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Battle of Waterloo
Part of the War of the Seventh Coalition
.Wellington at Waterloo Hillingford.jpg
Wellington at Waterloo by Robert Alexander Hillingford.
^ The Decisive Moment at Waterloo by Robert Hillingford.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ Andrew Roberts has followed his excellent ‘Napoleon and Wellington’ with this equally excellent account of the battle, relatively short but lively and thoughtful.’ Elizabeth Deverell, The Waterloo Journal .
  • Waterloo by Andrew Roberts 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amanda-foreman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Date 18 June 1815
Location Waterloo, present-day Belgium south of Brussels
Result Decisive Coalition victory
Belligerents
France French Empire Seventh Coalition:
United Kingdom United Kingdom
 Prussia
Dutch Republic United Provinces
Province of Hanover Hanover
Nassau
Brunswick
Commanders
France Napoleon Bonaparte
United Kingdom Duke of Wellington
Kingdom of Prussia Gebhard von Blücher
Strength
72,000[1] Anglo-allies: 68,000[1]
Prussians: 50,000[2]
Casualties and losses
25,000 killed and wounded
7,000 captured
15,000 missing[3]
15,000 British and allies killed and wounded
7,000 Prussians killed and wounded[4]
.Coordinates: 50°40′45″N 4°24′25″E / 50.67917°N 4.40694°E / 50.67917; 4.40694 The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in present-day Belgium.^ Re: Battle of Waterloo - June 18, 1815 .
  • Battle of Waterloo - June 18, 1815 in Wars in History Channel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: General]
  • Battle of Waterloo - June 18, 1815 in Wars in History Channel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: General]

^ When a British Foot Guard regiment defeated the Grenadiers at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, the British regiment was allowed to wear the bearskin cap in honor of their victory.
  • Search Results 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This review is from: The Battle: A New History of Waterloo (Hardcover) After I took the book one day in the evening, I couldn't stop reading it until completion the following night.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Battle: A New History of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.An Imperial French army under the command of Emperor Napoleon was defeated by combined armies of the Seventh Coalition, one an Anglo-Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington and the other a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard von Blücher.^ Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher was the commander of the Prussian army.
  • BBC - History - British History in depth: The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this battle, the forces of the French Empire under the leadership of Michael Ney and Napoleon Bonaparte were defeated by the Seventh Coalition and a Prussian Army, which was commanded by Gebhard Von Blucher.

^ The Duke of Wellington commanded Allied troops against Napoleon I's slightly larger French forces.
  • Waterloo campaign Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Waterloo campaign 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was the culminating battle of the Waterloo Campaign and Napoleon's last.^ The Battle of Waterloo was over, Napoleon had fought his last battle.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Waterloo campaign last action of the Napoleonic Wars, ending with the battle of Waterloo.
  • Waterloo campaign Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Waterloo campaign 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the decisive battle of the Waterloo Campaign and Bonaparte's last.
  • Battle of Waterloo, Military Conflict - News - Evri 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

.The defeat at Waterloo put an end to Napoleon's rule as Emperor of the French and marked the end of his Hundred Days' return from exile.^ The defeat ended Napoleon's rule of France.
  • Hornets trying to avoid Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.neworleans.com [Source type: News]

^ It had also marked the end of the hundred days of Napoleon from exile return.

^ The Battle of Waterloo puts an end to the tyrant rule of Napoleon as the emperor of France.

.Upon Napoleon's return to power in 1815, many states that had opposed him formed the Seventh Coalition and began to mobilise armies.^ When Napoleon was returned to power in 1815, plenty of states had opposed his comeback.

^ Upon Napoleon's return to power in 1815, many states that had opposed him formed the Seventh Coalition and began to mobilise armies.
  • Battle of Waterloo, Military Conflict - News - Evri 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

^ Since then, the Seventh Coalition was formed and armies began to mobilize.

.Two large forces under Wellington and von Blücher assembled close to the northeastern border of France.^ There are two huge forces assembled near the northeast border of France.

^ Two large forces assembled close to the northeastern border of France, consisting of a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard von Blücher, and an Anglo-Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington.
  • Battle of Waterloo, Military Conflict - News - Evri 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

^ Countering the vast French army was an allied coalition of British, Dutch and German forces, under the command of Wellington, and the considerable might of the Prussian Army under Gebhard Von Blcher.

.Napoleon chose to attack in the hope of destroying them before they could join in a coordinated invasion of France with other members of the Coalition.^ Napoleon had planned to attack the said forces before they can unite with the other members of the Coalition in coordination of France invasion.

^ Napoleon planned to defeat the British, Prussian, Belgian and Dutch armies before other nations could come to their assistance.

^ Napoleon was aware that once his attempts to attack one or more of the allies of the Seventh Coalition in France invasion, his only chance of retaining his power is to attack first before the mobilization of all the armies of the Coalition happened.

.The decisive engagement of this three-day Waterloo Campaign (16 June – 19 June 1815) occurred at the Battle of Waterloo.^ Re: Battle of Waterloo - June 18, 1815 .
  • Battle of Waterloo - June 18, 1815 in Wars in History Channel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: General]
  • Battle of Waterloo - June 18, 1815 in Wars in History Channel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: General]

^ The Battle of Waterloo occurred in Belgium in June 1815.

^ Waterloo for the Uninitiated - June 18th 1815 .
  • A Quick Primer on Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC homepages.ihug.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

.According to Wellington, the battle was "the nearest-run thing you ever saw in your life."^ Wellington's epic and decisive victory over Napoleon was nonetheless 'the nearest run thing you ever saw in your life'.
  • BBC - History - British History in depth: The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Wellington, the battle was "the nearest-run thing you ever saw in your life."
  • Battle of Waterloo, Military Conflict - News - Evri 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

^ The Battle of Waterloo was quoted by Wellingtons as the “nearest run thing you ever saw in your life”.

[5]
.Napoleon delayed giving battle until noon on 18 June to allow the ground to dry.^ Until noon of June 18, 1815, Napoleon delayed granting of the battle to let the ground get dry.

^ Battle of Waterloo, 18 June 1815 .

^ Battle of Waterloo - June 18, 1815 .
  • Battle of Waterloo - June 18, 1815 in Wars in History Channel 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: General]

.Wellington's army, positioned across the Brussels road on the Mont St Jean escarpment, withstood repeated attacks by the French, until, in the evening, the Prussians arrived in force and broke through Napoleon's right flank.^ PS: the French called it the battle of Mont-St-Jean.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French cavarly was spent after several useless attacks at Mont St Jean Ridge.

^ If he was engaged Bülow was to attack Napoleon's right flank.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

.At that moment, Wellington's Anglo-allied army counter-attacked and drove the French army in disorder from the field.^ The forces were also defeated by an Anglo-Allied Army commanded by the Duke of Wellington.

^ Battle commenced half-an-hour before noon with a French attack on the fortified farm of Hougoumont, followed by an infantry assault on the Allies' main line.

^ It was a battle between Napoleon's French forces and Wellington's Allied forces (British, German,' Prussian and Dutch troops).

.Pursuing Coalition forces entered France and restored Louis XVIII to the French throne.^ King Louis XVIII was restored to the throne on June 28.
  • How to Better Understand the Battle of Waterloo | eHow.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis XVIII was restored to the French throne.

^ The forces of the Seventh Coalition have successfully entered France and reinstate Louis XVIII to the French throne.

Napoleon abdicated, surrendered to the British, and was exiled to Saint Helena, where he died in 1821.
.The battlefield is in present-day Belgium, about eight miles (12 km) SSE of Brussels, and about a mile (1.6 km) from the town of Waterloo.^ The battlefield is in present-day Belgium, about 8 miles (12 km) of Brussels, and about 1 mile (1.6 km) from the town of Waterloo.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The town in Belgium near which the Battle of Waterloo (q.v.
  • Waterloo@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is about 8 miles or 12 kilometers SSE of Brussels and about one mile or 1.6 kilometers from the Waterloo town.

.The site of the battlefield is today dominated by a large monument, the Lion Mound.^ The site of the battlefield is today dominated by a large mound of earth, the Lion's Hillock.
  • Battle of Waterloo, Military Conflict - News - Evri 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

^ Apart from the Lion Mound, there are several more conventional but noteworthy monuments scattered throughout the battlefield.

^ Today, the exact location of the battlefield is dominated by a huge bundle of earth called the Lion’s Hillcock.

.As this mound used earth from the battlefield itself, the original topography of the part of the battlefield around the mound has not been preserved.^ As this mound used earth from the battlefield itself, the original topography has not been preserved.
  • Battle of Waterloo, Military Conflict - News - Evri 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

^ Apparently, the original scenery of the battlefield has not been preserved.

^ The mound provides a good viewpoint, but the excavation of earth for its construction altered the lie of the land considerably in the surrounding area, a much fought-over part of the battlefield, so the perspectives and the dead ground are not exactly as they were for those who fought there.
  • Waterloo@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Prelude

.On 13 March 1815, six days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw.^ The Europe an powers, at Congress in Vienna , mobilized their armies to defeat Napoleon .
  • Battle of Waterloo@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Six days (March 13, 1815) prior Napoleon had reached Paris, the authority of the Congress of Vienna had declared him an outlaw.

^ It was evening when Napoleon reached Paris.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[6] .Four days later, the United Kingdom, Russia, Austria, and Prussia mobilised armies to defeat Napoleon.^ Four days, after the declaration, the mobilized armies of Prussia, Austria, Russia, and United Kingdom had planned an attack to defeat Napoleon.

^ After a British-funded coalition of Russia, Prussia, Sweden and Austria forced Napoleon's abdication at Fontainebleau in 1814, the Emperor, now down but not out, withdrew to a brief exile on the tiny Mediterranean island of Elba.
  • Battle Of Waterloo 1815 Military History Books - Naval & Military Press 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.naval-military-press.com [Source type: General]

^ After raising France to a position of preeminence in Europe from 1804 to 1813, Napoleon met defeat in 1814 by a coalition of major powers, notably Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, and Austria.
  • WATERLOO, BATTLE OF, 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

[7] .Napoleon knew that once his attempts at dissuading one or more of the Seventh Coalition allies from invading France had failed, his only chance of remaining in power was to attack before the Coalition mobilised.^ Napoleon was aware that once his attempts to attack one or more of the allies of the Seventh Coalition in France invasion, his only chance of retaining his power is to attack first before the mobilization of all the armies of the Coalition happened.

^ One was that Napoleon was opposed by a makeshift coalition of British, Prussian, Belgian and Hanoverian forces which happened to be available in the area when Napoleon reassembled his Grande Armee.
  • Amazon.com: Waterloo: Day of Battle (9780689101380): David Armine, Howarth: Books 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Napoleon attacked first, crossing the frontier on 11 June, and engaging the Prussian skirmishers almost at once.
  • A Quick Primer on Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC homepages.ihug.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

.If he could destroy the existing Coalition forces south of Brussels before they were reinforced, he might be able to drive the British back to the sea and knock the Prussians out of the war.^ His goal is to destroy the existing forces of the Coalition that are in the south of Brussels before they are commanded.

^ Once this happened, Napoleon might be able to drive back the British army to the sea and defeat the Prussians army in the battle.

^ One was that Napoleon was opposed by a makeshift coalition of British, Prussian, Belgian and Hanoverian forces which happened to be available in the area when Napoleon reassembled his Grande Armee.
  • Amazon.com: Waterloo: Day of Battle (9780689101380): David Armine, Howarth: Books 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.An additional consideration was that there were many French-speaking sympathizers in Belgium and a French victory might trigger a friendly revolution there.^ It definitively ended the series of wars that had convulsed Europe, and involved many other regions of the world, since the French Revolution of the early 1790s.

^ There was fierce hand to hand fighting during which Bylandt’s Dutch-Belgium unit which had not been on the reverse slope and had suffered badly from French artillery fire, retired.
  • Association of Friends of the Waterloo Committee - The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.waterloocommittee.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Even so, many people in England continued to sympathize with the ideals of the French Revolution and thought that England ought to try and treat with Napoleon even after he had become emperor.

.Also, the British troops in Belgium were largely second-line troops; most of the veterans of the Peninsular War had been sent to America to fight the War of 1812.^ D'Erlon's early afternoon attack was not made in massive columns, as has been thought, but largely in successive lines - probably in reaction to experience in the Peninsula War.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Battle: A New History of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ But while Wellingtons men particularly the British element were largely inexperienced soldiers, Napoleons French soldiers were a fierce rank of battle-hardened veterans.

^ We know of one occasion (between the first and second Punic wars) when Carthage was brought to the very brink of destruction by a revolt of her foreign troops.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[8]
Map of the Waterloo campaign
.Wellington's initial dispositions were intended to counter the threat of Napoleon enveloping the Coalition armies by moving through Mons to the south-west of Brussels.^ The initial disposition of Wellington was to deal with the threat of Napoleon’s attack of gathering all armies of the Coalition.

^ Part of his disposition is to transfer to the southwest of Brussels through Mons.

^ Countering the vast French army was an allied coalition of British, Dutch and German forces, under the command of Wellington, and the considerable might of the Prussian Army under Gebhard Von Blcher.

[9] .This would have cut Wellington's communications with his base at Ostend, but would have pushed his army closer to Blücher's.^ With this transfer, the communications of Wellington with his base at Ostend have been cut.

^ The Anglo-Dutch forces, facing south, comprised 67,000 troops with 156 cannons, and Wellington had received assurances from Blücher that strong reinforcements from his army of 70,000 would arrive during the day.
  • WATERLOO, BATTLE OF, 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ To achieve the desired concentration of the two armies, both Blucher and Wellington would have to pull back and select another position.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon manipulated Wellington's fear of this loss of his supply chain from the channel ports with false intelligence.^ On the contrary, Napoleon took advantage of the fear of Wellington in losing his supply chain with false intelligence from the channel ports.

[10] .He divided his army into a left wing commanded by Marshal Ney, a right wing commanded by Marshal Grouchy, and a reserve, which he commanded personally (although all three elements remained close enough to support one another).^ The three men are close personal friends.

^ He was closely followed by the left wing of the French Army under Marshal Ney .
  • Association of Friends of the Waterloo Committee - The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.waterloocommittee.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ He divided his army into two wings, the right wing under the command of Marshal Grouchy and the left wing under the command of Marshal Ney.

.Crossing the frontier near Charleroi before dawn on 15 June, the French rapidly overran Coalition outposts, securing Napoleon's "central position" between Wellington's and Blücher's armies.^ The French marched to position themselves between Wellington's army to the north-west and Blücher's to the north-east.
  • Association of Friends of the Waterloo Committee - The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.waterloocommittee.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ June 1815, at which Wellington and Blücher finally defeated Napoleon .
  • Waterloo@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before dawn on June 15, the armies of Napoleon have crossed the frontier near the Charleroi and they rapidly overran the outposts of the Seventh Coalition.

The resurgent Napoleon's strategy was to isolate the Allied and Prussian armies, and annihilate each one separately
.Only very late on the night of 15 June was Wellington certain that the Charleroi attack was the main French thrust.^ It was already late night of June 15 when Wellington become certain that the attacks made at the Charleroi came from the main French thrust of Napoleon’s armies.

^ Houssaye illustratively reports that there were 796 ranks numbered at Grenadiers a Cheval on June 15 but on June 19 there were only 462.

^ Battle commenced half-an-hour before noon with a French attack on the fortified farm of Hougoumont, followed by an infantry assault on the Allies' main line.

.In the early hours of 16 June, at the Duchess of Richmond's ball in Brussels, he received a dispatch from the Prince of Orange, and was shocked by the speed of Napoleon's advance.^ On the morning of June 16 while Wellington was at the Duchess of Richmond’s ball, he received a notice from the Prince of Orange that Napoleon speedily attacked in advanced again.

^ On June 15th 1815 Napoleon's army crossed the Sambre, catching Wellington, who was dancing the night away with his officers at the now-famous ball, given by the Duchess of Richmond, by surprise.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ The climax of the pre-battle events occurs on the evening of June 15, 1815: the Duchess of Richmond's ball.
  • Thackeray's Waterloo by T. Dow (PIPA Fall 97) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.eiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He hastily ordered his army to concentrate on Quatre Bras, where the Prince of Orange, with the brigade of Prince Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, was holding a tenuous position against the soldiers of Ney's left wing.^ He hurriedly commanded his army to focus on the Quatre Bras wherein a vague position is being held against the soldiers of the left wing of Marshal Ney.

^ Meanwhile, Ney discovered that the crossroads of Quatre Bras were being managed by the Prince of Orange.

^ Present at the position are the Prince of Orange together with the brigade of Prince Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar.

[11] .Ney's orders were to secure the crossroads of Quatre Bras, so that, if necessary, he could later swing east and reinforce Napoleon.^ Ney called on Napoleon for reinforcements.
  • BBC - History - British History in depth: The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this way, he could later moved to east and strengthen the forces of Napoleon.

^ The orders commanded by Marshal Ney were to secure the crossroads of Quatro Bras.

.Napoleon moved against the concentrated Prussian army first.^ The next move of Napoleon focused more on the army of Prussian.

^ Napoleon attacked first, crossing the frontier on 11 June, and engaging the Prussian skirmishers almost at once.
  • A Quick Primer on Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC homepages.ihug.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ Divided into three parts, the first studies Napoleon and his rise to power, the second describes Wellington and the allied armies, while the third reconstructs the battle of Waterloo.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

.On 16 June, with a part of the reserve and the right wing of the army, he attacked and defeated Blücher's Prussians at the Battle of Ligny.^ Fleurus: Prussian army defeated at.
  • After Waterloo: Reminiscences of European Travel 1815-1819 by Major W. E Frye - Full Text Free Book (Part 8/8) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On June 16, he succeeded to defeat the Prussian army of Blucher at the Battle of Ligny with the help from his reserved right wing.

^ Napoleon attacked first, crossing the frontier on 11 June, and engaging the Prussian skirmishers almost at once.
  • A Quick Primer on Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC homepages.ihug.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

.The Prussian centre gave way under heavy French assaults, but the flanks held their ground.^ The heavy assaults of French troops gave way to the Prussian centre but the border held their ground.

^ The conflict was stalemated until the Prussians, under Marshal Blücher, arrived to overwhelm the French flank, whereupon Wellington broke through the centre.
  • Waterloo campaign Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Waterloo campaign 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to the expectations of both friends and foes, the French infantry held their ground steadily under the fire of the Prussian guns, which thundered on them from La Lune; and their own artillery replied with equal spirit and greater effect on the denser masses of the allied army.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Ney, meanwhile, found the crossroads of Quatre Bras lightly held by the Prince of Orange, who successfully repelled Ney's initial attacks, but was gradually driven back by overwhelming numbers of French troops.^ Meanwhile at Quatre Bras, Ney had attacked the Dutch led by the Prince of Orange; Wellington arrived at about 3 p.m.
  • A Quick Primer on Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC homepages.ihug.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ At first, Quatre Bras was able to repel the initial attacks of Ney’s wing successful but gradually it was driven back due to vast numbers of French troops.

^ Meanwhile, Ney discovered that the crossroads of Quatre Bras were being managed by the Prince of Orange.

.First reinforcements and then Wellington himself arrived.^ After the first strengthenments of Napoleon’s wings and the Prussian army of Blucher as well as the French troops and the Quatre Bras, Wellington personally arrived at the battlefield.

.He took command and drove Ney back, securing the crossroads by early evening, but too late to send help to the Prussians, who were defeated at the Battle of Ligny on the same day.^ The orders commanded by Marshal Ney were to secure the crossroads of Quatro Bras.

^ However, Ney’s wing was able to secure the crossroads of Quatre Bras during the early evening and it is too late for the Coalition to send help to the Prussian’s army, thus resulting to defeat of the Prussian’s army at the Battler of Ligny.

^ He took the command of the armies of the Coalition and drove Ney back.

.The Prussian defeat made Wellington's position at Quatre Bras untenable, so the next day he withdrew northwards, to a defensive position he had personally reconnoitred the previous year—the low ridge of Mont St Jean, south of the village of Waterloo and the Sonian Forest.^ Waterloo was a defensive position for Wellington.

^ The mont was a south village of the Waterloo and Forest of Soignes.

^ The battle moved down to the hill South of Mont St Jean.
  • First play-Building that old School AH street cred. | Waterloo | BoardGameGeek 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.boardgamegeek.com [Source type: General]

[12]
.The Prussian retreat from Ligny went uninterrupted, and seemingly unnoticed, by the French.^ The French seems unnoticed the uninterrupted refuge of the Prussian army.

^ The French retreat was perhaps conducted more orderly than has been previously portrayed as no French Eagle was captured during the retreat despite the pursuing Prussians.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Battle: A New History of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The following day, over 25,000 were dead and wounded at the Battle Of Ligny, when French and Prussian troops collided in brutal fashion.

[13] .The bulk of their rearguard units held their positions until about midnight, and some elements did not move out until the following morning, completely ignored by the French.^ Some of element in the units even held their position until the next morning, which the French still ignored.

^ Again, the French had completely ignored the entire rearguard units of the Prussian, which had held their position until midnight.

^ The battle, and this was much to the disadvantage of the French, did not begin until around 11.00 a.m., for although the rain had stopped much before, the fields and lanes were too miry to allow large bodies of men to move swiftly.

[13] .Crucially, the Prussians did not retreat to the east, along their own lines of communication.^ Apparently, the Prussian army did not abandon to the east as well as their own communication lines.

^ The line of this neck of hills is from south-east to north-west, and the usual route from Hastings to London must, in ancient as in modern times, have been along its summits.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ He then could cut the mass of Wellington's troops off from their line of retreat upon Brussels, and from their own left, and also completely sever them from any Prussian troops that might be approaching.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Instead, they too fell back northwards—parallel to Wellington's line of march, still within supporting distance, and in communication with him throughout.^ Instead, the army went back northwards, which is parallel to the march line of Wellington and still within the supporting distance.

^ A visit to Waterloo, where Napoleon was decisively defeated by the Duke of Wellington in June 1815, is a march back in time in more than one way.
  • In multimedia age, old-fashioned panorama of Waterloo battle quietly holds its own 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

^ The end result of a day of hard, confused fighting was that Blucher, having been forced to retreat north, in turn forced Wellington to withdraw in the same direction, marching parallel with the Prussians and keeping in close contact with them throughout.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

.The Prussians rallied on Von Bülow's IV Corps, which had not been engaged at Ligny, and was in a strong position south of Wavre.^ Thereinafter, the Prussian army had rallied towards the corps of Von Bulow’s IV, which is not connected at Ligny instead in a strong position in South Wavre.

^ Papelotte ordered the road towards Wavre that the Prussian army had used to send strengthenments to position Wellington.

^ By now the Prussian assault in the South East on Plancenoit was seriously threatening the French position.

[13]
.Napoleon, with the reserves, made a late start on 17 June and joined Ney at Quatre Bras at 13:00 to attack Wellington's army, but found the position empty.^ The attack started at 13:00 however the position was found empty.

^ The defeat of the Prussian army made the position of Wellington at Quatre Bras unsustainable.

^ On 14 June Napoleon joined his troops.

.The French pursued Wellington, but the result was only a brief cavalry skirmish in Genappe just as torrential rain set in for the night.^ It was actually Prussian cavalry which pursued the French.
  • USS Clueless - Waterloo as it really happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC denbeste.nu [Source type: Original source]

^ Wellington was pursued by French however the result was only a brief troop battle in Genappe.

^ So French cavalry dominance and skirmisher superiority, neither of which had been the case in Spain, along with artillery superiority, nearly won the battle for Napoleon despite French errors.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Battle: A New History of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Before leaving Ligny, Napoleon ordered Grouchy, commander of the right wing, to follow up the retreating Prussians with 33,000 men.^ Before Napoleon had left Ligny, he ordered for Grouchy who is the commander for the right wing, to follow up 33,000 men to the refugeing Prussian army.

^ The Prussian light cavalry followed up.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Assuming that the Prussians were retreating toward their base in Namur, he detached Grouchy with 33,000 men to pursue them.
  • Waterloo campaign Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Waterloo campaign 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A late start, uncertainty about the direction the Prussians had taken, and the vagueness of the orders given to him meant that Grouchy was too late to prevent the Prussian army reaching Wavre, from where it could march to support Wellington.^ Order of Battle of the Prussian Army in 1815 Order of Battle of Wellington's army at Waterloo .
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Napoleon was uncertain about the direction taken by the Prussian army as well as the vagueness of orders given to him by Grouchy.

^ Grouchy was marching towards Wavre.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the end of 17 June, Wellington's army had arrived at its position at Waterloo, with the main body of Napoleon's army following.^ Napoleon overtook them late on June 17.
  • Battle of Waterloo 2-J M W Turner Artist 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.j-m-w-turner.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Waterloo was a defensive position for Wellington.

^ Wellington's army followed the Prussians and entered France on 21 June.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Blücher's army was gathering in and around Wavre, around eight miles (13 km) to the east.^ The army of Blucher began to gather as well around Wavre for about eight miles to the east.

^ On the 18th he was tied down at Wavre by 17,000 troops of Blücher’s rear guard, while Blücher’s main force escaped him, rejoined Wellington, and turned the tide of battle at Waterloo, 8 miles (13 km) to the southwest.
  • Battle of Waterloo (European history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the I7th of June, both Allied armies withdrew, the Prussians to Wavre, and Wellington eight miles to their west in a small hamlet, Mont Sainte-Jean, on a ridge just south of the village of Waterloo.
  • A Quick Primer on Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC homepages.ihug.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

Armies

The Duke of Wellington, a veteran general of the Peninsular War, commanded an army comprised of British, Dutch and German forces
.Three armies were involved in the battle: Napoleon's Armée du Nord; a multinational army under Wellington; and a Prussian army under Blücher.^ There are three armies involved in the Battle of Waterloo namely the Prussian army under the command of Blucher, the multinational army under the command of Wellington, and the army of Napoleon known as Armee de Nord.

^ Order of Battle of the Prussian Army in 1815 Order of Battle of Wellington's army at Waterloo .
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a battle between Napoleon's French forces and Wellington's Allied forces (British, German,' Prussian and Dutch troops).

.The French army of around 69,000 consisted of 48,000 infantry, 14,000 cavalry, and 7,000 artillery with 250 guns.^ The French army consisted around 69,000 soldiers with 250 guns, 7,000 artilleries, 14,000 cavalries, and 48,000 infantries.

