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Beşiktaş J.K.
Beşiktaş emblem
Full name Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü
Nickname(s) Kara Kartallar (The Black Eagles)
BJK (abbreviaton)
Founded 3 March 1903
Ground BJK İnönü Stadium,
Istanbul, Turkey
(Capacity: 32,145[1])
Chairman Turkey Yıldırım Demirören
Manager Turkey Mustafa Denizli
League Turkcell Süper Lig
2008–09 Turkcell Süper Lig, 1st
Home colours
Away colours
Third colours
Current season

Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü (commonly Beşiktaş, pronounced [bɛʃɪktʌʃ]) (English: Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club) is a professional sports club founded in 1903 and based in Beşiktaş district in Istanbul, Turkey. The club competes in numerous branches including football, basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics, boxing, wrestling, chess, bridge, gymnastics, rowing, table tennis, and paralympic sports.[2]

The home ground of Beşiktaş is İnönü Stadium with a 32,086[1] seating capacity after a renovation conducted in 2004.[3] The stadium is located by the Bosphorus, near the Dolmabahçe Palace.[4]

Beşiktaş are the defending Turkish Süper Lig champions, also achieving the double after winning the Turkish Cup.[5]



Early Years 1903–1911

Established in 1903 during the late Ottoman period. A group of 22 young individuals gathered on certain days of the week to perform bodily exercises in the Serencebey neighborhood of Beşiktaş. They began in the fall of 1902, in the garden of the mansion of Osman Paşa, who was then a part of the Medine Guard. The various sporting activities that these youths participated in included the horizontal bar, parallel bar, wrestling, weight lifting and gymnastics. They included such members as the sons of Osman Paşa, Mehmet Şamil and Hüseyin Bereket, and other youths of the neighborhood – Ahmet Fetgeri, Mehmet Ali Fetgeri, Nazım Nazif, Cemil Feti and Şevket. Sultan Abdul Hamid II had secret agents go around the city, reporting on any gathering activities that might be political in nature. When these agents heard about the group, the exercising youths were taken to the police station after a raid. The tense situation was relaxed as some of these youths were close to palace officers. Since others did not play football, which was in disfavor in those days, they only participated in bodily exercises. In fact, Şeyhzade Abdülhalim, who had relations with the Palace, supported these youths and started to watch their practices frequently. Famous boxer and Wrestler Kenan Bey came to the practices and started to show wrestling and boxing tricks.

Beşiktaş S.K. in 1903

Bereket Gymnastic Club was founded under special permission in 1903. Their sporting activities gained more freedom with the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy in 1908. After the political events of March 31, 1909, Fuat Balkan and Mazhar Kazancı, who were in Edirne, came to Istanbul with the Movement Army. After the political events settled down, Fuat Balkan, who was a good fencing coach and Mazhar Kazancı, who was a good wrestler and weight lifter, found the youths involved in gymnastics in Serencebey and got them to agree to participate in sports together. Fuat Balkan made the space under his home in Ihlamur the Club’s headquarters, and the title of Bereket Gymnastics Club was changed to Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club. Thus, a stronger sports club where gymnastics, wrestling, boxing, fencing and athletics were emphasized was formed. Refik and Şerafettin Beys, friends of Fuat Bey, were also good fencers.

In the meantime, Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club became the first registered Turkish sports club on January 13, 1910 with the encouragement of Beyoğlu Governor Muhittin Bey. The interest among the youths of the neighborhood in the sports club grew and the number of members involved in sports suddenly went up to 150. The headquarters of the club was moved from Ihlamur to Building 49 in Akaretler. When this building became too small, Building 84, also in Akaretler, became their headquarters. The yard behind this building was turned into a sports pitch.

Some of the young patriots from the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul formed two football clubs called "Valideçeşme" and "Basiret" under the leadership of Şeref Bey. The Valideçeşme and Basiret football clubs joined under the Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club in 1911. In a very short time, football became the foremost branch in the club.

The original colours of the team were "red and white", but these were substituted with the present "black and white" as a sign of mourning for the loss of Turkish lands on the Balkan peninsula following the Balkan Wars (1912–1913). Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü was the only sports club in Turkey and the team served as the Turkish national team for some occasions. Therefore, Beşiktaş JK is the only Turkish club which is allowed to carry the Turkish flag on it.

