The Full Wiki

Beauty pageant: Wikis

Advertisements
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Beauty pageant

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Beauty contest article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A beauty contest, or beauty pageant, is a competition based mainly on the physical beauty of its contestants, although such contests often incorporate personality, talent, and answers to judges' questions as judged criteria. The phrase almost invariably refers only to contests for women; similar events for men are called by other names and are more likely to be "body building" contests. Winners of beauty contests are often called beauty queens.

Contents

History

Choosing symbolic kings and queens for May Day and other festivities is an ancient custom in Europe in which beautiful young women symbolized their nations' virtues and other abstract ideas. The first modern American pageant was staged by P. T. Barnum in 1854, but his beauty contest was closed down by public protest. He previously held dog, baby, and bird beauty contests. He substituted daguerreotypes for judging, a practice quickly adopted by newspapers. Newspapers held photo beauty contests for many decades: In 1880, the first “Bathing Beauty Pageant" took place as part of a summer festival to promote business in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware.

Contests became a regular part of summer beach life, with the most elaborate contests taking place in Atlantic City, New Jersey (“Fall Frolic”) and Galveston, Texas ("Splash Day"), where the events attracted women from many cities and towns.[1]

Advertisements

Purpose

Back when beauty pageants first started, they were viewed as “trivial events whose interpretation required no scholarly effort.”[citation needed] Miss America, the first pageant of its kind, has made an effort to ensure that it does not appear as a "stereotypical" pageant. The competition emphasizes the different aspects of women and highlights their personal successes. They strive to give these women the opportunity to rise to the top. Pageant participants return to their hometowns and promote community involvement.[citation needed]

As of recently, anyone of any race or color can enter in them.[citation needed] Of course, they do have some racial specific pageants, such as Miss Black America, or Miss Indian America, but generally, all of the contestants come from different backgrounds. Multiculturalism is a widely viewed aspect in pageants.

Another goal of pageants is promoting self-esteem of the contestants. Girls that compete feel a sense of belonging with the other contestants, and the larger pageant community. The pageant offers “not just a place, but a particular way and stringently limited terms with which to negotiate a sense of self.”[citation needed]

The skills learned in pageants have been said to last for a lifetime. Contestants gain the ability to speak in public, and a sense of confidence in themselves. Winners of these pageants have said that feel they have a sense of accomplishment.[citation needed]

Discrimination against women

According to a feminist writing of history, women were obligated to take the man’s place in society during the war period. They had to do all of the work that the men left behind. The women quickly had to learn how to take care of themselves, and be more individual. The women grew to be very helpful in leading the beginnings of the Roaring Twenties.

In 1921, Atlantic City hoteliers decided to take advantage of the women’s newfound role in society. They created a bathing suit beauty contest as a marketing tool to get vacationers to stay past Labor Day weekend. The grand prize were photo entries to the local Eastern newspapers, not to mention the recognition they received for their beauty.

This beauty contest boomed. More contestants kept entering, elevating it from a contest to a pageant. There soon was a contestant from every state, including the Washington D.C. area, where the first winner of the Miss America title represented. The pageant adopted more and more rules, introducing the evening gown competition and the talent competition. Not only did the contestants have to be beautiful, but they also had to be smart and talented.

In the 1940s, women had this “wannabe” caricature of having the “correct” stereotype, anxieties, and desires. Women strived to be perfect, not accepting anything else. The middle-class cultural style was rejected. They had different types of everything from the men. They had access to only certain jobs, and compensation for work. Nothing was readily available to them like the luxury men had.

When Pearl Harbor hit, pageants took a hard hit too and didn’t have high hopes of surviving. They then implemented a scholarship reward in some pageants to keep the girls then, and now, interested. The scholarship money could be put in going to school, or starting a career.

Pageantry growing up

More and more pageants kept being created after the conclusion, of some pageant directors, that they turned girls into women. They aligned themselves with many clubs to raise money for charities worldwide to gain public approval, and not to have the reputation of “another beauty pageant.” They now refer to those “clubs” that each contestant supports as “platforms.”

By the 1960’s, pageantry took off. Women were becoming more and more educated, and more viewed in the public eye. Six more pageants became established; Miss USA, Miss World, Miss Universe, Miss Teenage American Pageant, Miss National Teen-ager, and the Miss Teen All America Pageant. The winners of these pageants became role models for little girls and teens. The key role in being a queen was to understand and support topical issues. The winners especially were the women who the girls looked up to the most. They needed to be someone who girls could connect with and apply their lives to. They are now considered an "exemplar of cultural flow."

