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Battle of the Scheldt
Part of World War II
Acrossthescheldt.jpg
Buffalo amphibious vehicles taking Canadians
across the Scheldt in Zeeland, 1944.
Date October 2, 1944–November 8, 1944
Location Northern Belgium and southwestern Netherlands
Result Allied victory;
Antwerp opens to Allied shipping
Belligerents
 Canada
 Belgium
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Poland
 United Kingdom
 Germany
Commanders
Canada Harry Crerar (First Canadian Army)
Canada Guy Simonds (acting)
Nazi Germany Gustav-Adolf von Zangen
(German 15th Army)
Strength
Unknown 90,000
Casualties and losses
Canadian: 6,367
Total: 12,873
Roughly 10-12,000
41,043 captured

The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations of the First Canadian Army, led by Lieutenant General Guy Simonds. The battle took place in northern Belgium and southwestern Netherlands during World War II from October 2, 1944 to November 8, 1944[1]

By September, 1944, it had become urgent for the Allies to clear both banks of the Scheldt estuary in order to open the port of Antwerp to Allied shipping, thus easing logistical burdens in their supply lines stretching hundreds of miles from Normandy eastward to the Siegfried Line.[2] Since the Allied forces had landed in Normandy, France on D-Day, June 6, 1944, the British Second Army had pushed forward into the Low Countries and captured Brussels and Antwerp, the latter with its ports still intact. But the advance halted with the British in possession of Antwerp, while the Germans still controlled the Scheldt Estuary.

Nothing was done about the blocked Antwerp ports during September because most of the strained Allied resources were allocated to Operation Market Garden, a bold plan for a single thrust into Germany which began on September 17. In the meantime, German forces in the Scheldt were able to plan a defense.

In early October, after Market Garden had failed with heavy losses, Allied forces led by the First Canadian Army set out to bring the Antwerp ports under control. But the well-established German defenders staged an effective delaying action. Complicated by the waterlogged terrain, the Battle of the Scheldt proved to be an especially grueling and costly campaign. Historians have largely ignored it until recent years.

After five weeks of difficult fighting, the First Canadian Army, bolstered by attached troops from several other countries, was successful in winning the Scheldt after numerous amphibious assaults, crossing of canals, and fighting over open ground. Both land and water were mined, and the Germans defended their retreating line with artillery and snipers.

The Allies finally cleared the port areas on November 8, but at a cost of 12,873 Allied casualties (killed, wounded, or missing), half of them Canadians.[3]

Once the German defenders were no longer a threat, it was an additional three weeks before the first ship carrying Allied supplies was able to unload in Antwerp (on November 29, 1944) due to the necessity of de-mining the harbors.

Contents

Opening the Scheldt

On September 12, 1944, the First Canadian Army under temporary command of Lieutenant-General Guy Simonds was given the task of clearing the Scheldt. Under command at that time was II Canadian Corps, with the Polish 1st Armoured Division, British 49th and 52nd Divisions attached, as well as British I Corps.

The plan for opening the Scheldt estuary involved four main operations conducted over daunting geography.

  • The first task was to clear the area north of Antwerp and secure access to South Beveland.
  • Second was to clear the Breskens pocket north of the Leopold Canal ("Operation Switchback").
  • Third, dubbed "Operation Vitality", was the capture of South Beveland.
  • The final phase would be the capture of Walcheren Island, which had been fortified into a powerful German stronghold. As part of the Atlantic Wall, Walcheren Island was considered to be the "strongest concentration of defences the Nazis had ever constructed."[4]
Column of Alligator amphibious vehicles passing Terrapin amphibious vehicles on the Scheldt river, October 1944.

On September 21, the 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division moved northwards roughly along the line of the Ghent-Terneuzen Canal, given the task of clearing an area on the south shore of the Scheldt around the Dutch town of Breskens called the "Breskens pocket". The Polish 1st Armoured Division headed for the Dutch-Belgian border further east and the crucial area north of Antwerp.

The 4th Canadian Armoured advanced from a hard-won bridgehead over the Ghent Canal at Moerbrugge to find themselves the first Allied troops facing the formidable obstacle of the double line of the Leopold and Dérivation de la Lys Canals. An attack was mounted in the vicinity of Moerkerke, crossing the canals and establishing a bridgehead before counter-attacks forced a withdrawal with heavy casualties.