First Championships 1911–1924

With football becoming the main sport of the Ottoman Empire around 1910, Beşiktaş members slowly started to give more attention to football. In August 1911, Ahmet Şerafettin Bey started the football team. Beşiktaş didn't enter in the Istanbul Friday and Sunday leagues, and didn't have any championships until 1918, when they won the Istanbul Turkish 1st Sports League. In 1921 they won it again. 1921 also was the leagues final season.

Istanbul League 1924–1934

In 1924, Beşiktaş entered the Istanbul Football League along with Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and other Istanbul teams. Beşiktaş became the leagues first champion in 1924, but wasn't able to get more success in the league. Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe were the 2 dominant teams until the 1930s.

National Success 1934–1951

Beşiktaş won their 2nd Istanbul League championship in 1934, as well as their first Turkish Football Championship in the same year. In 1937 the Turkish National League was formed. Beşiktaş finished in 4th place in the Istanbul League, giving Beşiktaş a berth in the National League. Beşiktaş finished 3rd place in the National league behind Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray. In 1938 Beşiktaş finished 3rd place in the Istanbul league and 2nd place in the National league behind Güneş. Beşiktaş won a record 5 consecutive Istanbul league championships between 1939 and 1943. In the National league Beşiktaş finished 4th in 1939, 5th in 1940, 1st in 1941 and 3rd in 1943 (1942 was not held). Beşiktaş won the Istanbul league in 1945 and 1946, as well as the National league in 1944, and 1947.

Return to National Glory 1959–1968

In 1959 the Turkish First League was formed. It was Turkey's first professional league. Beşiktaş came in 3rd place in inaugural year of the league. Beşiktaş won the league title in 1960. In 1960 they also took part in the European Cup, and became the first Turkish team ever to participate in that cup. Beşiktaş finished 3rd place in 1961 and 1962 and a second place in 1963, 1964 and 1965 till consistency paid off and they were finally the champions again in 1966 and 1967. In 1967 they also won their first Turkish Super Cup. In 1968 Beşiktaş finished in 2nd place.

Decline 1968–1982

After 1968 Beşiktaş' performance declined greatly, finishing in 9th, 11th, 5th, 6th many times, while Trabzonspor, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray continued their success. Beşiktaş only finished 2nd place 1 time in 70s (1974).

Rebuilding the Team 1982–1987

Beşiktaş put an end to their bad performance in 1982 with a surprise Turkish championship. Beşiktaş got another championship in 1986 as well.

Legend of the Black Eagles

There is a legend surrounding the initial naming of the team "The Black Eagles." Beşiktaş, the title holder of the previous two seasons started the 1940–41 season with a young and renewed team. Beşiktaş, which opened up its lead as weeks went by, was the leader in the league. With five weeks remaining to the end, the opponent was Süleymaniye. Beşiktaş had started the game in Şeref Stadium refereed by Semih Turansoy on Sunday January 19, 1941, with the following players: Faruk, Yavuz, İbrahim, Rıfat, Halil, Hüseyin, Şakir, Hakkı, Şükrü, Şeref, Eşref. As in all games of that season, the team played well. Half way through the second half of the game, Beşiktaş attacked continuously despite being in front. And then, according to legend, a voice was heard from the stands towards which Beşiktaş was attacking. The voice said "Come on Black Eagles. Attack Black Eagles". The Beşiktaş players who had so successfully defeated their opponents that season, being described as "Black Eagles” and the football they played compared to “Attacking like Black Eagles”. According to legend, the owner of the voice from the stands was a fisherman called Mehmet Galin. Beşiktaş closed the game with a 6-0 win with 3 goals volleyed in by Şeref Görkey, who was known as volleyer Şeref and one goal each by Captain Hakkı, Şakir and Şükrü.

Milne Era

Beşiktaş had their most successful run in the Süper Lig with three consecutive championships under the management of Gordon Milne in the early 90s. Three players of the squad; Metin Tekin, Ali Gültiken, Feyyaz Uçar were notable for significant contributions to the team during this period. These players had been called Metin-Ali-Feyyaz (shorty: MAF) and they formed the front of the team line-up. The supporters composed various chants for the trio devoted to their delighting style on the pitch, their goals and above all for their friendship and modesty. They are regarded by supporters as the best trio and attacking line of the club ever.

This was the only three-in-a-row title term of club history in 1989–90, 1990–91 and 1991–92 seasons. Most notably, Beşiktaş became the first undefeated champion in Süper Lig history.[6][7] It is the only team to achieve the honors.