International Pageant of Pulchritude

In May 1920 promoter C.E. Barfield of Galveston organized a new event known as "Splash Day" on the island. The event featured a "Bathing Girl Revue" competition as the centerpiece of its attractions.[2][1][3] The event was the kick-off of the summer tourist season in the city and was carried forward annually. The event quickly became known outside of Texas and, beginning in 1926, the world's first international contest was added, known as the "International Pageant of Pulchritude."[2] This contest is said to have served as a model for modern pageants.[3][4][5] It featured contestants from England, Russia, Turkey, and many other nations and the title awarded at the time was known as "Miss Universe."[3][6] The event was discontinued in the United States in 1932 because of the Depression (the international competition was revived briefly in Belgium).

Miss America and beyond

The modern beauty pageant's origin is traceable to the Miss America Pageant,[citation needed] which was first held in Atlantic City in 1921, under the title "Inter-City Beauty Contest." The Miss America Pageant eventually included preliminary eliminations, an evening gown competition, musical variety shows, and judging by panel. Still, the contest was at first shunned by middle-class society. Pageants did not become respectable until World War II, when "beauty queens" were recruited to sell bonds and to entertain troops. Scholarships and talent competitions evoked even closer scrutiny of contestants’ morals and backgrounds. The Miss America Pageant is the largest provider of college scholarships for women in the world.

Around the globe

Major international contests for women include the yearly Miss World competition (founded by Eric Morley in 1951), Miss Universe (founded in 1952), Miss International (founded in 1960) and Miss Earth (founded in 2001 with environmental awareness as its concern). These are considered the "Grand Slam" or "Big Four" pageants, the four largest and most famous international beauty contests. Minor contests, such as the Miss Bondi contest in Australia, are common throughout the world in the summer months. During the 1950s, pageants thrived to promote county fairs and local products. For example, some of Raquel Welch's titles included "Miss Photogenic" and "Miss Contour." Women from around the world participate each year in local competitions for the chance to represent their country's international title.

2002 was a year remarkable for its number of winners from counties with a majority Muslim population. In that year Miss Lebanon, Christina Sawaya won the Miss International pageant, Miss Turkey, Azra Akın won Miss World, and the original winner of Miss Earth for that year was Džejla Glavović from Bosnia and Herzegovina (before being replaced by Winfred Omwakwe of Kenya). In 2006, the Muslim nation of Pakistan crowned its first Miss Bikini Universe, Mariyah Moten, which later became a controversy worldwide.

Selecting a "beauty queen"

Beauty pageants are generally multi-tiered and popular, with local competitions feeding into the larger competitions. The worldwide pageants, thus, require hundreds, sometimes thousands, of local competitions. In the United States, there is now a commercial beauty pageant industry that organizes thousands of local and regional events for all ages for profit supported by magazines like The Crown Magazine and Pride of Pageantry.

The typical perception of a beauty pageant is that it occurs once a year, has women of a petite frame, the event is live on stage, and that a talent is involved somehow. Particularly with the advent of the internet, this perception has changed drastically. Although they are not "live," Internet and mail-in pageants have provided a plethora of entertainment to those who compete and an opportunity not available to those unable or hesitant to travel.

Size no longer is a limiting factor as many competitions espouse the goal of "natural" beauty. There are also more and more pageants, which are dedicated to the "plus sized" delegate. While a size 14-16 may be considered a traditional plus-size in the US, in the pageant world a size 6-8 may be considered as plus depending upon the pageant system.

Although the selection of a Beauty Queen is thought to be an annual event, there are no hard and fast rules as to the frequency of selection. Pageants have also changed dates and frequency based upon the needs of the Organization. Take for instance, Miss America. For decades, Miss America was held during the fall with the pageant usually occurring in September. Recently, the date changed to January. This produced a term of greater than a year length for that Miss America.

On the other hand, some terms have been shortened due to needs of the Organization. For example, during its formative years, the Mrs. United Nation Pageant had several seasonal changes with some Queens holding a term of less than a year.

There are other pageants who take a totally different approach altogether. Particularly in reference to on-line photogenic pageants, there are competitions in which a winner is chosen on a monthly or even weekly basis. There are those who will take each of these as a "preliminary winner" with the intent upon a "final" competition at some later date. Others treat each of these as a "final" winner and provide a title.

Regardless of the method of competition, break down of scores or frequency of selection, all are defined as "entertainment in the form of a beauty pageant." It is up to the individual to determine which is best suited for competition or of particular entertainment interest.

