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This article contains Baybayin script. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Baybayin characters.
Baybayin (ᜊᜌ᜔ᜊᜌᜒᜈ᜔)
Alibata (ᜀᜎᜒᜊᜆ)
Tagalog (ᜆᜄᜎᜓᜄ᜔)
Baybayin sample 02.jpg
Type Abugida
Spoken languages Tagalog
Time period c. 13th–19th century; 21st century
Parent systems
Proto-Canaanite alphabet
Sister systems Balinese
Batak
Buhid
Hanunó'o
Javanese
Lontara
Old Sundanese
Rencong
Rejang
Tagbanwa
Unicode range U+1700–U+171F
ISO 15924 Tglg
Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.

Baybayin (ᜊᜌ᜔ᜊᜌᜒᜈ᜔) or Alibata (ᜀᜎᜒᜊᜆ), known in Unicode as the Tagalog script (ᜆᜄᜎᜓᜄ᜔), is a pre-Spanish Philippine writing system that originated from the Javanese script Old Kawi, which was also used in the Philippines. The writing system is a member of the Brahmic family (and an offshoot of the Vatteluttu alphabet) and is believed to have been in use as early as the 14th century.[1] It continued in use during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines up until the late 19th Century. The term baybayin literally means "to spell" in Tagalog. Other scripts from the Philippines are Hanunóo, Buhid, and Tagbanwa.

The Philippine Baybayin is one of a dozen or so individual alphabets from such Southeast asian islands as Sumatra, Java, and Sulawesi which are derived from ancient India and share the Sanskrit characteristic that any consonant is pronounced with the vowel a following it— diacritical marks being used to express other vowels (this vowel occurs with greatest frequency in Sanskrit, and also probably in all Philippine languages).[1] None of these other scripts, however, enjoys the wealth of documentary testimony spread across four centuries which exists for Philippine Baybayin.[2]

Contents

Usage

ᜊ
ba
ᜊᜒ
be
ᜊᜓ
bo

The writing system is an abugida system using consonant-vowel combinations. Each character, written in its basic form, is a consonant ending with the vowel "A". To produce consonants ending with the other vowel sounds, a mark is placed either above the consonant (to produce an "E" or "I" sound) or below the consonant (to produce an "O" or "U" sound). The mark is called a kudlit. The kudlit does not apply to stand-alone vowels. Vowels themselves have their own glyphs. There is only one symbol for D or R as they were allophones in most languages of the Philippines, where D occurred in initial, final, pre-consonantal or post-consonantal positions and R in intervocalic positions. The grammatical rule has survived in modern Filipino, so that when a d is between two vowels, it becomes an r, as in the words dangál (honour) and marangál (honourable), or dunong (knowledge) and marunong (knowledgeable), and even raw for daw (he said, she said, they said, it was said, allegedly, reportedly, supposedly) and rin for din (also, too) after vowels.[1] This variant of the script is not used for Ilokano, Pangasinan, Bikolano, and other Philippine languages to name a few, as these languages have separate symbols for D and R.

In the original form of the Baybayin script, however, a stand-alone consonant (consonants not ending with any vowel sound) cannot be indicated unambiguously, so that such consonants were simply not written, and the reader would fill in the missing consonants through context. For example, the letters n and k in a word like bundók (mountain) were omitted, so that it was spelled bu-do. This method, however, was particularly difficult for the Spanish priests who were translating books into the native language. Because of this, Francisco López introduced his own kudlit in 1620 that cancelled the implicit a vowel sound. The kudlit was in the form of a "+" sign[3], in reference to Christianity. This cross-shaped kudlit functions exactly the same as the virama in the Devanagari script of India. In fact, Unicode calls this kudlit the Tagalog Sign Virama.

ᜊ
ba
ᜊᜒ
be
ᜊᜓ
bo
ᜊ᜔
b

A single character represented the nga syllable. The latest version of the modern Filipino alphabet still retains the ng as a single letter but it is written with two characters. Words written in baybayin were written in a continuous flow, and the only form of punctuation was a single vertical line, or more often, a pair of vertical lines (||). These vertical lines fulfill the function of a comma, period, or unpredictably separate sets of words.[1]

Characters

ᜀ
a
ᜁ
e/i
ᜂ
o/u
ᜃ
ka
ᜄ
ga
ᜅ
nga
ᜆ
ta
ᜇ
da/ra
ᜈ
na
ᜉ
pa
ᜊ
ba
ᜋ
ma
ᜌ
ya
ᜎ
la
ᜏ
wa
ᜐ
sa
ᜑ
ha