^ "The French army, 69,000 strong, which at 7pm.
  • Waterloo - Bias, Assumptions, and Perspectives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napoleon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The French cavalry was without horse artillery.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[14] .Napoleon had used conscription to fill the ranks of the French army throughout his rule, but he did not conscript men for the 1815 campaign.^ But while Wellingtons men particularly the British element were largely inexperienced soldiers, Napoleons French soldiers were a fierce rank of battle-hardened veterans.

^ As Napoleon’s routed army fled along the Charleroi road, Wellington and Blücher conferred and agreed that Prussian brigades should pursue the beaten French.
  • WATERLOO, BATTLE OF, 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ Also while the mass of the army was apparently for Napoleon, many French were wearied by over twenty years fighting and upheaval and now longed for stability.
  • Association of Friends of the Waterloo Committee - The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.waterloocommittee.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.All his troops were veterans of at least one campaign who had returned more or less voluntarily to the colours.^ All of the troops in the French army were veterans and had been already involved in one or more campaign already.

^ Ney, one of the great tactical commanders in all of history, had no choice for two reasons, the need for at least some element of surprise, and the arrival of the Prussians.
  • Waterloo - Bias, Assumptions, and Perspectives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napoleon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tallard and Marsin had forty-five thousand Frenchmen under them, all veterans, and all trained to act together: the Elector's own troops also were good soldiers.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.The cavalry in particular was both numerous and formidable, and included fourteen regiments of armoured heavy cavalry and seven of highly versatile lancers.^ It also include 7 highly versatile lancers and 14 regiments of heavy and armored cavalry.

^ The cavalries of the French army were both formidable and numerous.

^ General Jacquinot also watched the rout of Erlon's infantry and sent two lancer regiments against the Allied cavalry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Neither Coalition army had any armoured troops at all, and Wellington had only a handful of lancers.^ Meanwhile the armies under the Coalition only had armored troops and Wellington only had a handful of lancers.

^ Wellington's Anglo-Dutch army was a marked contrast to that which had triumphed in the Peninsula, that particular army having been dispersed and scattered around the world, mainly to America, and only a handful of his Peninsular regiments would be present with him at Waterloo.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ While Wellington's troops were to march through what they were told to regard as friendly territory, Blucher intended to blaze a trail of destruction all the way to Paris !
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wellington admitted he had "an infamous army, very weak and ill-equipped, and a very inexperienced Staff".[15] His troops consisted of 67,000 men: 50,000 infantry, 11,000 cavalry, and 6,000 artillery with 150 guns.^ His troops only consisted of 67,000 soldiers with 150 guns, 6,000 artilleries, 11,000 cavalries, and 50,000 infantries.

^ Wellington admitted that he had inexperienced, ill-equipped, very weak, and infamous staffs in his army.

^ Wellington's troops numbered 68,000 including 12,000 cavalry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

.Of these, 24,000 were British, with another 6,000 from the King's German Legion.^ British and another 6,000 were from the King’s German Legion.

^ He especially gives tribute to the bravery of the defenders of these places particularly the Coldstream Guards and the King's German Legion.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Battle: A New History of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Captain Sandham's Battery claims to have fired the first Allies cannon shot of the battle - a claim disputed by Cleeve's Battery of King's German Legion.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.All of the British Army troops were regular soldiers and 7,000 of them were Peninsular War veterans.^ All of the British soldiers in the troops were regular soldiers wherein 7,000 of there where veterans of the Peninsular War.

^ Tallard and Marsin had forty-five thousand Frenchmen under them, all veterans, and all trained to act together: the Elector's own troops also were good soldiers.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Ney claimed that Wellington's British-Nethrlands army was in retreat, while Soult expressed regreat about the remoteness of Grouchy's troops in view of its importance.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[16] .In addition, there were 17,000 Dutch and Belgian troops, 11,000 from Hanover, 6,000 from Brunswick, and 3,000 from Nassau.^ In addition to Wellington’s army there were 3,000 soldiers from Nassau, 6,000 from Brunswick, 11,000 from Hanover and 17,000 Dutch troops.

^ The British, Belgian, Dutch and German troops poured forward and the French retreat became a route.

^ In April-June Wellington's army was reinforced with Brunswick and Nassau troops.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[17]
William, Prince of Orange showed personal bravery in the battle, but displayed poor tactical judgement that led to heavy casualties
.These Coalition armies had been re-established in 1815, following the earlier defeat of Napoleon.^ In 1815, the armies in the Coaltion were re-established after the defeat of Napoleon.

^ Napoleon's plan was to hit the Prussian and British armies separately and defeat them individually before they had a chance to link up.
  • A Quick Primer on Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC homepages.ihug.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ Four days, after the declaration, the mobilized armies of Prussia, Austria, Russia, and United Kingdom had planned an attack to defeat Napoleon.

.Most of the professional soldiers in these armies had spent their careers in the armies of France or Napoleonic regimes, with the exception of some from Hanover and Brunswick who had fought with the British army in Spain.^ Most of the professional soldiers in the armies have spent their careers in Napoleonic regimes and French armies except for some that came from the troops of Brunswick and Hanover, and those who fought with the army of British in Spain.

^ At Waterloo, Ney had 23 more years of experience, was the most legendary leader in the French army (excepting Napoleon), had fought in over 40 campaigns and battles, about 100 actions, and been directly responsible for some of the toughest victories in history, including the win at Borodino, commanding the 3rd Corps.
  • Waterloo - Bias, Assumptions, and Perspectives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napoleon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While the Dutch and Belgians, being mostly either militia units or former members of the French army, while some of their units did give ground, some stood up and fought the advancing French to the utmost (especially the professional units which were formerly a part of the French army).
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Battle: A New History of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Many of the troops in the continental armies were inexperienced militia.^ Most of the troops that belonged to the continental armies were inexperienced soldiers.

[18][19] .Wellington was also acutely short of heavy cavalry, having only seven British and three Dutch regiments.^ Brilliant charge of British heavy cavalry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This result to heavy losses for the British cavalry.

^ Wellington had experienced shortage of heavy cavalries since his army only had 3 Dutch and 7 British regiments.

.The Duke of York imposed many of his staff officers on Wellington, including his second-in-command, the Earl of Uxbridge.^ Wellington could not have worked with a chief of staff who was also his second in command.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the Duke of Wellingtons personal staff were killed or wounded.

^ Because of this, the Duke of York had impose most of his staff officers to Wellington that also include the Earl of Uxbridge, the second in command of the Duke.

.Uxbridge commanded the cavalry and had carte blanche from Wellington to commit these forces at his discretion.^ Uxbridge had commanded the cavalries from Wellington and had carte blanche as well.

^ Brack Lord Uxbridge commanded Wellington's cavalry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These forces were under the command of Blucher and Wellington.

.Wellington stationed a further 17,000 troops at Halle, eight miles (11 km) away to the west; they were not recalled to participate in the battle but were to serve as a fall back position should the battle be lost.^ They were taking up position for the battle.
  • The Battle of Waterloo as Seen by an Ordinary British Cavalryman 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The troops were not recalled to participate in the battle, they only served as a reserved position in case the battle is about to lose.

^ At Halle, Wellington stationed 17,000 troops further about 8 miles away to the west.

.They were mostly composed of Dutch troops under William, Prince of Orange's younger brother Prince Frederik of the Netherlands.^ The troops mostly composed of Dutch troops under the command of William, the Prince of Orange.

^ Heroic resistance of the Dutch under the Prince of Orange.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ William was a younger brother to Prince Frederick of Netherlands.

The Prussian army was in the throes of reorganisation. .In 1815, the former Reserve regiments, Legions, and Freikorps volunteer formations from the wars of 1813–14 were in the process of being absorbed into the line, along with many Landwehr (militia) regiments.^ In 1815, the foremer volunteer formations of Freikorps, Legions, and Reserve regiments from the wars of 1813 to 14 were in the process of being absorbed in the line along with the other regiments of the Landwehr military.

^ In the densest combat of World War I, battalion frontage - the length of the line into which the 1,000-odd men were squeezed - had been 800 yards.
  • THE BLOODIEST BATTLE OF ALL - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Each infantry brigade had only one regular, line infantry regiment, while the two remaining regiments were the second-rate Landwehr.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Landwehr were mostly untrained and unequipped when they arrived in Belgium.^ The soldiers of Landwehr military were mostly unequipped and untrained when they arrived in Belgium, which is same state with cavalries of the Prussian army.

.The Prussian cavalry were in a similar state.^ The soldiers of Landwehr military were mostly unequipped and untrained when they arrived in Belgium, which is same state with cavalries of the Prussian army.

[20] .Its artillery was also reorganising and would not give its best performance – guns and equipment would continue to arrive during and after the battle.^ The artilleries of the Landwehr military was also re-organizing and was not giving its best performance.

^ Despite this, war equipment and guns continue to arrive during and after the battle.

^ However, the author does give clear explanations of the arms and their roles and is quite explicit as to the location of various formations during the battle.
  • Amazon.co.uk: Customer Reviews: The Battle: A New History of the Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Offsetting these handicaps, however, the Prussian Army did have excellent and professional leadership in its General Staff organisation.^ Apparently, the army of Prussian did not have its general staff organization, and professional and excellent leadership.

^ The hussar, however, did not reveal that the entire Prussian army was in march.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Duke replied--"If all is as General Ziethen supposes, I will concentrate on my left wing, and so be in readiness to fight in conjunction with the Prussian army.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.These officers came from four schools developed for this purpose and thus worked to a common standard of training.^ The officers of the Prussian army came from four schools who were only developed and worked for a common standard of training.

.This system was in marked contrast to the conflicting, vague orders issued by the French army.^ Obviously, the system of the Prussian army was contradicting to the vague orders of the French army.

^ In the evening orders were issued for a general engagement, and received by the army with an alacrity which justified his confidence.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Napoleon was uncertain about the direction taken by the Prussian army as well as the vagueness of orders given to him by Grouchy.

.This staff system ensured that before Ligny, three-quarters of the Prussian army concentrated for battle at 24 hours' notice.^ On the contrary, the staff system of the Prussian army was concentrated for battle within a notice of 24 hours.

^ It had ensured the three-quarters of the army are ready before the Ligny.

^ Divided into three parts, the first studies Napoleon and his rise to power, the second describes Wellington and the allied armies, while the third reconstructs the battle of Waterloo.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

.After Ligny, the Prussian army, although defeated, was able to realign its supply train, reorganise itself, and intervene decisively on the Waterloo battlefield within 48 hours.^ Although the Prussian army got defeated in the Ligny, it had able to realign its supply train and re-organize itself.

^ The army had also intervene decisively on the Battle of Waterloo within 48 hours.

^ They were able to retreat, albeit with numerous injured and dead, north to Wavre (about 18 kilometres east of Waterloo) Napoleon had succeeded in his aim of keeping the two Allied armies apart but mistakenly believed the Prussians were defeated.
  • BBC - History - British History in depth: The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] Two and a half Prussian army corps, or 48,000 men, were engaged at Waterloo – two brigades under Friedrich von Bülow, commander of IV Corps, attacked Lobau at 16:30, while Zieten's I Corps and parts of Georg von Pirch's II Corps engaged at about 18:00.

Battlefield

The famous morne plaine described by Victor Hugo and the Lion Mound.
.The Waterloo position was a strong one.^ The battle position in the Waterloo was considered a strong one.

^ The Allied position at Waterloo was strong.
  • Association of Friends of the Waterloo Committee - The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.waterloocommittee.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Wellington took up a strong position S of Waterloo, between Mont-Saint-Jean and Belle-Alliance, and awaited attack.
  • Waterloo campaign Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Waterloo campaign 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It consisted of a long ridge running east – west, perpendicular to, and bisected by, the main road to Brussels.^ It consisted of a long ridge running towards east, west perpendicular to, and bisected by the main road towards Brussels.

^ The high road from Charleroi to Brussels (a broad paved causeway) runs through both these villages, and bisects therefore both the English and the French positions.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The west side of the main road where the rest of the line of Wellington is positioned, the orchard and farmhouse of La Haye Sainte is found.

.Along the crest of the ridge ran the Ohain road, a deep sunken lane.^ Along the crest of the ridge on the road from Wavre to Braine l’Alleud, which, though not paved, was in good condition, and greatly facilitated the movements of the troops, and especially of the artillery during the battle.
  • Association of Friends of the Waterloo Committee - The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.waterloocommittee.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ French Cuirassiers, during Ney's cavalry attack, tumbling into the sunken road that ran along the allied position Click here or on image to buy a Print .

^ The three columns were ordered them down into a little lane-sunken that ran right along their front.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Near the crossroads with the Brussels road was a large elm tree that was roughly in the centre of Wellington's position and served as his command post for much of the day.^ The tree served as the commmand post of Wellington during the battle.

^ A large elm tree was rougly located in the center of Wellington’s position just near the crossroads in Brussels road.

^ The opposite side of the road was a disused sand quarry where the 95th rifles were posted as sharpshooters were positioned.

.Wellington deployed his infantry in a line just behind the crest of the ridge following the Ohain road.^ Erlon's infantry had captured the crest of the ridge.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Along the crest ridge is the Ohain road, a deep sunken lane.

^ Wellington ordered his line to retreat behind the crest of the plateau.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Using the reverse slope, as he had many times previously, nowhere could Wellington's strength actually be seen by the French except for his skirmishers and artillery.^ With the use of reverse slope, Wellington is nowhere to be seen by the French army except for his artilleries and skirmishers.

^ Wellington realised the use of a reverse slope in a defensive battle, and made use of one whenever he could, to conceal his numbers and protect his men from French artillery.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At about 4pm Wellington ordered the Allied line to pull back a short distance in the face the continuous heavy French artillery bombardment.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

[22] .The length of front of the battlefield was also relatively short at two and a half miles (4 km).^ The front length area of the battlefield was relatively short comprising of just 4 kilometers.

^ The battlefield is in present-day Belgium, about 8 miles (12 km) of Brussels, and about 1 mile (1.6 km) from the town of Waterloo.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.This allowed Wellington to draw up his forces in depth, which he did in the centre and on the right, all the way towards the village of Braine-l'Alleud, in the expectation that the Prussians would reinforce his left during the day.^ Despite this length size, Wellington allowed his forces in depth to draw up both in the center and the right area towards the village of Braine-1′Alleud.

^ The French right, left, and centre had all now failed.

^ It was a battle between Napoleon's French forces and Wellington's Allied forces (British, German,' Prussian and Dutch troops).

[23]
.In front of the ridge, there were three positions that could be fortified.^ In the front are of the ridge, there were three positions that are prepared.

^ Both of these latter two positions lay a good distance in front of the main Allied position on the ridge.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ From our new position we could descry the three regiments of Highlanders, only a thousand in all, bravely firing down on the advancing mass of Frenchmen.
  • The Battle of Waterloo as Seen by an Ordinary British Cavalryman 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On the extreme right were the château, garden, and orchard of Hougoumont.^ The extreme right of the ridge, the orchard, garden, and chateu of Hougoumon are found.

^ The Battle of Waterloo: The morning and afternoon of the 18th June 1815: At 11am the French bombardment of Hougoumont Farm, on the extreme right of the Allied line, began the battle.

^ This means that all of Wellington's line from 900 yards to the right of his center to the extreme left flank were out of range of Hougoumont.

.This was a large and well-built country house, initially hidden in trees.^ The Hougoumon was a huge and well-built country house that is initially hidden behind the trees.

.The house faced north along a sunken, covered lane (or hollow way) along which it could be supplied.^ It is faced along the sunken and covered lane in the north.

^ The sunken road and covered way around Hougemont played key roles in the battle, yet the reader has no real sense of what these were like.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Battle: A New History of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ During the artillery duel part of Reille's infantry remained stretched out on the ground in hollows and sunken lanes.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the extreme left was the hamlet of Papelotte.^ The extreme left of the ridge was the hamlet of Papelotte.

.Both Hougoumont and Papelotte were fortified and garrisoned, and thus anchored Wellington's flanks securely.^ Both the Papelotte and Hougoumon were garrisoned and fortified, thus anchoring the borders of Wellington securely.

^ "Unlike Hougoumont, whose possesion was not critical to either side, La Haye Sainte was vital to both" - Mark Adkin At Waterloo Wellington's troops garrisoned several strongpoints: La Haye Sainte, Hougoumont, Papelotte and La Haye.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wellington garrisoned all three farms, Hougoumont, La Haye Sainte and Papelotte.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Papelotte also commanded the road to Wavre that the Prussians would use to send reinforcements to Wellington's position.^ Papelotte ordered the road towards Wavre that the Prussian army had used to send strengthenments to position Wellington.

^ Wellington send in some reinforcements.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are three armies involved in the Battle of Waterloo namely the Prussian army under the command of Blucher, the multinational army under the command of Wellington, and the army of Napoleon known as Armee de Nord.

.On the western side of the main road, and in front of the rest of Wellington's line, was the farmhouse and orchard of La Haye Sainte, which was garrisoned with 400 light infantry of the King's German Legion.^ Wellington garrisoned all three farms, Hougoumont, La Haye Sainte and Papelotte.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The west side of the main road where the rest of the line of Wellington is positioned, the orchard and farmhouse of La Haye Sainte is found.

^ The sand pit, across the road from La Haye Sainte.

[24] .On the opposite side of the road was a disused sand quarry, where the 95th Rifles were posted as sharpshooters.^ The opposite side of the road was a disused sand quarry where the 95th rifles were posted as sharpshooters were positioned.

^ Under the fire of French tirailleurs posted on the roofs of La Haye Sainte, the 95th Rifles was forced to take quick refuge in the sunken lane.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A little further on the east side of the Brussels road was the sand pit, occupied by a detachment of the 95th Regiment.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

[25] .This position presented a formidable challenge to an attacker.^ It presented the formidable challenge to an attacker.

.Any attempt to turn Wellington's right would entail taking the entrenched Hougoumont position; any attack on his right centre would mean the attackers would have to march between enfilading fire from Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte.^ There were several differences between Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ La Haye Sainte fell.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any attack made on the right center of Wellington means that attackers have to march between the enfilading fire of La Haye Sainte and Hougoumon.

.On the left, any attack would also be enfiladed by fire from La Haye Sainte and its adjoining sandpit, and any attempt at turning the left flank would entail fighting through the streets and hedgerows of Papelotte, and some very wet ground.^ After the first attack on La Haye Sainte only approx.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bachelu, to renew its attempt on La Haye Sainte.

^ Meanwhile, any attack made on the left center of Wellington would also have to march between the enfilading fire of La Haye Sainte and its adjoining sandpit.

[26]
.The French army formed on the slopes of another ridge to the south.^ The French army had formed another ridge to the south on slopes.

^ By the evening of June 17th Wellington had drawn his army up along a ridge barring the road to Brussels, just south of the village of Mont St Jean.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ For the first few hours the French artillery fire was negated by the fact that Wellington's infantry was behind a ridge (or on reverse slope).
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon could not see Wellington's positions, so he drew his forces up symmetrically about the Brussels road.^ Since Napoleon could not see the positions of Wellington, he drew forces up symmetrically towards the Brussels road.

^ Wellington was worried about possible French attack up the Mons-Hal-Brussels route despite no reports of such a movement.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As I stood behind the straggling hedge and low beech-trees that skirted the high banks of the sunken road on both sides, I could see the French army drawn up in heavy masses opposite me.
  • The Battle of Waterloo as Seen by an Ordinary British Cavalryman 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On the right was I Corps under d'Erlon with 16,000 infantry and 1,500 cavalry, plus a cavalry reserve of 4,700. On the left was II Corps under Reille with 13,000 infantry, and 1,300 cavalry, and a cavalry reserve of 4,600. In the centre about the road south of the inn La Belle Alliance were a reserve including Lobau's VI Corps with 6,000 men, the 13,000 infantry of the Imperial Guard, and a cavalry reserve of 2,000.[27] In the right rear of the French position was the substantial village of Plancenoit, and at the extreme right, the Bois de Paris wood.^ In the center of the south road in the battlefield was the inn of La Belle Alliance, which was also a reserve included in the Lobau’s VI Corps with 2,000 cavalry reserves, 13,000 infantries of the Imperial Guard, and 6,000 men.

^ The French approach to the battle was up from the country to the South of La Belle Alliance.

^ Wellington and Blücher met at La-Belle-Alliance at about 2100.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon initially commanded the battle from Rossomme farm, where he could see the entire battlefield, but moved to a position near La Belle Alliance early in the afternoon.^ Napoleon had stationed himself during the battle on a little hillock near La Belle Alliance, in the centre of the French position.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Early in the afternoon after moving to a position near La Belle Alliance, Napoleon initially commanded the battle from Rossomme farm where he could see the entire area of the battlefield.

^ The tiny farm of La Belle Alliance is on the left .
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Command on the battlefield (which was largely hidden from his view) was delegated to Ney.^ He then delegated the command on the battlefield to Ney.

^ His orders were belated, and he delegated command of the left wing - most of his army - to the brave but stupid, hotheaded and incredibly inept Marshal Ney.
  • Waterloo - Bias, Assumptions, and Perspectives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napoleon.org [Source type: Original source]

[28]

Battle

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, who had previously defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig, commanded the Prussian army
.Wellington rose around 02:00 or 03:00 on the morning of 18 June, and wrote letters until dawn.^ In the morning of June 18, Wellington rose early and wrote lettters until dawn time.

^ Until noon of June 18, 1815, Napoleon delayed granting of the battle to let the ground get dry.

^ Historian Peter Hofschroer had written that Wellington and Blucher meeting at Genappe around 22:00 signifying the end of the battle.

.He had earlier written to Blücher confirming that he would give battle at Mont St Jean if Blücher could provide him with at least a corps, otherwise he would retreat towards Brussels.^ D'Erlon then would attack towards Mont-St-Jean.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PS: the French called it the battle of Mont-St-Jean.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wellington told him that he would withdraw to Mont-St-Jean and that if he could be certain of the support of at least two Prussians corps he would do battle there, otherwise he would retreat to Brussels.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

.At a late-night council, Blücher's chief of staff, August Neidhardt von Gneisenau, was distrustful of Wellington, but Blücher persuaded him that they should march to join Wellington's army.^ Blucher read Wellington’s letter during a late night council with his chief of staff named August Neidhardt von Gneisenau.

^ They persuaded her to stay with the army.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite Gneisenau’s doubts on Wellington’s motives, Blucher still convinced him to join the march of Wellington’s army.

.In the morning Wellington duly received a reply from Blücher, promising to support him with three corps.^ The Prussians In time Blücher would arrive on the field with three corps, being some 70.000 men.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wellington remained at the Duchess of Richmond's ball at Brussels till about three o'clock in the morning of the 16th, "showing himself very cheerful" as Baron Muffling, who accompanied him, observes.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Wellington told him that he would withdraw to Mont-St-Jean and that if he could be certain of the support of at least two Prussians corps he would do battle there, otherwise he would retreat to Brussels.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

[29] .After 06:00 Wellington was out supervising the deployment of his forces.^ The position was a good one and afforded Wellington a `reverse slope', upon which the majority of his troops were deployed, out of sight of the French.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ Wellington appointed Prins Frederik of the Netherlands to carry out the task of commanding the siege operations conducted by the forces under Wellington's command.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Wellington was out supervising the deployment of his forces from Blucher, the Prusssian IV Corps, which is under the command of Bulow was ordered to lead the march towards the Waterloo.

.At Wavre, the Prussian IV Corps under Bülow was designated to lead the march to Waterloo as it was in the best shape, having not been involved in the Battle of Ligny.^ The Corps was at its best shape since they have not been involved in the Battle of Ligny.

^ There are three armies involved in the Battle of Waterloo namely the Prussian army under the command of Blucher, the multinational army under the command of Wellington, and the army of Napoleon known as Armee de Nord.

^ Ziethen of the Prussian I Corps who made the decisive move that won the battle.
  • FARK.com: (4526249) Conservatives conveniently forget that the Duke of Wellington won the Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although they had not taken casualties, IV Corps had been marching for two days, covering the retreat of the other three corps of the Prussian army from the battlefield of Ligny.^ The Prussian IV Corps did not take any casualties but been marching for two days already just to cover the refuge of the other three corps of the Prussian army from the Ligny’s battlefield.

^ The end result of a day of hard, confused fighting was that Blucher, having been forced to retreat north, in turn forced Wellington to withdraw in the same direction, marching parallel with the Prussians and keeping in close contact with them throughout.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ On ascertaining that the Prussian army had retired upon Wavre, that there was no hot pursuit of them by the French, and that Bulow's corps had taken no part in the action at Ligny, the Duke resolved to march his army back towards Brussels, still intending to cover that city, and to halt at a point in a line with Wavre, and there restore his communication with Blucher.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.They had been posted farthest away from the battlefield, and progress was very slow.^ They had been posted farther from the battlefield yet the progress is still very slow.

.The roads were in poor condition after the night's heavy rain, and Bülow's men had to pass through the congested streets of Wavre, along with 88 pieces of corps artillery.^ The roads of battlefield were in poor condition because of the heavy rain from the previous night.

^ Because of this, the men of Bulow hve to pass through the congested streets of Wavre together with the 88 pieces of corps artilleries.

^ His regular troops amounted, exclusively of the corps of artillery, to about seven thousand two hundred men, rank and file.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Matters were not helped by a fire which broke out in Wavre and blocked several streets along Bülow's intended route.^ They even took several prisoners before the musket fire from the windows and walls drove them out.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So wanting to help him out as he wanted to have his first wargame, I did the huge amount of work dirt cheap, loosing out on several thousand pounds, as it a massive layout.
  • [TMP] "BATTLE OF WATERLOO 28mm DISPLAY + INW (Joe's pics) " Topic 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC theminiaturespage.com [Source type: General]

.As a result, the last part of the corps left at 10:00, six hours after the leading elements had moved out towards Waterloo.^ Because of this, the last batch of the corps left at 10:00, which is 6 hours after the leading elements have moved out to Waterloo.

^ The leading elements of Ziethen's corps joined Wellington's troops on the left flank.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At 11:00, Napoleon had drafted his general order which is to attack the village of Mont Saint Jean by the d’Erlon’s Corps on the right and the Reille’s Corps on the left.