The Northern Front.

The 1st Polish Armoured Division enjoyed greater success to the east as it advanced northeast from Ghent. In country unsuitable for armour, and against stiffening resistance, the Division advanced to the coast by September 20, occupying Terneuzen and clearing the south bank of the Scheldt eastwards to Antwerp.

It became apparent to Simonds that any further gains in the Scheldt would come at heavy cost, as the Breskens pocket, extending from Zeebrugge to the Braakman Inlet and inland to the Leopold Canal, was strongly held by the enemy.

Fighting North from Antwerp

On October 2, the 2nd Canadian Division began its advance north from Antwerp. Stiff fighting at Woensdrecht ensued on October 6, the objective of the first phase. The Germans, reinforced by Battle Group Chill, saw the priority in holding there, controlling direct access to South Beveland and Walcheren Island.

There were heavy casualties as the Canadians attacked over open, flooded land. Driving rain, booby traps and land mines made advance very difficult. On October 13, 1944, what would come to be known as "Black Friday," the Canadian 5th Infantry Brigade's Black Watch was virtually wiped out in an unsuccessful attack. The Calgary Highlanders were to follow up with a more successful action, and their Carrier Platoon succeeded in taking the rail station at Korteven. Heavy fighting at Hoogerheide also ensued but by October 16, Woensdrecht was secured, cutting the land link to South Beveland and Walcheren. The Canadians had achieved their first objective, but suffered heavy casualties.

Member of Canadian Provost Corps talking to members of the Belgian Resistance, Bruges, September 1944.

At this point, recognizing the opportunity, Field-Marshal Bernard Montgomery, issued a directive that made the opening of the Scheldt estuary the top priority of 21st Army Group. To the east, the British Second Army attacked westwards to clear the Netherlands south of the Maas River, securing the Scheldt region from counter-attacks.

Meanwhile, Simonds concentrated forces at the neck of the South Beveland peninsula. The 4th Canadian Armoured moved north from the Leopold Canal and took Bergen-op-Zoom. By October 24 Allied lines were pushed out further from the neck of the peninsula, ensuring German counterattacks wouldn't cut off the 2nd Canadian Division, by then moving west along it towards Walcheren Island.

Operation Switchback

The second main operation of the Battle of the Scheldt opened with fierce fighting to reduce the Breskens pocket. Here, the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division encountered tenacious German resistance as it fought to cross the Leopold Canal.[5]

An earlier failed attempt by the 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division at Moerbrugge had demonstrated the challenge they faced. In addition to the formidable German defences on both the Leopold Canal and the Dérivation de la Lys Canal, much of the approach area was flooded.

It was decided that the best place for an assault would be immediately east of where the two canals divided: a narrow strip of dry ground only a few hundred metres wide at its base beyond the Leopold Canal (described as a long triangle with its base on the Maldegem-Aardenburg road and its apex near the village of Moershoofd some five kilometres east).

Members of the 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division demonstrating the use of flame throwers across a canal, Maldegem, October 1944.

A two-pronged assault commenced. The 3rd Canadian Division's 7th Brigade made the initial assault across the Leopold Canal, while the 9th Canadian Infantry Brigade mounted an amphibious attack from the northern or coastal side of the pocket. The assault began on October 6, supported by extensive artillery and Canadian-built Wasp Universal Carriers, which were equipped with flamethrowers. The Wasps launched their barrage of flame across the Leopold Canal, allowing the 7th Brigade troops to scramble up over the steep banks and launch their assault boats. Two precarious, separate footholds were established, but the enemy recovered from the shock of the flamethrowers and counter-attacked, though they were unable to move the Canadians from their extremely vulnerable bridgeheads. By October 9, the gap between the bridgeheads was closed, and by early morning on October 12, a position had been gained across the Aardenburg road.

