Bay of Pigs Invasion: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bay of Pigs Invasion
Part of the Cold War
Date April 17–19, 1961
Location Bay of Pigs, southern Cuba
Result Cuban government victory
Belligerents
 Cuba  United States
Cuba Cuban exiles
Commanders
Cuba Fidel Castro

Cuba José Ramón Fernández
Cuba Juan Almeida Bosque
Cuba Che Guevara [1][2]
Cuba Efigenio Ameijeiras

United States John F. Kennedy

United States Grayston Lynch
Cuba Pepe San Roman
Cuba Erneido Oliva

Strength
c. 25,000 army[3]
c. 200,000 militia[3][4]
c9,000 armed police[3][4]
>1,500 Cuban exiles
(c. 1,300 landed)[5]
2 CIA agents
Casualties and losses
176 killed[6] (Regular Army)
4,000-5,000 killed, missing, or wounded[6][7]
(Militias and armed civilian fighters)
118 killed
1,201 captured
Map showing the location of the Bay of Pigs.

The Bay of Pigs Invasion (known as La Batalla de Girón, or Playa Girón in Cuba), was an unsuccessful attempt by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba with support from US government armed forces, to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro.

The plan was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in the United States. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exile combatants in three days.

The invasion is named after the Bay of Pigs, which is just one possible translation of the Spanish Bahía de Cochinos. The main invasion landing specifically took place at a beach named Playa Girón, located at the mouth of the bay.

Contents

Political background

On March 15, 1960, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to use their Special Activities Division to equip, train and lead Cuban exiles in an amphibious invasion of Cuba, to overthrow the new Cuban government of Fidel Castro.[8] Eisenhower stated it was the policy of the US government to aid anti-Castro guerrilla forces.[9] The CIA was initially confident it was capable of overthrowing the Cuban government, having experience in actions such as the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état. The plan (code-named Operation Pluto) was organized by CIA Deputy Director for Plans Richard Mervin Bissell, Jr., under CIA Director Allen Dulles.

The original CIA plan called for a ship-borne invasion at the old colonial city of Trinidad, Cuba, about 270 km (170 mi) south-east of Havana, at the foothills of the Escambray Mountains in Sancti Spiritus province. Trinidad had good port facilities, was closer to much existing counter-revolutionary activities, had an easily defensible beachhead and provided the Escambray Mountains as an "escape hatch". When this plan was rejected by the State Department the CIA later proposed alternative plans, and on April 4, 1961 President Kennedy and his cabinet approved the Bay of Pigs option (also known as Operation Zapata), because it had an airfield that would not need to be extended to handle B-26 bomber operations, was further away from large groups of civilians than the Trinidad plan and it was less militarily "noisy", so potentially more plausible deniability of US direct involvement. The invasion landing area was changed to beaches bordering the Bay of Pigs in Las Villas Province, 150 km south-east of Havana, and east of the Zapata peninsula. The landings were to take place at Playa Girón (code-named Blue Beach), Playa Larga (code-named Red Beach), and Caleta Buena Inlet (code-named Green Beach).[10][11]

In March 1961, the CIA helped Cuban exiles in Miami to create the Cuban Revolutionary Council (CRC), chaired by José Miró Cardona, hi former Prime Minister of Cuba (Jan 1959). Cardona became the de facto leader-in-waiting of the intended post-invasion Cuban government.[12]

Preparation and training for invasion

In April 1960, the CIA began to recruit anti-Castro Cuban exiles in the Miami area. Until July 1960, assessment and training was carried out on Useppa Island and at various other facilities in South Florida, such as Homestead AFB. Specialist guerrilla training took place at Fort Gulick, Panama and at Fort Clayton, Panama.[5][13] For the increasing ranks of recruits, infantry training was carried out at a CIA-run base code-named JMTrax near Retalhuleu in the Sierra Madre on the Pacific coast of Guatemala.[8] The exiles group named themselves Brigade 2506 (Brigada Asalto 2506).[14] In summer 1960, an airfield (code-named JMMadd, aka Rayo Base) was constructed near Retalhuleu, Guatemala. Gunnery and flight training of Brigade 2506 air crews was carried out by personnel from Alabama ANG (Air National Guard), using at least six Douglas B-26 Invaders in the markings of FAG (Fuerza Aérea Guatemalteca), legitimate delivery of those to the FAG being delayed by about 6 months. A further 26 B-26s were obtained from US military stocks, 'sanitized' at 'Field Three' to obscure their origins, and about 20 of them were converted for offensive operations by deletion of defensive armament, standardization of the Eight-gun nose, addition of underwing drop tanks, rocket racks, etc.[15][16] Paratroop training was at a base nicknamed Garrapatenango, near Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Training for boat handling and amphibious landings took place at Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. Tank training took place at Fort Knox, Kentucky and Fort Benning, Georgia. Underwater demolition and infiltration training took place at Belle Chase near New Orleans.[11]

The CIA used Douglas C-54 transports to deliver people, supplies, and arms from Florida at night. Curtiss C-46s were also used for transport between Retalhuleu and the CIA base code-named JMTide (aka Happy Valley), at Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua. On April 9, 1961, Brigade 2506 personnel, ships, and aircraft started transferring from Guatemala to Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua.[17]

In early 1961, Cuba's army possessed Soviet-designed T-34 and IS-2 Stalin tanks, SU-100 self-propelled 'tank destroyers', 122 mm howitzers, other artillery and small arms, plus Italian 105 mm howitzers. The Cuban air force armed inventory included Douglas B-26 Invader light bombers, Hawker Sea Fury fighters, and Lockheed T-33 jets, all remaining from the Fuerza Aérea del Ejército de Cuba (FAEC), the Cuban air force of the Batista government.[14]

Anticipating an invasion, Che Guevara stressed the importance of an armed civilian populace, stating "all the Cuban people must become a guerrilla army, each and every Cuban must learn to handle and if necessary use firearms in defense of the nation."[18]

