisoner and bring them before him.^ For was there a nation in all Asia which Xerxes did not bring with him against Greece?
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ You all remember the unprovoked and wanton aggressions which the Athenians committed against us in the time of the Ionian rebellion, taking part against us with rebels and enemies.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Xerxes wished, at all events, to bring Egyptian affairs to an issue before involving himself in a serious European war.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[49][70] .They soon found themselves launching a frontal assault on the Greek position.^ They could not be found.They are not ever united among themselves.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ We know that the Greeks found out in the pre-dawn hours, or somewhat earlier than that; let’s say around 3:00 a.m., roughly, what they were up against.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Athenians had fled to Italy, your assumption is that they would have found some way to recover and re-conquer the Greek Peninsula.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[49] The Allies fought in front of the Phocian wall, at the narrowest part of the pass.[71][72] .Details of the tactics are scant; Diodorus says "the men stood shoulder to shoulder" and the Greeks were "superior in valor and in the great size of their shields."^ The battle was for a short time doubtful; but soon the superiority of Greek naval tactics began to tell.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The Paphlagonians went to the war with plaited helmets upon their heads, and carrying small shields and spears of no great size.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[73] .This is probably describing the standard Greek phalanx, in which the men formed a wall of overlapping shields and layered spear points, which would have been highly effective as long as it spanned the width of the pass.^ The Greeks stood, each corps at its own assigned station on the line, forming a mass so firm and immovable that the charge of the Persians was arrested on encountering it as by a wall.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The gist of the phalanx was the front line would lower their shields in defense and also prepare their spears at about waist level whilst the second rank would raise their spears over the shoulder and allow them to protrude through the first rank.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

^ The initial wave collision would more appropriately be described as wooden blocks clapping as men screamed in mortal agony, the Medes impaling themselves on hoplite spears.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

[74] .The wicker shields and shorter spears of the Persians prevented them from effectively engaging the Greek hoplites.^ The Greek long spears gave them a tactical advantage over the Persian short spears and swords, and the battle soon turned into a slaughter.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The Persians immediately determined to resort to the measures which Themistocles had recommended to prevent the escape of any part of the Greek fleet.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The long spears, large shields, and heavy armor of the Greeks, their skilful tactics, and steady array, were far more than a match for the inferior equipments and discipline of the Persian forces.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[73][75] .Herodotus says that the units for each city were kept together; units were rotated in and out of the battle to prevent fatigue, which implies the Greeks had more men than necessary to block the pass.^ We know that the Greeks found out in the pre-dawn hours, or somewhat earlier than that; let’s say around 3:00 a.m., roughly, what they were up against.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No, we certainly can’t say the Greeks are more civilized than the Persians, but they were a different civilization than the Persians.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Persians were more numerous, he admitted, than they, but still the Greeks would conquer them.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[76] .The Greeks killed so many Medes that Xerxes is said to have started up off the seat from which he was watching the battle three times.^ Xerxes' front seat view of the Battle .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The battle of Helms Deep begins, and the Elves manage to hold the Uruk-hai at the wall, but it is blown up and many are killed during the ensuing attack through the breach.
  • Top 10 Battle Scenes in Movies - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle was for a short time doubtful; but soon the superiority of Greek naval tactics began to tell.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[77] .According to Ctesias, the first wave was "cut to ribbons" with only two or three Spartans dead.^ These being stationed on the declivity of the mountain, left only two or three thousand in the defile below.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.According to Herodotus and Diodorus, the king, having taken the measure of the enemy, threw his best troops into a second assault the same day: the Immortals, an elite corps of 10,000 men.^ Havildar Issar Singh with 21 Other Ranks made the supreme sacrifice repulsing 10,000 of the enemy.
  • Battle of Saragarhi - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sikhiwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Having put on the garments which Xerxes was wont to wear and taken his seat upon the royal throne, he lay down to sleep upon the king's own bed.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Day dawned; and the king made no account of this dream, but called together the same Persians as before, and spake to them as follows:- "Men of Persia, forgive me if I alter the resolve to which I came so lately.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[73][75] .However, the Immortals fared no better than the Medes had, failing to make headway against the Allies.^ Putting up a deceitful veil of decency over evil acts of racism, genocide and enslavement makes the british somehow better than the nazis?
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ North of the isthmus, however, there was no place where the Greeks could make a stand.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ It is better to have strong allies who disagree with you than to have weak allies who agree with you.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[75] .The Spartans apparently used a tactic of feigning retreat, and then turning on, and killing the enemy troops when they ran after the Spartans.^ I was just wondering though why the Spartans had to be dressed in loincloths when they were trainned hoplites used to fighting in full armour which included breastplates.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, arrow attacks are usual at first stages of battle because they rarefy enemy troops, not usual for final stages.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How did thousands of Spartans survive 26 lost battles, if they "never retreat or surrender"?!
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75]

Second day

Depiction of Persian warriors, probably the Immortals.
.On the second day, Xerxes again sent in the infantry to attack the pass, "supposing that their enemies, being so few, were now disabled by wounds and could no longer resist."[77] However, the Persians fared no better on the second day than on the first.^ But Xerxes had no intention of any new attack.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 18th the Persian do no better.
  • 300 Trailer - Video 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Xerxes waited for 10 days for King Leonidas to surrender or withdraw left with no options he moved.
  • myFILM.gr - Entertainment News, Movie Reviews, Previews, Trailers & Photos - Frank Miller's 300 (2007) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC myfilm.gr [Source type: General]

[77] Xerxes at last stopped the assault and withdrew to his camp, totally perplexed.[4]
.Late on the second day of battle, however, as the Persian king was pondering what to do next, he received a windfall; a Trachinian traitor named Ephialtes informed him of the mountain path around Thermopylae and offered to guide the Persian army.^ The Spartan defeat was not the one expected as a local shepherd named Ephialtes defected to the Persians and informed Xerxes of a separate path through Thermopylae, which the Persians could use to outflank the Greeks.
  • myFILM.gr - Entertainment News, Movie Reviews, Previews, Trailers & Photos - Frank Miller's 300 (2007) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC myfilm.gr [Source type: General]

^ Facing invasion by the mighty Persian army, the little Greek City States unite to confront the Persian King Xerxes and his army of 100,000 soldiers, includi...
  • Guild of Blades Publishing Group - Board/Card Games | Brett-/Kartenspiele | Jeux de Carte/Plateau | Juegos de tablero/cartas - 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC guildofblades.rpgnow.com [Source type: General]

^ Thermopylae is where 300 Spartans, led by King Leonidas, fought a valiant battle to keep the million-strong Persian army at bay.
  • Godswar Online : Revisiting Thermopylae - Godswar Online for PC at MMORPG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]
  • Godswar Online - Revisiting Thermopylae - MMORPG.com - Your Headquarters for Online Multiplayer Games, GWO, RPG Online Games, Online Role Playing Free Games! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

[78] Ephialtes was motivated by the desire of a reward.[78] .For this act, the name of Ephialtes received a lasting stigma, his name coming to mean "nightmare" and becoming the archetypal term for a "traitor" in Greek.^ I mean, was this primarily a navy designed to seek out and destroy the Greek navy or was it more of to support the army in terms of logistics and so forth?
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I mean this, that, should nothing else withstand thee, yet the mere distance, becoming greater as time goes on, will at last produce a famine.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[79]
.Herodotus reports that Xerxes sent his commander Hydarnes that evening, with the men under his command, the Immortals, to encircle the Allies via the path.^ He sent for Demaratus, the Spartan refugeeWhen Demaratus came, Xerxes related to him what the messenger had reported.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ To not alert the Spartan hoplites, Xerxes sent in his Immortals.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

^ Xerxes, who chose this way, found here a plane-tree so beautiful, that he presented it with golden ornaments, and put it under the care of one of his Immortals.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

However, he does not say who those men are.[80] .The Immortals had been bloodied on the first day, so it is possible that Hydarnes may have been given overall command of an enhanced force including what was left of the Immortals, and indeed, according to Diodorus, Hydarnes had a force of 20,000 for the mission.^ If her loss in the three days' combat was 20,000 men, as Herodotus states, yet, as that of her enemy was 4000, the proportionate advantage was on her side.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Persian troops under 100 000, while historian Hans Delbrueck claim that the Persian fighting forces may have been as small as 15,000 to 20,000 soldiers.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also consider that in a world of mano-a-mano combat, an army of 50,000 men was a formidable force, indeed.
  • "Thermopylae is a wedge issue!" - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC reason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] The path led from east of the Persian camp along the ridge of Mt. Anopaea behind the cliffs that flanked the pass. .It branched with one path leading to Phocis and the other down to the Malian Gulf at Alpenus, first town of Locris.^ Field Marshal Sam "Bahadhur" Manekshaw (later would lead India in 1971 - the first surrender after WW II) was one of the heroes of the Burma front.
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

[82]

Third Day

Leonidas at Thermopylae, by Jacques Louis David, 1814. This is a juxtaposition of various historical and legendary elements from the Battle of Thermopylae.
.At daybreak on the third day, the Phocians guarding the path above Thermopylae became aware of the outflanking Persian column by the rustling of oak leaves.^ On the morning of the third day, the Persian elites of 10,000 strong collided with the Spartans like a bullet impacting Kevlar.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