.Bülow's men would be followed to Waterloo first by I Corps and then by II Corps.^ The II Corps will follow immediately in support.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Had Wellington lost at Waterloo he would have great difficulty justyfying so many men idle 2-3 hours march away.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Prussians In time Blücher would arrive on the field with three corps, being some 70.000 men.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

[30]
.Napoleon breakfasted off silver at Le Caillou, the house where he had spent the night.^ Napoleon have had his silver breakfast at Le Caillou, which is also the same place where he had spent his entire night.

^ Napoleon inspected his entire outpost at 0100 after a short nap and then returned to his headquarters at le Caillou.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon's headquarters were set up in the small farm at Le Caillou.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.When Soult suggested that Grouchy should be recalled to join the main force, Napoleon said, "Just because you have all been beaten by Wellington, you think he's a good general.^ With this suggest, Napoleon said the “Just because you have all been beaten by Wellington, you think he’s a good general.

^ Soult suggested Napoleon that Grouch should be recalled to join the main force.

^ Napoleon instructed General Cambronne: "You will go on ahead - always ahead.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.I tell you Wellington is a bad general, the English are bad troops, and this affair is nothing more than eating breakfast."^ I tell you Wellington is a bad general, the English are bad troops and this affair is nothing more than just eating breakfast”.

^ Yet Burgoyne seems to have done no more than Montcalm, Wolfe, and other French, American, and English generals had done before him.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Blücher wanted to call it the battle of La-Belle-Alliance but Wellington won the discussion: he called it the battle of Waterloo because that sounded more English and his headquarters was at Waterloo during the battle.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

[31] .Later, on being told by his brother, Jerome, of some gossip between British officers (overheard by a waiter at a lunch at 'King of Spain Inn' in Genappe) that the Prussians were to march over from Wavre, Napoleon declared that the Prussians would need at least two days to recover and would be dealt with by Grouchy.^ Napoleon endeavours to make his brother King of Spain.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Grouchy was marching towards Wavre.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of this, Napoleon declared that the Prussian army will require two days to recover and deal with Grouchy.

[32]
Battle of Mont-Saint-Jean
.Napoleon had delayed the start of the battle waiting for the sodden ground, which would have made manoeuvring cavalry and artillery difficult.^ The start of the battle was delayed by Napoleon because he was waiting for the sodden ground since manouvering the artilleries and cavalries would be difficult in the battle.

^ So French cavalry dominance and skirmisher superiority, neither of which had been the case in Spain, along with artillery superiority, nearly won the battle for Napoleon despite French errors.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Battle: A New History of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The French artillery commanders insisted that the attack did not begin until the ground had dried out sufficiently for the guns to manoeuvre without sticking in the mud.

.In addition, many of his forces had bivouacked well to the south of La Belle Alliance.^ In addition most of his forces have bivouacked well towards the south of the La Belle Alliance.

^ Napoleon had stationed himself during the battle on a little hillock near La Belle Alliance, in the centre of the French position.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ In the center of the south road in the battlefield was the inn of La Belle Alliance, which was also a reserve included in the Lobau’s VI Corps with 2,000 cavalry reserves, 13,000 infantries of the Imperial Guard, and 6,000 men.

At 10:00, in answer to a dispatch he had received from Grouchy six hours earlier, he sent a dispatch telling Grouchy to "head for Wavre [to Grouchy's north] in order to draw near to us [to the west of Grouchy]" and then "push before him" the Prussians to arrive at Waterloo "as soon as possible".[33]
.At 11:00, Napoleon drafted his general order: Reille's Corps on the left and d'Erlon's Corps to the right were to attack the village of Mont Saint Jean and keep abreast of one another.^ He also ordered the corps to keep abreast of one another.

^ Napoleon ordered d'Erlon to attack Allies line.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At 11:00, Napoleon had drafted his general order which is to attack the village of Mont Saint Jean by the d’Erlon’s Corps on the right and the Reille’s Corps on the left.

.This order assumed Wellington's battle-line was in the village, rather than at the more forward position on the ridge.^ Wellington waved his hat, thereby ordering his whole line forward.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This order of Napoleon had assumed that the battleline of Wellington was in the village and not in a more forward position along the ridge.

^ This ridge constituted the position of the first line of the Wellington's army.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[34] .To enable this, Jerome's corps would make an initial attack on Hougoumont, which Napoleon expected would draw in Wellington's reserves, since its loss would threaten his communications with the sea.^ Jerome's and Foy's divisions attack Hougoumont.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To enable this order, the corps of Jerome would make an intial attack to Hougoumont, which Napoleon believed to withdraw from Wellington’s reservers.

^ He also expected that Hougoumont to loss communication with the sea.

.A grande batterie of the reserve artillery of I, II, and VI Corps was to then bombard the centre of Wellington's position from about 13:00. D'Erlon's corps then would attack Wellington's left, break through, and roll up his line from east to west.^ D’Erlon’s Corps is target to attack the Wellington’s left and breakthrough from west to east.

^ It was about 13:00 then.

^ The attack was preceded by a massive artillery bombardment from 80 guns of Napoleon's `grand battery'.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

.In his memoirs, Napoleon wrote that his intention was to separate Wellington's army from the Prussians and drive it back towards the sea.^ Napoleon was at this point deploying the Guard to drive the Prussians back from Plancenoit.

^ In his memorabilia, Napoleon had written that his intention for the attack was to separate the army of Wellington from the Prussian army and then drive it back to the sea.

^ Once this happened, Napoleon might be able to drive back the British army to the sea and defeat the Prussians army in the battle.

[35]

Hougoumont

Clément-Auguste Andrieux's 1852 The Battle of Waterloo
.The historian Andrew Roberts notes that "It is a curious fact about the Battle of Waterloo that no one is absolutely certain when it actually began".[36] Wellington recorded in his dispatches that at "about ten o'clock [Napoleon] commenced a furious attack upon our post at Hougoumont".[37] Other sources state that the attack began around 11:30.[38] The house and its immediate environs were defended by four light companies of Guards, and the wood and park by Hanoverian Jäger and the 1/2nd[39] Nassau.^ Marshal Ney began the battle about two o'clock in the afternoon.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The II/2nd Chasseurs had four companies.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The house of Hougoumont and its surrounding environment were defended by four light cmpanies of Guards and park and wood of Hanoverian Jager.

[40] .The initial attack by Bauduin's brigade emptied the wood and park, but was driven back by heavy British artillery fire, and cost Bauduin his life.^ The initial attack of the brigade of Bauduin had emptied the wood and park but it was driven back by heavy British artillery fire that cost the life of Bauduin.

^ At first, the British cavalry enthusiastically rushed into a counteracharge, hoping to hurl back the pointed thrusts of the enemy: but they paid a heavy price for their zeal.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British artillery on the ridge behind the farm replied, cannonading the French infantry massed for the attack on the far side of the valley.

.As the British guns were distracted by a duel with French artillery, a second attack by Soye's brigade and what had been Bauduin's succeeded in reaching the north gate of the house.^ The second attack was made by Soye’s brigade where the British guns were distracted by a duel with French artilleries.

^ The attack had made the Bauduin’s success to reach the north gate of the house of Hougoumont.

^ The fire of the French artillery distracted the British gunners.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some French troops managed to enter its courtyard before the gate was resecured.^ Apparently, some French troops have managed to enter the courtyard of the house of Hougoumont.

^ The French managed to capture some buildings.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some French under the command of Lieutenant Legros managed to break through the north gate but were wiped out.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

.The 2nd Coldstream Guards and 2/3rd Foot Guards then arrived and repulsed the attack.^ There are also 2/3rd Foot Guards and 2nd Goldstream Guards that have arrived and repulsed the attack.

^ II/2nd Foot Guards - Mjr.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ II/3rd Foot Guards - Mjr.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

Gate on the north side assaulted by the 1st Légère who were led by sous-lieutenant Legros[41]
.Fighting continued around Hougoumont all afternoon.^ All afternoon, fighting round the house of Hougoumont continued.

^ Held by the light companies of the Coldstream and Third Guards, there would be fighting around Hougoumont all day.

^ The battle at Hougoumont had been characterized by historians as the diversionary attack to withdraw the reserves of Wellington but then continued to an all-day battle, which resulted to drawing back of French reserves instead.

.Its surroundings were heavily invested by French light infantry, and coordinated attacks were made against the troops behind Hougoumont.^ There are also coordinated attacks that take place against the troops behind the Hougoumont.

^ The surroundings of the house were heavily invested by the light infantry of the French troops.

^ It was the last large infantry attack on Hougoumont.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wellington's army defended the house and the hollow way running north from it.^ The brigade of Du Plat from King’s German Legion had brought forward to defend the hollow way but this time they need to do it without the senior officers.

^ The army of Wellingtong defended Hougoumont and continued north of it.

^ The army of Wellington responded by forming squares of hollow box formation in four ranks deep.

.In the afternoon, Napoleon personally ordered the house to be shelled to set it on fire,[42] resulting in the destruction of all but the chapel.^ In the afternoon, Napoleon had ordered the Hougoumont to be burned down on fire.

^ Napoleon, furious by this new mischance, charged forward with all the cavalry and horse artillery he could find in order to get to Wellington's retreating infantry.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How different is this from Napoleon's conduct at the battle of Dresden, when he personally directed the fire of the battery which, as he thought, killed the Emperor Alexander, and actually killed Moreau.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Du Plat's brigade of the King's German Legion was brought forward to defend the hollow way, which they had to do without senior officers.^ The third Hussars of the King's German Legion were to the right of Somerset's brigade.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The brigade of Du Plat from King’s German Legion had brought forward to defend the hollow way but this time they need to do it without the senior officers.

^ The defenders, the 2nd King's German Legion Light Battalion, had put up a magnificent resistance all day but when their ammunition finally ran out they were forced to abandon the place.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

.They were then relieved by the 71st Foot, a British infantry regiment.^ They were relieved by a Scottish infantry regiment, the 71st Foot.

^ Wellington forbade counter-battery fire: "They [British gunners] received the order not to shoot against the enemy's guns, only against his infantry and cavalry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British cavalry were not able to destroy the French infantry therefore they fell back with losses from the musketry fire.

.Adam's brigade were further reinforced by Hugh Halkett's 3rd Hanoverian Brigade, and successfully repulsed further infantry and cavalry attacks sent by Reille, and Hougoumont held out until the end of the battle.^ The brigade of Adam was further strengthend by the 3rd Hanoverian Brigade of Hugh Halkett.

^ Eventually, Hougoumont was held out entil the battle ended.

^ It was the last large infantry attack on Hougoumont.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.
I had occupied that post with a detachment from General Byng's brigade of Guards, which was in position in its rear; and it was some time under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel MacDonald, and afterwards of Colonel Home; and I am happy to add that it was maintained, throughout the day, with the utmost gallantry by these brave troops, notwithstanding the repeated efforts of large bodies of the enemy to obtain possession of it.
—Wellington, [43]
When I reached Lloyd's abandoned guns, I stood near them for about a minute to contemplate the scene: it was grand beyond description.^ Meanwhile this what Major Macready, 30th British Regiment, Halkett’s Brigade had to say in his battle experience: “When I reached Lloyd’s abandoned guns, I stood near them for about a minute to contemplate the scene: it was grand beyond description.

^ This is what Wellington had to say after the battle ended: “I had occupied that post with a detachment from General Byng’s brigade of Guards, which was in position in its rear; and it was some time under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel MacDonald, and afterwards of Colonel Home; and I am happy to add that it was maintained, throughout the day, with the utmost gallantry by these brave troops, notwithstanding the repeated efforts of large bodies of the enemy to obtain possession of it”.

^ These forces were under the command of Blucher and Wellington.

.Hougoumont and its wood sent up a broad flame through the dark masses of smoke that overhung the field; beneath this cloud the French were indistinctly visible.^ The French were unable to capture Hougoumont and their casualties filled the woods and fields.

^ Hougoumont and its wood sent up a broad flame through the dark masses of smoke that overhung the field; beneath this cloud the French were indistinctly visible.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.battleofwaterloo.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The high road from Charleroi to Brussels (a broad paved causeway) runs through both these villages, and bisects therefore both the English and the French positions.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Here a waving mass of long red feathers could be seen; there, gleams as from a sheet of steel showed that the cuirassiers were moving; 400 cannon were belching forth fire and death on every side; the roaring and shouting were indistinguishably commixed — together they gave me an idea of a labouring volcano.^ Here a waving mass of long red feathers could be seen; there, gleams as from a sheet of steel showed that the cuirassiers were moving; 400 cannon were belching forth fire and death on every side; the roaring and shouting were indistinguishably commixed--together they gave me an idea of a labouring volcano.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Here a waving mass of long red feathers could be seen; there, gleams as from a sheet of steel showed that the cuirassiers were moving; 400 cannon were belching forth fire and death on every side; the roaring and shouting were indistinguishably commixed – together they gave me an idea of a labouring volcano.

^ In an almost incredibly short period they were within twenty yards of us, shouting “Vive l’Empereur!” The word of command, “Prepare to receive cavalry”, had been given, every man in the front ranks knelt, and a wall bristling with steel, held together by steady hands, presented itself to the infuriated cuirassiers”.

Bodies of infantry and cavalry were pouring down on us, and it was time to leave contemplation, so I moved towards our columns, which were standing up in square.
—Major Macready, Light Division, 30th British Regiment, Halkett's brigade, [44]
.The Hougoumont battle has often been characterised as a diversionary attack to draw in Wellington's reserves but which escalated into an all-day battle and drew in French reserves instead.^ The battle at Hougoumont had been characterized by historians as the diversionary attack to withdraw the reserves of Wellington but then continued to an all-day battle, which resulted to drawing back of French reserves instead.

^ Beginning of the battle and the attack on Hougoumont.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Divided into three parts, the first studies Napoleon and his rise to power, the second describes Wellington and the allied armies, while the third reconstructs the battle of Waterloo.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

[45] .In fact there is a good case that both Napoleon and Wellington thought Hougoumont was key to the battle.^ As a matter of fact, both Wellington and Napoleon had concluded that Hougoumont was the key to the battle.

^ Divided into three parts, the first studies Napoleon and his rise to power, the second describes Wellington and the allied armies, while the third reconstructs the battle of Waterloo.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ There are three armies involved in the Battle of Waterloo namely the Prussian army under the command of Blucher, the multinational army under the command of Wellington, and the army of Napoleon known as Armee de Nord.

.Hougoumont was a part of the battlefield that Napoleon could see clearly,[42] and he continued to direct resources towards it and its surroundings all afternoon (33 battalions in all, 14,000 troops).^ He had sent 14,000 troops and 33 battalions in all.

^ All afternoon, fighting round the house of Hougoumont continued.

^ Hougoumont had been on the clear vision of Napoleon as part of the battlefield that is why he continued to send resources towards it as well as its surrounding areas all afternoon.

.Similarly, though the house never contained a large number of troops, Wellington devoted 21 battalions (12,000 troops) over the course of the afternoon in keeping the hollow way open to allow fresh troops and ammunition to be admitted to the house.^ Wellington's troops numbered 68,000 including 12,000 cavalry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ Just the same over the course of the afternoon, Wellington also send 21 battalions which is equivalent to 12,000 troops towards the Hougoumont since it never contained a huge number of troops.

^ This is to keep the hollow way open that will allow fresh ammunition and troops for the house of Hougoumont.

He moved several artillery batteries from his hard-pressed centre to support Hougoumont,[46] and later stated that "the success of the battle turned upon closing the gates at Hougoumont".[47]

First French infantry attack

Map of the battle. Napoleon's units are in blue, Wellington's in red, Blücher's in grey.
.The 80 guns of Napoleon's grande batterie drew up in the centre.^ The attack was preceded by a massive artillery bombardment from 80 guns of Napoleon's `grand battery'.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ The 80 guns of the grande batterie of Napoleon drew up in the center.

^ Napoleon's grand effort to break the English left centre had thus completely failed; and his right wing was seriously weakened by the heavy loss which it had sustained.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.These opened fire at 11:50, according to Lord Hill (commander of the Anglo-allied II Corps),[48] while other sources put the time between noon and 13:30.[49] The grande batterie was too far back to aim accurately, and the only other troops they could see were part of the Dutch division (the others were employing Wellington's characteristic "reverse slope defence".[50] In addition, the soft ground prevented the cannon balls from bouncing far, and the French gunners covered Wellington's entire deployment, so the density of hits was low.^ Moreover, the soft ground of the battlefield prevented the cannon balls from bouncing so far and French gunners covered the entire deployment of Wellington therefore the density of hits was so low.

^ Several Prussian batteries opened fire.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of these troops even adopted the idea of Wellington on reverse slope defence.

The idea was not to cause a large amount of physical damage, however, but in the words of Napoleon's orders, "to astonish the enemy and shake his morale".[50]
.At about 13:00, Napoleon saw the first columns of Prussians around the village of Chapelle St Lambert, four or five miles (three hours' march for an army) away from his right flank.^ It was about 13:00 then.

^ Napoleon saw the first columns of the Prussian army around the village of Chapelle St. Lambert for about 4-5 miles away from his right border.

^ Jerome told his brother Napoleon that the Prussian army was to march over from Wavre.

[51] .Napoleon's reaction was to send a message to Grouchy telling him to come towards the battlefield and attack the arriving Prussians.^ At about 3:30, Napoleon had received intelligence which alerted him that Marshal Grouchy would not be able to prevent the Prussians from arriving on the battlefield.

^ Immediately, Napoleon react to send message to Grouch ordering to come towards the battlefied and attack the arriving Prussian army with sword against his back towards Wavre.

^ Alessandro Barbero "The Battle" At Waterloo, Napoleon ran the show until the Prussians arrived.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[52] .Grouchy, however, had been executing Napoleon's previous orders to follow the Prussians "with your sword against his back" towards Wavre, and was by now too far away to reach Waterloo.^ The leading elements were not far away from Waterloo.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Grouchy was marching towards Wavre.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon had ordered his troops to be in position at 9 AM, however, this was not to be.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Grouchy was advised by his subordinate, Gérard, to "march to the sound of the guns", but stuck to his orders and engaged the Prussian III Corps rear guard under the command of Lieutenant-General Baron Johann von Thielmann at the Battle of Wavre.^ He got stuck in his own orders to engage the Prussian III Corps rear guard.

^ The Prussian reinforcements were very slow to arrive and the sound of guns coming from the general direction of Wavre told Napoleon that Grouchy had engaged the Prussians too.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ General Gérard urged him to march to the sound of the guns but Grouchy refused, saying he had his orders to pursue the Prussians.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

.A little after 13:00, I Corps' attack began.^ Past 13:00, the I Corps began to attack.

^ The second one was the combined corps of Zieten’s I and Georg von Pirch’s II, which both attacked at 18:00.

^ At 11:00, Napoleon had drafted his general order which is to attack the village of Mont Saint Jean by the d’Erlon’s Corps on the right and the Reille’s Corps on the left.

.D'Erlon, like Ney, had encountered Wellington in Spain, and was aware of the British commander's favoured tactic of using massed short-range musketry to drive off infantry columns.^ Attack of d'Erlon's infantry columns.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Attack of Erlon's infantry columns.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just like Ney, D’Erlon had already encountered Wellington in Spain so he was aware of the favored tactics of the Brisith commanders in using massed short-range musketry in driving off infantry columns.

.Rather than use the usual nine-deep French columns deployed abreast of one another, therefore, each division advanced in closely spaced battalion lines behind one another.^ (Kempt's battalions were deployed not in their typical 2-rank deep formation but rather in 4-rank line.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The four French battalions struggled with fully deploying from columns into lines.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of using the usual nine-deep French columns, they had deployed abreast of each other wherein each division is advanced in closely spaced battalion lines behind one another.

.This allowed them to concentrate their fire,[53] but it did not leave room for them to change formation.^ This formation had allowed them to focus on their fire but did not leave enough room for them to change formation.

The formation was initially effective. .Its leftmost division, under Donzelot, advanced on La Haye Sainte.^ Apparently, the leftmost division, which is under the command of Donzelot had advanced towards the La Haye Sainte.

^ Donzelot, with the 22d division, moved against La Haye Sainte; Gen.

^ La Haye Sainte fell.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.While one battalion engaged the defenders from the front, the following battalions fanned out to either side and, with the support of several squadrons of cuirassiers, succeeded in isolating the farmhouse.^ The battalion engaged in the front defenders and the following battalions of either side along with the support of the two brigades of cuirassiers had succeeded in isolating the farmhouse.

^ Meanwhile one or two squadrons of 3rd Hussar KGL led by Kerssenbruch made fine attacks on two squadrons of cuirassiers.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marsin and the Elector had twenty-two battalions of infantry, and thirty-six squadrons of cavalry in front of the village of Lutzingen.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.The Prince of Orange saw that La Haye Sainte had been cut off, and tried to reinforce it by sending forward the Hanoverian Lüneberg Battalion in line.^ The La Haye Sainte had been cut offf and the Prince of Orange saw this and he tried to strengthen it by sending the Hanoverian Luneberg Battalion next in line.

^ La Haye Sainte fell.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ La Haye Sainte and the road.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cuirassiers concealed in a fold in the ground caught and destroyed it in minutes, and then rode on past La Haye Sainte almost to the crest of the ridge, where they covered d'Erlon's left flank as his attack developed.^ Erlon's infantry had captured the crest of the ridge.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the first attack on La Haye Sainte only approx.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ La Haye Sainte fell.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.At about 13:30, d'Erlon started to advance his three other divisions, some 14,000 men over a front of about 1,000 metres (1,094 yd) against Wellington's left wing.^ In about 13:30, d’Erlon started to advance his three other divisons with 14,000 men on the front.

^ The Allies Wellington had about 68,000 men and 156 guns.
  • The Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The divisions were just about 1,000 meters from the weak left wing of Wellington.

.They faced 6,000  men: the first line consisted of the Dutch-Belgian 1st “Van Bijlandt” brigade (Bijlandt) of the 2nd Dutch-Belgian division.^ It had faced 6,000 men consisted of the Dutch 2nd Division, the British troops, and the Hanoverian troops that are under the command of Sir Thomas Picton.

^ Donzelot's division vs Bijlandt's brigade.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bijlandt's brigade had five understrength battalions of Dutch-Belgian infantry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.The second line consisted of British and Hanoverian troops under Sir Thomas Picton, who were lying down in dead ground behind the ridge.^ It had faced 6,000 men consisted of the Dutch 2nd Division, the British troops, and the Hanoverian troops that are under the command of Sir Thomas Picton.

^ Eulogy on the career of Sir Thomas Picton.

^ Wathier, consisting of the 1st, 4th, 7th, and 12th regiments of cuirassiers, formed into two brigades; and the second, under Gen.

.All had suffered badly at Quatre Bras.^ Stievenaar - this battery suffered badly at Quatre Bras .
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All troops have suffered badly at the Quatre Bras.

^ But to be wounded by a fellow-countryman after having passed unharmed through all the perils of Quatre Bras and Waterloo!--this did seem hard, indeed.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, the Bijlandt brigade, posted towards the centre of the battlefield, had been ordered to deploy its skirmishers in the hollow road and on the forward slope.^ The Dutch Brigade that is under the command of Bijlandt posted towards the center of the battlefield.

^ The Guard cavalry having been ordered to move forward, we marched towards the enemy in the direction of the fortified farm of La Haye Sainte, from which we were separated by a slight unulaton, a gentle slope and a small level area.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Papelotte ordered the road towards Wavre that the Prussian army had used to send strengthenments to position Wellington.

.The rest of the brigade was lying down just behind the road, where they were ordered to earlier that day at 09:00 hours (they camped the previous night on the forward slope).^ They looked on the road to Paris as the path which they were to carve out by their swords to victory, to honour, to the rescue of their king, to reunion with their families, to the recovery of their patrimony, and to the restoration of their order.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ A ball was to be given by the Duchess of Richmond at Brussels that night, and the Duke proposed to General Muffling that they should go to the ball for a few hours, and ride forward in the morning to overtake the troops at Quatre Bras.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as this brigade formed up behind the 16th, the 13th Brigade under General von Hake arrived and moved up behind the 15th."
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60]
.As the French advanced, Bijlandt's skirmishers withdrew to the sunken lane, to their parent battalions.^ The brigade of Bijlandt had withdrawn to the sunken lane as the French army advanced.

^ As the massy divisions of the enemy gradually advanced, skirmishers were thrown out, who soon spread themselves over the whole front of the French left wing.

^ The Prussian Schutzen (riflemen) and fusilier battalion advanced against the numerous French skirmishers.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[61] [62] [63]
.As these skirmishers were retreating through the British skirmish lines they were booed by some British troops, thinking they were leaving the field.^ While Wellington's troops were to march through what they were told to regard as friendly territory, Blucher intended to blaze a trail of destruction all the way to Paris !
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These regiments charged up to the French gun line on the far ridge where they were in turn overwhelmed by French cavalry.

^ As they reached the line of guns of the Grand Battery, the firing ceased and the infantry formed up their battalions in lines, with every battalion sending forward its voltigeurs as skirmishers.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the moment these skirmishers were joining their parent battalions the brigade was ordered to its feet and started to return fire.^ Scheltens of VII Belgian Line Battalion wrote: Our battalion opened fire as our skirmishers had come in.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lieutenant Scheltens of 7th Belgian Line Battalion write, Our battalion opened fire as our skirmishers had come in.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also ordered to return their guns and resume fire as they refugeed.

Their fire was “little and not well maintained”.[64] .On the left of the brigade, where the 7th Dutch militia stood, a “few files were shot down and an opening in the line thus occurred”(original quotes of Van Zuylen, the chief of staff of the Dutch 2nd division).^ All I could furnish her with was an open boat, and a few lines, written upon dirty wet paper, to General Gates, recommending her to his protection.'
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ He frequently quotes the very words of his authorities: and his history thus acquires a charm such as very few ancient or modern military narratives possess.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the officers were dead and wounded, and the brigade left the battlefiled as the 7th Belgian batallion.