Prior warnings of invasion

The Cuban security apparatus knew the invasion was coming, via their secret intelligence network, as well as loose talk by members of the brigade, some of which was heard in Miami and was repeated in US and foreign newspaper reports. Nevertheless, days before the invasion, multiple acts of sabotage were carried out, such as the arson attack in the El Encanto department store in Havana on 13 April, killing one shop worker.[5] The Cuban government also had been warned by senior KGB agents Osvaldo Sánchez Cabrera and "Aragon", who died violently before and after the invasion, respectively.[19] The general Cuban population was not well informed, except for CIA-funded Radio Swan.[20] As of May 1960, almost all means of public communication were in the government’s hands.[21][22]

An April 29, 2000 Washington Post article, "Soviets Knew Date of Cuba Attack", reported that the CIA had information indicating that the Soviet Union knew the invasion was going to take place and did not inform Kennedy. Radio Moscow broadcast an English-language newscast on April 13, 1961 predicting the invasion "in a plot hatched by the CIA" using paid "criminals" within a week. The invasion took place four days later.[23]

According to the British Ambassador to the US, David Ormsby-Gore, British intelligence estimates, which had been made available to the CIA, indicated that the Cuban people were predominantly behind Castro and that there was no likelihood of mass defections or insurrections, respectively, following the invasion, or during the invasion, and prior to the invasion.[8]

Parties involved

Advertisements

US Government personnel

Recruiting of Cuban exiles in Miami was organized by CIA staff officers E. Howard Hunt and Gerry Droller. Detailed planning, training and military operations were conducted by Jacob Esterline, Col. Jack Hawkins and Major Stanley Beerli under the direction of Richard Bissell, and his deputy Tracy Barnes.[11]

Cuban government order of battle

The Cuban government order of battle is unclear and subject to dispute, although most sources generally credit Fidel Castro with centrally directing the overall strategy from Havana. The general geographical outlay in preparation of the invasion divided the island into three, placing Raúl Castro in charge of forces in the East, Che Guevara in charge in the West, and Major Juan Almeida in charge of the center (as head of the central army in Santa Clara).[24][25] Sergio del Valle Jiménez was Director of Headquarters Operations at Point One, Havana.[26] Antonio Enrique Lussón Batlle, a Raúl Castro loyalist, is also placed there. Orlando Rodriguez Puerta, previous commander of Fidel Castro's personal guard, was charged with direction of Cuban government forces in Matanzas Province directly north of combat area. Captain José Ramón Fernández was head of the School of Militia Leaders (Cadets) at Matanzas. Efigenio Ameijeiras was the Head of the Revolutionary National Police. Ramiro Valdés Menéndez was Minister of the Interior in 1961, and head of G-2 (Seguridad del Estado, or state security).[27] His deputy was Comandante Manuel Piñeiro Losada, also known as 'Barba Roja'.[3] On 17 April, the head of the Cuban air force, "Maro" Guerra Bermejo, former driver for Raúl Castro, was replaced by Raúl Curbelo Morales, Minister of Communication.[28]

Soviet-trained Spanish advisors were brought to Cuba from Eastern Bloc countries. These advisors had held high staff positions in the Soviet Armies during World War II, and having long-resided in the Soviet Union became known as "Hispano-Soviets"; the most senior of these were the Spanish Communist veterans of the Spanish Civil War, Francisco Ciutat de Miguel, Enrique Lister, and Cuban-born Alberto Bayo.[29] Ciutat de Miguel (Cuban alias: Ángel Martínez Riosola, commonly referred to as Angelito) was a significant leader/advisor for Cuban forces in the central provinces. Victor Emilio Dreke Cruz, although nominally in charge of central province forces, may have played subordinate role to Ciutat de Miguel. Victor Dreke describes his part in the action as first fighting with parachutists, and then being wounded in an ambush.[30] Arnaldo Ochoa, later to be commander of Cuban forces in Angola, may have been under the command of José Ramón Fernández.[citation needed] The role of other Soviet agents at the time is uncertain, but some of them acquired greater fame later. For instance, two KGB colonels, Vadim Kochergin and Victor Simanov were first sighted in Cuba in about September 1959.[31][32]

Existing anti-Castro resistance in Cuba

After the success of the Cuban Revolution in January 1959, counter-revolutionary groups grew, particularly in the Escambray Mountains, where the "War Against the Bandits" guerrilla war continued sporadically until about 1965. Prior to the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the CIA supported and supplied various groups with arms and other resources, but they were not included in the invasion plans due to concerns about information security.[13] No quarter was given during the suppression of the resistance in the Escambray Mountains, where former rebels from the War Against Batista took different sides.[33] On 11 March 1961, former Castro ally American William Alexander Morgan was executed.[34]

On April 3, 1961, a bomb attack on militia barracks in Bayamo killed four militia and wounded eight more; on April 6, the Hershey Sugar factory in Matanzas was destroyed by sabotage.[35] On April 14, 1961, the guerrillas of Agapito Rivera fought Cuban government forces near Las Cruces, Montembo, Las Villas, where several government forces were killed and others wounded.[35]

Prelude to invasion

Air attacks on airfields (15 April)

During the night of 14/15 April, a diversionary landing was planned near Baracoa, Oriente Province, by about 164 Cuban exiles commanded by Higinio 'Nino' Diaz. Their mother ship, named La Playa or Santa Ana, had sailed from Key West under a Costa Rican ensign. Several US Navy destroyers were stationed offshore near Guantanamo Bay to give the appearance of an impending invasion fleet.[36] The reconnaissance boats turned back to the ship after detecting activities by Cuban militia forces along the coastline.[3][6][14][26][37][38]

As a result of those activities, at daybreak, a Cuban Air Force reconnaissance sortie over the Baracoa area was launched from Santiago de Cuba. That was a FAR T-33, piloted by Lt Orestes Acosta, and it crashed fatally into the sea. On 17 April his name was falsely quoted as a defector among the (CIA?) disinformation circulating in Miami.[39]

