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Bay Laurel
Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis) flower buds and leaves
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Magnoliids
Order: Laurales
Family: Lauraceae
Genus: Laurus
Species: L. nobilis
Binomial name
Laurus nobilis
L.

The Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae), also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Laurel Tree, Grecian Laurel, Laurel, or Bay Tree, is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub reaching 10–18 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region.

Contents

Growth

The leaves are 6–12 cm long and 2–4 cm broad, with a characteristic finely serrated and wrinkled margin. It is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants; each flower is pale yellow-green, about 1 cm diameter, borne in pairs together beside a leaf. The fruit is a small black berry about 1 cm long, containing a single seed.

Uses and symbolism

Bay Laurel is the source of the bay leaves which are used for their flavour in cooking. It was also the source of the laurel wreath of ancient Greece, and therefore the expression of "resting on one's laurels". A wreath of bay laurels was given as the prize at the Pythian Games because the games were in honor of Apollo and the laurel was one of his symbols ever since his unsuccessful pursuit of Daphne. In the Bible, the sweet-bay is often an emblem of prosperity and fame. In Christianity it is said to symbolize the Resurrection of Christ and the triumph of Humanity thereby. It is also the source of the word baccalaureate (laurel berry), and of poet laureate.
Examples of biological activity of Bay laurel:

In Chinese folklore there is a great laurel tree on the moon, and the Chinese name for the laurel, (traditional Chinese: 月桂), literally translates to "moon-laurel". This is the subject of a story of Wu Gang, a man who aspired to immortality and neglected his work. When the deities discovered this they sentenced Wu Gang to fell the laurel tree, whereupon he could join the ranks of the deities; however, since the laurel regenerated immediately when cut, it could never be felled. The phrase (simplified Chinese: 吴刚伐木) ("Wu Gang chops the tree") is sometimes used to refer to endless toil, analogous to Sisyphus in Greek mythology.

The aromatic laurel leaves are used in many countries of central and southern Europe to flavour stews, soups, meat dishes and even fish. They are used to season canned cucumbers or herring or added to give aroma to vinegar.

It is also widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in regions with mediterranean or oceanic climates, and as an indoor plant in colder regions.

Bay leaves are eaten by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera, for example the Eastern tiger swallowtail (Papilio glaucus).

Chemical constituents

In the fruit there are essential oils and fatty oils present. The fruit is pressed and water extracted to obtain these products. The fruit contains up to 30% fatty oils and about 1% essential oils (terpenes, sesquiterpenes, alcohols and ketones).

The leaves contain about 1.3% essential oils (Ol. Lauri folii), consisting of 45% eucalyptol, 12% terpenes, 3-4% sesquiterpenes, 3% methyleugenol and other α- und β-pinenes, phellandrene, linalool, geraniol and terpineol.

Gallery

Miscellaneous Information

  • The leaf and berries of Bay Laurel are on the U.S. one-dollar bill: in particular, on the obverse, two bunches of bay laurel leaves with berries prop up the oval which contains George Washington.
  • In Greek mythology, the tree was first formed when the nymph Daphne changed into it to escape the lustful pursuit of the Olympian god Apollo; see Apollo and Daphne. Daphne is the Greek name for the tree.
  • The Scottish Clan Graham also considers this plant to be its clan plant.
  • The shield on the Flag of the Dominican Republic consists of one bay laurel and one palm.

External links

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Simple English

Bay Laurel
File:Bay leaf
Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis) flower buds and leaves
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Laurales
Family: Lauraceae
Genus: Laurus
Species: L. nobilis
Binomial name
Laurus nobilis
L.

The Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, of the Lauraceae family), also known as Sweet Bay, Bay Tree, True Laurel, Grecian Laurel, Laurel Tree, or simply Laurel, is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glossy leaves, native to the Mediterranean region.


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