.Herodotus says that they jumped up and were greatly amazed.^ We know that the Greeks found out in the pre-dawn hours, or somewhat earlier than that; let’s say around 3:00 a.m., roughly, what they were up against.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[83] .Hydarnes was perhaps just as amazed to see them hastily arming themselves as they were to see him and the Persian forces.^ As is usually the case, however, with allied or confederate forces, they were not well agreed among themselves.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The timeline of 480, B.C., you can see that in May and June the Persians crossed the Hellespont, or the Dardanelles, which they literally bridged with two bridges of boats.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When they heard these words, the Persians were full of joy, and, falling down at the feet of Xerxes, made obeisance to him.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[84] .He feared that they were Spartans but was informed by Ephialtes that they were not.^ Ephialtes of Trachis informed Xerxes of an alternative path in which he could get behind the Spartans.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

^ That's the way Spartans were raised , they lived under a system depending on the Helots , which were in a much bigger number of the spartans , which basically made they live on fear upon the helots , fearing their bigger number and possible revolts .
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

[83] .The Phocians retreated to a nearby hill to make their stand (assuming that the Persians had come to attack them).^ And we know when the Persians retreated northwards after the Battle of Salamis, there weren’t any locals to be found because they had all learned their lessons and they had fled to the hills because they knew the Persians were coming.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[83] .However, not wishing to be delayed, the Persians gave them a volley of arrows, before passing by to continue with their encirclement of the main Allied force.^ However, the remaining Spartans and a noteworthy number of Thebans remained behind to hold off the Persian force.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

^ As is usually the case, however, with allied or confederate forces, they were not well agreed among themselves.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Surveying the advantage that the terrain and size of their force gave to the Persians, the Greek generals hesitated.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

[83]
Learning from a runner that the Phocians had not held the path, Leonidas called a council of war at dawn.[85] Some of the Allies argued for withdrawal, but Leonidas resolved to stay at the pass with the Spartans.[85] .Many of the Allied contingents then either chose to withdraw (without orders), or were ordered to leave by Leonidas (Herodotus admits that there is some doubt about which actually happened).^ So many battles you don’t hear as much about, maybe since most happened in BC? Less written records?
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Is there any well made India documentaries about the 'feats' of the Indian army?...or do we have to wait some white to guy to make one!
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the battle of Thermopylae was over, Xerxes sent for Demaratus, and inquired of him how many more such soldiers there were in Greece as Leonidas and his three hundred Spartans.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[85][86] .The contingent of 700 Thespians, led by their general Demophilus, refused to leave with the other Greeks but committed themselves to the fight.^ Themistocles only won half the battle because he then had to persuade the other Greeks to fight at Salamis.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (Oh, and the Greeks got to squabble and fight amongst themselves again.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The warrior city, Sparta, led the Greeks, some thousands, at Thermopylae, were betrayed by some, yet stayed and fought for not only for themselves but the rest of Greece.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[87] Also present were the 400 Thebans, and probably the helots that had accompanied the Spartans.[84]
Leonidas's actions have been the subject of much discussion. .It is commonly stated that the Spartans were obeying the laws of Sparta by not retreating, but it seems it was actually the failure to retreat from Thermopylae that gave rise to the notion that Spartans never retreated.^ "Spartans never retreated, Spartans never surrendered": Typical Greek fairy tale.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now it may seem paradoxical, but the warlike Spartans were actually militarily conservative.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How did thousands of Spartans survive 26 lost battles, if they "never retreat or surrender"?!
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88] It is also possible that recalling the words of the Oracle, Leonidas was committed to sacrifice his life in order to save Sparta. .However, since the prophecy was specific to him, this seems a poor reason to commit 1,500 other men to a fight to the death.^ Your own eyes saw the preparations of Darius against these men; but death came upon him, and balked his hopes of revenge.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[88] .The most likely theory is that Leonidas chose to form a rearguard so that the other Allied contingents could get away.^ What Sparta essentially formed was a league, and they chose their allies strategically.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thermopylae and accounts of battles like it are important because they form the Western Military tradition which generally beats the pants off other traditions.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88][89] .If all the troops had retreated, the open ground beyond the pass would have allowed the Persian cavalry to run the Greeks down.^ The Spartans held their ground in the 30 meter-wide pass as the King of Persian pelted them with stones, proverbially speaking.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

^ Sure, he came down in favour of the Greeks but it's not hagiography - and is anyone seriously suggesting that the Persians come to Greece as aggressors?
  • The 300 movie is a gloriously camp video game | Film | guardian.co.uk 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ A troop of this cavalry had invaded Phoois, and the Phocaeans, conscious of their inability to resist them in open war, contrived to entrap them in the following manner.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.If they had all remained at the pass, they would have been encircled and would eventually have all been killed.^ If all went well, they would by this time have virtually by-passed the 14th Army and left Stilwell out on a limb.
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If they were not strong enough or fast enough during agoge they would be killed in training.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

^ They would spar with each other with training weapons brutally, sometimes to the point of killing one another.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

[84] .By covering the retreat, and continuing to block the pass, Leonidas could save more than 3,000 men, who would be able to fight at some later point.^ The Japanese had lost more than 5,000 men in the Kohima area fighting.
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be nothing more than a mob.
  • "Thermopylae is a wedge issue!" - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC reason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dreams that wander to and fro among mankind, I will tell thee of what nature they are- I who have seen so many more years than thou.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[89] The Thebans have also been the subject of some discussion. Herodotus suggests that they were brought to the battle as hostages to ensure the good behaviour of Thebes.[41] .However, as Plutarch long ago pointed out, if they were hostages, why not send them away with the rest of the Allies?^ Penismightier 08-19-2007, 01:13 PM ummm....why would they write out the hypocrisy?
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Colossus24 08-18-2007, 03:02 PM ummm....why would they write out the hypocrisy?
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

[88] .The likelihood is that these were the Theban 'loyalists', who unlike the majority of the fellow citizens, objected to Persian domination.^ As this had a wondrous sumptuousness, he said, f "By Heaven, the Persian was a greedy fellow who, when he had all this, came after our barley-cake."
  • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[88] .They thus probably came to Thermopylae of their own free will, and stayed at the end because they could not return to Thebes if the Persians conquered Boeotia.^ Leonidas and the 300 probably actually did believe that they were free men standing against a tyrant, and in some respects, they were right.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When someone inquired of him how they could become able to conquer the Thracians, he said, "If we should make the best man our general."
  • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Messenian Helots, residents of the westernmost finger of the Peloponnese, had once been free citizens of their own polis; they were conquered by Sparta in colonial wars of the eighth and seventh centuries b.c.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

[84] .The Thespians, resolved as they were not to submit to Xerxes, faced the destruction of their city if the Persians took Boeotia.^ When they heard these words, the Persians were full of joy, and, falling down at the feet of Xerxes, made obeisance to him.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They replied- "God is foreshowing to the Greeks the destruction of their cities; for the sun foretells for them, and the moon for us."
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They had attacked Persian cities, set fire to Persian temples, disrupted key trade routes, and pirated merchant ships crossing the Bosphorus.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88] .However, this alone does not explain the fact that they remained; the remainder of Thespiae was successfully evacuated before the Persians arrived there.^ They were eager, therefoie, to press on, and overtake the Persian galleys in their flight, or, if this could not be done, : reach the Hellespont before Xerxes should arrive there, and intercept his passage by destroying the bridge.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Once the Athenians knew that the Persian cavalry wasn’t there, they weren’t particularly afraid of the Persian infantry because Greek had heavy-armed infantry; the Persians only had light-armed infantry.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the fact remains that one does not reflect upon the other.
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

[88] .It seems that the Thespians volunteered to remain as a simple act of self-sacrifice, all the more amazing since their contingent represented every single hoplite the city could muster.^ At Salamis, where they need every single body they can get, I suspect it was more like 16 and 59.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And they never did start a war , so Some Spartans could have profits with it , in Rebuilding the city and all .
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

[90] .This seems to have been a particularly Thespian trait - on at least two other occasions in later history, a Thespian force would commit itself to a fight to the death.^ At some point all these people were the same people, or at least some of those folks conquered others and forced their language.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They seemed awfully eager to not fight in the gap itself!
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There will be two many ships in your armada and they will simply bump into each other and the result will be history’s biggest naval traffic jam.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[88]
.At dawn Xerxes made libations, pausing to allow the Immortals sufficient time to descend the mountain, and then began his advance.^ Xerxes at this time also made an alliance with Carthage .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Xerxes, after this, made preparations to advance to Abydos, where the bridge across the Hellespont from Asia to Europe was lately finished.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They descended toward the defile, and took up a position on the lower declivities of the mountain, which enabled them to command the pass below : there they paused, and awaited Xerxes's orders.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[72] .The Allies this time sallied forth from the wall to meet the Persians in the wider part of the pass in an attempt to slaughter as many Persians as they could.^ Four times the body, having been taken by the Persians, was retaken by the Greeks : at last the latter retreated, bearing the dead body with them past their intrenchment, until they gained a small eminence in the rear of it, at a point where the pass was wider.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The only thing they could do would be wear out your arm by making you stab them one at a time.
  • "Thermopylae is a wedge issue!" - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC reason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seeing that his job was done and that they could not possibly defeat the Persian navy they headed back to Athens and evacuated the city.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