Milne had adopted the 4-4-2 system. By playing down the lines and crossing, the team scored many goals through aerial challenges. On 15 October 1989, Beşiktaş broke the Süper Lig record for the biggest margin in a game with a 10-0 victory over Southern Turkey team Adana Demirspor.[8] This match was enrolled as one of the 16 biggest matches of the club history.[9]


Turkish Championships

Other competitions

Istanbul League – Besiktas JK 1923–24 Champion
  • Turkish Cup:
    • Winners (8): 1975, 1989, 1990, 1994, 1998, 2006, 2007, 2009
    • Runners-up (6): 1966, 1977, 1984, 1993, 1999, 2002
  • Turkish Super Cup / President Cup:
    • Winners (8): 1967, 1974, 1986, 1989, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2006
    • Runners-up (9): 1966, 1975, 1977, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1995, 2007, 2009
  • Chancellor Cup:
    • Winners (6): 1943–44, 1946–47, 1973–74, 1976–77, 1987–88, 1996–97
    • Runners-up (1): 1995–96
  • TSYD Cup: (shared-record)
    • Winners (12): 1964–65, 1965–66, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1974–75, 1983–84, 1984–85, 1988–89, 1989–90, 1990–91, 1993–94, 1996–97
  • Atatürk Cup:
    • Winners (1): 2000
    • Runners-up (2): 1963, 1998
  • Istanbul Football League: (record)
    • Winners (13): 1923–24, 1933–34, 1938–39, 1939–40, 1940–41, 1941–42, 1942–43, 1944–45, 1945–46, 1949–50, 1950–51, 1951–52, 1953–54
    • Runners-up (6): 1932–33, 1943–44, 1947–1948, 1948–49, 1952–1953, 1954–55
  • Istanbul Cup: (shared-record)
    • Winners (2): 1944, 1946
  • Istanbul Shield:
    • Winners (1): 1935
  • Spor-Toto Cup: (record)
    • Winners (4): 1966, 1968, 1969, 1970
  • Fleet Cup:
    • Winners (1): 1986
  • İstanbul SİD Cup
    • Winners (1): 1935
  • Aviation Cup
    • Winners (1): 1938
  • İzmir Fair Cup
    • Winners (1): 1943
  • Police Association Cup
    • Winners (1): 1982
  • Ali Sami Yen-Şeref Bey Cup
    • Winners (1): 1963
  • Ankara Cup
    • Winners (1): 1959
  • Victory Cup
    • Winners (1): 1953


  • Efes Pilsen Cup
    • Winners (1): 2006
    • Third Place (1): 2007

UEFA Achievements

Records and Honors

  • The only undefeated winner of the Süper Lig (1992)
  • Longest streak of undefeated games in the Turkish First Football League of 56 games, hence the nickname Yenilmez Armada (Invincible Armada)
  • Won 5 consecutive Istanbul League titles (1939–1943)
  • Most games won in a row with 18 games
  • Most goals scored in Istanbul League, 90 goals in a season, 599 in 8 seasons
  • First winner of the Turkish Super Cup in 2006 against Galatasaray, 1-0
  • 10 seasons unbeaten at home to Anatolian teams (All Turkish with exception of Fenerbahce & Galatasaray)
  • Biggest win ever in the Türkcell Süper Lig against Adana Demirspor with 10-0 in 1989–90 season

UEFA Ranking

Current Ranking

Club Ranking for 2010 (Previous year rank in italics, UEFA Club Coefficients in parentheses)