[65]
The battalion had no reserves and was unable to close the gap. .D’Erlon’s troops pushed through this gap in the line and the remaining battalions in the Van Bijlandt brigade (8th Dutch militia and 7th Belgian line) were forced to retreat to the square of the 5th Dutch militia, which was in reserve between Picton’s troops, about 100 paces to the rear.^ Bijlandt had five understrength battalions of Dutch-Belgian infantry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bijlandt's brigade had five understrength battalions of Dutch-Belgian infantry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "As the Dutch and Belgians (of Bijlandt's brigade) opened up with their muskets, the two British brigades (Kempt's and Pack's) on either side and 50 m to the rear of them, began to change from battalion column(s) of companies to (battalion) line(s)."
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.There they regrouped under the Command of Colonel Van Zuylen van Nijevelt and general Constant-de-Rebeque.^ There are three armies involved in the Battle of Waterloo namely the Prussian army under the command of Blucher, the multinational army under the command of Wellington, and the army of Napoleon known as Armee de Nord.

^ Unable to break in upon the square by open force, a commanding officer of cuirassiers tried a ruse de guerre ; he lowered his sword to General Halket.

^ Gates gave him the command of the right wing, and took in person the command of the left wing, which was composed of two brigades under Generals Poor and Leonard, of Colonel Morgan's rifle corps, and part of the fresh New England Militia.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.A moment later the Prince of Orange ordered a counterattack, which actually occurred around 10 minutes later.^ Prince of Orange intervened, and curtly ordered Ompteda to obey.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[66] [67] [68]
.In the mean time D'Erlon's men began to ascend the slope, and as they did so, Picton's men stood up and opened fire.^ The men of D’Erlon’s army began to move towards the slope as they did so, the men of Picton’s army stood up and opened the fire.

^ Pack's men were so anxious that they opened fire on the Prussians.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Defended by their breast-plates, they galloped up to the very bayonets of the infantry, hoping that some opening might be made through which they might penetrate; but, in no instance, did they succeed in making the least impression.

.The French infantry returned fire and successfully pressured the British troops; although the attack faltered at the centre, [69] the line in front of d'Erlon's left started to crumble.^ The attack faltered at the center position of Wellington, thus the left wing started to crumble.

^ Eventually, the French infantry returned the fire and successful pressured the troops of Wellington.

^ Sir John Colborne brought the 52nd Foot round to outflank the French column as it passed his brigade, fired a destructive volley into the left flank of the Chasseurs and attacked with the bayonet.

.Picton was killed after ordering the counterattack and the British and Hanoverian troops also began to give way under the pressure of numbers.^ In the attack, Picton was killed and Hanoverian and British troops began to give way under the pressure of numbers.

^ It had faced 6,000 men consisted of the Dutch 2nd Division, the British troops, and the Hanoverian troops that are under the command of Sir Thomas Picton.

^ In fact, only 34,000 of the 100,000 troops under Wellington were British, the rest being Germans, Hanoverians and Brunswickers, all good troops, and a large contingent of Nassauers, Dutch and Belgians.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

Charge of the British heavy cavalry

.
Our officers of cavalry have acquired a trick of galloping at everything.^ Wellington stated that: “Our officers of cavalry have acquired a trick of galloping at everything.

^ In a few minutes after, the enemy's cavalry galloped up and crowned the crest of our position.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

They never consider the situation, never think of manoeuvring before an enemy, and never keep back or provide a reserve.
—Wellington, [70]
.At this crucial juncture, Uxbridge ordered his two brigades of British heavy cavalry, formed unseen behind the ridge, to charge in support of the hard-pressed infantry.^ Brilliant charge of British heavy cavalry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the crucial changes of the British heavy cavalry, Uxbridge ordered his two brigades to form the unseen behind the ridge and charge in support of the hard-pressed infantry.

^ This result to heavy losses for the British cavalry.

.The 1st Brigade, known as the Household Brigade, commanded by Major-General Edward Somerset (Lord Somerset), consisted of guards regiments: the 1st and 2nd Life Guards, the Royal Horse Guards (the Blues), and the 1st 'King's' Dragoon Guards.^ Somerset's brigade was formed of the Life Guards, the Blues, and the Dragoon Guards.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ King's Dragoon Guards attacking French Dragoons .

^ It was consisted of guards regiments, the 1st and 2nd Life Guards, the Royal Horse Guards or the Blues, and the 1st King’s Dragoon Guards.

.The 2nd Brigade, also known as the Union Brigade, commanded by Major-General Sir William Ponsonby, was so called as it consisted of an English (1st, 'The Royals'), a Scottish (2nd, 'Scots Greys'), and an Irish (6th, 'Inniskilling') regiment of heavy dragoons.^ He then rode to where Ponsonby's Union Brigade stood and ordered Ponsonby to prepare his heavy dragoons to charge.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bourgeouis' brigade was pushed back by the 1st Royals, the 6th Dragoons struck Donzelot's column, and the 2nd Dragoons (Scots Greys) moved against Marcognet's column.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was consisted of regiments of heavy dragoons namely the English or the Royals, the Scottish or the Scots Greys, and the Irish or Inniskilling.

.More than 20 years of warfare had eroded the numbers of suitable cavalry mounts available on the European continent; this resulted in the British heavy cavalry entering the 1815 campaign with the finest horses of any contemporary cavalry arm.^ It was more than 20 years of warfare that had passed throughout different suitable mounts available within the continent of Europe.

^ Because of this, the British heavy cavalry entered the 1815 campaign with the finest horses and contemporary cavalry arm.

^ This result to heavy losses for the British cavalry.

.They also received excellent mounted swordsmanship training.^ They have also received excellent mounted swormanship training.

.They were, however, inferior to the French in manoeuvring in large formations, cavalier in attitude, and unlike the infantry had scant experience of warfare.^ However, they were inferior to the French when in comes to maneouvering larger formations and cavalier attitude.

^ Although his infantry repulsed the cavalry, they became fine targets for the French artillery.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, everything is relative: they were prepared to welcome the French because they had chased away the Prussians - brutal, mean, ravenous and hating anyone who spoke French."
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to Wellington, they had little tactical ability or nous (common sense).^ According to Wellington, the had little tactical abiliy or nous.

[70] .The two brigades had a combined field strength of about 2,000 (2,651 official strength), and they charged with the 47-year-old Uxbridge leading them and little reserve.^ The two brigades have more combined field strength of about 2,000 and charged with little reserves and a 47-year old leader named Uxbridge.

^ Our guns were abandoned, and they formed between the two brigades, about a hundred paces in our front.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ It was Uxbridge who launched several successful charges against the French; who, himself, also, did not lead any of these because it was also not his place to lead charges but rather to direct them to be lead.

[71][72][73]
"The Sunken Road at Waterloo," by Stanley Berkeley
.The Household Brigade charged down the hill in the centre of the battlefield.^ The Household Brigade was charged down the hill in the center of the battlefield.

^ The shield-bearing infantry now charged also among the reeling masses of the Asiatics; and five of the brigades of the phalanx, with the irresistible might of their sarissas, bore down the Greek mercenaries of Darius, and dug their way through the Persian centre.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The Foot Guards stood, fired a volley and charged with the bayonet driving the French Guard back down the hill.

.The cuirassiers guarding d'Erlon's left flank were still dispersed, and so were swept over the deeply sunken main road and then routed.^ It is somewhat surprising that the Guard took this route as it would, possibly, have been easier to march directly up the Brussels road and smash through Wellington's centre.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ Some 100 Guard Grenadiers who were following him placed themselves off the road to his left, in line with the Polish Guard Lancers.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The II Corps will advance far enough to guard d'Erlon's flank.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[74] .The sunken lane acted as a trap which funnelled the flight of the French cavalry to their own right, away from the British cavalry.^ The sunken lane acted as as trap that funnelled the flight of the French cavalry on their own right and away from the British cavalry.

^ Columns of French infantry and cavalry, preceded by a formidable artillery, advanced from all points, ascended the eminence on which the British were stationed, and precipitated themselves on their squares.

^ Then the cavalry on both sides withdrew, with the French halting their horses now and then to stabb the wounded British and German soldiers on the ground.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some of the cuirassiers then found themselves hemmed in by the steep sides of the sunken lane, with a confused mass of their own infantry in front of them, the 95th Rifles firing at them from the north side of the lane, and Somerset's heavy cavalry still pressing them from behind.^ Some of the cuirassiers have found themselves hemmed in by the slope sides of the sunken lane.

^ Bauduin's men descended into a sunken lane, and found themselves in front of the north gate.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were various troops pressing them from behind such as the Somerset’s heavy cavalry, the 95th Rifles firing at them from the north side of the lane, and a confused mass of their infantry in front.

[75] .The novelty of fighting armoured foes impressed the British cavalrymen, as was recorded by the commander of the Household Brigade.^ British cavalry men were impressed on the novelty of fighting with armored foes and this was recored by the commander of the Household Brigade.

^ Count Sir Karl von Alten, the commander of 3rd British Infantry Division, ordered Baron Ompteda, the commander of 2nd KGL Brigade, to recapture the farm.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Demetrius Boulger - article "The Belgians at Waterloo" published in "Contemporary Review" in May 1900 ) The French cuirassiers being counter-attacked by the British Household Brigade.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

The blows of the sabres on the cuirasses sounded like braziers at work.
—Lord Somerset, [76]
.Continuing their attack, the squadrons on the left of the Household Brigade then destroyed Aulard's brigade.^ As the attack continued, the left squadrons of the Household Brigade had destroyed the Aulard’s Brigade.

^ In particular the Union Brigade continued to attack across the valley.

^ On the left one brigade of Allix/Quiot's division (General Allix was replaced by Quiot) attacked La Haye Sainte, while another brigade crossed the hedge and the road behind.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Despite attempts to recall them, however, they continued past La Haye Sainte and found themselves at the bottom of the hill on blown horses facing Schmitz's brigade formed in squares.^ Despite the several attempts of recalling them, they still continued towards the La Haye Sainte and found themselves at the bottom of the hill with blow horses facing the squared form of Schmitz’s Brigade.

^ La Haye Sainte fell.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ La Haye Sainte and the road.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

Sergeant Ewart of the Scots Greys capturing the eagle of the 45eme Ligne by Richard Ansdell
.To their left, the Union Brigade suddenly swept through the infantry lines (giving rise to the legend that some of the 92nd Gordon Highland Regiment clung onto their stirrups and accompanied them into the charge).^ One of them was the 5th Line Infantry Regiment.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On their lef, the Union Brigade suddenly swept away through the infantry lines that give rise to the legend of the 92nd Gordon Highland Regiment.

^ D'Erlon's commanders tried desperately to reorganise their men but were suddenly swept away by an avalanche, formed of Uxbridge's Union Brigade, consisting of the 1st (Royals), 2nd (Scots Greys) and the 6th (Enniskilling) Dragoons.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

[77] .From the centre leftwards, the Royal Dragoons destroyed Bourgeois' brigade, capturing the eagle of the 105th Ligne.^ From the leftward center, the Royal Dragoons had destroyed the brigade of Bourgeois as it captured the eagle of the 105th Ligne.

^ During the charge Sergeant Ewart, of the Greys, captured the eagle of the French 45th Ligne Regiment, whilst on the brigade's right the Household Brigade charged, delivering an equally devastating attack against D'Erlon's battered columns.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ Bourgeouis' brigade was pushed back by the 1st Royals, the 6th Dragoons struck Donzelot's column, and the 2nd Dragoons (Scots Greys) moved against Marcognet's column.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Inniskillings routed the other brigade of Quoit's division, and the Greys destroyed most of Nogue's brigade, capturing the eagle of the 45th Ligne.^ The Greys destroyed most of the Nogue’s Brigade as it captured the eagle of the 45th Ligne while the Inniskillings routed the other Brigade of the Quoit’s Division.

^ During the charge Sergeant Ewart, of the Greys, captured the eagle of the French 45th Ligne Regiment, whilst on the brigade's right the Household Brigade charged, delivering an equally devastating attack against D'Erlon's battered columns.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ The Scotch Greys, in the mean time, had been reinforced by a brigade of heavy dragoons, and the most dreadful engagement now took place.

[78] .On Wellington's extreme left, Durutte's division had time to form squares and fend off groups of Greys.^ The Scots Greys then attacked the 21st Line that had time to form square.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the extreme left of Wellington, which is the Durutte’s Division had time to fend off groups and formd squares of Grey.

^ Our regiment and 73d formed one, and 33d and 69th another; to our right beyond them were the Guards, and on our left the Hanoverians and German legion of our division.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.As with the Household Cavalry, the officers of the Royals and Inniskillings found it very difficult to rein back their troops, who lost all cohesion.^ At the Household Cavarly, the officers of the Inniskillings and Royals found it very difficult to rein back their troops that lost all cohesions.

^ The duke now found it extremely difficult to restrain the impetuosity of his troops.

^ The Roman officer who commanded the cavalry, Numonius Vala, rode off with his squadrons, in the vain hope of escaping by thus abandoning his comrades.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.James Hamilton, commander of the Greys (who were supposed to form a reserve) ordered a continuation of the charge to the French grande batterie.^ The commander of the Greys, James Hamiltion had ordered the continuation of the charge to the French grande batterie, which was originally to form a reserve.

^ At about 4pm Wellington ordered the Allied line to pull back a short distance in the face the continuous heavy French artillery bombardment.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ As they reached the line of guns of the Grand Battery, the firing ceased and the infantry formed up their battalions in lines, with every battalion sending forward its voltigeurs as skirmishers.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though the Greys had neither the time nor means to disable the cannon or carry them off, they put very many out of action as the gun crews fled the battlefield.^ Though the Greys have the means of disabling the cannons and carry them off, they still implemented their tactics out of actions as they fled to the battlefield with gun crews.

^ The Scotch Greys, in the mean time, had been reinforced by a brigade of heavy dragoons, and the most dreadful engagement now took place.

^ NCO Dickinson of British cavalry thought 15 French guns were permanently put out of action after the charge of Union Brigade.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[79]
.Napoleon promptly responded by ordering a counter-attack by the cuirassier brigades of Farine and Travers and Jaquinot's two lancer regiments in the I Corps light cavalry division.^ He had sent cuirassier brigades of the Travers and Farine along with two lander regiments of Jaquinot.

^ Initially the attacking force was to be Milhauds Cavalry Corps of Cuirassiers.

^ The French cuirassiers being counter-attacked by the Netherland Carabinier Brigade.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The result was very heavy losses for the British cavalry.^ This result to heavy losses for the British cavalry.

^ Brilliant charge of British heavy cavalry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At first, the British cavalry enthusiastically rushed into a counteracharge, hoping to hurl back the pointed thrusts of the enemy: but they paid a heavy price for their zeal.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[80] .All figures quoted for the losses of the cavalry brigades as a result of this charge are estimates, as casualties were only noted down after the day of the battle and were for the battle as a whole.^ This result to heavy losses for the British cavalry.

^ All quoted figures for the losses of the cavalry brigades from this charge are just estimates.

^ The casualties were only noted down after the day of the battle and not from the entire battle event.

[81][82] .Some historians believe the official rolls tend to overestimate the number of cavalrymen present in their squadrons on the field of battle and that the proportionate losses were, as a result, considerably higher than the numbers on paper might suggest.^ Some historians belived that official rolls discovered from the sites tend to overestimate the quantiry of cavalrymen present in the squadrons on the actual battlefield.

^ Proportionate losses were just results and believed to be considerably higher than the numbers reflected and suggested on the papers and books.

^ I certainly differ from that great historian as to the comparative importance of some of the battles which he thus enumerates, and also of some which he omits.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[83] .The Union Brigade lost heavily in both officers and men killed (including its commander, William Ponsonby, and Colonel Hamilton of the Scots Greys) and wounded.^ The Union Brigade had heavily lost since many officers and men are killed from them including its commander, William Ponsonby as well as Colonel Hamilton of the Scots Greys.

^ General Ponsonby, commanding the Union Brigade was killed.

^ The Scots Greys charged right up to Napoleon's guns, slaughtering the gunners and spiking many guns but their horses were soon blown and the Scotsmen suffered a severe mauling following a counter-attack by enemy cavalry, during which Major General Sir William Ponsonby, the brigade commander, was killed.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

.The 2nd Life Guards and the King's Dragoon Guards of the Household Brigade also lost heavily (with Colonel Fuller, commander of the King's DG, killed).^ Somerset's brigade was formed of the Life Guards, the Blues, and the Dragoon Guards.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The King’s Dragoon Guards and 2nd Life Guards have also lost heavily wherein Colonel Fuller was also killed.

^ King's Dragoon Guards attacking French Dragoons .

.However, the 1st Life Guards, on the extreme right of the charge, and the Blues, who formed a reserve, had kept their cohesion and consequently suffered significantly fewer casualties.^ Somerset's brigade was formed of the Life Guards, the Blues, and the Dragoon Guards.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Apparently, the Blues and the 1st Life Guards had only suffered with fewer casuatlies even if they had kept their cohesion and formed a reserve.

^ Our regiment and 73d formed one, and 33d and 69th another; to our right beyond them were the Guards, and on our left the Hanoverians and German legion of our division.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.A counter-charge, by British and Dutch light dragoons and hussars on the left wing and Dutch carabiniers in the centre, repelled the French cavalry back to their positions.^ The British light dragoons charged but without much enthusiasm and result.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Counter Charge of the 12th and 13th Light Dragoons by Chris Collingwood.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

^ A counter-charge was made by the Dutch and British light dragoons and hussars on the Dutch carabiniers in the center as well as the left wing whereas the French cavarly repelled back to their positions.

[84][85]
.Many popular histories suggest that the British heavy cavalry were destroyed as a viable force following their first, epic charge.^ Plenty of popular histories suggested that the British heavy cavarly were destroyed as a viable force following the epic and first charge.

^ This result to heavy losses for the British cavalry.

^ Brilliant charge of British heavy cavalry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Examination of eyewitness accounts reveals, however, that far from being ineffective, they continued to provide very valuable services.^ Based on the examination of the eyewitnesses, they revealed that the cavalry had provided valuable services, which is far from being ineffective.

.They counter-charged French cavalry numerous times (both brigades),[86] halted a combined cavalry and infantry attack (Household Brigade only),[87][88] were used to bolster the morale of those units in their vicinity at times of crisis, and filled gaps in the Anglo-Allied line caused by high casualties in infantry formations (both brigades).^ The French cavalry patrols were attacked and dispersed.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charges of French cavalry against Allies squares.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They charged several times and halted the spearheading French cavalry units.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[89] .This service was rendered at a very high cost, as close combat with French cavalry, carbine fire, infantry musketry and – more deadly than all of these – artillery fire steadily eroded the number of effectives[90] in the two brigades.^ With the cavalry battle being over, the French artillery opened fire again.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The service was rendered at very expensive cost, which is close combat with the French cavalry, infant musketry, and carbine fire.

^ At 7 AM the French artillery ceased fire.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the end of the fighting the two brigades, by this time combined, could muster only a few composite squadrons.^ At the end of the battle, the two brigades (Hosehold and Union), by this time combined, could muster only a few composite squadrons.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the end of the battle of the two brigades, it was concluded that both had only few composite squadrons.

^ The two brigades have more combined field strength of about 2,000 and charged with little reserves and a 47-year old leader named Uxbridge.

.Some 20,000 French troops had been committed to this attack.^ There were 20,000 French troops that committed to the attack.

^ The French troops who had been left in Orleans, had placed some planks over the broken part of the bridge, and advanced across them to the assault of the Tourelles on the northern side.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ In the course of the day, the French employed the three divisions of II Corps in this sector, for a total of 33 battalions and some 14,000 muskets.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Its failure cost Napoleon not only heavy casualties – 3,000 prisoners were taken – but valuable time, as the Prussians now began to appear on the field to his right.^ Napoleon lost 25,000 dead or injured, with 8,000 taken prisoner.

^ The attack gave way to failure cost for Napoleon not only for heavy casualties but also 3,000 prisoners were taken.

^ Apparently, in less time, the Prussian army now began to appear on the battlefield at Napoleon’s right.

.Napoleon sent his reserve, Lobau's VI corps and two cavalry divisions, some 15,000 troops, to hold them back.^ Because of this Napoleon sent his reserve Lobau’s VI Corps along with other two cavalry divisions and 15,000 troops to hold them back.

^ Four corps of reserve cavalry, under Marshal Grouchy, were also near the frontier, between the rivers Aisne and Sambre.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ His regular troops amounted, exclusively of the corps of artillery, to about seven thousand two hundred men, rank and file.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.With this, Napoleon had committed all of his infantry reserves, except the Guard, and he now had to beat Wellington not only quickly, but with inferior numbers.^ With this, Napoleon was able to defeat Wellington very quickly and in inferior quantity.

^ As the attack continues, and Napoleon committed all of his infantry reserves except for the Guards.

^ Napoleon's infantry (left) vs Wellington's infantry .
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[91]

The French cavalry attack

.A little before 16:00, Ney noted an apparent exodus from Wellington's centre.^ Before 16:00, Ney noticed an apparent exodus from the center of Wellington.

^ In the centre of Wellington's position, meanwhile, a crisis had occurred with Ney's capture of the farmhouse of La Haye Sainte.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

.He mistook the movement of casualties to the rear for the beginnings of a retreat, and sought to exploit it.^ He misunderstood the movement as casualties preparing to rear at the beginning of the refuge.

^ It is likely that the movements he saw were casualties or prisoners moving to the rear.

.Following the defeat of d'Erlon's Corps, Ney had few infantry reserves left, as most of the infantry been committed either to the futile Hougoumont attack or to the defence of the French right.^ The first French attacks on Hougoumont.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the last large infantry attack on Hougoumont.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The defeat of the d’Erlon’s Corps followed and Ney had few infantry reserves left since most of the reserves were committed to the futile Hougoumont attack to defend the French fright.

.Ney therefore tried to break Wellington's centre with cavalry alone.^ Ney tried to break soley the center of Wellington with cavalry.

^ Eventually, with the French cavalry alone, it achieves little and this became very obvious event to Ney.

^ In the centre of Wellington's position, meanwhile, a crisis had occurred with Ney's capture of the farmhouse of La Haye Sainte.
  • Battle of Waterloo 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.war-art.com [Source type: General]

[92] .Initially Milhaud's reserve cavalry corps of cuirassiers and Lefebvre-Desnoëttes' light cavalry division of the Imperial Guard, some 4,800 sabres, were committed.^ Initially the attacking force was to be Milhauds Cavalry Corps of Cuirassiers.

^ Initially, the reserve cavalry corps of cuirassiers and the light cavarly division of the Imperial Guard, the Lefebvre-Desnoettes along with other 4,800 sabres were committed by Milhaud.

^ In the evening part of this division was committed to the action to repulse the Imperial Guard.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.When these were repulsed, Kellermann's heavy cavalry corps and Guyot's heavy cavalry of the Guard were added to the massed assault, a total of around 9,000 cavalry in 67 squadrons.^ When Milhaud's IV Cavalry Corps and light cavalry of the Guard were repulsed, Kellermann's III Cavalry Corps and the heavy cavalry of the Guard were added to the massed assault.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When these were repulsed the heavy cavaly of the Guard and the heavy cavalry corps of Kellermann were added to the massed assault with a total of around 9,000 cavalry in 67 squadrons.

^ In the center of the south road in the battlefield was the inn of La Belle Alliance, which was also a reserve included in the Lobau’s VI Corps with 2,000 cavalry reserves, 13,000 infantries of the Imperial Guard, and 6,000 men.

[93]
"French Cuirassiers", by Louis Dumoulin.
.Wellington's army responded by forming squares (hollow box-formations four ranks deep).^ The army of Wellington responded by forming squares of hollow box formation in four ranks deep.

^ (Two days earlier the 1st Light formed in squares had thrown back Wellington's cavalry at Quatre Bras.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, since there was no time to form a square formation against cavalry, they took to their heels.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Squares were much smaller than usually depicted in paintings of the battle – a 500-man battalion square would have been no more than 60 feet (18 m) in length on a side.^ Every square composed of 500-man battalion and more than 60 feet in side length.

^ The squares were much tinyer than the usual depicted in the battle paintings.

^ Yet Burgoyne seems to have done no more than Montcalm, Wolfe, and other French, American, and English generals had done before him.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Vulnerable to artillery or infantry, squares that stood their ground were deadly to cavalry, because they could not be outflanked and because horses would not charge into a hedge of bayonets.^ They cannot outbordered since the hourses cannot charge into a hedge of bayonets.

^ Since the formed squares were vulnerable to infantry and artillery, they appear deadly to the cavalry as they stood on the ground.

^ It was now past eight o'clock, and for nearly nine deadly hours had the British and German regiments stood unflinching under the fire of artillery, the charge of cavalry, and every variety of assault, which the compact columns or the scattered tirailleurs of the enemy's infantry could inflict.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Wellington ordered his artillery crews to take shelter within the squares as the cavalry approached, and to return to their guns and resume fire as they retreated.^ He also ordered to return their guns and resume fire as they refugeed.

^ Wellington ordered his artillery crews to take shelter within the squares as the cavalry approached.

^ Wellington ordered his gunners to take shelter within the squares as the cavalry approached, and to return to their guns and resume fire as they retreated.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Witnesses in the British infantry recorded as many as 12 assaults, though this probably includes successive waves of the same general attack; the number of general assaults was undoubtedly far fewer.^ Witnesses of the British infantry recorded that there were 12 assaults that took place that include a number of general assaults and successive waves of the same general attack.

^ The British artillery on the ridge behind the farm replied, cannonading the French infantry massed for the attack on the far side of the valley.

^ Of the 26 infantry brigades in Wellington's army of 70,000, only nine were British; of the 12 cavalry brigades, only 7 were British.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Kellermann, recognising the futility of the attacks, tried to reserve the elite carabinier brigade from joining in, but eventually Ney spotted them and insisted on their involvement.^ Eventually Ney had spotted them and insisted on their involvement.

^ Kellermann, recognising the futility of the attacks, tried to reserve the two regiments of horse carabiniers from joining in, but eventually Marshal Ney spotted them and insisted on their involvement.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kellerman had recognized the futility of the attacks and tried to reserve the elite carabinier brigade from joining in.

[94]
A British eyewitness of the first French cavalry attack, an officer in the Foot Guards, recorded his impressions very lucidly and somewhat poetically:
.
About four P.M. the enemy's artillery in front of us ceased firing all of a sudden, and we saw large masses of cavalry advance: not a man present who survived could have forgotten in after life the awful grandeur of that charge.^ According to a British eyewitness (Captain Rees Howell Gronow, Foot Guards) of the first French cavalry attack, he recorded his impressions very lucidly and somewhat poetically as: ” About four P.M. the enemy’s artillery in front of us ceased firing all of a sudden, and we saw large masses of cavalry advance: not a man present who survived could have forgotten in after life the awful grandeur of that charge.