[72] .They fought with spears until every spear was shattered and then switched to xiphē (short swords).^ The Greek long spears gave them a tactical advantage over the Persian short spears and swords, and the battle soon turned into a slaughter.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spartans were faint and exhausted with their desperate efforts, and were bleeding from the wounds they had received ; their swords and spears were broken to pieces, their leader and nearly all their company were slain.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[91] .In this struggle, Herodotus states that two brothers of Xerxes fell: Abrocomes and Hyperanthes.^ Things continued substantially in this state for one or two days longer, when one morning a Greek countryman appeared at the tent of Xerxes, and asked an audience of the king.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[91] .Leonidas also died in the assault, and the two sides fought over his body, the Greeks taking possession.^ What exactly happened with Leonidas's body when he died ?
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fiction: "Brave" Greeks tried to save Leonidas body.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By taking possession of this island, and stationing galleys in the vicinity of it, all which was done secretly in the night, the Persians cut off all possibility of escape for the Greeks in that direction.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[91] As the Immortals approached, the Allies withdrew and took a stand on a hill behind the wall.[92] .The Thebans "moved away from their companions, and with hands upraised, advanced toward the barbarians..." (Rawlinson translation), but a few were slain before their surrender was accepted.^ Very few of the Greeks were either slain or wounded; and it seemed as if the further advance of a million of men was to be stopped by a force less than a hundredth part of their number.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[92] The king later had the Theban prisoners branded with the royal mark.[93] Of the remaining defenders, Herodotus says:
"Here they defended themselves to the last, those who still had swords using them, and the others resisting with their hands and teeth."[92]
.Tearing down part of the wall, Xerxes ordered the hill surrounded, and the Persians rained down arrows until every last Greek was dead.^ So, in attempt to killing Xerxes, Greeks actually had to leave phalanx formation, attack Persian lines, survive Persian arrow assault, and break true few hundred meters of numerous Persian soldiers and Immorals.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greek army had made its great stand at Thermopylae, and Xerxes was fast coming down the country with all his forces to endeavor to force a passage there.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ When they heard these words, the Persians were full of joy, and, falling down at the feet of Xerxes, made obeisance to him.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[92] .In 1939, archaeologist Spyridon Marinatos, excavating at Thermopylae, found large numbers of Persian bronze arrowheads on Kolonos Hill, changing the identification of the hill on which the Allies died from a smaller one nearer the wall.^ I think the reasons – the two reasons they were diffident in 480 were, one, they didn’t expect the Persians to make the same mistake twice and, two, the numbers were totally disparate.
  • The Battle of Salamis: Ancient Lessons for Modern Statecraft 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It's also the reason 300 Spartans with 700 Thespian allies were able to take down 20,000 Persian soldiers before they died.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Persian defensive weapon was a large wicker shield, compared to the heavy bronze shield of the phalanx.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[94]
.The pass at Thermopylae was thus opened to the Persian army.^ Battle_of_Thermopylae In the Battle of Thermopylae of 480 BC (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/480_BC) an alliance of Greek city-states fought the invading Persian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_Empire) army in a mountain pass.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Pass of Thermopylae was now hi Xerxes; possession, the way was open befoi e him to all that portion of the great territory which lay north of the Peloponnesus.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ So it's most probably Persians spent more time passing thru Thermopylae then fighting those Greek enemies.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Herodotus, at the cost to the Persians of up to 20,000 fatalities.^ If her loss in the three days' combat was 20,000 men, as Herodotus states, yet, as that of her enemy was 4000, the proportionate advantage was on her side.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Persian troops under 100 000, while historian Hans Delbrueck claim that the Persian fighting forces may have been as small as 15,000 to 20,000 soldiers.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forty-nine nations, according to Herodotus, served under his standard; and their contingents made up 5,283,220 men; 1,700,000 of whom were able-bodied foot-soldiers, and 80,000 of them horsemen.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[95] .The Allied rearguard meanwhile, was annihilated, with a probable loss of 2,000 men, including those killed on the first two days of battle.^ It was probably the first time napoleon has faced such resistance in a battle.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the beginning of the day, Antigonus had not been able to wear plate armor; this disadvantage was unexpectedly used by an anonymous allied peltast, who killed him with a well-thrown javelin.
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Afrikaners held off 10,000 Zulu, sustaining only 3 wounded men while killing thousands of Zulu.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[96] .Herodotus says at one point that 4,000 Allies died, but assuming that the Phocians guarding the track were not killed during the battle (as Herodotus implies), this would be almost every Allied soldier present (by Herodotus's own estimates), and this number is probably too high.^ AM Rorkes drift, tha alao, battle of Arnhem...those are all rather intresting to me but one of the best battles id say would be Agincourt..probably one of the best English victories ever.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the numbers of his army approached even the lowest estimate that has been formed of them, it is not too much to say that many weeks must have been spent in this operation.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ As he was about to engage in the naval battle at Arginusae, Hermon the pilot said that it would be well to sail away, f for the ships of the Athenians were many more in number; but Callicratidas said, "And what of that?
  • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[97]

Aftermath

.When the body of Leonidas was recovered by the Persians, Xerxes, in a rage against Leonidas, ordered that the head be cut off and the body crucified.^ Some say he had his head cut off then crucified.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Xerxes I , I think even you admit he was known for displays of rage , and as I read : "Although it was a unusal action by the persians , when the greeks were killed in the last day , after the denials of surrender and given the loss of so many persian soldiers , Xerxes's hatred towards Leonidas was such that he ordered the dead king to have his head chopped and his body crucified " And about so many " unknowns " , Tell me something if you don't know really how many days did the battle last , or how many persians were killed .......
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By taking possession of this island, and stationing galleys in the vicinity of it, all which was done secretly in the night, the Persians cut off all possibility of escape for the Greeks in that direction.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.Herodotus observes that this was very uncommon for the Persians, as they had the habit of treating "valiant warriors" with great honor (the example of Pytheas, captured off Skiathos before the Battle of Artemisium strengthens this suggestion).^ King Darius the Great would not set foot on Greek soil again before he died around 484 BC. The term ‘marathon’ is literally linked to the Battle of Marathon.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

^ Herodotus you must notice that Xerxes presented like a great man and magnificent king(ruler of aryan and not aryan), the persian presented like great wariors,very brave and very knightly soldiers.And i write only a few examples.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THen durin the battle they had the persians completly blocked and thousands were dyin.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

[92][98] .However, Xerxes was known for his rage, for instance, when he had the Hellespont whipped because it would not obey him.^ At the last however he was forced to give way, and did as Xerxes bade him; but first he spake thus to the king (SS 1.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Medes, however, Xerxes supposed, would find no difficulty in executing his orders.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[28] After the Persians' departure, the Allies collected their dead and buried them on the hill. .After the Persian invasion ended, a stone lion was erected at Thermopylae to commemorate Leonidas.^ Thermopylae, in helping to stop the Persian invasion, did help to keep the new idea of democracy alive.
  • The 300 movie is a gloriously camp video game | Film | guardian.co.uk 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The goal is to defeat the Persian army at Thermopylae and end the second Persian invasion of Greece.
  • Godswar Online : Revisiting Thermopylae - Godswar Online for PC at MMORPG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

^ Thermopylae is where 300 Spartans, led by King Leonidas, fought a valiant battle to keep the million-strong Persian army at bay.
  • Godswar Online : Revisiting Thermopylae - Godswar Online for PC at MMORPG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

[99] .A full forty years after the battle, Leonidas' bones were returned to Sparta where he was buried again with full honors; funeral games were held every year in his memory.^ So it was a preety good bet that a number of heroes would return from every battle (on both sides), and that warfare often wasn't such a bad thing.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91][100]
.With Thermopylae now opened to the Persian army, the continuation of the blockade at Artemisium by the Allied fleet became irrelevant.^ Thermopylae is where 300 Spartans, led by King Leonidas, fought a valiant battle to keep the million-strong Persian army at bay.
  • Godswar Online : Revisiting Thermopylae - Godswar Online for PC at MMORPG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]
  • Godswar Online - Revisiting Thermopylae - MMORPG.com - Your Headquarters for Online Multiplayer Games, GWO, RPG Online Games, Online Role Playing Free Games! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

^ The fleet, it is true, has now suffered extensive damage ; but we must remember that it is upon the army, not upon the fleet, that our hopes and expectations mainly depend.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not long before the greater part of the Persian fleet became a mere helpless mass of shattered or damaged vessels.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.The simultaneous naval Battle of Artemisium had been a tactical stalemate, and the Allied navy was able to retreat in good order to the Saronic Gulf where they helped to ferry the remaining Athenian citizens across to the island of Salamis.^ The Battle of Salamis, was a decisive naval battle between the Greek city-states and Persia in September, 480 BC in the strait between Piraeus and Salamis Island, an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens.
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The battle was for a short time doubtful; but soon the superiority of Greek naval tactics began to tell.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The government of the island immediately raised a very large sum of money, and went with it to Themistocles, one of the most influ- ential of the Athenian leaders, and offered it to him if he would contrive any way to persuade the commanders of the fleet to remain and give the Persians battle where they were.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[89]
.Following Thermopylae, the Persian army proceeded to burn and sack the Boeotian cities which had not submitted to the Persians, Plataea and Thespiae; before marching on the now evacuated city of Athens.^ Complete the work which thou hast now in hand, and then, when the pride of Egypt is brought low, lead an army against Athens.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A rapid march through Phocis and Boeotia brought Xerxes to Athens, soon after the Athenians, knowing that resistance would be vain, had evacuated it.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The Persians ultimately defeated the small Spartan and mixed Greek forces before marching on Athens.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