Corporal Kormendy, a scout from the Calgary Highlanders Scout and Sniper Platoon, in a shot from a series of staged photos by Army photographer Ken Bell, taken near Kapellen, October, 1944. PAC Photo

The 9th Canadian Brigade conducted an amphibious operation with the aid of Terrapin (the first such use of this vehicle in Europe) and Buffalo amphibious vehicles, crewed by the British 5th Assault Regiment from the Royal Engineers. The brigade planned to cross the mouth of the Braakman Inlet in amphibious vehicles and to land in the vicinity of Hoofdplaat, a tiny hamlet in the rear or coastal side of the pocket, thus exerting pressure from two directions at once. In spite of difficulties in maneuvering vehicles through the canals and the resulting 24-hour delay, the Germans were taken by surprise and a bridgehead was established. Once again, the Germans recovered quickly and counter-attacked with ferocity; however, they were slowly forced back. The 10th Canadian Brigade, from the 4th Armoured Division, crossed the Leopold Canal and advanced at Isabella Polder. Then the 3rd Division's 8th Canadian Brigade was called to move southwards from the coastal side of the pocket. This opened up a land-based supply route into the pocket.

The 3rd Division fought additional actions to clear German troops from the towns of Breskens, Oostburg, Zuidzande and Cadzand, as well as the coastal fortress Fort Frederik Hendrik. Operation "Switchback" ended on November 3 when the First Canadian Army liberated the Belgian towns of Knokke and Zeebrugge, officially closing the Breskens Pocket and eliminating all German forces south of the Scheldt.

Operation Vitality

The third major operation of the Battle of the Scheldt opened on October 24 when the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division began its advance down the South Beveland peninsula. The Canadians hoped to advance rapidly, bypassing opposition and seizing bridgeheads over the Beveland Canal, but they too were slowed by mines, mud and strong enemy defences.

An amphibious attack was made across the West Scheldt by the British 52nd (Lowland) Division to get in behind the German's Beveland Canal defensive positions. Thus this formidable defence was outflanked, and the Canadian 6th Infantry Brigade began a frontal attack in assault boats. The engineers were able to bridge the canal on the main road.

With the canal line gone, the German defence crumbled and South Beveland was cleared. The third phase of the Battle of the Scheldt was now complete.

Operation Infatuate: Capture of Walcheren Island

Map of troops at Walcheren Island
Soldiers of the Royal Regiment of Canada rest in Blankenberge, September 1944

As the fourth phase of the Battle of the Scheldt opened, only the island of Walcheren at the mouth of the West Scheldt remained in German hands. The island's defences were extremely strong: heavy coastal batteries on the western and southern coasts defended both the island and the Scheldt estuary, and the coastline had been strongly fortified against amphibious assaults. Furthermore, a landward-facing defensive perimeter had been built around the town of Vlissingen to further defend its port facilities should an Allied landing on Walcheren succeed. The only land approach was the Sloedam—a long, narrow causeway from South Beveland, little more than a raised two-lane road. To make matters more difficult, the flats that surrounded this causeway were too saturated with sea water for movement on foot, but had too little water for an assault in storm boats.

To hamper German defence, the island's dykes were breached by attacks from RAF Bomber Command: on 3 October at Westkapelle with severe loss of civilian life; on 7 October at two places, west and east of Vlissingen; and on 11 October at Veere. This flooded the central part of the island, forcing the German defenders onto the high ground around the outside and in the towns, but it also allowed the use of amphibious vehicles.

The island was attacked from three directions: across the causeway from the east, across the Scheldt from the south, and by sea from the west.

The Canadian 2nd Infantry Division attacked the causeway on October 31, 1944. An initial attack by the Black Watch was rebuffed; The Calgary Highlanders then sent a company over which was also stopped halfway across the causeway. A second attack by the Highlanders on the morning of 1 November managed to gain a precarious foothold; a day of fighting followed, and then the Highlanders were relieved by Le Regiment de Maisonneuve who struggled to maintain the bridgehead. The "Maisies" withdrew onto the Causeway on 2 November, to be relieved by a battalion of the Glasgow Highlanders of the British 52nd (Lowland) Division. In conjunction with the waterborne attacks, the 52nd continued the advance.[6]

The amphibious landings were conducted in two parts on 1 November. Operation Infatuate I consisted mainly of infantry of the British 155th Infantry Brigade (4th and 5th battalions King's Own Scottish Borderers, 7/9th battalion The Royal Scots) and No. 4 Commando, who were ferried across from Breskens in small landing craft to an assault beach in the south-eastern area of Vlissingen, codenamed "Uncle" Beach. During the next few days they engaged in heavy street fighting against the German defenders.