^ At 7 AM the French artillery ceased fire.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British cavalry were charging us on all sides and cutting us to pieces.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.You discovered at a distance what appeared to be an overwhelming, long moving line, which, ever advancing, glittered like a stormy wave of the sea when it catches the sunlight.^ You discovered at a distance what appeared to be an overwhelming, long moving line, which, ever advancing, glittered like a stormy wave of the sea when it catches the sunlight.

^ "Like Kempt's, Pack's men had lain down at some distance from the sunken lane and remained there for a long time, but then they had deployed in line, 4-rank deep ...
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.On they came until they got near enough, whilst the very earth seemed to vibrate beneath the thundering tramp of the mounted host.^ On they came until they got near enough, whilst the very earth seemed to vibrate beneath the thundering tramp of the mounted host.

^ But it seemed as if they fled; and all the host was troubled.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ They came from all the extremities of the earth to propitiate his anger, to celebrate his greatness, or to solicit his protection.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.One might suppose that nothing could have resisted the shock of this terrible moving mass.^ One might suppose that nothing could have resisted the shock of this terrible moving mass.

^ The Sicilian Greeks are deficient in military training; but still if they could be at once brought to combine in an organised resistance to Athens, they might even now be saved.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing, however, could resist the determined valour of the British, and, after a long and sanguinary conflict, the cuirassiers turned their horses and fled.

.They were the famous cuirassiers, almost all old soldiers, who had distinguished themselves on most of the battlefields of Europe.^ They were the famous cuirassiers, almost all old soldiers, who had distinguished themselves on most of the battlefields of Europe.

^ "Such are the designs of the present Athenian expedition to Sicily, and you have heard them from the lips of the man who, of all men living, is most accurately acquainted with them.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The French were screaming at them, kicked and stripped of all they had before they were turned over to cuirassiers and escorted to the rear.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

In an almost incredibly short period they were within twenty yards of us, shouting "Vive l'Empereur!" The word of command, "Prepare to receive cavalry", had been given, every man in the front ranks knelt, and a wall bristling with steel, held together by steady hands, presented itself to the infuriated cuirassiers.
—Captain Rees Howell Gronow, Foot Guards, [95]
.
"The artillery officers had the range so accurately, that every shot and shell fell into the very centre of their masses."
^ Sergeant Wheeler of the British 51st Light writes, "A shell now fell into the column of the 15th Hussars and bursted.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A shot rang out and Letort fell dead from his saddle.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French officers started sending small troops into the wood, where the skirmishers exchanged shots with the enemy.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

(Original inscription and drawing after George Jones)
.In essence this type of massed cavalry attack relied almost entirely on psychological shock for effect.^ This type of massed cavalry attack relied mostly on the psychological shock for effect.

^ Napoleon instantly seized the advantage which he had now gained, and, pressing on with immense masses of infantry and cavalry, attacked the centre, which was now exposed.

^ (Kellermann's and Milhaud's corps were soon counter-charged by almost the entire force of Allies cavalry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[96] .Close artillery support could disrupt infantry squares and allow cavalry to penetrate; at Waterloo, however, co-operation between the French cavalry and artillery was not impressive.^ French cavalry vs Allies infantry squares.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The close artillery support could not disrupt the infantry squares since it allowed the cavalry to penetrate.

^ The French cavalry attacks were repeatedly repelled by the steadfast infantry squares.

.The French artillery did not get close enough to the Anglo-allied infantry in sufficient numbers to be decisive.^ The French artillery did not get close enough to the Anglo-Allied infantry when it comes to decisive numbers.

^ On riding over the summit of the acclivity, the Allies were received with so hot a fire from the French artillery and small arms, that at first the cavalry recoiled, but without abandoning the high ground.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ With regard to the author's claim that the French cavalry captured several cannon, what really happened was that the cavalry had overrun the Anglo-Allied batteries and kept on going.

[97] .Artillery fire between charges did produce mounting casualties, but most of this fire was at relatively long range and was often indirect, at targets beyond the ridge.^ The artillery fire between the charges did not produce mounting casualties but instead most of this fire was relatively long range and was often indirect at targest beyond the ridge.

^ The French cavalry had caused few direct casualties to Wellington’s center and artillery fire towards his infantry squares casued plenty of casualties.

^ Since the Prussians opened artillery (six batteries of 8 pieces each) fire on Domons light cavalry division beyond effective range, it is claimed this was for psychological reasons that made an impression on friend and foe.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.If infantry being attacked held firm in their square defensive formations, and were not panicked, cavalry on their own could do very little damage to them.^ The cavalry on their own could do very minimal damage especially if the infantry being attacked held firmed in their square defensive formations and does not panicked.

^ The French cavalry attacks were repeatedly repelled by the steadfast infantry squares.

^ Eventually, with the French cavalry alone, it achieves little and this became very obvious event to Ney.

.The French cavalry attacks were repeatedly repelled by the steadfast infantry squares, the harrying fire of British artillery as the French cavalry recoiled down the slopes to regroup, and the decisive counter-charges of Wellington's light cavalry regiments, the Dutch heavy cavalry brigade, and the remaining effectives of the Household Cavalry.^ The French cavalry patrols were attacked and dispersed.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charges of French cavalry against Allies squares.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the cavalry battle being over, the French artillery opened fire again.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.At least one artillery officer disobeyed Wellington's order to seek shelter in the adjacent squares during the charges.^ Wellington ordered his artillery crews to take shelter within the squares as the cavalry approached.

^ During the actual charges, Captain Cavalie Mercer had disobeyed the order of Wellington in seeking shelter at the adjacent squares of the formation.

^ Rather than lead charges, Wellington took refuge in the squares whenever danger threatened, which was the proper thing for a commander-in-chief to do.

Captain Mercer, who commanded 'G' Troop, Royal Horse Artillery, thought the Brunswick troops on either side of him so shaky[98]that he kept his battery of six nine-pounders in action against the cavalry throughout, to great effect:
.
I thus allowed them to advance unmolested until the head of the column might have been about fifty or sixty yards from us, and then gave the word, "Fire!"^ He stated that: ” I thus allowed them to advance unmolested until the head of the column might have been about fifty or sixty yards from us, and then gave the word, “Fire!” The effect was terrible.

^ Thus equipped, they usually advanced slowly and steadily into action in an uniform phalanx of about eight spears deep.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The siege was therefore hotly pressed by the Swedes; the garrison resisted obstinately; and the Czar, feeling the importance of saving the town, advanced in June to its relief, at the head of an army from fifty to sixty thousand strong.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

The effect was terrible. Nearly the whole leading rank fell at once; and the round shot, penetrating the column carried confusion throughout its extent ... the discharge of every gun was followed by a fall of men and horses like that of grass before the mower's scythe.
.For reasons that remain unclear, no attempt was made to spike other allied guns while they were in French possession.^ Three Old Guard battalions did move forward and formed the second line attack, though they remained in reserve and did not directly attack the Anglo-allied line.

^ One of the French columns kept to the east, and attacked the extreme left of the Allies; the other three continued to move rapidly forwards upon the left centre of the allied position.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The second attack was made by Soye’s brigade where the British guns were distracted by a duel with French artilleries.

.In line with Wellington's orders, gunners were able to return to their pieces and fire into the French cavalry as they withdrew after each attack.^ The French cavalry patrols were attacked and dispersed.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also ordered to return their guns and resume fire as they refugeed.

^ Wellington ordered his gunners to take shelter within the squares as the cavalry approached, and to return to their guns and resume fire as they retreated.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.After numerous costly but fruitless attacks on the Mont St Jean ridge, the French cavalry was spent.^ The French cavalry patrols were attacked and dispersed.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French cavarly was spent after several useless attacks at Mont St Jean Ridge.

^ Blucher sent word from Wavre to the Duke, that he was coming to help the English at Mont St. Jean, in the morning, not with one corps, but with his whole army.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[100] Their casualties cannot easily be estimated. .Senior French cavalry officers, in particular the generals, experienced heavy losses.^ Most of the senior officers in French cavalry most particulary the generals have experienced heavy losses.

^ This result to heavy losses for the British cavalry.

^ The British cavalry were not able to destroy the French infantry therefore they fell back with losses from the musketry fire.

.Four divisional commanders were wounded, nine brigadiers wounded, and one killed – testament to their courage and their habit of leading from the front.^ There were four wounded divisional commanders, nine wounded brigadiers, and one killed.

^ The battle had now raged with unabated fury nearly six hours, and almost one-third of the allied troops were killed or wounded.

[94] .Illustratively, Houssaye reports that the Grenadiers à Cheval numbered 796 of all ranks on 15 June, but just 462 on 19 June, while the Empress Dragoons lost 416 of 816 over the same period.^ Houssaye illustratively reports that there were 796 ranks numbered at Grenadiers a Cheval on June 15 but on June 19 there were only 462.

^ Over the same period, the Empress Dragoons lost 416 out of 816.

^ The same officer, at the end of the battle, when all hope was lost, tells us that he saw a French grenadier, blackened with powder, and with his clothes torn and stained, leaning on his musket, and immoveable as a statue.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[101] .Overall Guyot's Guard heavy cavalry division lost 47 percent of its strength.^ Overall, the Guyot’s Guard heavy cavalry division had lost 47 percent of its strength.

^ To halt the Prussians Napoleon first dispatched Lobau's corps of two infantry divisions, two cavalry divisions (Domon's and Subervie's), and part of his Imperial Guard.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Milhaud's IV Cavalry Corps and light cavalry of the Guard were repulsed, Kellermann's III Cavalry Corps and the heavy cavalry of the Guard were added to the massed assault.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

The Grenadiers à Cheval. Napoleon can be seen in the background on a grey horse.[102]
.Eventually it became obvious, even to Ney, that cavalry alone were achieving little.^ Eventually, with the French cavalry alone, it achieves little and this became very obvious event to Ney.

.Belatedly, he organised a combined-arms attack, using Bachelu's division and Tissot's regiment of Foy's division from Reille's II Corps (about 6,500 infantrymen) plus those French cavalry that remained in a fit state to fight.^ The French cavalry patrols were attacked and dispersed.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jerome's and Foy's divisions attack Hougoumont.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lately, he organized a combined-arms attack using the Tissot’s regiments of Foy’s Division from Reille’s II Corps and Bachelu’s division along with other French cavalry men that remained in a fit state to fight.

.This assault was directed along much the same route as the previous heavy cavalry attacks.^ The attack was directed along the same route used by other heavy cavalry attacks.

^ When Milhaud's IV Cavalry Corps and light cavalry of the Guard were repulsed, Kellermann's III Cavalry Corps and the heavy cavalry of the Guard were added to the massed assault.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Equally unsuccessful with the advance of the French infantry in this grand attack, had been the efforts of the French cavalry who moved forward in support of it, along the east of the Charleroi road.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[103] .It was halted by a charge of the Household Brigade cavalry led by Uxbridge.^ It was halted by a charge of the Household Brigade cavalry commanded by Uxbridge.

^ The two brigades have more combined field strength of about 2,000 and charged with little reserves and a 47-year old leader named Uxbridge.

^ Lord Uxbridge in his hussar uniform, rode ahead of Somerset's Household Brigade.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.The British cavalry were unable, however, to break the French infantry, and fell back with losses from musketry fire.^ The British cavalry were not able to destroy the French infantry therefore they fell back with losses from the musketry fire.

^ This result to heavy losses for the British cavalry.

^ The lancers fell on the British cavalry.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[104] .Uxbridge recorded that he tried to lead the Dutch Carabiniers, under Major-General Trip, to renew the attack and that they refused to follow him.^ After 3 pm they renewed their attacks on Papelotte.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Uxbridge tried renewing the attack but the Dutch Carabiniers had refused to follow him.

^ Based on his reocords, Uxbridge tried to lead the Dutch Carabiniers under the command of Major-General Trip.

.Other members of the British cavalry staff also commented on this occurrence.^ Other members of the British cavalry commented on this occurrence.

^ When several squadrons of British Guard cavalry charged, some of the tirailleurs crowded around the walls of the farm, while others fell back.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[105] .However, there is no support for this incident in Dutch or Belgian sources[106].^ Apparently, there is no supporting evidents that this incident occurred either from Belgian or Dutch sources.

^ English-speaking troops in black color - German-speaking troops in light blue color - Dutch and Belgians in white color - French Royalists and Deserters Sources and Links.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, Bachelu's and Tissot's men and their cavalry supports were being hard hit by fire from artillery and from Adam's infantry brigade, and they eventually fell back.^ With the cavalry battle being over, the French artillery opened fire again.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British cavalry were not able to destroy the French infantry therefore they fell back with losses from the musketry fire.

^ They were supported by Ryssel's 14th Brigade.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[103] .Although the French cavalry caused few direct casualties to Wellington's centre, artillery fire onto his infantry squares caused many.^ Although his infantry repulsed the cavalry, they became fine targets for the French artillery.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the cavalry battle being over, the French artillery opened fire again.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French cavalry forced Wellington's infantry to stand up.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Anglo-allied cavalry, except for Sir John Vandeleur's and Sir Hussey Vivian's brigades on the far left, had all been committed to the fight, and had taken significant losses.^ The Anglo-Allied cavalry had been committed to fight and take significant losses except for brigades of Sir Hussey Vivian and Sir John Vandeleur.

^ The Duke replied--"If all is as General Ziethen supposes, I will concentrate on my left wing, and so be in readiness to fight in conjunction with the Prussian army.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Gnral de Division Baron Charles-Claude Jaquinot also sent one of his two cavalry brigades against the triumphant Allies.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The situation appeared so desperate that the Cumberland Hussars, the only Hanoverian cavalry regiment present, fled the field spreading alarm all the way to Brussels.^ The Cumberland Hussars was the only Hanoverian cavarly regiment present in the battlefield.

^ The situation reflects depression for the Cumberland Hussars, thus they fled out of the field all the way to Brussels with spreading alarm.

^ Geij van Pittius Hannoverian Cavalry Brigade - Col. Baron Estorff NOTE - 2 out of 3 regiments of this brigade were detached to Hal, not present at Waterloo .
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[107]
A British square puts up dogged resistance against attacking French cavalry.
.At approximately the same time as Ney's combined-arms assault on the centre-right of Wellington's line, rallied elements of D'Erlon's I Corps, spearheaded by the 13th Légère, renewed the attack on La Haye Sainte, and this time were successful (partly because the defenders' ammunition ran out).^ La Haye Sainte fell.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The success was partly because the ammunition of the defenders ran out.

^ At approximately the same time, Ney assault with combined-arms the center right of Wellington’s line.

[108] .Ney then moved horse artillery up towards Wellington's centre and began to pulverise the infantry squares at short-range with canister.^ In there, he bgean to pulverize the infantry squares at a short range with canister.

^ Ney then moved to the horse artillery towards the center of Wellington.

^ The French cavalry had caused few direct casualties to Wellington’s center and artillery fire towards his infantry squares casued plenty of casualties.

[92] .This all but destroyed the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment, and the 30th and 73rd Regiments suffered such heavy losses that they had to combine to form a viable square.^ The I/27th Foot (Inniskilling) suffered even heavier casualties.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With this, the 27th Regiment or the Inniskilling was destroyed while the 30th and 73rd regiments suffered with heavy losses.

^ Some regiments of the Old Guard in vain endeavoured to form in squares and stem the current.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

The banks on the road side, the garden wall, the knoll and sandpit swarmed with skirmishers, who seemed determined to keep down our fire in front; those behind the artificial bank seemed more intent upon destroying the 27th, who at this time, it may literally be said, were lying dead in square; their loss after La Haye Sainte had fallen was awful, without the satisfaction of having scarcely fired a shot, and many of our troops in rear of the ridge were similarly situated.
—Edward Cotton, 7th Hussars, [109]

Arrival of the Prussian IV Corps: Plancenoit

The Prussian attack on Plancenoit painted by Adolph Northern
.The first Prussian corps to arrive was Bülow's IV Corps.^ Bulow’s IV Corps was the first Prussian Corps to arrive at Plancenoit.

^ To halt the Prussians Napoleon first dispatched Lobau's corps of two infantry divisions, two cavalry divisions (Domon's and Subervie's), and part of his Imperial Guard.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first one was under Friedrich von Bulow, commander of the IV Corps who attacked Lobau at 16:30.

.His objective was Plancenoit, which the Prussians intended to use as a springboard into the rear of the French positions.^ His objective was Plancenoit, which the Prussians intended to use as a springboard into the rear of the French positions.

^ Papelotte ordered the road towards Wavre that the Prussian army had used to send strengthenments to position Wellington.

^ Major Baring Using the pile of corpses as protection, the French tirailleurs kept firing into the farmyard from behind it.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Blücher intended to secure his right upon Frichermont using the Bois de Paris road.^ With the use of the Bois de Paris Road, Blucher intended to secure his right army upon Frichermont.

^ The substantial village of Plancenoit was in the rear right of the French position while the Bois de Paris wood was at the extreme right.

^ The Duke still expected that the French would endeavour to turn his right, and march upon Brussels by the high road that leads through Mons and Hal.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[110] .Blücher and Wellington had been exchanging communications since 10:00 and had agreed to this advance on Frichermont if Wellington's centre was under attack.^ Since 10:00, Blucher and Wellington had been exchanging communcations and both agreed to advance in Frichermont once the Wellington’s cente got under attack.

^ According to the recorded dispatches of Wellington, Napoleon commenced a furious attack at 10:00 upon the post at Hougoumont.

^ Concurrently, the French cavalry attack in full force wherein the 15th Brigade IV Corps was sent to connect with the Nassauers of Wellington’s left border in Frichermont.

[111][112] .General Bülow noted that the way to Plancenoit lay open and that the time was 16:30.[110] At about this time, as the French cavalry attack was in full spate, the 15th Brigade IV Corps was sent to link up with the Nassauers of Wellington's left flank in the Frichermont–La Haie area with the brigade's horse artillery battery and additional brigade artillery deployed to its left in support.^ The French cavalry patrols were attacked and dispersed.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the cavalry battle being over, the French artillery opened fire again.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French cavalry forced Wellington's infantry to stand up.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[113] .Napoleon sent Lobau's corps to intercept the rest of Bülow's IV Corps proceeding to Plancenoit.^ Napoleon sent Lobau’s corps to interrupt the rest of Bulow’s IV Corps before proceeding to Plancenoit.

^ Although the entire IV Army Corps had not arrived, the Old Forward chose to attack Napoleon.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To halt the Prussians Napoleon first dispatched Lobau's corps of two infantry divisions, two cavalry divisions (Domon's and Subervie's), and part of his Imperial Guard.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The 15th Brigade threw Lobau's troops out of Frichermont with a determined bayonet charge, then proceeded up the Frichermont heights, battering French Chasseurs with 12-pounder artillery fire, and pushed on to Plancenoit.^ The 15th Brigade threw Lobau’s troops out of Frichermont with a resoluted bayonet accusation, then proceeded up the Frichermont heights, battering French Chasseurs with 12-pounder artillery fire, and pushed on to Plancenoit.

^ At 7 AM the French artillery ceased fire.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On riding over the summit of the acclivity, the Allies were received with so hot a fire from the French artillery and small arms, that at first the cavalry recoiled, but without abandoning the high ground.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.This sent Lobau's corps into retreat to the Plancenoit area, and in effect drove Lobau past the rear of the Armee Du Nord's right flank and directly threatened its only line of retreat.^ This sent Lobau’s corps into refuge to the Plancenoit area, and in effect drove Lobau past the back of the Armee Du Nord’s right border and directly threatened its only line of refuge.

^ They had by establishing themselves on this point, acquired the means of completely turning the right flank of the British, and gaining their rear.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ They succeeded in doing so for a time; but as larger numbers of the Prussians came on the field, they turned Lobau's right flank, and sent a strong force to seize the village of Planchenoit, which, it will be remembered, lay in the rear of the French right.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Hiller's 16th Brigade also pushed forward with six battalions against Plancenoit.^ Six battalions of the 16th Brigade now came up to assault Plancenoit.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hiller’s 16th Brigade also pushed forward with six battalions against Plancenoit.

^ Once again Hiller's 16th Brigade attacked Plancenoit.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon had dispatched all eight battalions of the Young Guard to reinforce Lobau, who was now seriously pressed.^ Napoleon had send off all eight battalions of the Young Guard to strengthen Lobau, who was now seriously pressed.

^ The church was by now on fire, while its graveyard – the French centre of resistance – had corpses strewn about “as if by a whirlwind” Five Guard battalions were deployed in support of the Young Guard, virtually all of which was now committed to the defence, along with remnants of Lobau’s corps The key to the Plancenoit position proved to be the Chantelet woods to the south.

^ Despite being outnumbered by margin of 2 to 1 the eighteen French battalions (Lobau's 8, Young Guard's 8, and Old Guard's 2) were able to hold on for one hour.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Young Guard counter-attacked and, after very hard fighting, secured Plancenoit, but were themselves counter-attacked and driven out.^ Young Guard had got into Plancenoit.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Young Guard counter-attacked and, after very hard battle, secured Plancenoit, but were themselves counter-attacked and driven out.

^ The Young Guard, Guard Sappers and Guard Marines occupied the houses in the suburbs of Charlerois to organize the defense in case the Prussians should attack.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[91] .Napoleon sent two battalions of the Middle/Old Guard into Plancenoit and after ferocious bayonet fighting — they did not deign to fire their muskets — this force recaptured the village.^ Old Guard Grenadiers retook Plancenoit.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon sent two battalions of the Middle/Old Guard into Plancenoit and after intense bayonet battle, they did not agree to fire their muskets instead the force recaptured the village.

^ Old Guard Chasseurs enters the village.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[91] .The dogged Prussians were still not beaten, and approximately 30,000 troops of IV and II Corps, under Bülow and Pirch, attacked Plancenoit again.^ The dogged Prussians were still not defeated, and with approximately 30,000 troops of IV and II Corps, under the commands of Bulow and Pirch, they attacked Plancenoit again.

^ Bulow’s IV Corps was the first Prussian Corps to arrive at Plancenoit.

^ In the attack, Picton was killed and Hanoverian and British troops began to give way under the pressure of numbers.

.It was defended by 20,000 Frenchmen[citation needed]in and around the village.^ It was defended by 20,000 Frenchmen in and around the village.

^ The Emperor, seeing his carraige could get no further, got out in the midst of immense crowd (20,000 people at least) pressing around him.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

Zieten's flank march

.Throughout the late afternoon, Zieten's I Corps had been arriving in greater strength in the area just north of La Haie.^ Throughout the late afternoon, Zieten’s I Corps had been arriving with full force in the area just north of La Haie.

^ Meawhile in La Haie area, the brigade’s artillery battery and additional brigade artillery were deployed to its left in support.

.General Müffling, Prussian liaison to Wellington, rode to meet I Corps.^ General Muffling, the Prussian army liaison to Wellington, journeyed to meet I Corps.

^ But such were the arrangements of the Prussian General, that even if Grouchy had marched upon Waterloo, he would have been held in check by the nearest Prussian corps, or certainly by the two nearest ones, while the rest proceeded to join Wellington.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Accompanied by his staff and by the Prussian General Muffling, he rode along his lines, carefully inspecting all the details of his position.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Zieten had by this time brought up his 1st Brigade, but had become concerned at the sight of stragglers and casualties, from the Nassau units on Wellington's left and from the Prussian 15th Brigade.^ Zieten had by this time brought up his 1st Brigade, but had become concerned at the sight of stragglers and casualties coming from the Nassau units on Wellington’s left and from the Prussian 15th Brigade as well.

^ These troops appeared to be withdrawing, and Zieten, fearing that his own troops would be caught up in a general refuge, was starting to move away from Wellington’s border and towards the Prussian main body near Plancenoit area.

^ Wellington wrote to Blucher expressing his concerns as to Blucher's wish to billet the Prussian troops on the inhabitants of the city.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.These troops appeared to be withdrawing, and Zieten, fearing that his own troops would be caught up in a general retreat, was starting to move away from Wellington's flank and towards the Prussian main body near Plancenoit.^ These troops appeared to be withdrawing, and Zieten, fearing that his own troops would be caught up in a general refuge, was starting to move away from Wellington’s border and towards the Prussian main body near Plancenoit area.

^ Had Wellington lost at Waterloo he would have great difficulty justyfying so many men idle 2-3 hours march away.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Peter Hofschroer, Wellington and Blucher had agreed on 23 June (few days after Waterloo) that the fortresses west of Sambre would be dealt with by Wellington's troops, and the fortresses east of that river by the Prussians.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Müffling saw this movement away and persuaded Zieten to support Wellington's left flank.^ Muffling saw this movement away and persuaded Zieten to support Wellington’s left border.

^ The leading elements of Ziethen's corps joined Wellington's troops on the left flank.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wellington had brought a number of units in from both flanks to support the troops facing Imperial Guard.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Zieten resumed his march to support Wellington directly, and the arrival of his troops allowed Wellington to reinforce his crumbling centre by moving cavalry from his left.^ Zieten resumed his march to support Wellington directly, and the arrival of his troops allowed Wellington to strengthen his collapsing centre by moving cavalry from his left.

^ Wellington reinforced the weakened parts of his centre by moving in troops freed from his left by the arrival of Ziethen's force.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This splendid formation had suffered the first casualties in this campaign when hostilities opened on 15 June; Ziethen had suffered the heaviest casualties at Ligny, Ziethen's arrival on Wellington's left at Waterloo allowed Wellington to move men from that flank to save his centre from crumbling.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[114] .I Corps proceeded to attack the French troops before Papelotte and by 19:30, the French position was bent into a rough horseshoe shape.^ The I Corps proceeded to attack the French flocks before Papelotte and by 19:30.

^ Meanwhile, the French position was bent into a rough horseshoe shape.

^ A grand batterie of the reserve artilleries of I, II, and VI Corps went to attack the cental Wellington’s position.

.The ends of the line were now based on Hougoumont on the left, Plancenoit on the right, and the centre on La Haie.^ The French right, left, and centre had all now failed.

^ The ends of the line were now based on Hougoumont on the left, Plancenoit on the right, and the centre on La Haie.