[101] .Meanwhile, the Allies (for the most part Peloponnesian) prepared to defend the Isthmus of Corinth, demolishing the single road that led through it, and building a wall across it.^ The Isthmus of Corinth was west of Salamis, some fifteen miles, across the bay.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ From 483 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/483_BC) Xerxes prepared his expedition with great care: a channel was dug through the isthmus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isthmus) of the peninsula of Mount Athos (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Athos), provisions were stored in the stations on the road through Thrace (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrace), two bridges were thrown across the Hellespont (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hellespont).
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

[102] .As at Thermopylae, to make this an effective strategy required the Allied navy to stage a simultaneous blockade, barring the passage of the Persian navy across the Saronic Gulf, so that troops could not be landed directly on the Peloponnese.^ The quarrelsome Greek States faced a Persian navy four times larger than their own and an army estimated to be as large as ten times the forces the Greeks could muster .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The cattle could not be transported, they said, across the channel, and it was better that the flying population should be fed, than that the food should fall into Persian hands.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Seeing that his job was done and that they could not possibly defeat the Persian navy they headed back to Athens and evacuated the city.
  • The Battle of Thermopylae - Last Stand of the 300 - Armageddon Online Forums 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.armageddononline.org [Source type: General]

[103] .However, instead of a mere blockade, Themistocles persuaded the Allies to seek a decisive victory against the Persian fleet.^ It was not long before the greater part of the Persian fleet became a mere helpless mass of shattered or damaged vessels.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Engaging first the fleet they defeated it, and drove it ashore, after which they disembarked and gained a victory over the Persian army.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ When the day was spent, and the evening came on, it was found that the result of the battle was a Greek victory, and yet it was not a victory so decisive as to compel the Persians wholly to retire.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.Luring the Persian navy into the Straits of Salamis, the Allied fleet was able to destroy much of the Persian fleet in the Battle of Salamis, which essentially ended the threat to the Peloponnese.^ BTW, I think this is a much more suitable picture for the Battle of Salamis.
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ And the commanders of the Persian fleet, having driven the Greek squadrons in the game manner from strait to strait and from sea to sea, saw the discomfited galleys drawn up, in apparently their last place of refuge, in the Bay of Salamis, and only waiting to be captured and destroyed.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ It was an allied fleet, made up of con- tributions from various states that had finally agreed to come into the confederacy.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[104]
.Fearing that the Greeks might attack the bridges across the Hellespont and trap his army in Europe, Xerxes now retreated with much of the army back to Asia.^ Xerxes, after this, made preparations to advance to Abydos, where the bridge across the Hellespont from Asia to Europe was lately finished.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Xerxes' army crosses the Hellespont .
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The Greeks were not in accord as to how to defend against the Persian army, but Athens under Themistocles used their navy to defeat the much larger Persian navy and force King Xerxes I of Persia to retreat.
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

[105] .He left a hand picked force under Mardonius to complete the conquest the following year.^ Having lost his communication by sea with Asia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia), Xerxes was forced to retire to Sardis; the army he left in Greece under Mardonius (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mardonius) was beaten in 479 B.C. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/479_BC) at Plataea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Plataea).
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

[106] .However, under pressure from the Athenians, the Peloponnesian Allies eventually agreed to try and force Mardonius to battle, and marched on Attica.^ As is usually the case, however, with allied or confederate forces, they were not well agreed among themselves.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ A decisive factor at Kohima was the Allied forces ability to secure provisions and men into the remote battlefield including the euphemistically-named Battle of the Tennis Court .
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The whole army of 300,000 wintered in Thessaly; and Mardonius, when spring came, having vainly endeavored to detach the Athenians from the Grecian ranks, marched through Boeotia in Attica, and occupied Athens for the second time.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[107] .Mardonius retreated to Boeotia to lure the Greeks into open terrain and the two sides eventually met near the city of Plataea.^ In fact, they were very near coming into open collision Such a difference of opinion, considering the circumstances of the case, was not at all surprising.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ We speak of the retreating galleys aa Persian, because they were on the Persian side were really ships from Greek nations, who Xerxes had bribed or forced into his service.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In each range one or two vessels were omitted, on the Asiatic side, to allow boats and galleys to pass through, in order to keep the communication open.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[107] .There, at the Battle of Plataea the Greek army won a decisive victory, destroying much of the Persian army, and ending the invasion of Greece.^ Modern scholars have proposed different numbers for the invasion force, estimations based on knowledge of the Persian military systems, their logistical capabilities, the Greek countryside, and supplies available along the army's route.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greeks were not in accord as to how to defend against the Persian army, but Athens under Themistocles used their navy to defeat the much larger Persian navy and force King Xerxes I of Persia to retreat.
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Seventy thousand Greeks not only defeated but destroyed the army of 300,000 barbarians, which melted away and disappeared making no further stand anywhere.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[107] .Meanwhile, at the near-simultaneous naval Battle of Mycale they also destroyed much of the remaining Persian fleet, thereby reducing the threat of further invasions.^ They did not know in exactly what condition the Persian fleet had been left, nor how far there might be danger of a renewal of the conflict on the following day.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't think they thought it through too much further.
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sailing to Asia, they not only liberated from their Persian bondage the islands which lay along the coast, but landing their men on the continent, attacked and defeated an army of 60,000 Persians at Mycale, and destroyed the remnant of the ships that had escaped from Salamis.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[108]

Significance

.Thermopylae is arguably the most famous battle in European ancient history, repeatedly referenced in ancient, recent and contemporary culture.^ Is that not one of the 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles?
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ JFrater, I’m saddened that you missed what may possibly be the most decisive battle in ancient time- The Battle Of Agincourt.
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ I love ancient history battles to but they all seem so brutal .
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.In western culture at least, it is the Greeks who are lauded for their performance in battle.^ Regarding the Spartans, they had a profound influence on Western culture, not the least of which being that we are still talking about them, recalling their legends, tales of their valor, etc.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Joyless I guess is the word for those who don't quite seem to get the joy of the twisting of Greek and Persian cultures for fun fodder.
  • The 300 movie is a gloriously camp video game | Film | guardian.co.uk 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ "Joyless I guess is the word for those who don't quite seem to get the joy of the twisting of Greek and Persian cultures for fun fodder."
  • The 300 movie is a gloriously camp video game | Film | guardian.co.uk 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

[109]
.However, within the context of the Persian invasion, Thermopylae was undoubtedly a defeat for the Allies, and one with disastrous consequences.^ In all, it was a disastrous defeat for the Persians, and possibly one of Alexander’s finest victories.
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ I also find the one, I forget its name, where 300 Spartans defeat 1,000,000 Persians, or some other insanely large amount.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just one thing, the Persian were not stopped at Thermopylae, and went all the way to take Athens.
  • The 300 movie is a gloriously camp video game | Film | guardian.co.uk 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

[110] .Whatever the Allies may have intended, it was presumably not their strategy to surrender all of Boeotia and Attica to the Persians.^ Thou knowest that Cyrus the son of Cambyses reduced and made tributary to the Persians all the race of the Ionians, except only those of Attica.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The History of Herodotus by Herodotus 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The key of Northern Greece was won, and Phocis, Locris, Boeotia, Attica, and the Megarid lay open to the Persian army.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[62] .Thus, modern portrayals of Thermopylae as a successful delaying action, which gave the Allied navy time to prepare for the Battle of Salamis,[111][112] or suggestions that the Persian casualties were so severe that they lost all heart (i.e., the Persians won a Pyrrhic victory), are probably not sustainable.^ Of course they all died, But the Persians lost the war.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thermopylae itself was won by the Persians.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ AM Rorkes drift, tha alao, battle of Arnhem...those are all rather intresting to me but one of the best battles id say would be Agincourt..probably one of the best English victories ever.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[62] .The theory that Thermopylae bought the Allies time to prepare for Salamis ignores the fact that the Allied navy was at the same time fighting and sustaining losses at the Battle of Artemisium; moreover, compared to the probable gap between Thermopylae and Salamis, the length of time for which the Allied army held up the Persian army was not particularly significant.^ Mardonius attacked at once, and prevented the junction of the two allies, so that two distinct and separate engagements went on at the same time.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Around the same time the naval battle took place, also, by the way, led by the Spartans, even though they were much a smaller component of the armada.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another great war was the battle at Troy, but historians are still fighting over if Homers the Illiad is fact or fiction.
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