At about 06.00 Cuba local time on 15 April 1961, eight Douglas B-26B Invader bombers in three groups, simultaneously attacked three Cuban airfields, at San Antonio de Los Baños and at Ciudad Libertad (formerly named Campo Columbia), both near Havana, plus the Antonio Maceo International Airport at Santiago de Cuba. The B-26s had been prepared by the CIA on behalf of Brigade 2506, and had been painted with the markings of the FAR (Fuerza Aérea Revolucionaria), the air force of the Cuban government. Each was armed with bombs, rockets and machine guns. They had flown from Puerto Cabezas in Nicaragua, and were crewed by exiled Cuban pilots and navigators of the self-styled Fuerza Aérea de Liberación (FAL). The purpose of the action (code-named Operation Puma) was reportedly to destroy most or all of the armed aircraft of the FAR in preparation for the main invasion. At Santiago, the two attackers destroyed a C-47 transport, a PBY Catalina flying boat, two B-26s and a civilian DC-3 plus various other civilian aircraft. At San Antonio, the three attackers destroyed 3 FAR B-26s, one Sea Fury and one T-33, and one attacker diverted to Grand Cayman due to low usable fuel. At Ciudad Libertad, the three attackers destroyed only non-operational aircraft such as two F-47 Thunderbolts. One of those attackers was damaged by anti-aircraft fire, and ditched about 50 km north of Cuba with the loss of its crew Daniel Fernández Mon and Gaston Pérez. Its companion B-26 continued north and landed at Boca Chica field (Naval Air Station Key West), Florida. The crew, José Crespo and Lorenzo Pérez-Lorenzo, were granted political asylum and made their way back to Nicaragua the next day via Miami and the daily CIA C-54 flight from Opa-Locka Airport to Puerto Cabezas. Their B-26, purposely numbered 933, the same as at least two other B-26s that day for disinformation reasons, was held until late on 17 April.[13][39]

Deception flight (15 April)

About 90 minutes after the eight B-26s had taken off from Puerto Cabezas to attack Cuban airfields, another B-26 departed on a deception flight that took it close to Cuba but headed north to Florida. Like the bomber groups, it carried false FAR markings and the same number 933 as painted on at least two of the others. Prior to departure, the cowling from one of the aircraft's two engines was removed by CIA personnel, fired upon, then re-installed to give the false appearance that the aircraft had taken ground fire at some point during its flight. At a safe distance north of Cuba, the pilot feathered the engine with the pre-installed bullet holes in the cowling, radioed a mayday call and requested immediate permission to land at Miami International airport. The pilot was Mario Zúñiga, formerly of the FAEC (Cuban Air force), and after landing he masqueraded as "Juan Garcia", and publicly claimed that three colleagues had also defected from the FAR. The next day he was granted political asylum and that night he returned to Puerto Cabezas via Opa-Locka.[16][39][40]

Reactions (15 April)

At 10:30am on 15 April at the United Nations, the Cuban Foreign Minister Raúl Roa attempted to accuse the US of aggressive air attacks against Cuba, and that afternoon formally tabled a motion to the Political (First) Committee of the UN General Assembly. In response, US ambassador to the UN Adlai Stevenson stated that US armed forces would not "under any conditions" intervene in Cuba, and that the US would do everything in its power to ensure that no US citizens would participate in actions against Cuba. He also stated that Cuban defectors had carried out the attacks that day, and he presented a UPI wire photo of Zuniga's B-26 in Cuban markings at Miami airport. Stevenson was later embarrassed to realize that the CIA had lied to him and to Secretary of State Dean Rusk.[10][17][26]

On 15 April, the national police, led by Efigenio Ameijeiras, started the process of arresting thousands of suspected anti-revolutionary individuals, and detaining them in provisional locations such as the Karl Marx Theatre, the moat of Fortaleza de la Cabana and the Principe Castle all in Havana, and the baseball park in Matanzas.[34]

Phony war (16 April)

On the night of 15/16 April, the Nino Diaz group failed in a second attempted diversionary landing at a fresh location near Baracoa.[26]

On this day, Merardo Leon, Jose Leon, and 14 others staged armed rising at Las Delicias Estate in Las Villas, only four survived. Leonel Martinez and 12 others took to the countryside.[35]

Following the air strikes on airfields on April 15, 1961, the FAR managed to prepare for armed action at least four T-33s, four Sea Furies and five or six B-26s. All three types could be armed with machine guns and rockets for air-to-air combat and for strafing of ships and ground forces. CIA planners had failed to discover that the US-supplied T-33 jets had long been armed with M-3 machine guns. The Sea Furies and B-26s could also carry bombs, for attacks against ships and tanks.[41]

No additional air strikes against Cuban airfields and aircraft were specifically planned before 17 April, as pilots' exaggerated claims gave the CIA false confidence in the success of the 15 April attacks, until U-2 reconnaissance photos on 16 April showed otherwise. Late on 16 April, President Kennedy ordered cancellation of further airfield strikes planned for dawn on 17 April, to attempt plausible deniability of US direct involvement.[11]

Late on April 16, 1961, the CIA/Brigade 2506 invasion fleet converged on "Rendezvous Point Zulu", about 65 kilometres (40 mi) south of Cuba, having sailed from Puerto Cabezas in Nicaragua where they had been loaded with troops and other materiel, after loading arms and supplies at New Orleans. The US Navy operation was code-named Bumpy Road, having been changed from Crosspatch on 1 April 1961[11]. The fleet, labelled the "Cuban Expeditionary Force" (CEF), included five 2,400-ton (empty weight) freighter ships chartered by the CIA from the Garcia Line and outfitted with anti-aircraft guns. Four of the freighters, Houston (code name Aguja), Río Escondido (code name Balena), Caribe (code name Sardina), and Atlántico (code-name Tiburon), were planned to transport about 1,400 troops in seven battalions of troops and armaments near to the invasion beaches. The fifth freighter, Lake Charles, was loaded with follow-up supplies and some Operation 40 infiltration personnel. The freighters sailed under Liberian ensigns. Accompanying them were two LCIs (Landing Craft Infantry) "purchased" from Zapata Corporation then outfitted with heavy armament at Key West, then exercises and training at Vieques Island. The LCIs were Blagar (code-name Marsopa) and Barbara J (code-name Barracuda), sailing under Nicaraguan ensigns. The CEF ships were individually escorted (outside visual range) to Point Zulu by US Navy destroyers USS Bache, USS Beale, USS Conway, USS Cony, USS Eaton, USS Murray, USS Waller. A task force had already assembled off the Cayman Islands, including aircraft carrier USS Essex with task force commander John A. Clark (Admiral) onboard, helicopter assault carrier USS Boxer, destroyers USS Hank, USS John W. Weeks, USS Purdy, USS Wren, and submarines USS Cobbler and USS Threadfin. Command and control ship USS Northampton and carrier USS Shangri-La were also reportedly active in the Caribbean at the time. USS San Marcos was a Landing Ship Dock that carried three LCUs (Landing Craft Utility) and four LCVPs (Landing Craft, Vehicles, Personnel). San Marcos had sailed from Vieques Island. At Point Zulu, the seven CEF ships sailed north without the USN escorts, except for San Marcos that continued until the seven landing craft were unloaded when just outside the 5 kilometres (3 mi) Cuban territorial limit.[5][17][42]