Operation Infatuate II was the amphibious landing at Westkapelle, also conducted on the morning of 1 November. After a heavy naval bombardment by the British Royal Navy, troops of 4th Special Service Brigade (Nos. 41, 47, and 48 Royal Marine Commando and No. 10 Inter Allied Commando, consisting mainly of Belgian and Norwegian troops) supported by specialized armoured vehicles (amphibious transports, mine-clearing tanks, bulldozers, etc.) of the 79th Armoured Division were landed on both sides of the gap in the sea dyke, using large landing craft as well as amphibious vehicles to bring men and tanks ashore. Heavy fighting ensued here as well before the ruins of the town were captured. Part of the troops moved south-eastward, toward Vlissingen, while the main force went north-east to clear the northern half of Walcheren and link up with the Canadian troops who had established a bridgehead on the eastern part of the island. Fierce resistance was again offered by some of the German troops defending this area, so that fighting continued until 7 November.

On 6 November, the island's capital Middelburg fell after a calculated gamble on the Allies' part when the German commander was invited to consider surrendering only to an armored force. Since Middelburg was impossible to reach with tanks, a force of amphibious Landing Vehicle Tracked ("Buffaloes") were driven into Middelburg, forcing an end to all German resistance on 8 November.

Meanwhile, the 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division had pushed eastwards past Bergen-op-Zoom to Sint Philipsland where it sank several German vessels in Zijpe harbor.

With the approaches to Antwerp clear, the fourth phase of the Battle of the Scheldt was complete. The Scheldt was then swept of naval mines, and on 28 November (after much repair of harbor facilities), the first convoy entered the port, led by the Canadian-built freighter Fort Cataraqui.

Battle components

From October 23 until November 5, 1944, the U. S. 104th Infantry Division experienced its first battle while attached to the British 1st Corps. The division succeeded in pushing through the central portion of North Brabant (51°33′08″N 4°39′10″E / 51.552313°N 4.65271°E / 51.552313; 4.65271[7]) against resistance from German snipers and artillery.

Importance of the campaign

At the end of the five-week offensive, the First Canadian Army had taken 41,043 German prisoners. After the first ship arrived on November 28, convoys started bringing a steady stream of supplies to the continent, which began to reenergize the stalled Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine. Germany recognized the importance of the Allies having a deep water port, so in an attempt to destroy it, or at least disrupt the flow of supplies, the German military fired more V-2 ballistic missiles at Antwerp than any other city. In fact, nearly half of the V-2s launched during the war were fired at Antwerp. The port of Antwerp was so strategically vital, that during the Battle of the Bulge one of the primary German objectives was to retake the city and its port.

References

  1. ^ Veterans Affairs Canada. The Battle of the Scheldt. Retrieved on: August 30, 2008.
  2. ^ "The Siegfried Line Campaign". http://www.army.mil/.+1944-1945. http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/Siegfried/Siegfried%20Line/siegfried-ch09.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-05.  
  3. ^ Montgomery also bestowed the nickname "Water Rats" on the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, a play on the Desert Rats title the 7th Armoured Division had earned in the Western Desert. General Crerar reportedly hated the term, though it was meant as a tribute to their success in amphibious operations in Normandy and the Scheldt. (Granatstein, Jack. The Generals: Canadian Senior Commanders in the Second World War.)
  4. ^ Williams, Jeffery (1988). The Long Left Flank. London: Leo Cooper. ISBN 0850528801.  
  5. ^ In the Shadow of Arnhem - Ken Tout - 2003
  6. ^ Copp, Terry. The Brigade: The 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade in the Second World War
  7. ^ "Google maps hybrid view of North Brabant". http://maps.google.com/.+2007. http://maps.google.com/?ie=UTF8&om=1&z=10&ll=51.552313,4.65271&spn=0.390235,1.167297&t=h. Retrieved 2007-02-05.  