[113] .It seems clear that the Allied strategy was to hold off the Persians at Thermopylae and Artemisium, and that by failing to do so, they suffered a severe defeat.^ While the greeks suffered numerous defeats they were never truly conquered by the persians.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fiction: Persians failed to kill Greeks so they finished them with arrows.
  • "300" the Movie, Battle of Thermopylae - Facts & Fictions! (sticky please!) - Iran Defense Forum 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC www.irandefence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No mention is made in 300 of the fact that at the same time a vastly outnumbered fleet led by Athenians was holding off the Persians in the straits adjacent to Thermopylae, or that Athenians would soon save all of Greece by destroying the Persian fleet at Salamis.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] The Greek position at Thermopylae, despite being massively out-numbered, was near-impregnable.[89] If the position had been held for even slightly longer, the Persians may have had to retreat for lack of food and water.[63] .Thus, despite the heavy losses, forcing the pass was a clear Persian victory, both tactically and strategically.^ The Greeks were defeated by Xerxes army, though at a great cost to the Persians, thus resulting in a pyrrhic victory (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrrhic_victory) for the Persians.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This point being once attained, it would be easy, Ephialtes said, for the Persian forces to descend into the pass below the Greeks, and thus to sur- round them and shut them in, and that the con quest of them would then be easy.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The long spears, large shields, and heavy armor of the Greeks, their skilful tactics, and steady array, were far more than a match for the inferior equipments and discipline of the Persian forces.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[89] .The successful retreat of the bulk of the Greek troops, though morale-boosting, was in no sense a victory, though it did take some of the sheen off the Persian victory.^ The boat pushed off stealthily from Themistocles's galley, and, taking care to keep clear of the Greek ships which lay at anchor near them, went southward toward the Persian fleet.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the officers thus executed were Greeks, brutally slaughtered for not being successful in fighting, by compulsion, against their own countrymen.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ By taking possession of this island, and stationing galleys in the vicinity of it, all which was done secretly in the night, the Persians cut off all possibility of escape for the Greeks in that direction.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[89]
The fame of Thermopylae is thus principally derived, not from its effect on the outcome of the war, but for the inspirational example it set.[113][114] .Thermopylae is famous because of the doomed heroism of the rearguard, who, facing certain death, remained at the pass.^ That story line was important, and Thermopylae was important, not just for "who won the war, daddy" line but for all the underlying reasons, because winning wars often have long term consequences.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[109] Ever since, the events of Thermopylae have been the source of effusive praise from many sources; e.g.
"...the fairest sister-victories which the Sun has ever seen, yet they would never dare to compare their combined glory with the glorious defeat of King Leonidas and his men" [115]
A second reason is the example it set of free men, fighting for their country and their freedom:
"So almost immediately, contemporary Greeks saw Thermopylae as a critical moral and culture lesson. In universal terms, a small, free people had willingly outfought huge numbers of imperial subjects who advanced under the lash. More specifically, the Western idea that soldiers themselves decide where, how, and against whom they will fight was contrasted against the Eastern notion of despotism and monarchy — freedom proving the stronger idea as the more courageous fighting of the Greeks at Thermopylae, and their later victories at Salamis and Plataea attested."[116]
.Whilst this paradigm of "free men" outfighting "slaves" can be seen as a rather sweeping over-generalization (there are plenty of counter-examples), it is nevertheless true that many commentators have used Thermopylae to illustrate this point.^ Your own link shows that the Andaman Islands were used as a penal colony, that many people died there - from mistreatment and being worked too hard.
  • The Battle of Kohima - Sepia Mutiny 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When I pointed out that there was plenty of ripped shirtless abage for her, she just rolled her eyes.
  • "Thermopylae is a wedge issue!" - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC reason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the battle of Thermopylae was over, Xerxes sent for Demaratus, and inquired of him how many more such soldiers there were in Greece as Leonidas and his three hundred Spartans.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[62]
.Militarily, although the battle was actually not decisive in the context of the Persian invasion, Thermopylae is also of some significance, on the basis of the first two days of fighting.^ Thermopylae is where 300 Spartans, led by King Leonidas, fought a valiant battle to keep the million-strong Persian army at bay.
  • Godswar Online - Revisiting Thermopylae - MMORPG.com - Your Headquarters for Online Multiplayer Games, GWO, RPG Online Games, Online Role Playing Free Games! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

^ Reply Oh, and it wont due to forget the Spartan led Battle of Plataea which actually broke the Persians and chased their remnent out of Greece.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When, at Mantineia, he was not permitted to risk a decisive battle with the enemy, who outnumbered his men, he said, "He who would rule over many must fight with many."
  • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The performance of the defenders is used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers.^ The performance of the defenders at the battle of Thermopylae is often used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment and good use of terrain to maximise an army's potential, as well as a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

[117]

Legacy

Monuments

There are several monuments around the battlefield of Thermopylae.

Epitaph of Simonides

Epitaph with Simonides' epigram
Simonides composed a well-known epigram, which was engraved as an epitaph on a commemorative stone placed on top of the burial mound of the Spartans at Thermopylae. It is also the hill on which the last of them died.[56] The original stone has not been preserved. Instead the epitaph was engraved on a new stone erected in 1955. The text from Herodotus is:[56]
Ὦ ξεῖν', ἀγγέλλειν Λακεδαιμονίοις ὅτι τῇδε
κείμεθα, τοῖς κείνων ῥήμασι πειθόμενοι.
Ō ksein', angellein Lakedaimoniois hoti tēide
keimetha tois keinōn rhēmasi peithomenoi.
An ancient alternative substitutes πειθόμενοι νομίμοις for ῥήμασι πειθόμενοι; i.e., substitutes "laws" for "sayings." The sayings in question are not personal but refer to official and binding phrases.[118]
The form of this ancient Greek poetry is an elegiac couplet. Some English renderings are given in the table below.
Translation Notes
Go tell the Spartans, thou who passest by,
That here, obedient to their laws, we lie.[119]
William Lisle Bowles
Stranger, tell the Spartans that we behaved
as they would wish us to, and are buried here.[120]
William Golding
Stranger! To Sparta say, her faithful band
Here lie in death, remembering her command.[121]
Francis Hodgson
Stranger, report this word, we pray, to the Spartans, that lying
Here in this spot we remain, faithfully keeping their laws.[122]
George Campbell Macaulay
Stranger, bear this message to the Spartans,
that we lie here obedient to their laws.[123]
William Roger Paton
Go tell the Spartans, stranger passing by,
that here obedient to their laws we lie.[124]
Steven Pressfield
Go, stranger, and to Lacedaemon tell
That here, obeying her behests, we fell.[125]
George Rawlinson
Go, way-farer, bear news to Sparta's town
that here, their bidding done, we laid us down.[126]
Cyril E. Robinson
Go tell the Spartans, you who read:
We took their orders, and lie here dead.[127]
Aubrey de Sélincourt
Friend, tell Lacedaemon
Here we lie
Obedient to our orders.[128]
William Shepherd
Oh Stranger, tell the Spartans
That we lie here obedient to their word.[129]
From the 1962 film The 300 Spartans
Stranger, go tell the Spartans
.That we lie here
True, even to the death
To our Spartan way of life.
^ Around the same time the naval battle took place, also, by the way, led by the Spartans, even though they were much a smaller component of the armada.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Spartans were courageous in defending and attempting to spread their way of life.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our freedom and way of life today is a direct consequence of the 300 Spartans' fight at Thermopylae.
  • The 300 movie is a gloriously camp video game | Film | guardian.co.uk 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

[130]
J. Rufus Fears
Go tell the Spartans, passerby:
That here, by Spartan law, we lie.[131]
Frank Miller
John Ruskin expressed the importance of this ideal to Western civilization as follows:
Also obedience in its highest form is not obedience to a constant and compulsory law, but a persuaded or voluntary yielded obedience to an issued command .... .His name who leads the armies of Heaven is "Faithful and True"... and all deeds which are done in alliance with these armies ...^ Xerxes, who witnessed all these things from among the group of officers around him upon the eminence, was kept continually in a state of excitement and irritation.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Like I said before Sparta was away from being Heaven on Earth , but also like I said , for any who tries to compare Sparta , or the 300 whatever with the US army .....
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And all of the people you named had way more support to lead their campaigns.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

are essentially deeds of faith, which therefore ... is at once the source and the substance of all known deed, rightly so called ... as set forth in the last word of the noblest group of words ever, so far as .I know, uttered by simple man concerning his practice, being the final testimony of the leaders of a great practical nation ...^ When Xerxes came at last to the body of Leonidas, and was told that that was the man who had been the leader of the band, he gloried over it in great exultation and triumph.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[the epitaph in Greek][132]

Leonidas monument

.Additionally, there is a modern monument at the site, called the "Leonidas Monument", in honor of the Spartan king.^ Why do you Leonidas is working to build the walls because he WAS a Spartan FIRST and King second!
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There they fought, maintaining their position desperately, day aftei day, as long as Leonidas and his Spartans held their ground on the shore.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ After the battle of Thermopylae was over, Xerxes sent for Demaratus, and inquired of him how many more such soldiers there were in Greece as Leonidas and his three hundred Spartans.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

It features a bronze statue of Leonidas. A sign, under the statue, reads simply: "Μολών λαβέ" ("Come and get them!"). The metope below depicts battle scenes. .The two marble statues on the left and the right of the monument represent, respectively, the river Eurotas and Mount Taygetos, famous landmarks of Sparta.^ In hoplitic battles, the two sides were usually stronger than the center because either they were the weakest point (right side) or the strongest point (left side).
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

Thespian monument

.In 1997, a second monument was officially unveiled by the Greek government, dedicated to the 700 Thespians who fought with the Spartans.^ It's also the reason 300 Spartans with 700 Thespian allies were able to take down 20,000 Persian soldiers before they died.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just the fact that, inspite of knowing the rest of the army would not be coming, the 300 Spartans fought anyway to save the Greek cities from destruction.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PM On August 11 480 BC King Leonidas his 300 Spartans and 700 Greek Patriots fought on the last day of the Battle of Thermopylae!!!!
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

The monument is made of marble and features a bronze statue depicting the god Eros, who was worshiped in ancient Thespiae. Under the statue, a sign reads "In memory of the seven hundred Thespians".
A plate, below the statue, explains its symbolism:
  • The headless male figure symbolizes the anonymous sacrifice of the 700 Thespians to their country.
  • The outstretched chest symbolizes the struggle, the gallantry, the strength, the bravery and the courage.
  • The open wing symbolizes the victory, the glory, the soul, the spirit and the freedom.
  • The broken wing symbolizes the voluntary sacrifice and death.
  • The naked body symbolizes Eros, the most important god of the ancient Thespians, the god of creation, beauty and life.
The monument to the Thespians is placed beside the one to the Spartans.