Invasion

Invasion day (17 April)

During the night of 16/17 April, a mock diversionary landing was organized by CIA operatives near Bahia Honda, Pinar del Rio Province. A flotilla of small boats towed rafts containing equipment which broadcasted sounds and other effects of a shipborne invasion landing. That was the source of Cuban reports that briefly lured Fidel Castro away from the Bay of Pigs battlefront area.[5][26]

At about 00:00 on April 17, 1961, the two CIA LCIs Blagar and Barbara J, each with a CIA "operations officer" and an Underwater Demolition Team (UDT) of five frogmen, entered the Bay of Pigs (Bahía de Cochinos) on the southern coast of Cuba. They headed a force of four transport ships (Houston, Río Escondido, Caribe and Atlántico) carrying about 1,300 Cuban exile ground troops of Brigade 2506, plus tanks and other armour in the landing craft. At about 01:00, the Blagar, as the battlefield command ship, directed the principal landing at Playa Girón (Blue Beach), led by the frogmen in rubber boats followed by troops from Caribe in small aluminum boats, then LCVPs and LCUs. The Barbara J, leading Houston, similarly landed troops 35 km further northwest at Playa Larga (Red Beach), using small fiberglass boats. Unloading troops at night was delayed, due to engine failures and boats damaged by unseen coral reefs. The few militia in the area succeeded in warning Cuban armed forces via radio soon after the first landing, before the invaders overcame their token resistance.[26][13]

At daybreak at about 06:30, three FAR Sea Furies, one B-26 and two T-33 jets started attacking those CEF ships still unloading troops. At about 06:50, and 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of Playa Larga, Houston was damaged by several rockets from a Sea Fury and a T-33, and about 2 hours later captain Luis Morse intentionally beached it on the western side of the bay. About 270 troops had been unloaded, but about 180 survivors who struggled ashore were incapable of taking part in further action because of the loss of most of their weapons and equipment. At about 07:00, two invading FAL B-26s attacked and sank the Cuban Navy Patrol Escort ship El Baire at Nueva Gerona on the Isle of Pines.[39][26] They then proceeded to Giron to join two other B-26s to attack Cuban ground troops and provide distraction air cover for the paratroop C-46s and the CEF ships under air attack.

At about 07:30, five C-46 and one C-54 transport aircraft dropped 177 paratroops from the parachute battalion of Brigade 2506 in an action code-named Operation Falcon.[43] About 30 men, plus heavy equipment, were dropped south of Australia sugar mill on the road to Palpite and Playa Larga, but the equipment was lost in the swamps and the troops failed to block the road. Other troops were dropped at San Blas, at Jocuma between Covadonga and San Blas, and at Horquitas between Yaguaramas and San Blas. Those positions to block the roads were maintained for 2 days, reinforced by ground troops from Playa Girón.[13]

At about 08:30, a FAR Sea Fury piloted by Carlos Ulloa Arauz crashed in the bay, due to stalling or anti-aircraft fire, after encountering a FAL C-46 returning south after dropping paratroops. By 09:00, Cuban troops and militia from outside the area had started arriving at Australia sugar mill, Covadonga and Yaguaramas. Throughout the day they were reinforced by more troops, heavy armour and T-34 tanks typically carried on flat-bed trucks.[13] At about 09:30, FAR Sea Furies and T-33s attacked with rockets the Rio Escondido, that 'blew up' and sank about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) south of Girón.[14][26]

At about 11:00, a FAR T-33 attacked a FAL B-26 (serial number 935) piloted by Matias Farias who then survived a crashlanding on the Girón airfield, his navigator Eduardo Gonzales already killed by gunfire. His companion B-26 suffered damage and diverted to Grand Cayman Island; pilot Mario Zúñiga (the "defector") and navigator Oscar Vega returned to Puerto Cabezas via CIA C-54 on 18 April. By about 11:00, the two remaining freighters Caribe and Atlántico, and the CIA LCIs and LCUs, started retreating south to international waters, but still pursued by FAR aircraft. At about 12:00, a FAR B-26 exploded due to heavy anti-aircraft fire from Blagar, and pilot Luis Silva Tablada (on his second sortie) and his crew of three were lost.[16][26]

By 12:00 hundreds of militia cadets from Matanzas had secured Palpite, and cautiously advanced on foot south towards Playa Larga, suffering many casualties during attacks by FAL B-26s. By dusk other Cuban ground forces were gradually advancing southward from Covadonga and southwest from Yaguaramas toward San Blas, and westward along coastal tracks from Cienfuegos towards Girón, all without heavy weapons or armour.[26]

During the day three FAL B-26s were shot down by FAR T-33s, with the loss of pilots Raúl Vianello, José Crespo, Osvaldo Piedra and navigators Lorenzo Pérez-Lorenzo and José Fernández. Vianello's navigator Demetrio Pérez bailed out and was picked up by USS Murray. Pilot Crispín García Fernández and navigator Juan González Romero, in B-26 serial 940, diverted to Boca Chica, but late that night they attempted to fly back to Puerto Cabezas in B-26 serial 933 that Crespo had flown to Boca Chica on 15 April. In October 1961 the remains of the B-26 and its two crew were found in dense jungle in Nicaragua.[39][44] One FAL B-26 diverted to Grand Cayman with engine failure. By 16.00, Fidel Castro had arrived at the central Australia sugar mill, joining José Ramón Fernández whom he had appointed as battlefield commander before dawn that day.[13]

On April 17, 1961, Osvaldo Ramírez (then chief of the rural resistance to Castro) was captured in Aromas de Velázquez and immediately executed.[45] The CIA was unaware or unconcerned at this repression's effects on the planned operation.[17]