Further reading

  • Moulton, James L. 'Battle for Antwerp'
  • Stacey, C.P. Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War. Volume III: The Victory Campaign: The Operations in North-West Europe, 1944-1945 (Ottawa: The Queens Printer, 1960)
  • Whitaker, Denis and Shelagh Whitaker. Tug of War: Eisenhower's Lost Opportunity: Allied Command & the Story Behind the Battle of the Scheldt (Beaufort Books, 1985) ISBN 0-8253-0257-9

External links


Battle of the Scheldt
Part of World War II
Date October 2, 1944–November 8, 1944
Location Northern Belgium and southwestern Netherlands
Result Allied victory;
Antwerp opens to Allied shipping
Belligerents
 Canada
 United Kingdom
File:Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Poland
 Germany
Commanders and leaders
Harry Crerar (First Canadian Army)
Guy Simonds (acting)
Gustav-Adolf von Zangen
(German 15th Army)
Strength
Unknown 90,000
Casualties and losses
Canadian: 6,367
Total: 12,873
Roughly 10-12,000
41,043 captured

The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations of the First Canadian Army, led by Lieutenant General Guy Simonds. The battle took place in northern Belgium and southwestern Netherlands during World War II from October 2, 1944 to November 8, 1944[1]

By September, 1944, it had become urgent for the Allies to clear both banks of the Scheldt estuary in order to open the port of Antwerp to Allied shipping, thus easing logistical burdens in their supply lines stretching hundreds of miles from Normandy eastward to the Siegfried Line.[2] Since the Allied forces had landed in Normandy, France on D-Day, June 6, 1944, the British Second Army had pushed forward into the Low Countries and captured Brussels and Antwerp, the latter with its ports still intact. But the advance halted with the British in possession of Antwerp, while the Germans still controlled the Scheldt Estuary.

Nothing was done about the blocked Antwerp ports during September because most of the strained Allied resources were allocated to Operation Market Garden, a bold plan for a single thrust into Germany which began on September 17. In the meantime, German forces in the Scheldt were able to deploy to meet them.

In early October, after Market Garden had failed with heavy losses, Allied forces led by the First Canadian Army set out to bring the Antwerp ports under control. But the well-established German defenders staged an effective delaying action. Complicated by the waterlogged terrain, the Battle of the Scheldt proved to be a challenging campaign in which the losses suffered by the Canadians exacerbated another conscription crisis.

After five weeks of difficult fighting, the First Canadian Army, bolstered by attached troops from several other countries, was successful in clearing the Scheldt after numerous amphibious assaults, obstacle crossings, and costly assaults over open ground. Both land and water were mined, and the Germans defended their line of retreat with artillery and snipers.

The Allies finally cleared the port areas on November 8 at a cost of 12,873 Allied casualties (killed, wounded, or missing), half of them Canadians.[3]

Once the German defenders were no longer a threat, it was an additional three weeks before the first ship carrying Allied supplies was able to unload in Antwerp (on November 29, 1944) due to the necessity of de-mining the harbors.

Contents

Opening the Scheldt

On September 12, 1944, the First Canadian Army under temporary command of Lieutenant-General Guy Simonds was given the task of clearing the Scheldt. Under command at that time was II Canadian Corps, with the Polish 1st Armoured Division, British 49th and 52nd Divisions attached, as well as British I Corps.

The plan for opening the Scheldt estuary involved four main operations conducted over daunting geography.

  • The first task was to clear the area north of Antwerp and secure access to South Beveland.
  • Second was to clear the Breskens pocket north of the Leopold Canal ("Operation Switchback").
  • Third, dubbed "Operation Vitality", was the capture of South Beveland.
  • The final phase would be the capture of Walcheren Island ("Operation Infatuate"), which had been fortified into a powerful German stronghold. As part of the Atlantic Wall, Walcheren Island was considered to be the "strongest concentration of defences the Nazis had ever constructed."[4]

s passing Terrapin amphibious vehicles on the Scheldt river, October 1944.]]

On September 21, the 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division moved northwards roughly along the line of the Ghent-Terneuzen Canal, given the task of clearing an area on the south shore of the Scheldt around the Dutch town of Breskens called the "Breskens pocket". The Polish 1st Armoured Division headed for the Dutch-Belgian border further east and the crucial area north of Antwerp.

The 4th Canadian Armoured advanced from a hard-won bridgehead over the Ghent Canal at Moerbrugge to find themselves the first Allied troops facing the formidable obstacle of the double line of the Leopold and Schipdonk Canals. An attack was mounted in the vicinity of Moerkerke, crossing the canals and establishing a bridgehead before counter-attacks forced a withdrawal with heavy casualties.