Criticism

Critics of beauty contests argue that such contests reinforce the idea that (usually young) women should be valued primarily for their physical appearance, and that this puts tremendous pressure on women to “be beautiful” by spending time and money on fashion, cosmetics, hair styling and even cosmetic surgery. This pursuit of physical beauty even encourages some women to diet to the point of harming themselves.[7]

Although some competitions have components that are not based purely on physical appearance, “unattractive” contestants are unlikely to win, no matter how talented, poised, intelligent, educated, resourceful or socially conscious they are. Rather than providing women with opportunities, it can be argued that beauty contests hurt the prospects of women who do not fit the current cultural ideal of beauty, because these contests promote the idea that those who fit this ideal are “better” than those who do not. And some pageants require a swimsuit for a portion of the competition, which emphasizes the physical bodies of women, some claim in undressed state.

Big Four winners

Year Miss World Miss Universe Miss International Miss Earth
1951 Sweden Kicki Håkonsson None None None
1952 Sweden May Louise Flodin Finland Armi Kuusela None None
1953 France Denise Perrier France Christiane Martel None None
1954 Egypt Antigone Costanda United States Miriam Stevenson None None
1955 Venezuela Susana Duijm Sweden Hillevi Rombin None None
1956 Germany Petra Schürmann United States Carol Morris None None
1957 Finland Marita Lindahl Peru Gladys Zender None None
1958 South Africa Penelope Coelen Colombia Luz Marina Zuluaga None None
1959 Netherlands Corine Rottschäfer Japan Akiko Kojima None None
1960 Argentina Norma Cappagli United States Linda Bement Colombia Stella Márquez None
1961 United Kingdom Rosemarie Frankland Germany Marlene Schmidt Netherlands Stam van Baer None
1962 Netherlands Catharina Lodders Argentina Norma Nolan Australia Tania Verstak None
1963 Jamaica Carole Crawford Brazil Ieda Maria Vargas Iceland Guðrún Bjarnadóttir None
1964 United Kingdom Ann Sydney Greece Corinna Tsopei Philippines Gemma Cruz None
1965 United Kingdom Lesley Langley Thailand Apasra Hongsakula Germany Ingrid Finger None
1966 India Reita Faria Sweden Margareta Arvidsson None None
1967 Peru Madeleine Hartog Bell United States Sylvia Hitchcock Argentina Mirta Massa None
1968 Australia Penelope Plummer Brazil Martha Vasconcellos Brazil Maria da Gloria Carvalho None
1969 Austria Eva Reuber Staier Philippines Gloria Diaz United Kingdom Valerie Holmes None
1970 Grenada Jennifer Hosten Puerto Rico Marisol Malaret Philippines Aurora Pijuan None
1971 Brazil Lúcia Petterle Lebanon Georgina Rizk New Zealand Jane Hansen None
1972 Australia Belinda Green Australia Kerry Anne Wells United Kingdom Linda Hooks None
1973 United States Marjorie Wallace Philippines Margarita Moran Finland Anneli Björkling None
1974 South Africa Anneline Kriel Spain Amparo Muñoz United States Karen Brucene Smith None
1975 Puerto Rico Wilnelia Merced Finland Anne Marie Pohtamo Yugoslavia Ladija Manić None
1976 Jamaica Cindy Breakspeare Israel Rina Messinger France Sophie Perin None
1977 Sweden Mary Stävin Trinidad and Tobago Janelle Commissiong Spain Pilar Medina None
1978 Argentina Silvana Suárez South Africa Margaret Gardiner United States Katherine Ruth None
1979 Bermuda Gina Swainson Venezuela Maritza Sayalero Philippines Melanie Marquez None
1980 Guam Kimberley Santos United States Shawn Weatherly Costa Rica Lorna Chávez None
1981 Venezuela Pilín León Venezuela Irene Sáez Australia Jenny Derck None
1982 Dominican Republic Mariasela Álvarez Canada Karen Dianne Baldwin United States Christie Claridge None
1983 United Kingdom Sarah-Jane Hutt New Zealand Lorraine Downes Costa Rica Gidget Sandoval None
1984 Venezuela Astrid Carolina Herrera Sweden Yvonne Ryding Guatemala Ilma Urrutia None
1985 Iceland Hólmfríður Karlsdóttir Puerto Rico Deborah Carthy Deu Venezuela Nina Sicilia None
1986 Trinidad and Tobago Giselle Laronde Venezuela Bárbara Palacios United Kingdom Helen Fairbrother None
1987 Austria Ulla Weigerstorfer Chile Cecilia Bolocco Puerto Rico Laurie Tamara Simpson None
1988 Iceland Linda Pétursdóttir Thailand Porntip Nakhirunkanok Norway Catherine Gude None
1989 Poland Aneta Kręglicka Netherlands Angela Visser Germany Iris Klein None
1990 United States Gina Tolleson Norway Mona Grudt Spain Silvia de Esteban None
1991 Venezuela Ninibeth Leal Mexico Lupita Jones Poland Agnieszka Kotlarska None
1992 Russia Julia Kourotchkina Namibia Michelle McLean Australia Kirsten Davidson None
1993 Jamaica Lisa Hanna Puerto Rico Dayanara Torres Poland Agnieszka Pachałko None
1994 India Aishwarya Rai India Sushmita Sen Greece Christina Lekka None
1995 Venezuela Jacqueline Aguilera United States Chelsi Smith Norway Anne Lena Hansen None
1996 Greece Irene Skliva Venezuela Alicia Machado Portugal Fernanda Alves None
1997 India Diana Hayden United States Brook Lee Venezuela Consuelo Adler None
1998 Israel Linor Abargil Trinidad and Tobago Wendy Fitzwilliam Panama Lía Borrero None
1999 India Yukta Mookhey Botswana Mpule Kwelagobe Colombia Paulina Gálvez None
2000 India Priyanka Chopra India Lara Dutta Venezuela Vivian Urdaneta None
2001 Nigeria Agbani Darego Puerto Rico Denise Quiñones Poland Małgorzata Rożniecka Denmark Catharina Svensson
2002 Turkey Azra Akın Panama Justine Pasek Lebanon Christina Sawaya Kenya Winfred Omwakwe
2003 Republic of Ireland Rosanna Davison Dominican Republic Amelia Vega Venezuela Goizeder Azúa Honduras Dania Prince
2004 Peru María Julia Mantilla Australia Jennifer Hawkins Colombia Jeymmy Vargas Brazil Priscilla Meirelles
2005 Iceland Unnur Vilhjálmsdóttir Canada Natalie Glebova Philippines Precious Lara Quigaman Venezuela Alexandra Braun
2006 Czech Republic Taťána Kuchařová Puerto Rico Zuleyka Rivera Venezuela Daniela di Giacomo Chile Hil Hernández
2007 People's Republic of China Zhang Zilin Japan Riyo Mori Mexico Priscila Perales Canada Jessica Trisko
2008 Russia Ksenia Sukhinova Venezuela Dayana Mendoza Spain Alejandra Andreu Philippines Karla Henry
2009 Gibraltar Kaiane Aldorino Venezuela Stefania Fernández Mexico Anagabriela Espinoza Brazil Larissa Ramos