At about 21:00 on 17 April 1961, a night air strike by three FAL B-26s on San Antonio de Los Baños airfield failed, reportedly due to incompetence and bad weather. Two other B-26s had aborted the mission after take-off.[16][41] Other sources allege that heavy anti-aircraft fire scared the aircrews, the resultant smoke perhaps a convenient excuse for "poor visibility".[13]

Invasion day plus one (D+1) 18 April

By about 10.30 on 18 April, Cuban troops and militia, supported by tanks, took Playa Larga after Brigade forces had fled towards Girón in the early hours. During the day, Brigade forces retreated to San Blas along the two roads from Covadonga and Yaguaramas. By then, both Fidel Castro and José Ramón Fernández had re-located to that battlefront area.[13]

At about 17.00 on 18 April, FAL B-26s attacked a Cuban column of 12 civilian buses leading trucks carrying tanks and other armour, moving southeast between Playa Larga and Punta Perdiz. The vehicles, loaded with civilians, militia, police and soldiers, were attacked with bombs, napalm and rockets, suffering heavy casualties. The six B-26s were piloted by two CIA contract pilots plus four pilots and six navigators from Brigade 2506 air force.[26][39] The column later re-formed and advanced to Punta Perdiz, about 11 km northwest of Giron.[13]

Invasion day plus two (D+2) 19 April

During the night of 18 April, a FAL C-46 delivered arms and equipment to the Girón airstrip occupied by Brigade 2506 ground forces, and took off before daybreak on 19 April.[46] The C-46 also evacuated Matias Farias, the pilot of B-26 serial '935' (code-named Chico Two) that had been shot down and crash-landed at Girón on 17 April.[43]

The final air attack mission (code-named Mad Dog Flight) comprised five B-26s, four of which were manned by American CIA contract air crews and pilots from the Alabama Air Guard. One FAR Sea Fury (piloted by Douglas Rudd) and two FAR T-33 (piloted by Rafael del Pino and Alvaro Prendes) shot down two of these B-26s, killing four American airmen.[17]

Combat air patrols were flown by Douglas A4D-2N Skyhawk jets of VA-34 squadron operating from USS Essex, with nationality and other markings removed. Sorties were flown to reassure Brigade soldiers and pilots, and to intimidate Cuban government forces without directly engaging in acts of war.[39]

Without direct air support, and short of ammunition, Brigade 2506 ground forces retreated to the beaches in the face of considerable onslaught from Cuban government artillery, tanks and infantry.[14][47][48][49]

Late on 19 April, destroyers USS Eaton (code-named Santiago) and USS Murray (code-named Tampico) moved into Cochinos Bay to evacuate retreating Brigade soldiers from beaches, before firing from Cuban army tanks caused Commodore Crutchfield to order a withdrawal.[26]

Invasion day plus three (D+3) 20 April

From 19 April until about 22 April, sorties were flown by A4D-2Ns to obtain visual intelligence over combat areas. Reconnaissance flights are also reported of Douglas AD-5Ws of VFP-62 and/or VAW-12 squadron from USS Essex or another carrier, such as USS Shangri-La that was part of the task force assembled off the Cayman Islands.[26][39]

On 21 April, Eaton and Murray, joined on 22 April by destroyers USS Conway and USS Cony, plus USS Threadfin (submarine) and a CIA PBY-5A Catalina flying boat, continued to search the coastline, reefs and islands for scattered Brigade survivors, about 24-30 being rescued.[46]

Aftermath

Casualties

Aircrews killed in action totaled 6 from the Cuban air force, 10 Cuban exiles and 4 American airmen.[16] American paratrooper Eugene Herman Koch was killed in action, and the American airmen shot down were Thomas W Ray, Leo F Baker, Riley W Shamburger and Wade C Gray.[26] In 1979, the body of Thomas 'Pete' Ray was repatriated from Cuba. In the 1990s, the CIA admitted to his links to the agency, and awarded him the Intelligence Star.[50] 114 Cuban exiles from Brigade 2506 were reportedly killed in action.[26]

Cuba's losses during the conflict are variously reported by US writers as 4,000 killed, wounded or missing,[6] or about 5,000.[7] Cuban sources report over 2,200 casualties.[51] The final toll reported was 176 killed in action in Cuban armed forces during the conflict.[5] The 15 April airfield attacks left 7 Cubans dead and 54 wounded.[5]

Prisoners

Havana gleefully noted the wealth of the captured invaders: 100 plantation owners, 67 landlords of apartment houses, 35 factory owners, 112 businessmen, 179 lived off unearned income, and 194 ex-soldiers of Batista.

On 18 April 1961, at least seven Cubans plus two CIA hired US citizens (Angus K. McNair and Howard F. Anderson) were executed in Pinar del Rio province. On 20 April, Humberto Sorí Marin was executed at Fortaleza de la Cabana, having been arrested on 18 March following infiltration into Cuba with 14 tons of explosives. His fellow conspirators Rogelio Gonzalez Corzo (alias "Francisco Gutierrez"), Rafael Diaz Hanscom, Eufemio Fernandez, Arturo Hernandez Tellaheche and Manuel Lorenzo Puig Miyar were also executed.[6][13][35][34][53]

Between April and October 1961, hundreds of executions took place in response to the invasion. They took place at various prisons, including the Fortaleza de la Cabaña and El Morro Castle.[6] Infiltration team leaders Antonio Diaz Pou and Raimundo E. Lopez, as well as underground students Virgilio Campaneria, Alberto Tapia Ruano, and more than one hundred other insurgents were executed.[10]

About 1,204 Brigade 2506 members were captured, of which nine died from asphyxiation during transfer to Havana in a closed truck. In May 1961, Fidel Castro proposed to exchange the surviving Brigade prisoners for 500 large farm tractors. The trade rose to US$28 million.[8] On 8 September 1961, 14 Brigade prisoners were convicted of torture, murder and other major crimes committed in Cuba before the invasion, five being executed and nine jailed for 30 years.[3] Three confirmed as executed were Ramon Calvino, Emilio Soler Puig ('el Muerte') and Jorge King Yun ('el Chino').[14][34] On 29 March 1962, 1,179 men were put on trial for treason. On 7 April 1962, all were convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison. On 14 April 1962, 60 wounded and sick prisoners were freed and transported to the US.[3] On December 21, 1962, Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro and James B. Donovan, a US lawyer, signed an agreement to exchange 1,113 prisoners for US$53 million in food and medicine; the money was raised by private donations. On 24 December 1962, some prisoners were flown to Miami, others following on the ship African Pilot, plus about 1,000 family members also allowed to leave Cuba. On 29 December 1962, President John F. Kennedy attended a 'welcome back' ceremony for Brigade 2506 veterans at the Orange Bowl in Miami, Florida.[14]