The 1st Polish Armoured Division enjoyed greater success to the east as it advanced northeast from Ghent. In country unsuitable for armour, and against stiffening resistance, the Division advanced to the coast by September 20, occupying Terneuzen and clearing the south bank of the Scheldt eastwards to Antwerp.

It became apparent to Simonds that any further gains in the Scheldt would come at heavy cost, as the Breskens pocket, extending from Zeebrugge to the Braakman Inlet and inland to the Leopold Canal, was strongly held by the enemy.

Fighting North from Antwerp

On October 2, the 2nd Canadian Division began its advance north from Antwerp. Stiff fighting at Woensdrecht ensued on October 6, the objective of the first phase. The Germans, reinforced by Battle Group Chill, saw the priority in holding there, controlling direct access to South Beveland and Walcheren Island.

There were heavy casualties as the Canadians attacked over open, flooded land. Driving rain, booby traps and land mines made advance very difficult. On October 13, 1944, what would come to be known as "Black Friday," the Canadian 5th Infantry Brigade's Black Watch was virtually wiped out in an unsuccessful attack. The Calgary Highlanders were to follow up with a more successful action, and their Carrier Platoon succeeded in taking the rail station at Korteven. Heavy fighting at Hoogerheide also ensued but by October 16, Woensdrecht was secured, cutting the land link to South Beveland and Walcheren. The Canadians had achieved their first objective, but suffered heavy casualties.

talking to members of the Belgian Resistance, Bruges, September 1944.]]

At this point, recognizing the opportunity, Field-Marshal Bernard Montgomery, issued a directive that made the opening of the Scheldt estuary the top priority of 21st Army Group. To the east, the British Second Army attacked westwards to clear the Netherlands south of the Maas River, securing the Scheldt region from counter-attacks.

Meanwhile, Simonds concentrated forces at the neck of the South Beveland peninsula. The 4th Canadian Armoured moved north from the Leopold Canal and took Bergen-op-Zoom. By October 24 Allied lines were pushed out further from the neck of the peninsula, ensuring German counterattacks wouldn't cut off the 2nd Canadian Division, by then moving west along it towards Walcheren Island.

Operation Switchback

The second main operation of the Battle of the Scheldt opened with fierce fighting to reduce the Breskens pocket. Here, the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division encountered tenacious German resistance as it fought to cross the Leopold Canal.[5]

An earlier failed attempt by the 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division at Moerbrugge had demonstrated the challenge they faced. In addition to the formidable German defences on both the Leopold Canal and the Schipdonk Canal, much of the approach area was flooded.

It was decided that the best place for an assault would be immediately east of where the two canals divided: a narrow strip of dry ground only a few hundred metres wide at its base beyond the Leopold Canal (described as a long triangle with its base on the Maldegem-Aardenburg road and its apex near the village of Moershoofd some five kilometres east).

demonstrating the use of flame throwers across a canal, Maldegem, October 1944.]]

A two-pronged assault commenced. The 3rd Canadian Division's 7th Brigade made the initial assault across the Leopold Canal, while the 9th Canadian Infantry Brigade mounted an amphibious attack from the northern or coastal side of the pocket. The assault began on October 6, supported by extensive artillery and Canadian-built Wasp Universal Carriers, which were equipped with flamethrowers. The Wasps launched their barrage of flame across the Leopold Canal, allowing the 7th Brigade troops to scramble up over the steep banks and launch their assault boats. Two precarious, separate footholds were established, but the enemy recovered from the shock of the flamethrowers and counter-attacked, though they were unable to move the Canadians from their extremely vulnerable bridgeheads. By October 9, the gap between the bridgeheads was closed, and by early morning on October 12, a position had been gained across the Aardenburg road.

from the Calgary Highlanders Scout and Sniper Platoon, in a shot from a series of staged photos by Army photographer Ken Bell, taken near Kapellen, October, 1944. PAC Photo]]

The 9th Canadian Brigade conducted an amphibious operation with the aid of Terrapin (the first such use of this vehicle in Europe) and Buffalo amphibious vehicles, crewed by the British 5th Assault Regiment from the Royal Engineers. The brigade planned to cross the mouth of the Braakman Inlet in amphibious vehicles and to land in the vicinity of Hoofdplaat, a tiny hamlet in the rear or coastal side of the pocket, thus exerting pressure from two directions at once. In spite of difficulties in maneuvering vehicles through the canals and the resulting 24-hour delay, the Germans were taken by surprise and a bridgehead was established. Once again, the Germans recovered quickly and counter-attacked with ferocity; however, they were slowly forced back. The 10th Canadian Brigade, from the 4th Armoured Division, crossed the Leopold Canal and advanced at Isabella Polder. Then the 3rd Division's 8th Canadian Brigade was called to move southwards from the coastal side of the pocket. This opened up a land-based supply route into the pocket.