Turkish First Football League/Süper Lig Finishing Positions

Year FFL/Süper Lig UEFA European Cup UEFA Inter Cities Fair Cup
1957 1st - -
1958 1st - -
1959 3rd Round of 16 -
1959–60 1st - -
1960–61 3rd - -
1961–62 3rd Turkish Cup - -
1962–63 2nd - - -
1963–64 2nd Semi Finals - -
1964–65 2nd - Presidents Cup - -
1965–66 1st Runners-up Runners-up - -
1966–67 1st Quarter Finals Winners Round of 32 -
1967–68 2nd - - Round of 32 -
1968–69 3rd - - - -
1969–70 9th - - - -
1970–71 6th Quarter Finals - - -
1971–72 4th Quarter Finals - - -
1972–73 6th - - - -
1973–74 2nd Semi Finals Winners - -
1974–75 5th Winners Runners-up - First Round
1975–76 11th Quarter Finals - - -
1976–77 4th Runners-up Runners-up - -
1977–78 5th - - - -
1978–79 9th Quarter Finals - - -
1979–80 11th - - - -
1980–81 5th Quarter Finals - - -
1981–82 1st - Runners-up - -
1882–83 5th Quarter Finals - Round of 32 -
1983–84 4th Runners-up - - -
1984–85 2nd Semi Finals - - -
1985–86 1st - Winners - Round of 64
1986–87 2nd - - Quarter Finals -
1987–88 2nd Quarter Finals - - Round of 64
1988–89 2nd Winners Winners - Round of 64
1989–90 1st Winners Runners-up - -
1990–91 1st Quarter Finals Runners-up Round of 32 -
1991–92 1st Semi Finals Winners Round of 16 -
UEFA Champions League
1992–93 2nd Runners-up Runners-up Round of 16 -
1993–94 4th Winners Winners - -
1994–95 1st Round of 16 Runners-up - -
1995–96 3rd Quarter Finals - - -
1996–97 2nd Semi Finals - - Round of 16
1997–98 6th Winners Winners Group Stage -
1998–99 2nd Runners-up Never Played - -
1999–00 2nd Round of 16 Winners - -
2000–01 4th Semi Finals Never Played Group Stage -
2001–02 3rd Runners-up Never Played - -
2002–03 1st Quarter Finals Never Played - Quarter Finals
2003–04 3rd Round of 16 Never Played Group Stage Round of 32
2004–05 4th Round of 16 Super Cup - Group Stage
2005–06 3rd Winners Winners - Group Stage
2006–07 2nd Winners Runners-up - Group Stage
2007–08 3rd Quarter Finals - Group Stage -
2008–09 1st Winners Runners-up - -

Colours and badge

Since only individual sports were done at the beginning in the Osman Pasha Mansion, there was no need for any colours for a uniform. However, the number of sportsmen increased with new youths who joined sport teams each passing day. Mehmet Şamil Bey (first president of the Club), who had graduated from the French school gathered the Founders Committee. He removed the pin he used in his school days bearing the colours of his school from his lapel and showed it around. He said “We must have a pin just like this one made and we must force all members who attend sports in our Club to bear this pin”. Those attending the meeting eagerly agreed to Mehmet Şamil Bey’s proposal. At the end of the meeting, the colours of the Club to be shown on the pin were decided. The two principal colours of nature in full contrast to each other were chosen as the Club colours: black and white.

BJK İnönü Stadium entrance, displaying the club emblem and stars for Turkish Super League championships

The date Beşiktaş’s first badge was made was written as “1906” in Latin years inspired by the badges in the French school. On top, it said “Beşiktaş” in Arabic letters, the letter “J” was placed on the rights and letter “K” was placed on the left. On the back of the badge, there was a script saying it was made in Constantinople and there was the seal of the craftsmen who made the badge on the inside. It is interesting that the star on the crest on the badge has 6 points. This 6-pointed star was used until the 2nd Constitutional Monarchy (1908). This badge was donated by Iskender Yakak to Süleyman Seba, the Honorary President of Beşiktaş J.K.

The current emblem of Beşiktaş symbolizes the foundation date. There are two white and three black bars on the emblem. It consists of nine parts in total. There is one white bar, three black bars, and another white bar, and there are nine parts in total. Thus: 1319, the year of the club's foundation. (The Islamic calendar was still used in the Ottoman Empire at the time of the club's foundation. 1319 is the equivalent of 1903 in Gregorian Calendar.)

The Turkish flag which appears in Beşiktaş's emblem is a gift from the Turkish Football Federation. Beşiktaş earned the right to incorporate the flag after having its full roster drafted as the Turkish national team playing against the Greek national team on May 16, 1952. Beşiktaş is the only Turkish team with this right.

Colours of Beşiktaş used to be red and white, but when the whole team died in World War I, they decided to change their colours to black and white out of respect for those that died. Also they started as a club before 1903, stopped due to the war, then re-started after the war.


BJK İnönü Stadium with the capacity of 32.086 people.

BJK İnönü Stadium has been constructed in the period of İsmet İnönü, the 2nd president of Republic of Turkey,and commissioned on May 19, 1947. The first match played in the İnönü Stadium was between Beşiktaş Football Team and Swedish team AIK. Renovation work has been done in 2004 at İnönü Stadium which dimensions had been expanded 105x68 meters that is required by the UEFA. The tartan track was removed within the scope of these activities and the ground was lowered by 4 meters to increase the capacity of the stadium to 32.086[1] people. BJK İnonu Stadium has been ranked as Number 4 in the Top Ten Stadiums in the World by Times Online[10]