Political reaction

Robert F. Kennedy's Statement on Cuba and Neutrality Laws, April 20, 1961

The failed invasion severely embarrassed the Kennedy Administration and made Castro wary of future US intervention in Cuba. In August 1961, during an economic conference of the Organization of American States in Punta del Este, Uruguay, Che Guevara sent a note to Kennedy via Richard N. Goodwin, a secretary of the White House. It said: "Thanks for Playa Girón. Before the invasion, the revolution was weak. Now it's stronger than ever."[54]

Additionally, Guevara answered a set of questions from Leo Huberman of Monthly Review following the invasion. In one reply, Guevara was asked to explain the growing number of Cuban counter-revolutionaries and defectors of the regime, to which he replied that the repelled invasion was the climax of counter revolution and that afterwards such actions "fell drastically to zero."[55] In regards to the defections of some prominent figures within the Cuban government, Guevara remarked that this was because "the socialist revolution left the opportunists, the ambitious, and the fearful far behind and now advances toward a new regime free of this class of vermin."[55]

Kennedy was angered with the CIA's failure and claimed he wanted to "splinter the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter it into the wind."[56]

Later analysis

Maxwell Taylor survey

On 22 April 1961, President Kennedy asked General Maxwell D. Taylor, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Admiral Arleigh Burke and Director of Central Intelligence Allen Dulles to report on the lessons to be learned from the failed operation. On 13 June, General Taylor submitted the report of the Board of Inquiry to President Kennedy. The defeat was attributed to lack of early realization of the impossibility of success by covert means, inadequate aircraft, limitations of armaments, pilots and air attacks to attempt plausible deniability, and ultimately, loss of important ships and lack of ammunition.[57]

CIA report

In November 1961, CIA inspector general Lyman B Kirkpatrick, authored a report 'Survey of the Cuban Operation', that remained classified top secret until 1996. Conclusions were:[58]

  1. The CIA exceeded its capabilities in developing the project from guerrilla support to overt armed action without any plausible deniability.
  2. Failure to realistically assess risks and to adequately communicate information and decisions internally and with other government principals.
  3. Insufficient involvement of leaders of the exiles.
  4. Failure to sufficiently organize internal resistance in Cuba.
  5. Failure to competently collect and analyze intelligence about Cuban forces.
  6. Poor internal management of communications and staff.
  7. Insufficient employment of high-quality staff.
  8. Insufficient Spanish-speakers, training facilities and material resources.
  9. Lack of stable policies and contingency plans.

In spite of vigorous rebuttals by CIA management of the findings, CIA Director Allen Dulles, CIA Deputy Director Charles Cabell, and Deputy Director for Plans Richard Bissell were all forced to resign by early 1962.[59]

In later years, the CIA's behaviour in the episode became the prime example cited for the psychology paradigm known as Groupthink syndrome.[26]

CIA operative E. Howard Hunt had interviewed Cubans in Havana prior to the invasion; in a later interview with CNN, he said, "…all I could find was a lot of enthusiasm for Fidel Castro."[60]

Invasion legacy in Cuba

The invasion is often recognized as making Castro even more popular, adding nationalistic sentiments to the support for his economic policies. Following the initial attacks by 8 CIA-owned B-26s on Cuban airfields, he declared the revolution "Marxist-Leninist".[24] After the invasion, he pursued closer relations with the Soviet Union, partly for protection, which helped pave the way for the Cuban Missile Crisis a year and a half later. Castro was now increasingly wary of further US intervention and more open to Soviet suggestions of placing nuclear weapons on Cuba to ensure its security. There are still yearly nationwide drills in Cuba during the 'Dia de la Defensa' (Defense Day) to prepare the population for an invasion.

Invasion legacy for Cuban exiles

Many who fought for the CIA in the Bay of Pigs remained loyal after the conflict. Some Bay of Pigs veterans became officers in the US Army in Vietnam, including 6 colonels, 19 lieutenant colonels, 9 majors, and 29 captains.[61] By March 2007, about half of the Brigade had died.[62]

Playa Girón today

Museum of the invasion with a preserved Hawker Sea Fury.

Little remains of the original village, which in the 1960s was small and remote. It is still remote, with just a single road to the village and out again, but it has grown markedly since the invasion. Few people there today were residents at the time. The road from the north is marked by frequent memorials to the Cuban dead. There are billboards marking where invaders were rounded up and showing pictures of their being led away. Another at the entrance to the village quotes Castro's comment that the Bay of Pigs was the "first defeat of Yankee imperialism." A two-room museum, with aircraft and other military equipment outside, shows pictures, arms and maps of the attack and photos of Cuban soldiers who died. Billboards and other material also remember the US financed "mercenaries".