^ Napoleon's grand effort to break the English left centre had thus completely failed; and his right wing was seriously weakened by the heavy loss which it had sustained.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[115] .Durutte had taken the positions of La Haie and Papelotte in a series of attacks,[115] but now retreated behind Smohain without opposing the Prussian 24th Regiment as it retook both.^ Half of Durutte's division attacked Papelotte.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Durutte had taken the positions of La Haie and Papelotte in a series of attacks, but now refugeed behind Smohain without opposing the Prussian 24th Regiment as it retook both.

^ Papelotte ordered the road towards Wavre that the Prussian army had used to send strengthenments to position Wellington.

.The 24th advanced against the new French position, was repulsed, and returned to the attack supported by Silesian Schützen (riflemen) and the F/1st Landwehr.^ The 24th advanced against the new French position, was repelled, and returned to the attack supported by Silesian Schutzen or the riflemen and the F/1st Landwehr.

^ The two units advanced, supported by the 3rd Silesian Landwehr, and routed the leading French chasseur regiment.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Prussian Schutzen (riflemen) and fusilier battalion advanced against the numerous French skirmishers.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[116] .The French initially fell back before the renewed assault, but now began seriously to contest ground, attempting to regain Smohain and hold on to the ridgeline and the last few houses of Papelotte.^ The French initially fell back before the renewed attack, but now began seriously to dispute ground, attempting to regain Smohain and hold on to the ridgeline and the last few houses of Papelotte.

^ But they held their ground and remained firing until 7 o'clock in the evening before received order to pull back from the artillery line.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Duke replied, "Well, I will come if I am not attacked myself," and galloped back with Muffling to Quatre Bras, where the French attack was now actually raging.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[116] .The 24th Regiment linked up with a Highlander battalion on its far right and along with the 13th Landwehr regiment and cavalry support threw the French out of these positions.^ The 24th Regiment linked up with a Highlander battalion on its far right and along with the 13th Landwehr regiment and cavalry support threw the French out of these positions.

^ The church was by now on fire, while its graveyard – the French centre of resistance – had corpses strewn about “as if by a whirlwind” Five Guard battalions were deployed in support of the Young Guard, virtually all of which was now committed to the defence, along with remnants of Lobau’s corps The key to the Plancenoit position proved to be the Chantelet woods to the south.

^ Major von Gillhausen of Prussian landwehr writes, "Here we linked up with a Hanoverian and a Scottish battalion."
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Further attacks by the 13th Landwehr and the 15th Brigade drove the French from Frichermont.^ Further attacks by the 13th Landwehr and the 15th Brigade drove the French from Frichermont.

^ The uhlans attacked and drove the hussars back in disorder, only to be attacked in turn by French lancers of Pire's division.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second attack was made by Soye’s brigade where the British guns were distracted by a duel with French artilleries.

[117] .Durutte's division, finding itself about to be charged by massed squadrons of Zieten's I Corps cavalry reserve, retreated from the battlefield.^ Durutte's division of de Erlon's I Corps reached the battlefield about midday.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Durutte’s division, finding itself about to be accused by the massed squadrons of Zieten’s I Corps cavalry reserve that refuged from the battlefield.

^ The two brigades have more combined field strength of about 2,000 and charged with little reserves and a 47-year old leader named Uxbridge.

.I Corps then advanced to the Brussels road and the only line of retreat available to the French.^ I Corps then advanced to the Brussels road, whichh is the only line of refuge available to the French.

^ The line of this road was the line of Napoleon's intended advance on Brussels.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The high road from Charleroi to Brussels (a broad paved causeway) runs through both these villages, and bisects therefore both the English and the French positions.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

Attack of the Imperial Guard

Richard Knötel, "The storming of La Haye Sainte".
.Meanwhile, with Wellington's centre exposed by the fall of La Haye Sainte, and the Plancenoit front temporarily stabilised, Napoleon committed his last reserve, the hitherto-undefeated Imperial Guard.^ Meanwhile, with Wellington’s centre exposed by the fall of La Haye Sainte, and the Plancenoit front temporarily stabilized, Napoleon committed his last reserve, the undefeated Imperial Guard.

^ La Haye Sainte fell.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ La Haye Sainte and the road.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.This attack, mounted at around 19:30, was intended to break through Wellington's centre and roll up his line away from the Prussians.^ This attack, started at around 19:30, was intended to break through Wellington’s centre and roll up his line away from the Prussian army.

^ Wellington was worried about possible French attack up the Mons-Hal-Brussels route despite no reports of such a movement.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon saw the first columns of the Prussian army around the village of Chapelle St. Lambert for about 4-5 miles away from his right border.

.Although it is one of the most celebrated passages of arms in military history, it is unclear which units actually participated.^ It was one of the most extraordinary and pitiful incidents in military history.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although it is one of the most celebrated passages of arms in military history, it is unclear which units actually participated in the attack.

^ In truth, the whole career of Plataea, and the friendship, strong even unto death, between her and Athens, form one of the most affecting episodes in the history of antiquity.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.It appears that it was mounted by five battalions[118] of the Middle Guard, and not by the Grenadiers or Chasseurs of the Old Guard.^ Old Guard Grenadiers retook Plancenoit.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It appears that it was mounted by five battalions of the Middle Guard, and not by the Grenadiers or Chasseurs of the Old Guard as other sources stated.

^ Old Guard Chasseurs enters the village.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

... .I saw four regiments of the middle guard, conducted by the Emperor, arriving.^ Marshal M. Ney Stated that: “… I saw four regiments of the middle guard, conducted by the Emperor, arriving.

^ The Middle Guard, under Count Morand, was similarly composed; while two regiments of voltigeurs, and two of tirailleurs, under Duhesme, constituted the Young Guard.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ English officer, Captain Batty of the Grenadier Guards, declared that he saw 'a Belgian cavalry regiment fight valiantly with the cuiassiers in a manner never to be forgotten.'
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.With these troops, he wished to renew the attack, and penetrate the centre of the enemy.^ With these troops, he wished to renew the attack, and penetrate the centre of the enemy.

^ Aristides and Themistocles renewed the fight with their re-organized troops, and the full force of the Greeks was brought into close action with the Persian and Sacian divisions of the enemy.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon determined to attack these enemies in Belgium.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

He ordered me to lead them on; generals, officers and soldiers all displayed the greatest intrepidity; but this body of troops was too weak to resist, for a long time, the forces opposed to it by the enemy, and it was soon necessary to renounce the hope which this attack had, for a few moments, inspired.
—Marshal M. Ney, [43]
Napoleon addresses the Old Guard as it prepares to attack the Anglo-Allied center at Waterloo.
.Three Old Guard battalions did move forward and formed the attack's second line, though they remained in reserve and did not directly assault the Anglo-allied line.^ Three Old Guard battalions did move forward and formed the second line attack, though they remained in reserve and did not directly attack the Anglo-allied line.

^ The Duke formed his second line of cavalry.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ They immediately formed themselves in three columns and moved forward screened by skirmishers.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[119] .Marching through a hail of canister and skirmisher fire, the 3,000 or so Middle Guardsmen advanced to the west of La Haye Sainte, and in so doing, separated into three distinct attack forces.^ After the first attack on La Haye Sainte only approx.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ French infantry skirmishers stationed near La Haye Sainte opened fire on them.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The two sides met each other west of La Haye Sainte.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.One, consisting of two battalions of Grenadiers, defeated Wellington's first line of British, Brunswick and Nassau troops and marched on.^ In April-June Wellington's army was reinforced with Brunswick and Nassau troops.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First, consisting of two battalions of Grenadiers, defeated Wellington’s first line of British, Brunswick and Nassau troops and marched on.

^ The Nassauers would not or could not face the French; and some battalions of Brunswickers, whom the Duke of Wellington had ordered up as a reinforcement, at first fell back, until the Duke in person rallied them, and led them on.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Chassé's relatively fresh Dutch division was sent against them and its artillery fired into the victorious Grenadiers' flank.^ Second is the Chasse’s relatively fresh Dutch division was sent against them and its artillery fired into the victorious Grenadiers’ border.

^ Gnral de Division Baron Charles-Claude Jaquinot also sent one of his two cavalry brigades against the triumphant Allies.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ General Trip led three fresh regiments of Dutch and Belgian carabiniers against the French cuirassiers.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.This still could not stop the Guard's advance, so Chassé ordered his first brigade to charge the outnumbered French, who faltered and broke.^ This still could not stop the Guard’s advance, so Chassé ordered his first brigade as the third distinct attack forces to charge the outnumbered French army, who faltered and broke.

^ According to a British eyewitness (Captain Rees Howell Gronow, Foot Guards) of the first French cavalry attack, he recorded his impressions very lucidly and somewhat poetically as: ” About four P.M. the enemy’s artillery in front of us ceased firing all of a sudden, and we saw large masses of cavalry advance: not a man present who survived could have forgotten in after life the awful grandeur of that charge.

^ Despite being outnumbered by margin of 2 to 1 the eighteen French battalions (Lobau's 8, Young Guard's 8, and Old Guard's 2) were able to hold on for one hour.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[120]
.Further to the west, 1,500 British Foot Guards under Maitland were lying down to protect themselves from the French artillery.^ Extendedly to the west, there were 1,500 British Foot Guards under Maitland lying down to protect themselves from the French artillery.

^ Maitland's men were lying down, in order to avoid as far as possible the destructive effect of the French artillery, which kept up an unremitting fire from the opposite heights, until the first column of the Imperial Guard had advanced so far up the slope towards the British position, that any further firing of the French artillerymen would have endangered their own comrades.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ A. Barbero ) Ensign Gronow of British 1st Foot Guard writes: "Our squares presented a shocking sight.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.As two battalions of Chasseurs approached, the second prong of the Imperial Guard's attack, Maitland's guardsmen rose and devastated them with point-blank volleys.^ As two battalions of Chasseurs approached, the second spike of the Imperial Guard’s attack, Maitland’s guards emerge and overwhelmed them with point-blank volleys.

^ Three Old Guard battalions did move forward and formed the second line attack, though they remained in reserve and did not directly attack the Anglo-allied line.

^ The two battalions of the Old Guard (II/2nd Grenadiers and II/2nd Chasseurs) and large group of soldiers of the Yung Guardn hotly pursued the enemy.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Chasseurs deployed to answer the fire, but began to waver.^ The Chasseurs organized to answer the fire, but began to tremble.

.A bayonet charge by the Foot Guards then broke them.^ A bayonet charge by the Foot Guards then destroyed them.

.The third prong, a fresh Chasseur battalion, now came up in support.^ The third spike was a fresh Chasseur battalion, now came up in support.

^ Six battalions of the 16th Brigade now came up to assault Plancenoit.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then came the II/2nd Grenadiers sent by the Emperor and Pelet's chasseurs formed up with them.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The British guardsmen retired with these Chasseurs in pursuit, but the latter were halted as the 52nd Light Infantry wheeled in line onto their flank and poured a devastating fire into them and then charged.^ Behind them were the ninth brigade of British infantry under Pack; and to the right of these last, but more in advance, stood the eighth brigade of English infantry under Kempt.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ As they reached the line of guns of the Grand Battery, the firing ceased and the infantry formed up their battalions in lines, with every battalion sending forward its voltigeurs as skirmishers.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As these proved too few to make head against the enemy, he ordered Ariston also from the second line with his light horse, and Cleander with his foot, in support of Menidas.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[120][121] .Under this onslaught they too broke.^ Under this assault they too broke.

^ They came under heavy artillery fire and the attack broke up without reaching Hougoumont.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[121]
.The last of the Guard retreated headlong.^ The last of the Guard retreated headlong.

.A ripple of panic passed through the French lines as the astounding news spread: "La Garde recule.^ A wave of panic passed through the French lines as the astounding news spread: “La Garde recule.

^ Grenier's Brigade vs Pack's Brigade The French 45th Line burst through the hedge en masse, yelling in triumph.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as the French Middle Guard was being repulsed by the British and Netherland troops, Ziethen's advance was breaking through the French line.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sauve qui peut
!"^ There was not, however, a total rout, nor the cry of sauve qui peut, as has been calumniously stated in the bulletin”.

^ Unlike other parts of the battlefield, there were no cries of “Sauve qui peut!” here.

^ Sauve qui peut!” which means “The Guard refuges.

("The Guard retreats. .Save yourself if you can!"^ Save yourself if you can!”.

). .Wellington now stood up in Copenhagen's stirrups, and waved his hat in the air to signal a general advance.^ Wellington now stood up in Copenhagen’s commotions, and waved his hat in the air to signal a general progress.

^ Arminius now gave the signal for a general attack.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ General Bulow sent 2 battalions to link up with Wellington and protect his exposed flank.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.His army rushed forward from the lines and threw themselves upon the retreating French.^ His army rushed forward from the lines and threw themselves upon the retreating French army.

^ One of the French columns kept to the east, and attacked the extreme left of the Allies; the other three continued to move rapidly forwards upon the left centre of the allied position.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Grouchy believed, on the 17th, and caused Napoleon to believe, that the Prussian army was retreating by lines of march remote from Waterloo upon Namur and Maestricht.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[120]
.The surviving Imperial Guard rallied on their three reserve battalions (some sources say four) just south of La Haye Sainte, for a last stand.^ La Haye Sainte fell.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ La Haye Sainte and the road.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second attack on La Haye Sainte.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.A charge from Adam's Brigade and the Hanoverian Landwehr Osnabrück Battalion, plus Vivian's and Vandeleur's relatively fresh cavalry brigades to their right, threw them into confusion.^ A charge from the Adam’s Brigade and the Hanoverian Landwehr Osnabruck Battalion, including the Vivian’s and Vandeleur’s fresh cavalry brigades to their right, threw them into confusion.

^ Vandeleur's and Ghighny's cavalry brigades to the rescue !
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Commencing from the eastward, on the extreme left of the first or main line, were Vivian's and Vandeleur's brigades of light cavalry, and the fifth Hanoverian brigade of infantry, under Von Vincke.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Those left in semi-cohesive units retreated towards La Belle Alliance.^ Those left in semi-cohesive units retreat towards the La Belle Alliance.

^ Napoleon had stationed himself during the battle on a little hillock near La Belle Alliance, in the centre of the French position.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Between seven and eight o'clock, the infantry of the Old Guard was formed into two columns, on the declivity near La Belle Alliance.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

It was during this retreat that some of the Guards were invited to surrender, eliciting the famous, if apocryphal,[122] retort "La Garde meurt, elle ne se rend pas!" ("The Guard dies, it does not surrender!").[123][124]

Capture of Plancenoit

.At about the same time, the Prussian 5th, 14th, and 16th Brigades were starting to push through Plancenoit, in the third assault of the day.^ At about the same time, the Prussian 5th, 14th, and 16th Brigades were starting to push through Plancenoit, in the third assault of the day.

^ At approximately the same time, Ney assault with combined-arms the center right of Wellington’s line.

^ Six battalions of the 16th Brigade now came up to assault Plancenoit.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[125] .The church was by now on fire, while its graveyard — the French centre of resistance — had corpses strewn about "as if by a whirlwind".[125] Five Guard battalions were deployed in support of the Young Guard, virtually all of which was now committed to the defence, along with remnants of Lobau's corps.^ The French right, left, and centre had all now failed.

^ The church was by now on fire, while its graveyard – the French centre of resistance – had corpses strewn about “as if by a whirlwind” Five Guard battalions were deployed in support of the Young Guard, virtually all of which was now committed to the defence, along with remnants of Lobau’s corps The key to the Plancenoit position proved to be the Chantelet woods to the south.

^ Five plaques are dedicated to the Guards and 2 to the French.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[125] .The key to the Plancenoit position proved to be the Chantelet woods to the south.^ The church was by now on fire, while its graveyard – the French centre of resistance – had corpses strewn about “as if by a whirlwind” Five Guard battalions were deployed in support of the Young Guard, virtually all of which was now committed to the defence, along with remnants of Lobau’s corps The key to the Plancenoit position proved to be the Chantelet woods to the south.

^ The substantial village of Plancenoit was in the rear right of the French position while the Bois de Paris wood was at the extreme right.

^ The 25th Regiment’s musketeer battalions threw the 1/2e Grenadiers (Old Guard) out of the Chantelet woods, outbordering Plancenoit and forcing a refuge.

.Pirch's II Corps had arrived with two brigades and reinforced the attack of IV Corps, advancing through the woods.^ Pirch’s II Corps had arrived with two brigades and strengthend the attack of IV Corps, advancing through the woods.

^ Although the entire IV Army Corps had not arrived, the Old Forward chose to attack Napoleon.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A grand batterie of the reserve artilleries of I, II, and VI Corps went to attack the cental Wellington’s position.

.The 25th Regiment's musketeer battalions threw the 1/2e Grenadiers (Old Guard) out of the Chantelet woods, outflanking Plancenoit and forcing a retreat.^ Old Guard Grenadiers retook Plancenoit.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The 25th Regiment’s musketeer battalions threw the 1/2e Grenadiers (Old Guard) out of the Chantelet woods, outbordering Plancenoit and forcing a refuge.

^ Battalion of Old Guard Grenadiers retook the village.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Old Guard retreated in good order until they met the mass of troops retreating in panic, and became part of that rout.^ The Old Guard refugeed in good order until they met the mass of troops refugeing in panic, and became part of that rout.

^ Old Guard and part of Emperor's baggage.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Three Old Guard battalions did move forward and formed the second line attack, though they remained in reserve and did not directly attack the Anglo-allied line.

[125] .The Prussian IV Corps advanced beyond Plancenoit to find masses of French retreating from British pursuit in disorder.^ However after the repulse of d'Erlon's corps by British cavalry, the French abandoned La Haye Sainte.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Accordingly the British army, exhausted by its toils and sufferings during that dreadful day, did not advance beyond the heights which the enemy had occupied.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The Prussian Schutzen (riflemen) and fusilier battalion advanced against the numerous French skirmishers.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[125] .The Prussians were unable to fire for fear of hitting Anglo-allied units.^ The Prussians were unable to fire for fear of hitting Anglo-allied units.

.This was the fifth and final time that Plancenoit changed hands.^ This was the fifth and final time that Plancenoit changed hands.

.French forces not retreating with the Guard were surrounded in their positions and eliminated, neither side asking for nor offering quarter.^ French forces not refugeing with the Guard were surrounded in their positions and eliminated, neither side asking for nor offering quarter.

^ He saw many wounded and stragglers retreating from Wellington's positions, while the French seemed to be pressing home their advantage.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French attack "followed in the same force as before; namely, from two sides by two close columns, which, with the greatest rapidity, nearly surrounded us, and , despising danger, fought with a degree of courage which I had never before witnessed in Frenchmen ...
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.The French Young Guard Division would report 96 percent casualties, and two-thirds of Lobau's Corps ceased to exist.^ The French Young Guard Division would report 96 percent casualties, and two-thirds of Lobau’s Corps ceased to exist.

^ The church was by now on fire, while its graveyard – the French centre of resistance – had corpses strewn about “as if by a whirlwind” Five Guard battalions were deployed in support of the Young Guard, virtually all of which was now committed to the defence, along with remnants of Lobau’s corps The key to the Plancenoit position proved to be the Chantelet woods to the south.

^ Despite being outnumbered by margin of 2 to 1 the eighteen French battalions (Lobau's 8, Young Guard's 8, and Old Guard's 2) were able to hold on for one hour.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.
Despite their great courage and stamina, the French Guards fighting in the village began to show signs of wavering.^ Despite their great courage and stamina, the French Guards fighting in the village began to show signs of wavering.

^ Despite being outnumbered by margin of 2 to 1 the eighteen French battalions (Lobau's 8, Young Guard's 8, and Old Guard's 2) were able to hold on for one hour.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French resisted with great determination before the Young Guard was again ejected from Plancenoit.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The church was already on fire with columns of red flame coming out of the windows, aisles and doors.^ The church was already on fire with columns of red flame coming out of the windows, aisles and doors.

^ They even took several prisoners before the musket fire from the windows and walls drove them out.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Captain Borowski of II Horse Battery writes, "As the smoke from the firing was so dense, I could only make out a few positions, and could not see the enemy columns.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the village itself, still the scene of bitter house-to-house fighting, everything was burning, adding to the confusion.^ In the village itself, still the scene of bitter house-to-house fighting, everything was burning, adding to the confusion.

^ "He would not burn houses and villages, neither would he take away the substance of his people."
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.However, once Major von Witzleben's manoeuver was accomplished and the French Guards saw their flank and rear threatened, they began to withdraw.^ However, once Major von Witzleben’s manoeuver was accomplished and the French Guards saw their border and rear threatened, they began to withdraw.

^ They had by establishing themselves on this point, acquired the means of completely turning the right flank of the British, and gaining their rear.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ They succeeded in doing so for a time; but as larger numbers of the Prussians came on the field, they turned Lobau's right flank, and sent a strong force to seize the village of Planchenoit, which, it will be remembered, lay in the rear of the French right.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.The Guard Chasseurs under General Pelet formed the rearguard.^ The Guard Chasseurs under General Pelet formed the rearguard.

^ Driving the stragglers before them, the troops marched to Soissons, the 1st Chasseurs forming the rear-guard.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as this brigade formed up behind the 16th, the 13th Brigade under General von Hake arrived and moved up behind the 15th."
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The remnants of the Guard left in a great rush, leaving large masses of artillery, equipment and ammunition waggons in the wake of their retreat.^ The remnants of the Guard left in a great rush, leaving large masses of artillery, equipment and ammunition waggons in the wake of their refuge.

^ The troopers of the Life Guards were mounted on large , black horses with manes brushed to the left to distinguih them from the Royal Horse Guards (The Blues) who brushed them to the right.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Prussians had no siege equipment at their disposal and little ammunition for the field artillery.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.The evacuation of Plancenoit led to the loss of the position that was to be used to cover the withdrawal of the French Army to Charleroi.^ The evacuation of Plancenoit led to the loss of the position that was to be used to cover the withdrawal of the French Army to Charleroi.

^ Papelotte ordered the road towards Wavre that the Prussian army had used to send strengthenments to position Wellington.

^ The high road from Charleroi to Brussels (a broad paved causeway) runs through both these villages, and bisects therefore both the English and the French positions.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.The Guard fell back from Plancenoit in the direction of Maison du Roi and Caillou.^ The Guard fell back from Plancenoit in the direction of Maison du Roi and Caillou.

^ But in the same time was created ruinously expensive 20,000-strong Household Troops Maison du Roi .
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When several squadrons of British Guard cavalry charged, some of the tirailleurs crowded around the walls of the farm, while others fell back.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Unlike other parts of the battlefield, there were no cries of "Sauve qui peut!"^ Unlike other parts of the battlefield, there were no cries of “Sauve qui peut!” here.

^ There was not, however, a total rout, nor the cry of sauve qui peut, as has been calumniously stated in the bulletin”.

^ Sauve qui peut!” which means “The Guard refuges.

here. .Instead the cry "Sauvons nos aigles!"^ Instead the cry “Sauvons nos aigles!” (“Let’s save our eagles!”) could be heard – Official History of the 25th Regiment, 4 Corps .

.("Let's save our eagles!"^ Leggiere Bulow and the campaign of 1815 p 143 ) Pelet embraced the eagle shouting to his veterans To me Chasseurs, let us save the eagle or die around it.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead the cry “Sauvons nos aigles!” (“Let’s save our eagles!”) could be heard – Official History of the 25th Regiment, 4 Corps .

) could be heard.
—Official History of the 25th Regiment, 4 Corps, [126]

Disintegration

Lord Hill invites the last remnants of the French Imperial Guard to surrender, painted by Robert Alexander Hillingford
.The French right, left, and centre had all now failed.^ The French right, left, and centre had all now failed.

^ Napoleon's grand effort to break the English left centre had thus completely failed; and his right wing was seriously weakened by the heavy loss which it had sustained.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ He made his preparations with what haste he could, and about eight o'clock a heavy fire of artillery was opened from the French right on the advancing left wing of the British.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[125] .The last cohesive French force consisted of two battalions of the Old Guard stationed around La Belle Alliance, the final reserve and personal bodyguard for Napoleon.^ The last to leave were the veterans of Old Guard.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were supported by one or two battalions of the Old Guard.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The last cohesive French force consisted of two battalions of the Old Guard stationed around La Belle Alliance, the final reserve and personal bodyguard for Napoleon.

.Napoleon hoped to rally the French army behind them[127] but as retreat turned into rout, they too were forced to withdraw, one on either side of La Belle Alliance, in square as protection against Coalition cavalry.^ Charges of French cavalry against Allies squares.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon hoped to rally the French army behind them but as refuge turned into rout, they too were forced to withdraw, one on either side of La Belle Alliance, in square as protection against Coalition cavalry.

^ The French Guard Cavalry also charged against the squares.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Until persuaded that the battle was lost and he should leave, Napoleon commanded the square to the left of the inn.^ Until persuaded that the battle was lost and he should leave, Napoleon commanded the square to the left of the inn.

^ There are three armies involved in the Battle of Waterloo namely the Prussian army under the command of Blucher, the multinational army under the command of Wellington, and the army of Napoleon known as Armee de Nord.

^ Alessandro Barbero "The Battle" At Waterloo, Napoleon ran the show until the Prussians arrived.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[128][129] .Adam's Brigade charged and forced back this square,[121][130] while the Prussians engaged the other.^ Adam’s Brigade charged and forced back this square, while the Prussians engaged the other.

^ A charge from the Adam’s Brigade and the Hanoverian Landwehr Osnabruck Battalion, including the Vivian’s and Vandeleur’s fresh cavalry brigades to their right, threw them into confusion.

^ Grouchy was in fact now engaged at Wavre with his whole force, against Thielmam's single Prussian corps, while the other three corps of the Prussian army were moving without opposition, save from the difficulties of the ground, upon Waterloo.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.As dusk fell, both squares withdrew in relatively good order, but the French artillery and everything else fell into the hands of the allies.^ As dusk fell, both squares withdrew in relatively good order, but the French artillery and everything else fell into the hands of the allies.

^ After the farm fell into French hands, their artillery was brought forward.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On riding over the summit of the acclivity, the Allies were received with so hot a fire from the French artillery and small arms, that at first the cavalry recoiled, but without abandoning the high ground.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.The retreating Guards were surrounded by thousands of fleeing, broken French troops.^ The refugeing Guards were surrounded by thousands of fleeing, broken French troops.