Associated legends

.Herodotus's colourful account of the battle has provided us with many apocryphal incidents and conversations away from the main historical events.^ Also keep in mind that the one person whose historic information we often depend regarding this period in world events is that of Herodotus, who was Ionian (Greek)...
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have generally avoided describing the actual events of the battles in order to present the overall historical impact.
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.These accounts are obviously not verifiable, but they form an integral part of the legend of the battle.^ Only Turkish books would say that, because it is common knowledge that they did not win the battle on their own, but because of the horrible planning on the part of the ANZACs.
  • most interesting battle ever [Archive] - TeenSpot.com - Teen Message Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.teenspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thermopylae and accounts of battles like it are important because they form the Western Military tradition which generally beats the pants off other traditions.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They often demonstrate the Laconic speech (and wit) of the Spartans to good effect.^ The special effects are, as I've noted to my wife on other occasions for other movies, so good that they aren't special anymore.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For instance, Plutarch recounts in his Sayings of Spartan Women that upon his departure, Leonidas's wife Gorgo asked what she should do if he did not return; to which Leonidas replied, "Marry a good man and have good children."[133]
.It is reported that, upon arriving at Thermopylae, the Persian sent a mounted scout to reconnoiter.^ The news that the Pass of Thermopylae had been carried, and that, in addition to the peril with which the Athenians were threatened by the fleet on the side of the the whole Persian army was coming down upon them by land.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.The Greeks allowed him to come up to the camp, observe them, and depart.^ Thus far had the Greeks allowed the invader to penetrate their country without offering him any resistance.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.When the scout reported to Xerxes the size of the Greek force and that the Spartans were indulging in calisthenics and combing their long hair, Xerxes found the reports laughable.^ In short, the Greek writer says that the Dorians, the northerners that the Spartans descended from, probably did have relatively light skin and hair.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greek army had made its great stand at Thermopylae, and Xerxes was fast coming down the country with all his forces to endeavor to force a passage there.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ He sent for Demaratus, the Spartan refugeeWhen Demaratus came, Xerxes related to him what the messenger had reported.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.Seeking the counsel of Demaratus, an exiled Spartan king in his retinue, Xerxes was told that the Spartans were preparing for battle and that it was their custom to adorn their hair when they were about to risk their lives.^ When the Spartans when to Delphi they where told that either a Spartan King falls or Sparta falls!
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leonidas/Spartans: They have lost the Battle of Thermopylae and the 300 lay dead.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I was just amazed that they portrayed quite a bit about the Spartan upbringing accurately.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

.Demaratus called them "the bravest men in Greece" and warned the Great King that they intended to dispute the pass.^ These men were secretly pleased to hear her uttering sentiments by which they confidently believed that she would excite the anger of the king ; and wholly lose her advantageous position.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ With Xerxes, the Persian God-King, determined to conquer Greece, all Leonidas and his men could hope to do was put up a good fight.
  • Godswar Online : Revisiting Thermopylae - Godswar Online for PC at MMORPG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

^ The bridge of Xerxes was a high-road, as AEschylus calls it along, which men, horses, and vehicles might pass with as much comfort and facility as they could move on shore.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

He emphasized that he had tried to warn Xerxes earlier in the campaign, but the king had refused to believe him. .He added that if Xerxes ever managed to subdue the Spartans, "there is no other nation in all the world which will venture to lift a hand in their defence".^ I don’y know a lot about this stuff, but were there no world-changing battles fought in the far-east?
  • 10 Most Decisive Ancient Battles - Listverse 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ In the night the fleet, in obedience to the or- ders which Xerxes had given them, abandoned their bridge and all their other undertakings, B.C. 480.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ There were others who were jealous of the influence which Artemisia enjoyed, and envious of the favoi with which they knew that Xerxes regarded her.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

[134]
Herodotus also describes the reception of a Persian embassy by Leonidas. .The ambassador told Leonidas that Xerxes would offer him the kingship of all Greece if he joined with Xerxes.^ Since he offers, of his own accord, to remain and undertake to complete the subjugation of Greece, you can, very safely to yourself, allow him to make the experiment.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Reply "or that Athenians would soon save all of Greece by destroying the Persian fleet at Salamis."
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Pass of Thermopylae was now hi Xerxes; possession, the way was open befoi e him to all that portion of the great territory which lay north of the Peloponnesus.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.Leonidas answered: "If you had any knowledge of the noble things of life, you would refrain from coveting others' possessions; but for me to die for Greece is better than to be the sole ruler over the people of my race."[135] Then the ambassador asked him more forcefully to surrender their arms.^ But he wrote in reply, "If you had any knowledge of the noble things of life, you would refrain from coveting others' possessions; but for me to die for Greece is better than to be the sole ruler over the people of my race."
  • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Archidamus, the son of Agesilaus, when Philip, after the battle of Chaeroneia, wrote him a somewhat haughty letter, wrote in reply, f "If you should measure your own shadow, you would not find that it has become any greater than before you were victorious."
  • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To think that when this man was your enemy you could not punish him for his desertion c but now that he has become your friend, you would put him to death!"
  • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

To this Leonidas gave his famous answer: Μολὼν λαβέ (pronounced [moˈlɔːn laˈbe]) "Come and get them".[136]
Such Laconic bravado doubtlessly helped to maintain morale. Herodotus writes that when Dienekes, a Spartan soldier, was informed that Persian arrows would be so numerous as "to block out the sun", he retorted, unconcerned; "So much the better...then we shall fight our battle in the shade."[137]
.After the battle, Xerxes was curious as to what the Greeks had been trying to do (presumably because they had had so few men) and had some Arcadian deserters interrogated in his presence.^ The reason the Spartans were able to train to such a high level is because they enslaved other Greeks.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American founders saw the Greek city-state alliance as quite analogous to the kind of confederacy they were trying to create.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very few of the Greeks were either slain or wounded; and it seemed as if the further advance of a million of men was to be stopped by a force less than a hundredth part of their number.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.The answer was that all the other men were participating in the Olympic Games.^ He forbade the execution, and directed, on the other hand, that the men should be conducted through all his encampments, and be allowet.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.When Xerxes asked what was the prize for the winner, the answer was "an olive-wreath". Upon hearing this, Tigranes, a Persian general, said: "Good heavens, Mardonius, what kind of men are these that you have pitted against us?^ With Xerxes, the Persian God-King, determined to conquer Greece, all Leonidas and his men could hope to do was put up a good fight.
  • Godswar Online - Revisiting Thermopylae - MMORPG.com - Your Headquarters for Online Multiplayer Games, GWO, RPG Online Games, Online Role Playing Free Games! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

^ Yeah but u mentioned " Still that's more accurate then 300 " But now I ask again , since all we say and read are biased version of the fact , could you answer me these , on the persian view of the event : -How many days did the battle lasted ?
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These men were secretly pleased to hear her uttering sentiments by which they confidently believed that she would excite the anger of the king ; and wholly lose her advantageous position.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

.It is not for riches that they contend but for honor!"
(Godley translation) or otherwise "Ye Gods, Mardonius, what men have you brought us to fight against?^ With Xerxes, the Persian God-King, determined to conquer Greece, all Leonidas and his men could hope to do was put up a good fight.
  • Godswar Online - Revisiting Thermopylae - MMORPG.com - Your Headquarters for Online Multiplayer Games, GWO, RPG Online Games, Online Role Playing Free Games! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

^ Some 2,000 men were duly selected; they put on festive garlands and made thanks offerings to the gods.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You all remember the unprovoked and wanton aggressions which the Athenians committed against us in the time of the Ionian rebellion, taking part against us with rebels and enemies.
  • Xerxes PersianEmpire.info The History of the Persian Empire 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.persianempire.info [Source type: Original source]

Men that fight not for gold, but for glory."
[138]

In popular culture

.The Battle of Thermopylae has been an icon of western civilization from its very aftermath.^ Reply It's bad enough that Chew2 could say studying the Battle of Thermopylae would be a waste of time, given its significance in Western history.
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I saw the movie and I think it was a amazing work of FANTASY but it perverted a very important event in the history of my people and the development of Western Civilization.
  • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thermopalye was almost certainly a 'real' battle in a very real war; 2) the result of that war was the survival of the Greek nation of city-states, which laid the base for Western philosophy and governance...
  • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This icon expresses itself in countless instances of adages, poetry and song, literature, films, television and video games. A more serious aspect has been its didactic use. The battle appears in many books and articles on military topics.
Prior to the battle, the Hellenes remembered the Dorians, an ethnic distinction to which the Spartans belonged, as the conquerors and displacers of the Ionians in the Peloponnesus. After the battle, Spartan culture became an inspiration and object of emulation, a phenomenon known as Laconophilia.