     The country won more than one of the "Big Four" pageants in the same year.

Resigns

Year Pageant Original winner Replacement
1952 Miss Universe Finland Armi Helena Kuusela Hawaii Elza Edsman
1973 Miss World United States Marjorie Wallace Philippines Evangeline Pascual
1974 Miss Universe Spain Amparo Muñoz Wales Helen Morgan
1974 Miss World United Kingdom Helen Morgan South Africa Anneline Kriel
1980 Miss World West Germany Gabriella Brum Guam Kimberley Santos
2002 Miss Universe Russia Oxana Fedorova Panama Justine Pasek
2002 Miss Earth Bosnia and Herzegovina Džejla Glavović Kenya Winfred Omwakwe
  • Elza Edsman was not offered due the short time to the following coronation.
  • Evangeline Pascual refused the offer. No other delegate was offered.
  • Helen Morgan was not offered because she had just won and was dethroned as Miss World.

See also

References

  1. Sones, Michael. "History of the Beauty Pageant." Beauty Worlds: The Culture of Beauty (2003): n. pag. Web. 4 Nov 2009. http://www.beautyworlds.com/beautypageant
  2. Liben, Lynn S., Rebecca S. Bigler, Diane N Ruble, Carol Lynn Martin, and Kimberly K. Powlishta. "Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Evaluating Constructs and Pathways." Developmental Course of Gender Differentiation. 67.2 i-183. Print.
  3. Harvey, Adia M. "Becoming Entrepreneurs: Intersections of Race, Class, and Gender at the Black Beauty Salon." Gender and Society. 19.6 (2005): 789-808. Print.
  4. Craig, Maxine. "The Most Beautiful Girl in the World: Beauty Pageants and National Identity.." American Journal of Sociology. 105.6 (2000): 1805-1806. Print.