Current squad

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 Turkey GK Rüştü Reçber
3 Turkey DF İsmail Köybaşı
4 Turkey DF İbrahim Kaş
5 Germany MF Michael Fink
6 Czech Republic DF Tomáš Sivok
7 Turkey DF Rıdvan Şimşek
8 Turkey FW Nihat Kahveci
9 Turkey FW Batuhan Karadeniz
10 Argentina MF Matías Delgado
11 Turkey FW Mert Nobre
13 Brazil FW Bobô
14 Chile MF Rodrigo Tello
15 Brazil MF Rodrigo Tabata
No. Position Player
17 Austria MF Ekrem Dağ
18 Turkey MF Necip Uysal
19 Turkey MF İbrahim Üzülmez (captain)
20 Turkey DF İbrahim Toraman (vice-captain)
21 Turkey MF Serdar Özkan
23 Slovakia FW Filip Hološko
25 Turkey MF Uğur İnceman
27 Italy DF Matteo Ferrari
28 Germany MF Fabian Ernst
29 Turkey MF Yusuf Şimşek
57 Austria GK Ramazan Özcan
84 Turkey GK Hakan Arıkan

For the Youth Team squad, see main article: Beşiktaş J.K. PAF

Beşiktaş managers

Beşiktaş has had managers from all over Europe. Şeref Bey is the teams longest serving manager, managing the club for 14 years. The most successful manager is Gordon Milne, winning the league 3 times in a row and other trophies.[11]

Manager Years
Turkey Mustafa Denizli 2008–present
Turkey Ertuğrul Sağlam 2007–2008
France Jean Tigana 2005–2007
Turkey Rıza Çalımbay 2005
Spain Vicente Del Bosque 2004–2005
Romania Mircea Lucescu 2002–2004
Germany Christoph Daum 2001–2002
Italy Nevio Scala 2000–2001
Germany Hans-Peter Briegel 1999–2000
Germany Karl-Heinz Feldkamp 1998–1999
Wales John Benjamin Toshack 1997–1998
Turkey Rasim Kara 1996–1997
Germany Christoph Daum 1993–1996
England Gordon Milne 1987–1993
Yugoslavia Miloš Milutinović 1986–1987
Yugoslavia Branko Stanković 1984–1986
Turkey Ziya Taner 1983–1984
Yugoslavia Đorđe Milić 1980–1983
Manager Years
Turkey Metin Türel 1980
Turkey Serpil Hamdi Tüzün 1979–1980
Turkey Dogan Andaç 1978–1979
Yugoslavia Miloš Milutinović 1977–1978
Turkey İsmet Arıkan 1977
Turkey Gündüz Tekin Onay 1975–1976
Germany Horst Buhtz 1974–1975
Turkey Metin Türel 1973–1974
Turkey Abdullah Gegiç 1972–1973
Turkey Gündüz Kılıç 1971–1972
Romania Dumitru Teodorescu 1970–1971
Yugoslavia Milovan Ćirić 1969–1970
Bulgaria Krum Milev 1968–1969
Yugoslavia Jane Janevski 1967–1968
Yugoslavia Ljubiša Spajić 1964–1967
Austria Ernst Melchior 1963–1964
Yugoslavia Ljubiša Spajić 1962–1963
Hungary Andrea Kutik 1961–1962
Turkey Şeref Görkey 1961
Manager Years
Italy Sandro Puppo 1960–1961
Hungary Andrea Kutik 1959–1960
Turkey Hüseyin Saygun 1959
Italy Leandro Remondini 1957–1958
Turkey Esref Bilgiç 1957
Hungary József Mészaros 1956–1957
Turkey Cihat Arman 1955–1956
Italy Sandro Puppo 1953–1954
Turkey Sadri Usuoğlu 1952–1953
England Alfred Cable 1951–1952
Turkey Hakkı Yeten 1950–1951
England Eric Keen 1949–1950
Turkey Hakkı Yeten 1949
Italy Giuseppe Meazza 1948–1949
Turkey Refik Osman Top 1946–1948
England Charles Howard 1944–1946
Turkey Refik Osman Top 1935–1944
Hungary Imre Zinger 1925–1935
Turkey Şeref Bey 1911–1925


According to official web site.[12]