See also

Notes

^ a: A huge number of estimates have been made since the 19th century, ranging from 15,000 to acceptence of Herodotus's 1,800,000. No real consensus exists; even the most recent estimates by academics vary between 70,000 and 300,000. As Holland puts it, "in short...we will never know."[139]

References

  1. ^ Lemprière, p. 10
  2. ^ Greswell, p. 374
  3. ^ a b Herodotus VII, 186
  4. ^ a b c d Ctesias, Persica (from Photius's Epitome)
  5. ^ Herodotus VIII, 25
  6. ^ Herodotus VIII, 24
  7. ^ Cicero, On the Laws I, 5
  8. ^ a b c Holland, pp. xvixvii.
  9. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, e.g. I, 22
  10. ^ a b Finley, p. 15.
  11. ^ Holland, p. xxiv.
  12. ^ a b Holland, p. 377.
  13. ^ Fehling, pp. 1–277.
  14. ^ Diodorus XI, 28–34,
  15. ^ Note to Herodotus IX, 81
  16. ^ a b Holland, p47–55
  17. ^ a b Holland, p203
  18. ^ Herodotus V, 105
  19. ^ a b Holland, 171–178
  20. ^ Herodotus VI, 44
  21. ^ a b c Holland, pp178–179
  22. ^ Herodotus VII, 133
  23. ^ Herodotus VI, 101
  24. ^ Herodotus VI, 113
  25. ^ Holland, pp206–206
  26. ^ a b Holland, pp208–211
  27. ^ a b Holland, pp213–214
  28. ^ a b VII, 35
  29. ^ Holland, p217–223
  30. ^ Herodotus VII, 32
  31. ^ Herodotus VII, 145
  32. ^ Holland, p226
  33. ^ a b Holland, pp248–249
  34. ^ Herodotus VII, 173
  35. ^ Holland, pp255–257
  36. ^ Herodotus VIII, 40
  37. ^ Holland, pp255–256
  38. ^ a b Herodotus VII, 206
  39. ^ a b c Holland, pp258–259.
  40. ^ Rawlinson translation of Herodotus VII, 242
  41. ^ a b Herodotus VII, 205
  42. ^ a b c d Herodotus, VII, 202
  43. ^ a b Herodotus VIII, 201
  44. ^ a b Holland, pp262–264
  45. ^ Holland, pp269–270
  46. ^ a b c Herodotus VII, 207
  47. ^ Holland, pp270–271
  48. ^ Plutarch, Apophthegmata Laconica,saying 11
  49. ^ a b c Herodotus VII, 210
  50. ^ Holland, p237
  51. ^ Holland, p394
  52. ^ de Souza, p41
  53. ^ Herodotus VII, 203
  54. ^ a b c Diodorus Siculus XI, 4
  55. ^ a b c d Macan, note to Herodotus VIII, 25
  56. ^ a b c d Herodotus VII, 228
  57. ^ Herodotus VIII, 25
  58. ^ Pausanias X, 20
  59. ^ a b Green, p140
  60. ^ Bradford, p106
  61. ^ Bury, pp271–282
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h Lazenby, pp248–253
  63. ^ a b c Holland, pp285-287
  64. ^ Holland, p 288
  65. ^ a b Herodotus VII, 176
  66. ^ Dore, pp285–286
  67. ^ Web.archive.org
  68. ^ Uoregon.edu
  69. ^ Livius.org
  70. ^ Diodorus Siculus XI, 6
  71. ^ Herodotus VII, 208
  72. ^ a b c Herodotus VII, 223
  73. ^ a b c Diodorus Siculus XI, 7
  74. ^ Holland, p274
  75. ^ a b c d Herodotus VII, 211
  76. ^ Herodotus VII, 204
  77. ^ a b c Herodotus VII, 212
  78. ^ a b Herodotus VII, 213
  79. ^ Tegopoulos, entry for Εφιάλτης
  80. ^ Herodotus VII, 215
  81. ^ Green (2006), p59
  82. ^ Herodotus VII, 217
  83. ^ a b c d Herodotus VII, 218
  84. ^ a b c d Holland, p291–293
  85. ^ a b c Herodotus VII, 219
  86. ^ Herodotus VII, 220
  87. ^ Herodotus VII, 222
  88. ^ a b c d e f g h Lazenby, pp144–145
  89. ^ a b c d e f Holland, p294
  90. ^ Lazenby, pp259–260
  91. ^ a b c d Herodotus VII, 224
  92. ^ a b c d e Herodotus VII, 225
  93. ^ Herodotus VII 233
  94. ^ Crawford, p302
  95. ^ Herodotus VIII, 24
  96. ^ Holland, p397
  97. ^ Lazenby, p148
  98. ^ Herodotus VII, 181
  99. ^ Herodotus VII, 238
  100. ^ Pausanias III, 14
  101. ^ Herodotus VIII, 50
  102. ^ Herodotus VIII, 71
  103. ^ Holland, pp299–303
  104. ^ Holland, pp327–334
  105. ^ Herodotus VIII, 97
  106. ^ Holland, p327–329
  107. ^ a b c Holland, pp338–341
  108. ^ Holland, p357–359
  109. ^ a b Holland, p xviii
  110. ^ Lazenby, p151
  111. ^ e.g. Battle-of-thermopylae.eu
  112. ^ e.g. Archaeology.org
  113. ^ a b "Greco-Persian Wars: Battle of Thermopylae". HistoryNet. http://www.historynet.com/greco-persian-wars-battle-of-thermopylae.htm/6. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  114. ^ Lazenby, p150
  115. ^ Michel de Montaigne, quoted in Holland, p xviii
  116. ^ "Victor Hanson article". Victor Hanson article. 2006-10-11. http://www.victorhanson.com/articles/hanson101106.html. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  117. ^ Eikenberry, 1996
  118. ^ Macan, note to Herodotus VII, 228
  119. ^ Strachey, p481
  120. ^ Golding, exceprt from The Hot Gates.
  121. ^ Merivale, p64
  122. ^ Macauley translation of Herodotus, p220
  123. ^ Paton, p139
  124. ^ Pressfield, p384
  125. ^ Rawlinson translation of Herodotus, p51
  126. ^ Robinson, p65
  127. ^ Sélincourt translation of Herodotus (1954)
  128. ^ Translation by WIlliam Shepherd, from the Cambridge series of translations by Greek and Roman authors.
  129. ^ Credited writers for the film are: George St. George, Gian Paolo Callegari, Remigio Del Grosso, Giovanni d'Eramo, and Ugo Liberatore.
  130. ^ Translation by American historian, Professor J. Rufus Fears in his Ancient Greeks lectures for the Teaching Company.
  131. ^ Miller, 300 (comic)
  132. ^ Ruskin, p212
  133. ^ Plutarch, Moralia, 240, saying 6
  134. ^ Herodotus VII, 209
  135. ^ Plutarch, Moralia, 225, saying 10
  136. ^ Plutarch, Apophthegmata Laconica, Saying 11.
  137. ^ Herodotus VII, 226
  138. ^ Herodotus VIII, 26
  139. ^ Holland, p. 394.

Bibliography

  • Lemprière, John (1862). A classical dictionary. 
  • Greswell, Edward (1827). Origines kalendariæ Hellenicæ. E. Duychinck, Collin & co. 
  • Paton, W.R. (Editor and Translator) (1918). The Greek Anthology. W. Heineman. 
  • Macan, Reginald Walter. "Herodotus: The Seventh, Eighth & Ninth Books with Introduction and Commentary: Commentary on Herodotus, Histories, book 7, chapter 228". The Perseus Digital Library (Tufts University). pp. section 8. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0038&query=commline%3D%231705. .Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  • Herodotus; George Rawlinson (Translator) (2005).^ March 10, 2007 8:18 PM .
    • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ March 10, 2007 4:18 PM .
    • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "The History of Herodotus: Polymnia". Greek Texts. Greek-Texts.com & Greece Http Ltd.. .http://www.greektexts.com/library/Herodotus/Polymnia/eng/243.html.^ Military History Quarterly You can read the entire 4 page article here: http://www.historynet.com/wars_conflicts/ancient_medieval_wars/3033226.html?page=1&c=y .
    • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