^ The French troops who had been left in Orleans, had placed some planks over the broken part of the bridge, and advanced across them to the assault of the Tourelles on the northern side.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The surroundings of the house were heavily invested by the light infantry of the French troops.

.Coalition cavalry harried the fugitives until about 23:00, with Gneisenau pursuing them as far as Genappe before ordering a halt.^ Coalition cavalry harried the fugitives until about 23:00, with Gneisenau pursuing them as far as Genappe before ordering a halt.

^ Menidas was ordered to watch if the enemy's cavalry tried to turn the flank, and if they did so, to charge them before they wheeled completely round, and so take them in flank themselves.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ But they held their ground and remained firing until 7 o'clock in the evening before received order to pull back from the artillery line.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.There, Napoleon's abandoned carriage was captured, still containing diamonds left in the rush.^ There, Napoleon’s abandoned carriage was captured, still containing diamonds left in the rush.

^ But I found there our Colonel Hurday, who had been left behind there in consequence of an accidental injury from a carriage.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 18th the offensive was taken by Napoleon on its greatest scale, but still the Nivelles road was not overstepped by his left wing.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.These became part of King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia's crown jewels, one Major Keller of the F/15th receiving the Pour le Mérite with oak leaves for the feat.^ These became part of King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia’s crown jewels, one Major Keller of the F/15th receiving the with oak leaves for the feat.

^ (Ext.link) It was never presented in Prussia, the country of Major von Keller.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The interest of this eventful struggle, by which William of Normandy became King of England, is materially enhanced by the high personal characters of the competitors for our crown.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[131] .By this time 78 guns and 2,000 prisoners had also been taken, including more generals.^ By this time 78 guns and 2,000 prisoners had also been taken, including more generals.

^ The shots of the approaching Prussians were now heard; and I believe that General Lobau was taken prisoner in that farmhouse.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Alava I Corps (32,000 men and 64 guns): General Prince Willem of Orange Chief-of-Staff: Mjr-Gen.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[132]
.
There remained to us still four squares of the Old Guard to protect the retreat.^ Some regiments of the Old Guard in vain endeavoured to form in squares and stem the current.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ There were five of us still with him, all officers.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Near Genappe the two squares of Old Guard came together and were formed in long columns by sections.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.These brave grenadiers, the choice of the army, forced successively to retire, yielded ground foot by foot, till, overwhelmed by numbers, they were almost entirely annihilated.^ These brave grenadiers, the choice of the army, forced successively to retire, yielded ground foot by foot, till, overwhelmed by numbers, they were almost entirely annihilated.

^ As they approached the enemy, Marlborough's troops formed the left and the centre, while Eugene's formed the right of the entire army.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The French army was almost entirely destroyed: of sixty thousand men, so long victorious, there never reassembled more than twenty thousand effective.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.From that moment, a retrograde movement was declared, and the army formed nothing but a confused mass.^ From that moment, a retrograde movement was declared, and the army formed nothing but a confused mass.

.There was not, however, a total rout, nor the cry of sauve qui peut, as has been calumniously stated in the bulletin.
—Marshal M. Ney, [133]
In the middle of the position occupied by the French army, and exactly upon the height, is a farm (sic), called La Belle Alliance.^ General Gneisenau recorded: “In the middle of the position occupied by the French army, and exactly upon the height, is a farm called La Belle Alliance.

^ There was not, however, a total rout, nor the cry of sauve qui peut, as has been calumniously stated in the bulletin”.

^ "Marshal Ney was there.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.The march of all the Prussian columns was directed towards this farm, which was visible from every side.^ The march of all the Prussian columns was directed towards this farm, which was visible from every side.

^ The Guard cavalry having been ordered to move forward, we marched towards the enemy in the direction of the fortified farm of La Haye Sainte, from which we were separated by a slight unulaton, a gentle slope and a small level area.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gneiseanu believed Wellington failed to march to the Prussian assistance at Ligny and was in favour of retreating towards the Rhine River, leaving Wellington to his own devices.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was there that Napoleon was during the battle; it was thence that he gave his orders, that he flattered himself with the hopes of victory; and it was there that his ruin was decided.^ It was there that Napoleon was during the battle; it was thence that he gave his orders, that he flattered himself with the hopes of victory; and it was there that his ruin was decided.

^ There are three armies involved in the Battle of Waterloo namely the Prussian army under the command of Blucher, the multinational army under the command of Wellington, and the army of Napoleon known as Armee de Nord.

^ Napoleon had stationed himself during the battle on a little hillock near La Belle Alliance, in the centre of the French position.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

There, too, it was, that by happy chance, Field Marshal Blücher and Lord Wellington met in the dark, and mutually saluted each other as victors.
—General Gneisenau, [134]

Aftermath

"The morning after the battle of Waterloo", by John Heaviside Clarke, 1816.
.Historian Peter Hofschröer has written that Wellington and Blücher met at Genappe around 22:00 signifying the end of the battle.^ Historian Peter Hofschroer had written that Wellington and Blucher meeting at Genappe around 22:00 signifying the end of the battle.

^ Peter Hofschroer writes, "This symbolic union of German soldier with German soldier marked the beginning of the end of the battle for Napoleon."
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter Hofschroer writes: "This symbolic union of German soldier with German soldier marked the beginning of the end of the battle for Napoleon."
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[131] .Other sources have recorded that the meeting took place around 21:00 near Napoleon's former headquarters at La Belle Alliance.^ Other sources have recorded that the meeting took place around 21:00 near Napoleon’s former headquarters at La Belle Alliance.

^ Napoleon had still some battalions in reserve near La Belle Alliance.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon had stationed himself during the battle on a little hillock near La Belle Alliance, in the centre of the French position.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

[135] .Waterloo cost Wellington around 15,000 dead or wounded, and Blücher some 7,000 (810 of which were suffered by just one unit, the 18th Regiment, which served in Bulow's 15th Brigade, fought at both Frichermont and Plancenoit, and won 33 Iron Crosses.^ Waterloo cost Wellington around 15,000 dead and wounded, and Blucher some 7,000 (810 of which were suffered by just one unit), the 18th Regiment, which served in Bulow’s 15th Brigade, fought at both Frichermont and Plancenoit, and won 33 Iron Crosses.

^ Two battalion columns of 15th Infantry Regiment (of Hiller's 16th Brigade mentioned above) pushed into the village and then on the high walls of the cemetary and church.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His one arm was in a sling because of a wound he had suffered at Quatre Bras.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

[136]). .Napoleon lost 25,000 dead or injured, with 8,000 taken prisoner.^ Napoleon lost 25,000 dead or injured, with 8,000 taken prisoner.

^ By this time 78 guns and 2,000 prisoners had also been taken, including more generals.

^ Soon one of them was dead with a musket ball in his mouth, and the other lost consciousness and was taken prisoner by the French.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.
June 22. This morning I went to visit the field of battle, which is a little beyond the village of Waterloo, on the plateau of Mont St Jean; but on arrival there the sight was too horrible to behold.^ This morning I went to visit the field of battle, which is a little beyond the village of Waterloo, on the plateau of Mont St Jean; but on arrival there the sight was too horrible to behold.

^ On reaching his head- quarters in the village of Waterloo, the Duke inquired anxiously after the numerous friends who had been round him in the morning, and to whom he was warmly attached.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Blucher sent word from Wavre to the Duke, that he was coming to help the English at Mont St. Jean, in the morning, not with one corps, but with his whole army.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.I felt sick in the stomach and was obliged to return.^ I felt sick in the stomach and was obliged to return.

.The multitude of carcasses, the heaps of wounded men with mangled limbs unable to move, and perishing from not having their wounds dressed or from hunger, as the Allies were, of course, obliged to take their surgeons and waggons with them, formed a spectacle I shall never forget.^ The multitude of carcasses, the heaps of wounded men with mangled limbs unable to move, and perishing from not having their wounds dressed or from hunger, as the Allies were, of course, obliged to take their surgeons and waggons with them, formed a spectacle I shall never forget.

^ I shall never forget the scream the poor fellow gave when it struck."
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "For end of this digression, I hope that this question shall never come to trial; his majestie's many moveable forts will forbid the experience.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.The wounded, both of the Allies and the French, remain in an equally deplorable state.
—Major W. E Frye After Waterloo: Reminiscences of European Travel 1815–1819.^ The wounded, both of the Allies and the French, remain in an equally deplorable state”.

^ As dusk fell, both squares withdrew in relatively good order, but the French artillery and everything else fell into the hands of the allies.

^ Then the cavalry on both sides withdrew, with the French halting their horses now and then to stabb the wounded British and German soldiers on the ground.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[137]
.At 10:30 on 19 June General Grouchy, still following his orders, defeated General Thielemann at Wavre and withdrew in good order though at the cost of 33,000 French troops that never reached the Waterloo battlefield.^ Grouchy escaped from the trap and kept his troops in good order.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Prussian assault on this village of Plancenoit was the single biggest factor that cost the French a victory at Waterloo.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo (La belle Alliance) by Wellington and Blucher, Marshal Grouchy won battle of Wavre.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wellington, Blücher and other Coalition forces advanced upon Paris.^ Blucher also suggested to Wellington that he send his Dutch and Belgian cavalry as a raiding force to cut Napoleon's line of communication with Paris.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile the allied armies had advanced steadily upon Paris, driving before them Grouchy's corps, and the scanty force which Soult had succeeded in rallying at Laon.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Wellington had gained invaluable time to reinforce the weakened parts of his centre by moving in troops from his right and others freed from his left by the arrival of Ziethen's force.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Napoleon announced his second abdication on 24 June 1815. In the final skirmish of the Napoleonic Wars, Marshal Davout, Napoleon's minister of war, was defeated by Blücher at Issy on 3 July 1815.[138] Allegedly, Napoleon tried to escape to North America, but the Royal Navy was blockading French ports to forestall such a move.^ Napoleon's abdication had been announced to the French army on 23 June.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leggiere Bulow and the campaign of 1815 p 162 ) On the 25th, Blucher received a letter from the commissioners of the French parliament that revealed Napoleons abdication.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fortune of war had hitherto kept separate the orbits in which Napoleon and he had moved.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

He finally surrendered to Captain Frederick Maitland of HMS Bellerophon on 15 July. .There was a campaign against French fortresses that still held out; Longwy capitulated on 13 September 1815, the last to do so.^ Leggiere Bulow and the campaign of 1815 p 162 ) On the 25th, Blucher received a letter from the commissioners of the French parliament that revealed Napoleons abdication.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 2d of September the still more important stronghold of Verdun capitulated after scarcely the shadow of resistance.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Belgium was brought more thoroughly into implicit obedience to Spain than she had been before her insurrection, and it was only Holland and the six other Northern States that still held out against his arms.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

The Treaty of Paris was signed on 20 November 1815. Louis XVIII was restored to the throne of France, and Napoleon was exiled to Saint Helena, where he died in 1821.[139]
Royal Highness, - Exposed to the factions which divide my country, and to the enmity of the great Powers of Europe, I have terminated my political career; and I come, like Themistocles, to throw myself upon the hospitality (m'asseoir sur le foyer) of the British people. .I claim from your Royal Highness the protections of the laws, and throw myself upon the most powerful, the most constant, and the most generous of my enemies.
—Napoleon.^ With his death the dismemberment of his empire among his generals was certain, even as the dismemberment of Napoleon's empire among his marshals would certainly have ensued, if he had been cut off in the zenith of his power.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Her native prince was a dissolute trifler, stained with the assassination of the most powerful noble of the land, whose son, in revenge, had leagued himself with the enemy.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Harold was the head of the most powerful noble house, next to the royal blood, in England; and personally, he was the bravest and most popular chieftain in the land.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

(letter of surrender to the Prince Regent; translation), [43]
Sir David Wilkie, The Chelsea Pensioners reading the Waterloo Dispatch, 1822.
.Maitland's 1st Foot Guards, who had defeated the Chasseurs of the Guard, were thought to have defeated the Grenadiers; they were awarded the title of Grenadier Guards in recognition of their feat, and adopted bearskins in the style of the Grenadiers.^ II/1st Foot Guards - Mjr.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ III/1st Foot Guards - Mjr.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A. Barbero ) Ensign Gronow of British 1st Foot Guard writes: "Our squares presented a shocking sight.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Britain's Household Cavalry likewise adopted the cuirass in 1821 in recognition of their success against their armoured French counterparts.^ Charges of French cavalry against Allies squares.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The French Guard Cavalry also charged against the squares.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Somerset's cavalry of the English Household Brigade had been launched, on the right of Picton's division, against the French horse, at the same time that the English Union Brigade of heavy horse charged the French infantry columns on the left.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

The effectiveness of the lance was noted by all participants and this weapon subsequently became more widespread throughout Europe; the British converted their first light cavalry regiment to lancers in 1816.
.Waterloo was a decisive battle in more than one sense.^ If I am guilty, why am I more fit for a second consulship than I was for my first one?"
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ A victory at Waterloo was his only alternative from utter ruin, and he determined to employ his Guard in one bold stroke more to make that victory his own.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ It was one of the most battle-experience units at Waterloo.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.It definitively ended the series of wars that had convulsed Europe, and involved many other regions of the world, since the French Revolution of the early 1790s.^ The inroads of these tribes upon the lower regions of Asia and into Europe, have caused many of the most remarkable revolutions in the history of the world.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ They, like ourselves, are members of the great Anglo-Saxon nation "whose race and language are now overrunning the world from one end of it to the other."
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The insubordination and licence, which the revolt of the French guards, and the participation of other troops in many of the first excesses of the Revolution introduced among the soldiery, were soon rapidly disseminated through all the ranks.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.It also ended the political and military career of Napoleon Bonaparte, one of the greatest commanders and statesmen in history.^ For seventeen years Hannibal strove against Rome; for sixteen years Napoleon Bonaparte strove against England; the efforts of the first ended in Zama, those of the second in Waterloo."
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ In truth, the whole career of Plataea, and the friendship, strong even unto death, between her and Athens, form one of the most affecting episodes in the history of antiquity.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ It is evident, from this description, that the native Libyans were a subject class, without franchise or political rights; and, accordingly, we find no instance specified in history of a Libyan holding political office or military command.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, it ushered in almost half a century of international peace in Europe; no major conflict was to occur until the Crimean War.^ There has, indeed, throughout this long period, been no great war, like those with which the previous history of modern Europe abounds.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis makes war upon Holland, and almost overpowers it, Charles II. of England is his pensioner, and England helps the French in their attacks upon Holland until 1674.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

A French view of the reasons for Napoleon's defeat

.General Baron Jomini, one of the leading military writers on the Napoleonic art of war had a number of very cogent explanations of the reasons behind Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo.^ We know of one occasion (between the first and second Punic wars) when Carthage was brought to the very brink of destruction by a revolt of her foreign troops.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ After victory Grouchy was preparing to march on Brussles, when at 10:30 AM he received news of Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The "Old Hookey" He was one of the leading military and political figures of the XIX century.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[140]
In my opinion, four principal causes led to this disaster:
.The first, and most influential, was the arrival, skilfully combined, of Blücher, and the false movement that favored this arrival;[141] the second, was the admirable firmness of the British infantry, joined to the sang-froid and aplomb of its chiefs; the third, was the horrible weather, that had softened the ground, and rendered the offensive movements so toilsome, and retarded till one o'clock the attack that should have been made in the morning; the fourth, was the inconceivable formation of the first corps, in masses very much too deep for the first grand attack.^ Meanwhile one or two squadrons of 3rd Hussar KGL led by Kerssenbruch made fine attacks on two squadrons of cuirassiers.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The above is one of the numerous bursts of eloquence that adorn Arnold's third volume, and cause such deep regret that that volume should have been the last, and its great and good author have been cut off with his work thus incomplete.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ But one has to remember that most of the Prussian battalions were already disordered by earlier attacks, counterattacks and street fighting.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

[142]

The battlefield today

Lion's Mound at Waterloo, erected on the spot where it is believed the Prince of Orange was wounded
Some portions of the terrain on the battlefield have been altered from their 1815 appearance. .Tourism began the day after the battle, with Captain Mercer noting that on 19 June "a carriage drove on the ground from Brussels, the inmates of which, alighting, proceeded to examine the field".[143] In 1820, the Netherlands' King William I ordered the construction of a monument on the spot where it was believed his son, the Prince of Orange, had been wounded.^ Captain Sandham's Battery claims to have fired the first Allies cannon shot of the battle - a claim disputed by Cleeve's Battery of King's German Legion.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Blucher had in the field, when he began the battle, 83,417 men, and 224 guns.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ When the battle began, the greater part of the Duke's army was yet on its march towards Quatre Bras from Brussels and the other parts of its cantonments.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.The Lion's Hillock, a giant mound, was constructed here, using 300,000 cubic metres (392,000 cu yd) of earth taken from the ridge at the centre of the British line which effectively removed the southern bank of Wellington's sunken road.^ A force of 65,000 men and 300 guns were effectively collected to defend Paris.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ La Haye Sainte fell and the French Guard infantry was getting ready to attack Wellington's British-Netherland-German line.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This ridge constituted the position of the first line of the Wellington's army.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.
Every one is aware that the variously inclined undulations of the plains, where the engagement between Napoleon and Wellington took place, are no longer what they were on June 18, 1815. By taking from this mournful field the wherewithal to make a monument to it, its real relief has been taken away, and history, disconcerted, no longer finds her bearings there.^ There were no news from Wellington.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Are they and we no longer the same men?
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Alison, in his admirable military history of the Duke of Marlborough, has truly stated the effects which would have taken place if France had been successful in the war.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

It has been disfigured for the sake of glorifying it. .Wellington, when he beheld Waterloo once more, two years later, exclaimed, "They have altered my field of battle!"^ Baring wrote: "I could see all this going on, and I'm not afraid to admit that my heart sank more than once..."
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Major Baring writes, "I could see all this going on, and I'm not afraid to admit that my heart sank more than once..."
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though too late to share in the glory of the action, they requested to be allowed to march to the battle-field to behold the Medes.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Where the great pyramid of earth, surmounted by the lion, rises to-day, there was a hillock which descended in an easy slope towards the Nivelles road, but which was almost an escarpment on the side of the highway to Genappe.^ The battlefield was intersected by two wide highways, the eastern one leading from Charleroi and Genappe, and the western from Nivelles.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The cavalry had to descend the slope, ascend the opposite slope, and then get past the sunken road.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

.The elevation of this escarpment can still be measured by the height of the two knolls of the two great sepulchres which enclose the road from Genappe to Brussels: one, the English tomb, is on the left; the other, the German tomb, is on the right.^ Our regiment and 73d formed one, and 33d and 69th another; to our right beyond them were the Guards, and on our left the Hanoverians and German legion of our division.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The high road from Charleroi to Brussels (a broad paved causeway) runs through both these villages, and bisects therefore both the English and the French positions.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ On the left one brigade of Allix/Quiot's division (General Allix was replaced by Quiot) attacked La Haye Sainte, while another brigade crossed the hedge and the road behind.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

There is no French tomb. The whole of that plain is a sepulchre for France.
.However, other terrain features and notable landmarks on the field have remained virtually unchanged since the battle.^ General Foy alone remained with the 300 men whom he had gleaned from the field of battle, and marched at their head.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.These include the rolling farmland to the east of the Brussels-Charleroi Road as well as the buildings at Hougoumont, La Haye Sainte, and La Belle Alliance.^ There were several differences between Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ La Haye Sainte fell.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ La Haye Sainte and the road.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

Apart from the Lion Mound, there are several more conventional but noteworthy monuments scattered throughout the battlefield. .A cluster of monuments at the Brussels-Charleroi and Braine L'Alleud-Ohain crossroads mark the mass graves of British, Dutch, Hanoverian and KGL troops.^ Garrisons Dutch, Belgian and British troops Garrisons (13,000 men, 26 guns) in Ghent, Nieuport, Ostend, Antwerp and Ypres .
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British and German troops (Hannoverians) were merged with the Dutch-Belgian troops.
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Allies Order of Battle - Waterloo : British : German : Netherland 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

.A monument to the French dead entitled The Wounded Eagle (L'aigle Blessé) marks the location where it is believed one of the French guard units formed square during the closing moments of the battle.^ Despite being outnumbered by margin of 2 to 1 the eighteen French battalions (Lobau's 8, Young Guard's 8, and Old Guard's 2) were able to hold on for one hour.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon had stationed himself during the battle on a little hillock near La Belle Alliance, in the centre of the French position.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Some regiments of the Old Guard in vain endeavoured to form in squares and stem the current.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

.A monument to the Prussian dead is located in the village of Placenoit on the site where one of their artillery batteries took position.^ Shortly before 5 PM Lobaus artillery silenced 3 Prussian guns (from XIV Foot Battery).
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These villages were strongly occupied by Prussian detachments, and formed the keys of Blucher's position.
  • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Napoleon sent him as reinforcement one battery of 12pdrs of the Guard Artillery.
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

See also

.
  • Lord Uxbridge's leg was shattered by a grape-shot at the Battle of Waterloo and removed by a surgeon.^ During the battle of Waterloo, Ney, at the front of his men as usual, had 5 horses shot from beneath him.
    • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