See also

Related conflicts

Notes

  1. ^ Kellner 1989, p. 69-70. “Historians give Guevara, who was director of instruction for Cuba’s armed forces, a share of credit for the victory” (p.69)
  2. ^ Szulc (1986), p.450 - "The revolutionaries won because Castro's strategy was vastly superior to the CIA's; because the revolutionary morale was high; and because Che Guevara as the head of the militia training programme and Fernandez as commander of the militia officers' school, had done so well in preparing 200,000 men and women for war."
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Szulc (1986)
  4. ^ a b FRUS X
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Fernandez (2001)
  6. ^ a b c d e f Triay (2001), pp.81-113
  7. ^ a b Lynch (2000), p. 148.
  8. ^ a b c d Schlesinger (1965)
  9. ^ Holland, Max. The Atlantic magazine. June 2004, p.91 The Assassination Tapes. http://theatlantic.com/doc/200406/holland
  10. ^ a b c Faria (2002), pp. 93-98.
  11. ^ a b c d e Kornbluh (1998)
  12. ^ Bethell (1993)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rodriguez (1999)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Johnson (1964)
  15. ^ Overall, Mario E. (2003). Bay of Pigs: The Guatemalan Connection http://www.laahs.com/artman/publish/article_50.shtml
  16. ^ a b c d e Hagedorn (2006)
  17. ^ a b c d e "Bay of Pigs, 40 Years After: Chronology". The National Security Archive. The George Washington University. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/chron.html. 
  18. ^ Kellner 1989, p. 54-55.
  19. ^ Welch and Blight, p. 113.
  20. ^ Montaner, Carlos Alberto (1999). "Viaje al Corazón de Cuba" (in es) (PDF). Plaza & Janés. http://www.firmaspress.com/viaje-al-corazon-de-cuba.pdf. 
  21. ^ "The New York Times". 1960-05-26. p. 5. 
  22. ^ Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (1983-10-04). "The Situation of Human Rights in Cuba, Seventh Report — Chapter V". Organization of American States. http://www.cidh.oas.org/countryrep/Cuba83eng/chap.5.htm. Retrieved 2004-12-24. 
  23. ^ http://utip.gov.utexas.edu/jg/archive/2000/crimesoimmense.pdfDEAD LINK
  24. ^ a b Kellner 1989, p. 69.
  25. ^ Rodriguez (1999), p. 169.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Wyden (1979)
  27. ^ Alfonso, Pablo 2001 Los Ultimos Castristas. Centro de Documentacion y Formacion, Caracas. ISBN 978-9800756577, pp. 125–6.
  28. ^ del Pino, Rafael (2002-03-02). "Como te Paga un Dictador" (in es). Network 54. http://www.network54.com/Forum/59476/thread/1015117960/last-1015117960/COMO+TE+PAGA+UN+DICTADOR. Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
  29. ^ Paz-Sanchez (2001), pp. 189–99.
  30. ^ Dreke (2002), pp. 10.28, 90, 99–102.
  31. ^ British Foreign Office. Chancery American Department, Foreign Office, London September 2, 1959 (2181/59) to British Embassy Havana classified as restricted Released 2000 by among British Foreign Office papers. Foreign Offices Files for Cuba Part 1: Revolution in Cuba “in our letter 1011/59 May 6 we mentioned that a Russian workers' delegation had been invited to participate in the May Day celebrations here, but had been delayed. The interpreter with the party, which arrived later and stayed in Cuba a few days, was called Vadim Kotchergin although he was at the time using what he subsequently claimed was his mother's name of Liston (?). He remained in the background, and did not attract any attention.” These two agents went on to train overseas personnel including Carlos the Jackal (Ilich Ramírez Sánchez) and subcomandante Marcos (Rafael Sebastián Guillén).
  32. ^ "El campo de entrenamiento "Punto Cero" donde el Partido Comunista de Cuba (PCC) adiestra a terroristas nacionales e internacionales" (in es). Cuban American Foundation. 2005-11-07. http://www.canf.org/2005/1es/noticias-de-Cuba/2005-nov-07-el-campo-de-entrenamiento.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  33. ^ Dreke (2002), pp. 40–117.
  34. ^ a b c d Thomas (1971)
  35. ^ a b c d Corzo (2003), pp. 79–90
  36. ^ Wyden, 172 (footnote †)
  37. ^ Rodriguez (1999), pp.156-159
  38. ^ FRUS X, Document 198
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h Ferrer (1975)
  40. ^ Asylum Granted to Three Airmen. Contemporary New York Times report (Szulc, Tad. 1961-4-17).
  41. ^ a b MacPhall, Doug & Acree, Chuck (2003). Bay of Pigs: The Men and Aircraft of the Cuban Revolutionary Air Force. http://www.laahs.com/artman/publish/article_38.shtml
  42. ^ FRUS X, Document 87
  43. ^ a b Clandestine US Operations: Cuba, 1961, Bay of Pigs. Cooper, Tom (2007).
  44. ^ Freedom of Information Act document 141167
  45. ^ "Nuevo Acción" (in es). http://www.nuevoaccion.com/. 
  46. ^ a b FRUS X, document 110
  47. ^ Lynch (2000)
  48. ^ De Paz-Sánchez (2001)
  49. ^ Vivés (1984)
  50. ^ Thomas, Eric. "Local Man Forever Tied To Cuban Leader: Father Frozen, Displayed by Fidel Castro". KGO ABC7, KGO-TV/DT. http://abclocal.go.com/kgo/story?section=assignment_7&id=5056129. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  51. ^ Castro (2002) My Life (Fidel Castro autobiography)
  52. ^ Bay of Pigs: Invasion and Aftermath by Life magazine, caption for the image entitled "Jose Miro Greets His Ransomed Son"
  53. ^ Ros (1994), pp.181-185
  54. ^ Anderson (1997), p.509
  55. ^ a b Cuba and the U.S. by Che Guevara, Monthly Review, September 1961
  56. ^ "CIA: Maker of Policy of Tool? survey finds widely feared agency is tightly controlled." New York Times. April 25, 1966
  57. ^ Kornbluh (1998), p.324
  58. ^ Kornbluh (1998), p.99
  59. ^ Higgins (1987)
  60. ^ Hunt, Howard (1998). "Backyeard". Cold War. CNN. http://web.archive.org/web/20071106000444/http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/18/interviews/hunt/. Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
  61. ^ Ros, Enrique (1994), pp. 287–98.
  62. ^ Iuspa-Abbott, Paola. "Palm Beach County Bay of Pigs veterans remember invasion of Cuba". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. http://archives.econ.utah.edu/archives/cubanews/2007w13/msg00006.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 