5. Wilk, Richard. "The Local and the Global in the Political Economy of Beauty: From Miss Belize to Miss World." Review of International Political Economy. 2.1 (1995): 117-134. Print.

6. Burgess, Zena, and Phyllis Tharenou. "Women Board Directors: Characteristics of the Few." Journal of Business Ethics. 37.1 (2002): 39-49. Print.

7. Huffman, Matt L., and Philip N. Cohen. "Occupational Segregation and the Gender Gap in Workplace Authority: National versus Local Labor Markets." Sociological Forum. 19.1 (2004): 121-147. Print.

8. Ciborra, Claudio U. "The Platform Organization: Recombining Strategies, Structures, and Surprises." Organization Science. 7.2 (1996): 103-118. Print.

9. Lamsa, Anna-Maija, and Teppo Sintonen. "A Discursive Approach to Understanding Women Leaders in Working Life." Journal of Business Ethics. 34.3/4 (2001): 255-267. Print.

10. Bell, Myrtle P., Mary E. McLaughlin, and Jennifer M. Sequeira. "Discrimination, Harassment, and the Glass Ceiling: Women Executives as Change Agents." Journal of Business Ethics. 37.1 (2002): 65-76. Print.

Notes

External links


A beauty contest, or beauty pageant, is a competition based mainly on the physical beauty of its contestants, although such contests often incorporate personality, talent, and answers to judges' questions as judged criteria. The phrase almost invariably refers only to contests for women; similar events for men are called by other names and are more likely to be "body building" contests. Winners of beauty contests are often called beauty queens.

Contents

History

Choosing symbolic kings and queens for May Day and other festivities is an ancient custom in Europe in which beautiful young women symbolized their nations' virtues and other abstract ideas. At the Eglinton Tournament of 1839 - a re-enactment of a medieval joust and revel held in Scotland in which many distinguished guests took part and which gained much public attention at the time - a Queen of Beauty was chosen, Georgiana Sheridan, the wife of Edward Seymour, 12th Duke of Somerset and sister of noted author Caroline Norton.

The first modern American pageant was staged by P. T. Barnum in 1854, but his beauty contest was closed down by public protest. He previously held dog, baby, and bird beauty contests. He substituted daguerreotypes for judging, a practice quickly adopted by newspapers. Newspapers held photo beauty contests for many decades: In 1880, the first “Bathing Beauty Pageant" took place as part of a summer festival to promote business in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware.

Contests became a regular part of summer beach life, with the most elaborate contests taking place in Atlantic City, New Jersey (“Fall Frolic”) and Galveston, Texas ("Splash Day"), where the events attracted women from many cities and towns.[1]

Purpose

Back when beauty pageants first started, they were viewed as “trivial events whose interpretation required no scholarly effort.”[citation needed] Miss America, the first pageant of its kind, has made an effort to ensure that it does not appear as a "stereotypical" pageant. The competition emphasizes the different aspects of women and highlights their personal successes. They strive to give these women the opportunity to rise to the top. Pageant participants return to their hometowns and promote community involvement.[citation needed]

As of recently, anyone of any race or color can enter in them.[citation needed] Of course, they do have some racial specific pageants, such as Miss Black America, or Miss Indian America, Miss Deccan but generally, all of the contestants come from different backgrounds. Multiculturalism is a widely viewed aspect in pageants.

Another goal of pageants is promoting self-esteem of the contestants. Girls that compete feel a sense of belonging with the other contestants, and the larger pageant community. The pageant offers “not just a place, but a particular way and stringently limited terms with which to negotiate a sense of self.”[citation needed]

The skills learned in pageants have been said to last for a lifetime. Contestants gain the ability to speak in public, and a sense of confidence in themselves. Winners of these pageants have said that feel they have a sense of accomplishment.[citation needed]

Pageantry growing up

More and more pageants were created because some pageant directors concluded that pageants turned girls into women. They aligned themselves with many clubs to raise money for charities. This was done to gain public approval and to dispel the reputation of being “just another beauty pageant.” They now refer to those “clubs” that each contestant supports as “platforms.”

By the 1960s, pageantry took off. Women were becoming more and more educated, and more viewed in the public eye. Six more pageants became established; Miss USA, Miss World, Miss Universe, Miss Teenage American Pageant, Miss National Teen-ager, and the Miss Teen All America Pageant. The winners of these pageants became role models for little girls and teens. The key role in being a queen was to understand and support topical issues. The winners especially were the women who the girls looked up to the most. They needed to be someone who girls could connect with and apply their lives to. They are now considered an "exemplar of cultural flow." Pageants like the Miss Teenage California Scholarship Pageant do not have a swimsuit competition and award thousands in college scholarships.