vowels

a
i
e
u
o

b

b ᜊ᜔
ba
bi
be
ᜊᜒ
bu
bo
ᜊᜓ

k

k ᜃ᜔
ka
ki
ke
ᜃᜒ
ku
ko
ᜃᜓᜓ

d/r

d/r ᜇ᜔
da/ra
di/ri
de/re
ᜇᜒ
du/ru
do/ro
ᜇᜓ

g

g ᜄ᜔
ga
gi
ge
ᜄᜒ
gu
go
ᜄᜓ

h

h ᜑ᜔
ha
hi
he
ᜑᜒ
hu
ho
ᜑᜓ

l

l ᜎ᜔
la
li
le
ᜎᜒ
lu
lo
ᜎᜓ

m

m ᜋ᜔
ma
mi
me
ᜋᜒ
mu
mo
ᜋᜓ

n

n ᜈ᜔
na
ni
ne
ᜈᜒ
nu
no
ᜈᜓ

ng

ng ᜅ᜔
nga
ngi
nge
ᜅᜒ
ngu
ngo
ᜅᜓ

p

p ᜉ᜔
pa
pi
pe
ᜉᜒ
pu
po
ᜉᜓ

s

s ᜐ᜔
sa
si
se
ᜐᜒ
su
so
ᜐᜓ

t

t ᜆ᜔
ta
ti
te
ᜆᜒ
tu
to
ᜆᜓ

w

w ᜏ᜔
wa
wi
we
ᜏᜒ
wu
wo
ᜏᜓ

y

y ᜌ᜔
ya
yi
ye
ᜌᜒ
yu
yo
ᜌᜓ

Unicode

The Unicode range for Babayin is U+1700–U+171F, where it is called Tagalog. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points.

Tagalog
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+170x  
U+171x                      

Examples

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The Lord's Prayer (Ama Namin)

ᜀᜋ ᜈᜋᜒᜈ᜔ ᜐᜓᜋᜐᜎᜅᜒᜆ᜔ ᜃ
ᜐᜋ᜔ᜊᜑᜒᜈ᜔ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜅᜎᜈ᜔ ᜋᜓ
ᜋᜉᜐᜀᜋᜒᜈ᜔ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜋᜓ
ᜐᜓᜈ᜔ᜇᜒᜈ᜔ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜎᜓᜂᜊ᜔ ᜋᜓ
ᜇᜒᜆᜓ ᜐ ᜎᜓᜉ, ᜉᜍ ᜈᜅ᜔ ᜐ ᜎᜅᜒᜆ᜔.
ᜊᜒᜄ᜔ᜌᜈ᜔ ᜋᜓ ᜃᜋᜒ ᜅᜌᜓᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜀᜋᜒᜅ᜔ ᜃᜃᜈᜒᜈ᜔ ᜐ ᜀᜍᜏ᜔-ᜀᜍᜏ᜔
ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜉᜆᜏᜍᜒᜈ᜔ ᜋᜓ ᜃᜋᜒ ᜐ ᜀᜋᜒᜅ᜔ ᜋᜅ ᜐᜎ
ᜉᜍ ᜈᜅ᜔ ᜉᜄ᜔ᜉᜉᜆᜏᜇ᜔ ᜈᜋᜒᜈ᜔ ᜐ ᜋᜅ ᜅᜃᜃᜐᜎ ᜐ ᜀᜋᜒᜈ᜔
ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜑᜓᜏᜄ᜔ ᜋᜓ ᜃᜋᜒ ᜁᜉᜑᜒᜈ᜔ᜆᜓᜎᜓᜆ᜔ ᜐ ᜆᜓᜃ᜔ᜐᜓ
ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜁᜀᜇ᜔ᜌ ᜋᜓ ᜃᜋᜒ ᜐ ᜎᜑᜆ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜋᜐᜋ
ᜐᜉᜄ᜔ᜃᜆ᜔ ᜁᜌᜓ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔, ᜃᜉᜅ᜔ᜌᜍᜒᜑᜈ᜔, ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜃᜇᜃᜒᜎᜀᜈ᜔, ᜋᜄ᜔ᜉᜃᜌ᜔ᜎᜈ᜔ᜋᜈ᜔.
ᜐᜒᜌ ᜈᜏ.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

ᜐᜒᜈᜒᜎᜅ᜔ ᜈ ᜋᜎᜌ ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜉᜈ᜔ᜆᜌ᜔-ᜉᜈ᜔ᜆᜌ᜔ ᜐ ᜃᜍᜅᜎᜈ᜔ ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜋᜅ ᜃᜍᜉᜆᜈ᜔ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜎᜑᜆ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜂ. ᜉᜒᜈᜄ᜔ᜓᜃᜎᜂᜊᜈ᜔ ᜐᜒᜎ ᜅ᜔ ᜃᜆ᜔ᜏᜒᜍᜈ᜔ ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜊᜓᜇ᜔ᜑᜒ ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜇᜉᜆ᜔ ᜋᜄ᜔ᜉᜎᜄᜌᜈ᜔ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜁᜐ'ᜆ᜔ ᜁᜐ ᜐ ᜇᜒᜏ ᜅ᜔ ᜉᜄ᜔ᜃᜃᜉᜆᜒᜍᜒᜈ᜔.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Baybayin, the Ancient Philippine script. Accessed September 04, 2008.
  2. ^ Scott 1984, pp. 57-58
  3. ^ Tagalog script. Accessed September 02, 2008.

References

External links

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