    Retrieved 2007-10-19
    . 
  • Campbell, George (1889). The History of Herodotus: Translated into English: Vol. II. MacMillan and Co., Limited. 
  • Herodotus; John M. Marincola (Contributor); Aubrey de Sélincourt (Translator) (2003). The Histories. penguin group (usa). ISBN 9780140449082. 
  • Plutarch. ."Leonidas, Son of Anaxandridas".^ Attributed to Leo, the father of Anaxandridas, in Moralia , 224 F (3) , and to Leonidas, the son of Anaxandridas, in Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus , chap.
    • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Leonidas, son of Anaxandridas 136 .
    • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Moralia: Apophthegmata Laconica: as published in Vol. .III of the Loeb Classical Library Edition, 1931.
    ^ III of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1931 The text is in the public domain.
    • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Bill Thayer. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Moralia/Sayings_of_Spartans*/main.html. Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  • Plutarch. "Gorgo". .Moralia: Apophthegmata Lacaenarum: as published in Vol.^ This webpage reproduces part of the essay Apophthegmata Laconica by Plutarch as published in Vol.
    • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .III of the Loeb Classical Library Edition, 1931
    .
    ^ III of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1931 The text is in the public domain.
    • Plutarch • Sayings of Spartans — 208B‑236E 16 September 2009 23:38 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Bill Thayer. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Moralia/Sayings_of_Spartan_Women*.html. Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  • Bradford, Ernle (2004). Thermopylae: The Battle for the West. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306813602. 
  • Cartledge, Paul (2006). Thermopylae: The Battle That Changed the World. Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press. ISBN 1585675660. 
  • Matthews, Rupert (2006). The Battle of Thermopylae: A Campaign in Context. Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 1862273251. 
  • Holland, Tom (2006). .Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West.^ In reality, Cyrus the Great (founder of the Persian empire) created the first charter of human rights for nations in the world.
    • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I would say though that the Persians at the outset of the Achaemenid Empire were a small tribe in the corner of the world and that their genius was to systematically incorporate a broad range of cultures and identities.
    • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ IF ANY OF YOU read about History you would appreciate what the Persian Empire has and had done for the world!
    • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

    New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0385513119.
     
  • Bury, J. B.; Russell Meiggs (July 2000). A History of Greece to the Death of Alexander the Great (4th Revised ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. 
  • Green, Peter (1996). The Greco-Persian Wars. University of California Press. ISBN 0520203135. 
  • Green, Peter; Greek History 480-431 B.C., the Alternative Version, University of Texas Press, (2006). p. 59 ISBN 0292712774
  • Lazenby, JF. The Defence of Greece 490–479 BC. Aris & Phillips Ltd., 1993 (ISBN 0-85668-591-7)
  • Ruskin, John (1894). "Part VIII: Of Ideas of Relation - I. of Invention Formal: Chapter I: The Law of Help". The Complete Works: Modern Painters: Volume the Fifth. New York: Bryan, Taylor and Company. 
  • Robinson, C.E. (2007). Hellas - A Short History of Ancient Greece. Pantheon Books. ISBN 1406766992. 
  • Merivale, J.K. (1833). From the Greek Anthology by the Late Rev. Robert Bland, and Others: A New Edition: Comprising the Fragments of Early Lyric Poetry, With Specimens of All the Poets Included in Meleager's Garland. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; and John Murray. 
  • Crawford, Osbert Guy Stanhope (1955). Said and Done: The Autobiography of an Archaeologist. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 
  • Fehling, D. Herodotus and His "Sources": Citation, Invention, and Narrative Art. Translated by J.G. Howie. Arca Classical and Medieval Texts, Papers, and Monographs, 21. Leeds: Francis Cairns, 1989
  • Finley, Moses (1972). "Introduction". Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War (translated by Rex Warner). Penguin. ISBN 0140440399. 
  • Barkworth, Peter R. (1993). "The Organization of Xerxes' Army". Iranica Antiqua XXVII: pages 149–167. http://www.azargoshnasp.net/300/xerxesorganizationarmy.pdf. .Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  • Morris, Ian Macgregor (2000).^ March 10, 2007 8:18 PM .
    • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ March 10, 2007 4:18 PM .
    • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "To Make a New Thermopylae: Hellenism, Greek Liberation, and the Battle of Thermopylae". Greece & Rome 47 (2): pages 211–230. doi:10.1093/gr/47.2.211. 
  • Eikenberry, Lt. Gen. Karl W. (Summer 1996). "Take No Casualties". Parameters: US Army War College Quarterly XXVI (2): pages 109–118. http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/96summer/eiken.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-17. 
  • Strachey, Edward (February, 1871). "The Soldiers's Duty". The Contemporary Review (London: Strahan & Co) XVI: pages 480–485. 
  • S. Sacks, Kenneth (1976). "Herodotus and the Dating of the Battle of Thermopylae". The Classical Quarterly 26 (2): 232–248. doi:10.1017/S0009838800033127. http://www.jstor.org/stable/638269. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  • Dore, Lyn (2001). "Once the War Is Over". in Freeman, P.W.M.; Pollard, A.. Fields of Conflict: Progress and Prospect in Battlefield Archaeology. David Brown Book Co.. pp. pages 285–286. ISBN 9781841712499. . The article can be viewed at [1]
  • Pressfield, Steven (1998). .Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae.^ Evidently there had been a script floating around based on the novel "Gates of Fire" by Steven Pressfield.
    • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Reply I'm with JK. Gates of Fire is one of my favorite historical novels, and is (AFAIK) painstaking in reflected the society and style of combat that led to Thermopylae.
    • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If there was to be a movie based on a graphic or written novel of this event it SHOULD be Gates of Fire (because of the Historical accuracy and the Epic tone of the novel) BUT due to the success of Sin City Miller got the ok!
    • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

    Doubleday. pp. 384. ISBN 0385492910.
     
  • Golding, William (2002). "The Hot Gates". The Sparta pages. http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~sparta/topics/essays/academic/golding.htm. .Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  • Miller, Frank (w, p, i). 300 ({{{date}}}), Dark Horse Comics, ISBN 1569714029
  • Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους = History of the Greek nation volume Β', Athens 1971
  • Tegopoulos, G.; A. Phytrakis (1988).^ Zack adapted Frank Millers 300, not Gates of Fire.
    • The History of 300 [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "The Spartans remain a mystery to everybody," says Frank Miller, who wrote the graphic novel 300 which inspired the film.
    • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ My understanding is that anything by Frank Miller is based very loosely on fact (my understanding is that he heavily based his comic book on evokations of 60's movie "The 300 spartans", which was probably also loosely based on reality).
    • '300' - Winds of Change.NET 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Elliniko Lexico (Greek Dictionary). Athens: Armonia. 

External links

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June 2006.

Simple English

The Battle of Thermopylae, 480 BC,[1] was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I. It took place at the pass of Thermopylae.[2]

The battle was the climax of the second Persian invasion of Greece. It took place over three days, at the same time as the naval Battle of Artemisium.

Contents

Context

The Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece. This was ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon. Xerxes amassed a huge army and navy, and set out for the second time to conquer all of Greece.[3]

The preparation

The Athenian general Themistocles suggested the Greek allies should block the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae, and block the Persian navy at the Straits of Artemisium.

A Greek force of approximately 7,000 men marched north to block the pass in the summer of 480 BC. The huge Persian army arrived at the pass in late August or early September.

The battle

Vastly outnumbered, the Greeks held off the Persians for seven days in total (including three of battle), before the rear-guard was annihilated in one of history's most famous last stands.

During two full days of battle, the small force led by King Leonidas I of Sparta blocked the only road by which the massive Persian army could pass. After the second day of battle, a local resident named Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks by revealing a small path that led behind the Greek lines. Aware that his force was being outflanked, Leonidas dismissed the bulk of the Greek army, and remained to guard the rear with 300 Spartans, 700 Thespians (who refused to leave), 400 Thebans and perhaps a few hundred others. Most of them were killed.

The pass at Thermopylae was thus opened to the Persian army according to Herodotus, at the cost to the Persians of up to 20,000 fatalities.[4] The Greek rearguard meanwhile, was annihilated, with a probable loss of 2,000 men, including those killed on the first two days of battle.[3]p397[5]p148

The Greek navy

After this engagement, the Greek navy at Artemisium received news of the defeat at Thermopylae. Since their strategy required both Thermopylae and Artemisium to be held, and given their losses, the Greek navy decided to withdraw to Salamis. The Persians then captured the evacuated Athens.

Seeking a decisive victory over the Allied fleet, the Persian fleet attacked, but were defeated at the Battle of Salamis in late 480 BC. Fearing to be trapped in Europe, Xerxes withdrew with much of his army to Asia, leaving Mardonius to complete the conquest of Greece. The following year, however, saw a Greek army decisively defeat the Persians at the Battle of Plataea, thereby ending the Persian invasion.

Both ancient and modern writers have used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the power of a patriotic army of freemen defending native soil. The performance of the defenders at the battle of Thermopylae is also used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds.

Notes

  1. pronounced /θərˈmɒpɨliː/, thər-MOP-i-lee; Greek: Μάχη τῶν Θερμοπυλῶν, Machē tōn Thermopylōn
  2. means 'The Hot Gates'
  3. 3.0 3.1 Holland, Tom 2006. Persian fire: the first world empire and the battle for the West. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0385513119.
  4. Herodotus VIII, 24
  5. Lazenby J.F. 1993. The defence of Greece 490–479 BC. Aris & Phillips. ISBN 0-85668-591-7


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 21, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Battle of Thermopylae, which are similar to those in the above article.








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