International Pageant of Pulchritude

In May 1920 promoter C.E. Barfield of Galveston organized a new event known as "Splash Day" on the island. The event featured a "Bathing Girl Revue" competition as the centerpiece of its attractions.[1][2][3] The event was the kick-off of the summer tourist season in the city and was carried forward annually. The event quickly became known outside of Texas and, beginning in 1926, the world's first international contest was added, known as the "International Pageant of Pulchritude."[2] This contest is said to have served as a model for modern pageants.[3][4][5] It featured contestants from England, Russia, Turkey, and many other nations and the title awarded at the time was known as "Miss Universe."[3][6] The event was discontinued in the United States in 1932 because of the Depression (the international competition was revived briefly in Belgium).

Miss America and beyond

The modern beauty pageant's origin is traceable to the Miss America pageant,[citation needed] which was first held in Atlantic City in 1921, under the title "Inter-City Beauty Contest." The Miss America Pageant eventually included preliminary eliminations, an evening gown competition, musical variety shows, and judging by panel.[dubious ] Still, the contest was at first shunned by middle-class society. Pageants did not become respectable until World War II, when "beauty queens" were recruited to sell bonds and to entertain troops. Scholarships and talent competitions evoked even closer scrutiny of contestants’ morals and backgrounds. The Miss America Pageant is the largest provider of college scholarships for women in the world.

Around the globe

Major international contests for women include the yearly Miss World competition (founded by Eric Morley in 1951), Miss Universe (founded in 1952), Miss International (founded in 1960) and Miss Earth (founded in 2001 with environmental awareness as its concern). These are considered the "Grand Slam" or "Big Four" pageants, the four largest and most famous international beauty contests. Minor contests, such as the Miss Bondi contest in Australia, are common throughout the world in the summer months. During the 1950s, pageants thrived to promote county fairs and local products. For example, some of Raquel Welch's titles included " Maid of San Diego County", " Maid of California" "Miss Photogenic" and "Miss Contour." Women from around the world participate each year in local competitions for the chance to represent their country's international title.

2002 was a year remarkable for its number of winners from countries with a majority Muslim population. In that year Miss Lebanon, Christina Sawaya won the Miss International pageant, Miss Turkey, Azra Akın won Miss World, and the original winner of Miss Earth for that year was Džejla Glavović from Bosnia and Herzegovina (before being replaced by Winfred Omwakwe of Kenya). In 2006, the Muslim nation of Pakistan crowned its first Miss Bikini Universe, Mariyah Moten, which later became a controversy worldwide.

Selecting a "beauty queen"

Beauty pageants are generally multi-tiered and popular, with local competitions feeding into the larger competitions. The worldwide pageants, thus, require hundreds, sometimes thousands, of local competitions. In the United States, there is now a commercial beauty pageant industry that organizes thousands of local and regional events for all ages for profit supported by magazines like The Crown Magazine and Pride of Pageantry.

The typical perception of a beauty pageant is that it occurs once a year, has women of a petite frame, the event is live on stage, and that a talent is involved somehow. Particularly with the advent of the internet, this perception has changed drastically. Although they are not "live," Internet and mail-in pageants have provided a plethora of entertainment to those who compete and an opportunity not available to those unable or hesitant to travel.

Size no longer is a limiting factor as many competitions espouse the goal of "natural" beauty. There are also more and more pageants, which are dedicated to the "plus sized" delegate. While a size 14-16 may be considered a traditional plus-size in the US, in the pageant world a size 6-8 may be considered as plus depending upon the pageant system.

Although the selection of a Beauty Queen is thought to be an annual event, there are no hard and fast rules as to the frequency of selection. Pageants have also changed dates and frequency based upon the needs of the Organization. Take for instance, Miss America. For decades, Miss America was held during the fall with the pageant usually occurring in September. Recently, the date changed to January. This produced a term of greater than a year length for that Miss America.

On the other hand, some terms have been shortened due to needs of the Organization. For example, during its formative years, the Mrs. United Nation Pageant had several seasonal changes with some Queens holding a term of less than a year.

There are other pageants who take a totally different approach altogether. Particularly in reference to on-line photogenic pageants, there are competitions in which a winner is chosen on a monthly or even weekly basis. There are those who will take each of these as a "preliminary winner" with the intent upon a "final" competition at some later date. Others treat each of these as a "final" winner and provide a title.