  • Turkey Mehmet Şamil Osmanoğlu (1903–1908)
  • Turkey Şükrü Paşa (1908–1911)
  • Turkey Fuat Paşa (1911–1918)
  • Turkey Fuat Balkan (1918–1923)
  • Turkey Salih Bey (1923–1924)
  • Turkey Ahmet Fetgeri Aşeni (1924–1926)
  • Turkey Fuat Balkan (1926–1928)
  • Turkey Ahmet Fetgeri Aşeni (1928–1930)
  • Turkey Emin Şükrü Kurt (1930–1932)
  • Turkey Abdülkadir Ziya Karamürsel (1932–1935)
  • Turkey Fuat Balkan (1935–1938)
  • Turkey Abdülkadir Ziya Karamürsel (1938–1939)
  • Turkey Yusuf Ziya Erdem (1939–1941)
  • Turkey Abdülkadir Ziya Karamürsel (1941–1942)
  • Turkey Abdullah Ziya Kozanoğlu (1942–1950)
  • Turkey Ekrem Amaç (1950)
  • Turkey Salih Fuat Keçeci (1950–1952)
  • Turkey Abdullah Ziya Kozanoğlu (1952–1955)
  • Turkey Tahir Sögütlü (1955–1956)
  • Turkey Danyal Akbel (1956–1957)
  • Turkey Ferhat Nasır (1957)
  • Turkey Nuri Togay (1957–1958)
  • Turkey Enver Kaya (1958)
  • Turkey Nuri Togay (1959–1960)
  • Turkey Hakkı Yeten (1960–1963)
  • Turkey Selahattin Akel (1963–1964)
  • Turkey Hakkı Yeten (1964–1966)
  • Turkey Hasan Salman (1966–1967)
  • Turkey Hakkı Yeten (1967–1968)
  • Turkey Talat Asal (1968–1969)
  • Turkey Rüştü Erkuş (1969–1970)
  • Turkey Nuri Togay (1970)
  • Turkey Agasi Şen (1970–1971)
  • Turkey Himmet Ünlü (1971–1972)
  • Turkey Şekip Okçuoğlu (1972–1973)
  • Turkey Mehmet Üstünkaya (1973–1977)
  • Turkey Şevket Belgin (1977)
  • Turkey Gazi Akınal (1977–1979)
  • Turkey Hüseyin Cevahir (1979)
  • Turkey Gazi Akınal (1979–1980)
  • Turkey Rıza Kumruoğlu (1980–1981)
  • Turkey Mehmet Üstünkaya (1981–1984)
  • Turkey Süleyman Seba (1984–2000)
  • Turkey Serdar Bilgili (2000–2004)
  • Turkey Yıldırım Demirören (2004–)


Beşiktaş have one of the biggest number of supporters population alongside Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe.[13] There are also many groups supporting Beşiktaş. Çarşı is the most known group among the others with its international prominence.[14][15] They are famous[16] for creative chants and sociopolitical banners.[citation needed] However, the group is under discussions recently, after the declaration of the conclusion of the group.[17]


  1. ^ a b c "Turkish Football Federation (TFF) Information Pages (2008–2009 Season)". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
  2. ^ "Branches, Football". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Basketball". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Volleyball". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Handball". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Athletics". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Boxing". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Wrestling". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Chess". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Cards Bridge". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Gymnastics". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Rowing". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Table Tennis". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Disabled Sports". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
  3. ^ "Kulübümüz >> BJK İnönü Stadı (Eng: Our Club: BJK Inonu Stadium)". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
  4. ^ "Pele 'Beşiktaş' dedi (Eng: Pele said: "Beşiktaş")". NTVMSNBC website. 20 October 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2007. 
  5. ^ "Denizlispor:1 - Beşiktaş:2". 30 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  6. ^ 1991–92 football season ranking "1991–92 League Ranking". 1991–92 football season ranking. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  7. ^ "1991–92 League Ranking". Turkish Football Association. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  8. ^ "Besiktas – Adana Demirspor : 10-0". Beskitas Official Website. 1 November 2005. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  9. ^ "Basarilarimiz (Eng: Our Achievements)". Beskitas Official Website. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  10. ^ The top ten football stadiums Times Online, 9 August 2009
  12. ^ Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü
  13. ^ "En çok taraftarı olan takım hangisi?". 5 January 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2008. (Turkish)
  14. ^ "Çarşı Kendine de Karşı!". 28 May 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2008. (Turkish)
  15. ^ Turkish Daily News – Bloody conflict in Beşiktaş fan group
  16. ^ ZAMAN – Çarşı'nın içindeki kavga ölümle bitti (Eng: The Fight in Carsi Ended Up With Death)(Turkish)
  17. ^ "Beşiktaş’ın Taraftar Grubu “Çarşı” Kendini Feshetti.". 28 May 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2008. (Turkish)

External links

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