    The amputated limb went on to lead a somewhat macabre after-life as a tourist attraction in the village of Waterloo in Belgium.
  • Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815): involved Napoleon Bonaparte's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions.
  • Timeline of the Napoleonic era
  • Waterloo in popular culture: describes the cultural impact of the battle.
  • Waterloo Medal awarded to those soldiers of the British Army who fought at the battle.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Hofschröer, pp. 72–73
  2. ^ Chesney, p. 4
  3. ^ Barbero, p. 420
  4. ^ Barbero, p. 419
    Wellington's army: 3,500 dead; 10,200 wounded; 3,300 missing.
    Blücher's army: 1,200 dead; 4,400 wounded; 1,400 missing.
  5. ^ Wikiquote:Wellington citing Creevey Papers, ch. x, p. 236
  6. ^ Timeline: The Congress of Vienna, the Hundred Days, and Napoleon's Exile on St Helena, Center of Digital Initiatives, Brown University Library
  7. ^ Hamilton-Williams, David p. 59
  8. ^ Chandler, David. The Campaigns of Napoleon, New York: Macmillan, 1966, p. 1016, 1017, 1093.
  9. ^ Siborne, W., p. 82
  10. ^ Hofschröer (2005), Waterloo Campaign Ligny and Quatre Bras pp. 136–160
  11. ^ Longford, p. 508
  12. ^ Longford, p. 527
  13. ^ a b c Chesney, p. 136
  14. ^ Barbero, p. 75
  15. ^ Longford, p. 485
  16. ^ Longford, p. 484
  17. ^ Barbero, pp. 75–76
  18. ^ Mercer
    An artillery captain, Mercer, thought the Brunswickers "perfect children".
  19. ^ Longford, p. 486
    On 13 June, the commandant at Ath requested powder and cartridges as members of a Hanoverian reserve regiment there had never yet fired a shot.
  20. ^ Hofschröer (2005), Waterloo Campaign Ligny and Quatre Bras p. 59
  21. ^ Hofschröer (2005), Waterloo Campaign Ligny and Quatre Bras pp. 60–62
  22. ^ Barbero, pp. 78–79
  23. ^ Barbero, p. 80
  24. ^ Barbero, p. 149
  25. ^ Parry p.58
  26. ^ Barbero, pp. 141, 235
  27. ^ Barbero, pp. 83–85
  28. ^ Barbero, p. 91
  29. ^ Longford, pp. 535–536
  30. ^ Barbero, p. 141
  31. ^ Longford, p. 547
  32. ^ Barbero, p. 73
  33. ^ Longford, p. 548
  34. ^ Bonaparte, Napoleon; Correspondance, No. 22060, vol XXVIII, p. 392.
  35. ^ Barbero, pp. 95–98
  36. ^ Roberts, p. 55
  37. ^ Wellesley
  38. ^ Fitchett
    "The hour at which Waterloo began, though there were 150,000 actors in the great tragedy, was long a matter of dispute. The Duke of Wellington puts it at 10:00. General Alava says half-past eleven, Napoleon and Drouet say noon, and Ney 13:00. Lord Hill may be credited with having settled this minute question of fact. He took two watches with him into the fight, one a stop-watch, and he marked with it the sound of the first shot fired, and this evidence is now accepted as proving that the first flash of red flame which marked the opening of the world-shaking tragedy of Waterloo took place at exactly ten minutes to twelve."
  39. ^ That is, the 1st battalion of the 2nd Regiment. Among Prussian regiments, "F/12th" denoted the fusilier battalion of the 12th Regiment.
  40. ^ Barbero, pp. 113–114
  41. ^ Napoleonic: The Great Gate of Hougoumont (Image). MilitaryCompany.com. Retrieved on 14 September 2007.
  42. ^ a b Barbero, p. 298
    Seeing the flames, Wellington sent a note to the house's commander stating that he must hold his position whatever the cost,
  43. ^ a b c Booth, p. 10
  44. ^ Creasy, chapter XV
  45. ^ See, for example, Longford, pp. 552–554
  46. ^ Barbero, pp. 305–306
  47. ^ Roberts, p. 57
  48. ^ Fitchett, "Lord Hill may be credited with having settled this minute question of fact. He took two watches with him into the fight, one a stop-watch, and he marked with it the sound of the first shot fired ... At ten minutes to twelve the first heavy gun rang sullenly from the French ridge"
  49. ^ Barbero p. 131
  50. ^ a b Barbero, p. 130
  51. ^ Barbero, p. 136
  52. ^ Barbero, p. 145
  53. ^ Barbero, p. 165
  54. ^ Websites of current Dutch Historians: Erwin van Muilwijk; http://home.tiscali.nl/erwinmuilwijk/index.htm, and Marco Bijl: http://www.8militia.net These historians are preparing new publications about the role of the Dutch-Belgian army. And this time it will only be based on eye witness accounts and official battle reports. Drafts can be found at their sites. English language.
  55. ^ EENENS, A.M (1879) "Dissertation sur la participation des troupes des Pays-Bas a la campagne de 1815 en Belgique", in: Societé royale des beaux arts et de litérature de Gand, Messager des Sciences Historiques. Vanderhaegen, Gand,1879. French language. p. 14-30 and 131-198
  56. ^ De Jongh, W.A.: Veldtocht van den Jare 1815, Historisch verhaal; in De Nieuwe Militaire Spectator (Nijmegen 1866). This is the original account of Colonel de Jongh, commander of the Dutch 8th Militia. It can be downloaded at the site of Mr Marco Bijl above. It is one of the most important printed eye witness accounts we have in the Dutch literature. Dutch language. P. 13-27.
  57. ^ Löben Sels, Ernst van Bijdragen tot de krijgsgeschiedenis van Napoleon Bonaparte / door E. van Löben Sels Part 4; Veldtogten van 1814 in Frankrijk, en van 1815 in de Nederlanden (Battles). 1842. 's-Gravenhage : de Erven Doorman. Dutch language. P. 601-682.
  58. ^ Allebrandi, Sebastian. Herinneringen uit mijne tienjarige militaire loopbaan. Allebrandi was a soldier in the Dutch 7th militia and thus his account is important. 1835. Amsterdam : Van Kesteren. Dutch language. P. 21-30.
  59. ^ Bas, F de and J. De T'Serclaes de Wommersom ; La campagne de 1815 aux Pays-Bas d'après les rapports officiels néerlandais / Parts: I: Quatre-Bras. II: Waterloo. III: Annexes et notes. [IV]: supplément: [14] cartes et plans, Jaar: 1908-1909, Bruxelles This is the document composed by the `Netherlands Institute for Militairy History (NIMH)` and is thus the most complete and reliable document ever made thus far. It also contains Van Zuylens `History of the 2nd division`. Van Zuylen was the chief of staff of the 2nd division and located right behind the van Bijlandt brigade during the whole day. He wrote a 32 pages report, right after the battle. This report forms the bases of most of the other literature mentioned here. French language. Part 3, page 300-330.
  60. ^ Belgians at Waterloo: With Translations of the Reports of the Dutch and Belgian Commanders" Demetrius C. Boulder; Boulger, London 1901. S.H. De only English translation of the reports of Van Zuylen and others.
  61. ^ Knoop, Willem Jan. Beschouwingen over Siborne's Geschiedenis van den oorlog van 1815 in Frankrijk en de Nederlanden" en wederlegging van de in dat werk voorkomende beschuldigingen tegen het Nederlandsche leger. Breda 1846; 2nd printing 1847. Dutch language. P. 100-192. ;
  62. ^ CRAAN, W.B. (TRANSL. BY A. GORE) (1817) An historical account of the battle of Waterloo. English language. Page 30. ;
  63. ^ See above: Websites and Eeenens, Löben Sels, Allebrandi, de Bas, and Boulder).
  64. ^ See above: de Bas, and Boulder).
  65. ^ See above: Eenens, Allebrandi, de Bas, and Boulder).
  66. ^ Pawly, Ronald. Wellington’s Belgian Allies. Men at arms nr 98. 1815 Osprey 2001. This book, although small, gives a good picture of the Dutch/Belgian troops at the battles. The ´Netherlands Institute for Militairy History (NIMH)´ contributed to the book and it thus can be seen as the official Dutch history. English language. P. 37-43.
  67. ^ Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: the unpublished correspondence by Allied officers from the Siborne papers. And “the Waterloo letters”. 2004 London: Greenhill. English language. The following letters are used: the accounts of General Kempt, Calvert of the 32nd infantry, Cruikshank of the 79th , Winchester & Hope of the 92nd, Evans (Ponsonby Cavalry brigade) and Clark Kennedy of the Royal Dragoons. These are the only letters that actually state some details about the Dutch-Belgian troops.
  68. ^ See above: Knoop, mentioned websites and Eeenens, Craan, De Jongh, Löben Sels, Allebrandi, de Bas, and Boulder).
  69. ^ Quotes of Ltn. Hope of 92nd Gordon Highlanders (see letters from the Battle of Waterloo above) and Ltn. Henri Chrétien Scheltens of "Belgian" 7th Line Btn (See de Bas and Boulder).
  70. ^ a b Barbero, pp. 185–187
  71. ^ Barbero, p. 188
    Three squadrons for the Household Brigade and none for the Union out of nineteen squadrons in total.
  72. ^ Siborne, HT., Letter 5
  73. ^ Glover, Letter 16
    The total may have been 18 squadrons as there is an uncertainty in the sources as to whether the King's Dragoon Guards fielded three or four squadrons. There is evidence that Uxbridge gave an order, the morning of the battle, to all cavalry brigade commanders to commit their commands on their own initiative, as direct orders from himself might not always be forthcoming, and to "support movements to their front". It appears that Uxbridge expected the brigades of Vandeleur, Vivian and the Dutch cavalry to provide support to the British heavies.
  74. ^ Barbero, note 18, p. 426
    An episode famously used later by Victor Hugo in Les Miserables.
  75. ^ Siborne, W., pp. 410–411
  76. ^ Houssaye, p. 182
  77. ^ This anecdote can be found in The Waterloo Papers by E. Bruce Low contained in With Napoleon at Waterloo, MacBride, M., (editor), London 1911. The tale was related, in old age, by a Sgt-Major Dickinson of the Greys, reputedly the last survivor of the charge.
  78. ^ Barbero, pp. 198–204
  79. ^ Barbero, p. 211
  80. ^ Siborne, W., pp. 425–426.
  81. ^ Adkin, p. 217 (for initial strengths)
  82. ^ Smith, p. 544 (for losses)
    Losses are ultimately from the official returns taken the day after the battle: Household Brigade, initial strength 1,319, killed – 95, wounded – 248, missing – 250, totals – 593, horses lost – 672. Union Brigade, initial strength 1,332, killed – 264, wounded – 310, missing – 38, totals – 612, horses lost – 631.
  83. ^ This view appears to have arisen from a comment by Captain Clark-Kennedy of the 1st Dragoons 'Royals', in a letter in H. T. Siborne's book, he makes an estimate of around 900 men actually in line within the Union Brigade before its first charge. He does not, however, explain how his estimate was arrived at. The shortfall of 432 men (the equivalent of a whole regiment) from the paper strength of the brigade is large. By comparison the 15th Hussars, at approximately the same paper strength as each of the Union Brigade regiments, had about 60 men detached or in the rear at the start of the battle (Glover, Gareth. From Corunna to Waterloo: the Letters and Journals of Two Napoleonic Hussars, 1801–1816. London: Greenhill Books, 2007). By extrapolation a figure of around 180 men, rather than more than 400, from the brigade could be expected to be detached.
  84. ^ Barbero, pp. 219–223
  85. ^ Siborne, W., pp. 329, 349 (composition of brigades), pp. 422–424 (actions of brigades)
    Note: William Siborne was in possession of a number of eyewitness accounts from generals, such as Uxbridge, down to cavalry cornets and infantry ensigns. This makes his history particularly useful (though only from the British and KGL perspective); some of these eyewitness letters were later published by his son, a British Major General (H.T. Siborne)). Parts of Siborne's account was, and is, highly controversial. The very negative light shed on the conduct of the Dutch troops during the battle by Siborne prompted a semi-official rebuttal by Dutch historian captain Willem Jan Knoop in his "Beschouwingen over Siborne's Geschiedenis van den oorlog van 1815 in Frankrijk en de Nederlanden" en wederlegging van de in dat werk voorkomende beschuldigingen tegen het Nederlandsche leger. Breda 1846; 2nd printing 1847. Knoop based his rebuttal on the official Dutch after-battle reports, drawn up within days of the battle, not on twenty-year-old recollections of veterans, like Siborne. Interestingly, some of the Dutch reports (like that of Col. Van Zuylen van Nyevelt, the chief-of-staff of the Dutch 2nd division) seem to have been available to Siborne, but he chose not to use them.
  86. ^ Siborne, H.T., Letters: 18, 26, 104
  87. ^ Siborne, H.T., p. 38
  88. ^ Siborne, W., p. 463
  89. ^ Siborne, H.T., Letters 9, 18, 36
  90. ^ In a cavalry unit an "effective" was an unwounded trooper mounted on a sound horse. The military term "effective" describes a soldier, piece of equipment (e.g. a tank or aircraft) or military unit capable of fighting or carrying out its intended purpose.
  91. ^ a b c Hofschröer (1999), p. 122
  92. ^ a b Siborne, W., p. 439
  93. ^ Adkin, p. 356
  94. ^ a b Adkin, p. 359
  95. ^ Gronow
  96. ^ Weller, pp. 211–212
  97. ^ Adkin, pp. 252, 361
  98. ^ This qualification may have been self-serving on Mercer's part. Wellington himself sought refuge in the "shaky" Brunswick squares at the time and observed what he interpreted as acts of cowardice by British artillerymen, who "...ran off the field entirely, taking with them limbers, ammunition, and everything..." as he wrote in a letter of December 21, 1815 to the Master-General of the Ordnance, Lord Mulgrave. The incident even justified the denial of pensions to members of the Artillery Corps in his view. So, where Mercer claimed heroism, Wellington saw the opposite. See for the full text of Wellington's letter, and an attempted rebuttal Duncan, F. (1879) History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, Appendix A, pp. 444-464 [1]. The letter was originally published in WSD, vol. XIV (1858 ed.), pp. 618-620
  99. ^ Mercer
  100. ^ Weller, p. 114
  101. ^ Houssaye, p. 522
  102. ^ A number of different mounts could have been ridden by Napoleon at Waterloo: Ali, Crebère, Désirée, Jaffa, Marie and Tauris (Summerville p. 315) Lozier states it was Désirée (Lozier).
  103. ^ a b Adkin, p. 361
  104. ^ Siborne, H.T., pp. 14, 38–39
  105. ^ Siborne, H.T., pp. 14–15 and letters 6,7 and 9.
  106. ^ On the contrary, many contradicted this British account vehemently. See e.g. Eenens, A.M (1879) "Dissertation sur la participation des troupes des Pays-Bas a la campagne de 1815 en Belgique", in: Societé royale des beaux arts et de litérature de Gand, Messager des Sciences Historiques, pp. 131-198. [2]; Knoop, W.J., "Beschouwingen over Siborne's Geschiedenis van den oorlog van 1815 in Frankrijk en de Nederlanden" en wederlegging van de in dat werk voorkomende beschuldigingen tegen het Nederlandsche leger. Breda 1846; 2nd printing 1847; Craan, W.B. (transl. by A. Gore) (1817) An historical account of the battle of Waterloo, p. 30 [3] written in 1816 on the basis of eyewitness accounts does not mention the incident.
  107. ^ Siborne, W., p. 465
    The commander of this regiment, who was later court-martialled and cashiered, claimed that as his troopers (all well-to-do young Hanoverians) owned their own horses he could not order them to remain on the field. Following the battle the regiment was broken up and the troopers assigned duties they, no-doubt, considered ignominious. Four were posted to Captain Mercer's horse artillery troop, where he found them "amazingly snappish and sulky with everyone" (see: Mercer, A.C.).
  108. ^ Beamish, p. 367
  109. ^ Cotton, pp. 106–107
  110. ^ a b Hofschröer (1999), p. 116
  111. ^ Hofschröer (1999), p. 95
  112. ^ Chesney, p. 165
  113. ^ Hofschröer (1999), p. 117
  114. ^ Hofschröer (1999), p. 125
  115. ^ a b Hofschröer (1999), p. 139
  116. ^ a b Hofschröer (1999), p. 140
  117. ^ Hofschröer (1999), p. 141.
  118. ^ Barbero notes that two Chasseur battalions were merged into one on the day of the battle, so while five Guard formations went forward, they may have comprised six battalions.
  119. ^ Adkin p. 391
    The attacking battalions were 1st/3rd and 4th Grenadiers and 1st/3rd, 2nd/3rd and 4th Chasseurs of the Middle Guard; those remaining in reserve were the 2nd/2nd Grenadiers, 2nd/1st and 2nd/2nd Chasseurs of the Old Guard.
  120. ^ a b c Chesney, pp. 178–9
  121. ^ a b c Parry p. 70
  122. ^ "'The Guard dies, but it does not surrender!' is another of these fictitious historical sayings. General Cambronne, to whom it is attributed, never uttered. Victor Hugo, in Les Miserables, has restored the true text. It is composed of a single word [Merde!]" (David Masson, et al. Macmillan's magazine, Volume 19, Macmillan and Co., 1869, p. 164)
  123. ^ White
  124. ^ The reply is commonly attributed to General Pierre Cambronne originating from an attribution by the journalist Balison de Rougemont in Journal General published on 24 June 1815 (Shapiro (2006) p. 128), although Cambronne clamed he replied "Merde!" (Boller p. 12). However according to letters in The Times in June 1932, Cambronne was already a prisoner of Colonel Hugh Halkett, so the retort, if ever given, or in whatever form it took, may have come from General Michel instead. (White, and Parry p. 70)
  125. ^ a b c d e f Hofschröer, pp. 144,145
  126. ^ Hofschröer (1999), p. 145
  127. ^ Kincaid
  128. ^ Drouet
  129. ^ Creasy, Chapter XV. Battle of Waterloo, A.D. 1815
    Fifteen decisive battles of the world from Marathon to Waterloo.
  130. ^ Hofschröer (1999), p. 149
  131. ^ a b Hofschröer (1999), p. 151
  132. ^ Hofschröer (1999), p. 150
  133. ^ Booth, p. 74
  134. ^ Booth, p. 23
  135. ^ Regimental history of the Rifles: Battle of Waterloo on an old website of the British Ministry of Defence. See the link near the bottom called "here" (ppt) Slide 39
  136. ^ Prussian Reserve Infantry 1813–1815, Robert Mantle, Napoleonic Association, 1977 [4]
  137. ^ Frye
  138. ^ Nuttal Encyclopaedia: Issy
  139. ^ Hofschröer (1999), pp. 274–276, 320
  140. ^ Jomini was Swiss by birth, but was an officer, eventually a general, in the French army and had served on the staff of Marshal Ney.
  141. ^ This "false movement" was the detachment of Grouchy's force in pursuit of the Prussians – Napoleon had overestimated the extent of his victory at Ligny and underestimated the resilience of the Prussians. He also seems to have discounted the presence of Bülow's substantial corps, which had not been in action at Ligny. Had Napoleon retained Grouchy's 30,000 men as a guard for his right flank it is likely that these troops could have held off the Prussians and allowed the rest of Napoleon's army to attack Wellington's army unmolested.
  142. ^ Jomini pp. 223–224
  143. ^ Captain Cavalie Mercer, RHA
  144. ^ Hugo

References

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    ^ The third Hussars of the King's German Legion were to the right of Somerset's brigade.
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    ^ Around La Haye Sainte the smoke was not moving forward; there the King German Legion was putting up a stiff resistance.
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    ^ Napoleon, in his memoirs, and other French writers, have vehemently blamed the Duke for having given battle in such a position as that of Waterloo.
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    ^ In April-June 1815 the strato-volcano Tambora erupted with a rating of 7 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, making it the most deadly eruption in history.
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    ^ In closing our observations on this the last of the Decisive Battles of the World, it is pleasing to contrast the year which it signalized with the year that is now [Written in June 1851.
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    ^ But to be wounded by a fellow-countryman after having passed unharmed through all the perils of Quatre Bras and Waterloo!--this did seem hard, indeed.
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    ^ Colonel von Ompteda "I saw Ompteda, in the midmost throng of the enemy infantry and cavalry, sink from his horse and vanish."
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    ^ We know them on the authority of his chaplain, Mr. Bishop) Hare, who accompanied him throughout the campaign, and in whose journal the biographers of Marlborough have found many of their best materials.
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    ^ William Siborne - "The Waterloo Campaign, 1815" ) Even the cavalry of the Imperial Guard, Napoleon's reserve, got involved in the charges.
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    ^ Order of Battle of the Prussian Army in 1815 Order of Battle of Wellington's army at Waterloo .
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    ^ Headquarters Commander-in-Chief: Field Marshal Sir Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington Quartermaster-General: Sir George Murray Adjutant-General: Mjr-Gen.
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    War Times Journal Archives.
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Further reading

Articles
  • Anonymous. .Napoleon's Guard at Waterloo 1815
  • Bijl, Marco, 8th Dutch Militia a history of the 8th Dutch Militia battalion and the Bylandt Brigade, of which it was a part, in the 1815 campaign (using original sources from the Dutch and Belgian national archives)
  • Timeline of the Napoleonic era
  • Lichfield, John.^ Bijlandt's brigade had five understrength battalions of Dutch-Belgian infantry.
    • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One of the best writers on the Waterloo campaign, Captain Pringle, [See the Appendix to the 8th volume of Scott's Life of Napoleon.
    • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To halt the Prussians Napoleon first dispatched Lobau's corps, and two cavalry divisions, and then part of his Imperial Guard.
    • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Waterloo's significance to the French and British – including proportions of soldiers by nation The Independent, 17 November 2004
  • Staff, Battle of Waterloo a British regimental account on the The Rifles web site
  • Staff, Empire and Sea Power: The Battle of Waterloo BBC History, 9 June 2006
  • Muilwijk, Erwin.^ The soldiers were armed with French and British muskets.
    • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher Battle of Waterloo: Two Armies vs One June 1815 Read a Prussian, a British, a French account of this battle; you may easily be led to believe that you are reading about three different battles.
    • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Then the cavalry on both sides withdrew, with the French halting their horses now and then to stabb the wounded British and German soldiers on the ground.
    • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Contribution of the Netherlands Mobile Army during the 1815 campaign.^ (The IV Army Corps took no part in the actions during the beginning of the campaign and was not present at Ligny.
    • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On June 19, 1815 Wellington wrote to Bathurst on the actions of Prussian Army on Napoleons right flank and during pursuit after battle describing them as the "most decisive."
    • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Gives full account of the Dutch troops that fought at Quatre-Bras, based on many unknown primary sources.
  • de Wit, Pierre.^ I answered, 'The first to the left is Genappe, the second is at Bois de Bossu, near the farm of Quatre Bras; the third is at Gosselies.'
    • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For, not only did the conflict at Quatre Bras detain the French troops which actually took part in it, but d'Erlon received orders from Ney to join him, which hindered d'Erlon from giving effectual aid to Napoleon.
    • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Tomorrow, at daybreak, I will send out a reconnaissance party to Quatre-Bras which will, if possible, occupy this position, because I believe the Nassau troops have gone ..."
    • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.napolun.com [Source type: Original source]

    The campaign of 1815: a study. Study of the campaign of 1815, based on sources from all participating armies.
Keegan, John. The Face of Battle
Books
  • Glover, Michael (1973). .The Napoleonic Wars: An Illustrated History, 1792–1815.^ Siborne History of the War in France and Belgium in 1815 publ.
    • Battle of Waterloo 1815 : La Belle Alliance : Napoleon : Wellington : Blucher 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: Original source]

    Hippocrene Books New York; ISBN 0-882-54473-X
  • Hofschröer, Peter (2004). .Wellington's Smallest Victory: The Duke, the Model Maker and the Secret of Waterloo.^ Meanwhile the Duke of Wellington still rode forward with the van of his victorious troops, until he reined up on the elevated ground near Rossomme.
    • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The strength of the army under the Duke of Wellington at Waterloo was 49,608 infantry, 12,402 cavalry, and 5,645 artillerymen with 156 guns.
    • The Fifteen Decisive Battles of The World From Marathon to Waterloo, by Sir Edward Creasy 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: Original source]

    London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-21769-9
  • Howarth, David (2003). Waterloo - A Near Run Thing. Phoenix Press. ISBN 1-842-12719-5
Maps
Primary sources

Simple English

Battle of Waterloo
Part of the War of the Seventh Coalition
File:Wellington at Waterloo
Wellington at Waterloo by Robert Alexander Hillingford.
Date 18 June 1815
Location Waterloo, present-day Walloon Brabant in Belgium south of Brussels
Result Decisive Coalition victory
Combatants
French Empire Seventh Coalition:
United Kingdom
File:Flag of Prussia (1803).gif Prussia


United Provinces
File:Flag of Hanover (1692).svg Hanover
File:Flagge Herzogtum Nassau (1806-1866).svg Nassau
File:Flagge Herzogtum Brunswick

Commanders
Napoleon Bonaparte Duke of Wellington
File:Flag of Prussia (1803).gif Gebhard von Blücher
Strength
72,000[1] Anglo-allies: 68,000[1]
Prussians: 50,000[2]
Casualties
25,000 killed and wounded
7,000 captured
15,000 missing[3]
15,000 British and allies killed and wounded
7,000 Prussians killed and wounded[4]

The Battle of Watterloo is a battle that was fought primarily between French and British forces. Napoleon was crowned as Emperor of France in 1804. Then he launched a series of successful attacks upon the other countries of Europe. France soon ruled over an empire that stretched from Spain to the Russian border. The only country that still defied him was Great Britain, whose fleet of Royal Navy ships made invasion impossible. However, Britain was not strong enough to stop Napoleon and his army from taking over most of mainland Europe.

Contents

History

Napoleon seemed unstoppable until two separate campaigns caused his empire to fall apart. He gathered a huge army to invade and conquer Russia once and for all in 1812. However, he miscalculated the size and difficulties involved and his army was caught by the Russian winter and destroyed by the weather and lack of food.

Now that Napoleon was much weaker, the countries of Eastern Europe, led by Austria and Prussia, began to ally against him, forcing his troops back towards France. Meanwhile, a small British army in Portugal and Spain, led by Arthur Wellesley (later to become Duke of Wellington) began to win victories over the French armies and to push Napoleon’s troops out of Spain.

By 1814 he faced total defeat, with the Austrians and Prussians invading from the east and the Duke of Wellington and the British army in the west. A peace treaty was arranged. Napoleon would abdicate (give up the throne) and be exiled to a small Mediterranean island called Elba, with a small army. He was replaced as ruler of France by Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI.

The 100 Days

Once he was on the island of Elba, Napoleon was not happy. He had been promised money by the new French government, but the money did not come. His wife (an Austrian princess) and his sons were forbidden to visit him.

Messages from France showed that the new French King was unpopular because he was trying to ignore many events that had taken place during the revolution. The allies that had united against Napoleon were arguing in Vienna over the lands that they had recaptured. He seized his opportunity, going by ship in February 1815 and landing in France again. His welcome was very mixed. Many French were tired of war and the death and suffering that it led to. However, there were others who wanted a return to the power and glory of the old days and saw Napoleon as their best hope.

His first days were tense but, by personal leadership and persuasion, Napoleon managed to gain the support of the army. When the king panicked and fled the country, there was little to stop Napoleon returning to Paris and resuming his title of Emperor.

The Waterloo Campaign

What Napoleon needed now was a period of time to organize himself and the French army. The allies were caught completely by surprise and their only chance to stop him lay with two small armies in Belgium: a British and Dutch army commanded by the Duke of Wellington and a Prussian (German) army commanded by Prince Blucher.

Napoleon decided on a further gamble. He gathered an army and prepared a surprise attack on Wellington and Blucher, hoping to catch them unprepared. His plan was successful at first and he crossed the Belgian border before Wellington and Blucher could join forces.

Ligny and Quatre Bras

His first battle was at Ligny and, after a fierce day’s fighting, he defeated the Prussian army, forcing it to retreat. Thinking that Blucher would retreat back to Prussia, Napoleon turned his attention towards Wellington. There had already been a small battle at Quatre Bras, as Wellington tried to delay the French advance. This had given Wellington enough time to prepare a full defensive position across the road leading to Brussels, near the village of Waterloo.

The French army advanced towards them and set up their camp on a ridge facing the combined British and Dutch (Anglo-Dutch) army. Heavy rain caused delays and confusion and both armies settled down for the night in the mud to await the dawn and the forthcoming battle.

Napoleon’s army faced the Duke of Wellington’s Anglo-Dutch army near Waterloo on 18th June 1815. Wellington’s troops were deployed behind a low ridge, partially protecting them from the French massed artillery.

Phase 1 – The Attack on Hougoumont

At 11.00 Napoleon ordered his guns to open fire. French infantry began an attack against the Château of Hougoumont, defended by the British Foot Guards. This was intended to draw Wellington’s reserves away from the centre, where Napoleon’s main attack would fall.

Phase 2 – The French Infantry Attacks

At 13.30 Napoleon launched an infantry attack against Wellington’s centre. Men of the King’s German Legion resolutely defended the farm of La Haye Sainte, serving to disrupt the French attack. British artillery and musketry succeeded in repulsing the French assault and the British Household and Union heavy cavalry brigades charged after the retreating Frenchmen. Elated by their success, the British cavalry pursued their enemy too far and in turn suffered terrible casualties at the hands of the French lancers.

Phase 3 – The French Cavalry Attacks'

At 15.00 Marshal Ney, believing the Anglo-Dutch army to be retreating after the heavy bombardment they had received all day, led a massed French cavalry attack against Wellington’s centre. However, the British infantry, forming squares to defend themselves from cavalry attack, held firm. The French took terrible casualties as they circled these impregnable formations of infantrymen. The situation further deteriorated for Napoleon as Blucher's Prussian troops launched an attack at Plancenoit to his rear at 16.30.

Phase 4 – The Prussians begin to increase pressure

By early evening the French attack at Hougoumont, intended as a diversion, was now having the opposite effect. The French committed more and more troops to the bitter fighting around the château, which was held by only a small force of British Guardsmen. More French reserves were being sent to meet the Prussian threat to the rear of Napoleon’s army at Plancenoit. However, the French had at last succeeded in capturing the farm of La Haye Sainte, only a short distance from Wellington’s centre.

Phase 5 – The Attack by the Imperial Guard

At approximately 19.30 Napoleon committed his last reserves in a final effort to obtain victory. As Prussians arrived to bolster Wellington’s flank, veterans of the French Imperial Guard advanced. The British infantry, exhausted from the continuous cannonade they had received all day, rose to meet them. The musketry of the British Guards Brigade defeated Napoleon’s finest troops. They fled, and the whole French army joined them in retreat. Wellington ordered his entire line to advance and the French were chased from the field.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Hofschröer, pp. 72–73 Template:Verify source
  2. Chesney, p. 4
  3. Barbero 2005, p. 420.
  4. Barbero 2005, p. 419.
    Wellington's army: 3,500 dead; 10,200 wounded; 3,300 missing.
    Blücher's army: 1,200 dead; 4,400 wounded; 1,400 missing.


Citable sentences

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