The 3rd Division fought additional actions to clear German troops from the towns of Breskens, Oostburg, Zuidzande and Cadzand, as well as the coastal fortress Fort Frederik Hendrik. Operation "Switchback" ended on November 3 when the First Canadian Army liberated the Belgian towns of Knokke and Zeebrugge, officially closing the Breskens Pocket and eliminating all German forces south of the Scheldt.

Operation Vitality

The third major operation of the Battle of the Scheldt opened on October 24 when the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division began its advance down the South Beveland peninsula. The Canadians hoped to advance rapidly, bypassing opposition and seizing bridgeheads over the Beveland Canal, but they too were slowed by mines, mud and strong enemy defences.

An amphibious attack was made across the West Scheldt by the British 52nd (Lowland) Division to get in behind the German's Beveland Canal defensive positions. Thus this formidable defence was outflanked, and the Canadian 6th Infantry Brigade began a frontal attack in assault boats. The engineers were able to bridge the canal on the main road.

With the canal line gone, the German defence crumbled and South Beveland was cleared. The third phase of the Battle of the Scheldt was now complete.

Operation Infatuate: Capture of Walcheren Island

rest in Blankenberge, September 1944]]

As the fourth phase of the Battle of the Scheldt opened, only the island of Walcheren at the mouth of the West Scheldt remained in German hands. The island's defences were extremely strong: heavy coastal batteries on the western and southern coasts defended both the island and the Scheldt estuary, and the coastline had been strongly fortified against amphibious assaults. Furthermore, a landward-facing defensive perimeter had been built around the town of Vlissingen to further defend its port facilities should an Allied landing on Walcheren succeed. The only land approach was the Sloedam—a long, narrow causeway from South Beveland, little more than a raised two-lane road. To make matters more difficult, the flats that surrounded this causeway were too saturated with sea water for movement on foot, but had too little water for an assault in storm boats.

To hamper German defence, the island's dykes were breached by attacks from RAF Bomber Command: on October 3 at Westkapelle with severe loss of civilian life; on October 7 at two places, west and east of Vlissingen; and on October 11 at Veere. This flooded the central part of the island, forcing the German defenders onto the high ground around the outside and in the towns, but it also allowed the use of amphibious vehicles.

The island was attacked from three directions: across the causeway from the east, across the Scheldt from the south, and by sea from the west.

The Canadian 2nd Infantry Division attacked the causeway on October 31, 1944. An initial attack by the Black Watch was rebuffed; The Calgary Highlanders then sent a company over which was also stopped halfway across the causeway. A second attack by the Highlanders on the morning of November 1 managed to gain a precarious foothold; a day of fighting followed, and then the Highlanders were relieved by Le Regiment de Maisonneuve who struggled to maintain the bridgehead. The "Maisies" withdrew onto the Causeway on November 2, to be relieved by a battalion of the Glasgow Highlanders of the British 52nd (Lowland) Division. In conjunction with the waterborne attacks, the 52nd continued the advance.[6]

The amphibious landings were conducted in two parts on November 1. Operation Infatuate I consisted mainly of infantry of the British 155th Infantry Brigade (4th and 5th battalions King's Own Scottish Borderers, 7/9th battalion The Royal Scots) and No. 4 Commando, who were ferried across from Breskens in small landing craft to an assault beach in the south-eastern area of Vlissingen, codenamed "Uncle" Beach. During the next few days they engaged in heavy street fighting against the German defenders.