Regardless of the method of competition, break down of scores or frequency of selection, all are defined as "entertainment in the form of a beauty pageant." It is up to the individual to determine which is best suited for competition or of particular entertainment interest.

Criticism

Critics of beauty contests argue that such contests reinforce the idea that (usually young) women should be valued primarily for their physical appearance, and that this puts tremendous pressure on women to “be beautiful” by spending time and money on fashion, cosmetics, hair styling and even cosmetic surgery. This pursuit of physical beauty even encourages some women to diet to the point of harming themselves.[7][8][9]

Although some competitions have components that are not based purely on physical appearance, “unattractive” contestants are unlikely to win, no matter how talented, poised, intelligent, educated, resourceful or socially conscious they are. Rather than providing women with opportunities, it can be argued that beauty contests hurt the prospects of women who do not fit the current cultural ideal of beauty, because these contests promote the idea that those who fit this ideal are “better” than those who do not. And some pageants require a swimsuit for a portion of the competition, which emphasizes the physical bodies of women, some claim in undressed state.

Winners of notable international pageants

Year Miss Universe Miss World Miss International Miss Earth
2010 Ximena Navarrete
2009 Stefanía Fernández Kaiane Aldorino Anagabriela Espinoza Larissa Ramos
2008 Dayana Mendoza Ksenia Sukhinova Alejandra Andreu Karla Henry
2007 Template:Country data Japan Riyo Mori File:Flag of the People' Zhang Zilin Priscila Perales Jessica Trisko
2006 Zuleyka Rivera Taťána Kuchařová Daniela di Giacomo Hil Hernández
2005 Natalie Glebova Template:Country data Iceland Unnur Vilhjálmsdóttir Precious Lara Quigaman Alexandra Braun
2004 Jennifer Hawkins María Julia Mantilla Jeymmy Vargas Priscilla Meirelles
2003 Amelia Vega Rosanna Davison Goizeder Azúa Template:Country data Honduras Dania Prince
2002 Oxana Fedorova (dethroned) Azra Akın Christina Sawaya Džejla Glavović (dethroned)
Justine Pasek (successor) Template:Country data Kenya Winfred Omwakwe (successor)
2001 Denise Quiñones Agbani Darego Małgorzata Rożniecka Catharina Svensson
2000 Template:Country data India Lara Dutta Template:Country data India Priyanka Chopra Vivian Urdaneta
1999 Mpule Kwelagobe Template:Country data India Yukta Mookhey Paulina Gálvez
1998 Wendy Fitzwilliam Template:Country data Israel Linor Abargil Lía Borrero
1997 Brook Lee Template:Country data India Diana Hayden Consuelo Adler
1996 Alicia Machado Irene Skliva Fernanda Alves
1995 Chelsi Smith Jacqueline Aguilera Anne Lena Hansen
1994 Template:Country data India Sushmita Sen Template:Country data India Aishwarya Rai Christina Lekka
1993 Dayanara Torres Template:Country data Jamaica Lisa Hanna Agnieszka Pachałko
1992 Michelle McLean Julia Kourotchkina Kirsten Davidson
1991 Lupita Jones Ninibeth Leal Agnieszka Kotlarska
1990 Mona Grudt Gina Tolleson Silvia de Esteban
1989 Angela Visser Aneta Kręglicka Iris Klein
1988 Porntip Nakhirunkanok Template:Country data Iceland Linda Pétursdóttir Catherine Alexandra Gude
1987 Cecilia Bolocco Ulla Weigerstorfer Laurie Tamara Simpson
1986 Bárbara Palacios Giselle Laronde Helen Fairbrother
1985 Deborah Carthy Deu Template:Country data Iceland Hólmfríður Karlsdóttir Nina Sicilia
1984 Yvonne Ryding Astrid Carolina Herrera Ilma Urrutia
1983 Lorraine Downes Sarah-Jane Hutt Gidget Sandoval
1982 Karen Dianne Baldwin Mariasela Álvarez Christie Claridge
1981 Irene Sáez Pilín León Jenny Derek
1980 Shawn Weatherly Gabriella Brum (resigned) Lorna Chávez
Kimberley Santos (successor)
1979 Maritza Sayalero Gina Swainson Mimilanie Marquez
1978 Margaret Gardiner Silvana Suárez Katherine Ruth
1977 Janelle Commissiong Mary Stävin Pilar Medina
1976 Template:Country data Israel Rina Messinger Template:Country data Jamaica Cindy Breakspeare Sophie Perin
1975 Anne Marie Pohtamo Wilnelia Merced Ladija Manić
1974 Amparo Muñoz Helen Morgan (resigned) Karen Brucene Smith
Anneline Kriel (successor)
1973 Margarita Moran Marjorie Wallace Anneli Björkling
1972 Kerry Anne Wells Belinda Green Linda Hooks
1971 Georgina Rizk Lúcia Petterle Jane Hansen
1970 Marisol Malaret Jennifer Hosten Aurora Pijuan
1969 Gloria Diaz Eva Reuber Staier Valerie Holmes
1968 Martha Vasconcellos Penelope Plummer Maria da Gloria Carvalho
1967 Sylvia Hitchcock Madeleine Hartog Bell Mirta Massa
1966 Margareta Arvidsson Template:Country data India Reita Faria
1965 Apasra Hongsakula Lesley Langley Ingrid Finger
1964 File:Flag of Greece (1828-1978).svg Corinna Tsopei Ann Sydney Gemma Cruz
1963 Ieda Maria Vargas Template:Country data Jamaica Carole Crawford Template:Country data Iceland Guðrún Bjarnadóttir
1962 Norma Nolan Catharina Lodders Tania Verstak
1961 Marlene Schmidt Rosemarie Frankland Stam van Baer
1960 Linda Bement Norma Cappagli Stella Márquez
1959 Template:Country data Japan Akiko Kojima Corine Rottschäfer
1958 Luz Marina Zuluaga Penelope Coelen
1957 Gladys Zender Marita Lindahl
1956 Carol Morris Petra Schürmann
1955 Hillevi Rombin Susana Duijm
1954 Miriam Stevenson Antigone Costanda
1953 Christiane Martel Denise Perrier
1952 Armi Kuusela May-Louise Flodin
1951 Kicki Håkansson