References

  • Anderson, Jon L. 1997,1998. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove/Atlantic ISBN 0802135587 ISBN 0553406647
  • Andrade, John. 1982. Latin-American Military Aviation. Midland Counties. ISBN 0904597318
  • Bethell, Leslie. 1993. Cuba. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521436823.
  • Corzo, Pedro. 2003. Cuba Cronología de la lucha contra el totalitarismo. Ediciones Memorias, Miami. ISBN 1890829242
  • Dreke, Victor. 2002. From Escambray to the Congo: In the Whirlwind of the Cuban Revolution. Pathfinder. New York. ISBN 0873489470 ISBN 978-0873489478
  • Faria, Miguel, A. 2002. Cuba in Revolution — Escape from a Lost Paradise. Hacienda Publishing, pp. 93–102, notes# 16 and 24. ISBN 0964107732 http://www.haciendapub.com/cuba.html
  • Fernandez, Jose Ramon. 2001. Playa Giron/Bay of Pigs: Washington's First Military Defeat in the Americas. Pathfinder ISBN 087348925X ISBN 9780873489256
  • Ferrer, Edward B. 1975(sp), 1982(en). Operation Puma: The Air Battle of the Bay of Pigs. International Aviation Consultants. ISBN 0960900004
  • Franqui, Carlos. 1984. (foreword by G. Cabrera Infante and translated by Alfred MacAdam from Spanish 1981 version) Family portrait with Fidel. 1985 edition Random House First Vintage Books, New York. ISBN 0394726200 ISBN 978-0394726205 pp. 111–128
  • FRUS - Foreign Relations of the United States 1961-1963 Volume X Cuba, 1961-1962. Department of State Documents and Memoranda http://www.fas.org/irp/ops/policy/docs/frusX/index.html
  • Hagedorn, Dan. 1993. Central American and Caribbean Air Forces. Air-Britain. ISBN 0851302106
  • Hagedorn, Dan and Hellström, Leif. 1994. Foreign Invaders - The Douglas Invader in foreign military and US clandestine service. UK: Midland Publishing Limited. ISBN 1857800133
  • Hagedorn, Dan. 2006. Latin American Air Wars & Aircraft. Hikoki. ISBN 1902109449 http://www.hikokiwarplanes.com/downloads/laaws-downloads.html
  • Higgins, Trumbull. 1987, 2008. The Perfect Failure: Kennedy, Eisenhower, and the CIA at the Bay of Pigs. Norton, New York. ISBN 0393305635 ISBN 978-0393305630
  • Hunt, E. Howard. 1973. Give us this day. Arlington House, New Rochelle, NY. ISBN 978-0870002281
  • Johnson, Haynes. 1964. The Bay of Pigs: The Leaders' Story of Brigade 2506. W. W. Norton & Co Inc. New York. 1974 edition ISBN 0393042634
  • Jones, Howard. 2008. Bay of Pigs (Pivotal Moments in American History). OUP USA. ISBN 019517383X ISBN 9780195173833
  • Kellner, Douglas (1989). Ernesto “Che” Guevara (World Leaders Past & Present). Chelsea House Publishers (Library Binding edition). pp. 112. ISBN 1555468357. 
  • Kornbluh, Peter. 1998. Bay of Pigs Declassified: The Secret CIA Report on the Invasion of Cuba. The New Press. New York. ISBN 1565844947 ISBN 978-1565844940
  • Lagas, Jacques. 1964. Memorias de un capitán rebelde. Editorial del Pácifico. Santiago, Chile. ASIN B0014VJ2KS
  • Lazo, Mario. 1968, 1970. Dagger in the heart: American policy failures in Cuba. Twin Circle. New York. 1968 edition Library of Congress number 6831632, 1970 edition, ASIN B0007DPNJS
  • Lynch, Grayston L. 2000. Decision for Disaster: Betrayal at the Bay of Pigs. Potomac Books Dulles Virginia ISBN 1574882376
  • de Paz-Sánchez, Manuel. 2001. Zona de Guerra, España y la revolución Cubana (1960–1962), Taller de Historia, Tenerife Gran Canaria ISBN 8479263644
  • Priestland, Jane (editor). 2003. British Archives on Cuba: Cuba under Castro 1959–1962. Archival Publications International Limited, London ISBN 1903008204
  • de Quesada, Alejandro; Walsh, Stephen. 2009. The Bay of Pigs: Cuba 1961. Osprey Elite series #166, Oxford & New York. ISBN 978-1846033230
  • Rodriguez, Juan Carlos. 1999. Bay of Pigs and the CIA. Ocean Press Melbourne. ISBN 1875284982
  • Ros, Enrique. 1994 (1998). Giron la verdadera historia. Ediciones Universales (Colección Cuba y sus jueces) third edition Miami ISBN 0897297385
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr. 1965. A Thousand days: John F Kennedy in the White House. Houghton Mifflin. Boston. ISBN 1579124496 ISBN 978-1579124496
  • Jean Edward Smith. Bay of Pigs: The Unanswered Questions. The Nation, (Apr. 13, 1964), p. 360–363.
  • Somoza Debayle, Anastasio and Jack Cox. 1980. Nicaragua Betrayed. Western Islands Publishers, pp. 169–180 ISBN 0882792350 ISBN 978-0882792354
  • Szulc, Tad, and Karl E. Meyer. 1962. The Cuban Invasion. The chronicle of a disaster. Praegar. New York. ASIN B0018DMAV0
  • Szulc, Tad. 1986. Fidel - A Critical Portrait. Hutchinson. ISBN 0091726026
  • Thomas, Hugh. 1971, 1986. The Cuban Revolution. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. London. (Shortened version of Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom, includes all history 1952-1970) ISBN 0297789546
  • Thomas, Hugh. 1998. Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom. Da Capo Press, New York. ISBN 0306808277
  • Thompson, Scott. 2002. Douglas A-26 and B-26 Invader. UK. Crowood Press ISBN 1861265014
  • Trest, Warren A. and Dodd, Donald B. 2001. Wings of Denial: The Alabama Air National Guard's Covert Role at the Bay of Pigs. NewSouth Books ISBN 1588380211 ISBN 9781588380210
  • Triay, Victor Andres. 2001. Bay of Pigs: An Oral History of Brigade 2506. University Press of Florida, Gainesville ISBN 0813020905 ISBN 978-0813020907
  • Vivés, Juan (Pseudonym, of a former veteran and Castro Intelligence Official; Translated to Spanish from 1981 Les Maîtres de Cuba. Opera Mundi, Paris by Zoraida Valcarcel) 1982 Los Amos de Cuba. EMCÉ Editores, Buenos Aires. ISBN 9500400758
  • Welch, David A and James G Blight (editors). 1998. Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Frank Cass Publishers, London and Portland Oregon ISBN 0714648833 ISBN 0714644358
  • Wyden, Peter. 1979. Bay of Pigs - The Untold Story. Simon and Schuster. New York. ISBN 0671240064 ISBN 0224017543 ISBN 978-0671240066

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message