Operation Infatuate II was the amphibious landing at Westkapelle, also conducted on the morning of November 1. After a heavy naval bombardment by the British Royal Navy, troops of 4th Special Service Brigade (Nos. 41, 47, and 48 Royal Marine Commando and No. 10 Inter Allied Commando, consisting mainly of Belgian and Norwegian troops) supported by specialized armoured vehicles (amphibious transports, mine-clearing tanks, bulldozers, etc.) of the 79th Armoured Division were landed on both sides of the gap in the sea dyke, using large landing craft as well as amphibious vehicles to bring men and tanks ashore. Heavy fighting ensued here as well before the ruins of the town were captured. Part of the troops moved south-eastward, toward Vlissingen, while the main force went north-east to clear the northern half of Walcheren and link up with the Canadian troops who had established a bridgehead on the eastern part of the island. Fierce resistance was again offered by some of the German troops defending this area, so that fighting continued until November 7.

On November 6, the island's capital Middelburg fell after a calculated gamble on the Allies' part when the German commander was invited to consider surrendering only to an armoured force. Since Middelburg was impossible to reach with tanks, a force of amphibious Landing Vehicle Tracked ("Buffaloes") were driven into Middelburg, forcing an end to all German resistance on November 8.

Meanwhile, the 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division had pushed eastwards past Bergen-op-Zoom to Sint Philipsland where it sank several German vessels in Zijpe harbor.

With the approaches to Antwerp clear, the fourth phase of the Battle of the Scheldt was complete. The Scheldt was then swept of naval mines, and on November 28 (after much repair of harbor facilities), the first convoy entered the port, led by the Canadian-built freighter Fort Cataraqui.

Battle components

From October 23 until November 5, 1944, the U. S. 104th Infantry Division experienced its first battle while attached to the British 1st Corps. The division succeeded in pushing through the central portion of North Brabant (51°33′08″N 4°39′10″E / 51.552313°N 4.65271°E / 51.552313; 4.65271[7]) against resistance from German snipers and artillery.

Importance of the campaign

At the end of the five-week offensive, the First Canadian Army had taken 41,043 German prisoners. After the first ship arrived on November 28, convoys started bringing a steady stream of supplies to the continent, which began to reenergize the stalled Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine. Germany recognized the importance of the Allies having a deep water port, so in an attempt to destroy it, or at least disrupt the flow of supplies, the German military fired more V-2 ballistic missiles at Antwerp than any other city. In fact, nearly half of the V-2s launched during the war were fired at Antwerp. The port of Antwerp was so strategically vital, that during the Battle of the Bulge one of the primary German objectives was to retake the city and its port.

References

  1. ^ Veterans Affairs Canada. The Battle of the Scheldt. Retrieved on: August 30, 2008.
  2. ^ MacDonald, Charles B. (1990) [1963]. "Chapter IX:The Approaches of Antwerp". The Siegfried Line Campaign. United States Army Center of Military History. CMH pub 7-7-1. http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/Siegfried/Siegfried%20Line/siegfried-ch09.htm. Retrieved February 5, 2007. 
  3. ^ Montgomery also bestowed the nickname "Water Rats" on the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, a play on the Desert Rats title the 7th Armoured Division had earned in the Western Desert. General Crerar reportedly hated the term, though it was meant as a tribute to their success in amphibious operations in Normandy and the Scheldt. (Granatstein, Jack. The Generals: Canadian Senior Commanders in the Second World War.)
  4. ^ Williams, Jeffery (1988). The Long Left Flank. London: Leo Cooper. ISBN 0850528801. 
  5. ^ In the Shadow of Arnhem - Ken Tout - 2003
  6. ^ Copp, Terry. The Brigade: The 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade in the Second World War
  7. ^ "Google maps hybrid view of North Brabant". http://maps.google.com/.+2007. http://maps.google.com/?ie=UTF8&om=1&z=10&ll=51.552313,4.65271&spn=0.390235,1.167297&t=h. Retrieved February 5, 2007. 

Further reading

  • Moulton, James L. 'Battle for Antwerp'
  • Stacey, C.P. Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War. Volume III: The Victory Campaign: The Operations in North-West Europe, 1944-1945 (Ottawa: The Queens Printer, 1960)
  • Whitaker, Denis and Shelagh Whitaker. Tug of War: Eisenhower's Lost Opportunity: Allied Command & the Story Behind the Battle of the Scheldt (Beaufort Books, 1985) ISBN 0-8253-0257-9

External links








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