     The country won more than one of these pageants in the same year.

Countries by Number of Wins

File:Big Four
Countries that have ever won one or more of the most notable international pageants
Country/Territory Titles Miss Universe Miss World Miss International Miss Earth
 Venezuela
17
6
5
5
1
 United States
12
7
2
3
 Puerto Rico
7
5
1
1
Template:Country data India
2
5
 Australia
2
2
3
 Philippines
2
4
1
 United Kingdom
5
2
 Sweden
6
3
3
 Brazil
2
1
1
2
 Finland
4
2
1
1
 Mexico
2
2
 Argentina
1
2
1
 Germany
1
2
1
 Netherlands
1
2
1
 Colombia
1
3
 Spain
1
3
Template:Country data Iceland
3
1
 Poland
1
3

See also

References

  1. Sones, Michael. "History of the Beauty Pageant." Beauty Worlds: The Culture of Beauty (2003): n. pag. Web. 4 November 2009. http://www.beautyworlds.com/beautypageant
  2. Liben, Lynn S., Rebecca S. Bigler, Diane N Ruble, Carol Lynn Martin, and Kimberly K. Powlishta. "Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Evaluating Constructs and Pathways." Developmental Course of Gender Differentiation. 67.2 i-183. Print.
  3. Harvey, Adia M. "Becoming Entrepreneurs: Intersections of Race, Class, and Gender at the Black Beauty Salon." Gender and Society. 19.6 (2005): 789-808. Print.
  4. Craig, Maxine. "The Most Beautiful Girl in the World: Beauty Pageants and National Identity.." American Journal of Sociology. 105.6 (2000): 1805-1806. Print.

5. Wilk, Richard. "The Local and the Global in the Political Economy of Beauty: From Miss Belize to Miss World." Review of International Political Economy. 2.1 (1995): 117-134. Print.

6. Burgess, Zena, and Phyllis Tharenou. "Women Board Directors: Characteristics of the Few." Journal of Business Ethics. 37.1 (2002): 39-49. Print.

7. Huffman, Matt L., and Philip N. Cohen. "Occupational Segregation and the Gender Gap in Workplace Authority: National versus Local Labor Markets." Sociological Forum. 19.1 (2004): 121-147. Print.

8. Ciborra, Claudio U. "The Platform Organization: Recombining Strategies, Structures, and Surprises." Organization Science. 7.2 (1996): 103-118. Print.

9. Lamsa, Anna-Maija, and Teppo Sintonen. "A Discursive Approach to Understanding Women Leaders in Working Life." Journal of Business Ethics. 34.3/4 (2001): 255-267. Print.

167. Bell, Myrtle P., Mary E. McLaughlin, and Jennifer M. Sequeira. "Discrimination, Harassment, and the Glass Ceiling: Women Executives as Change Agents." Journal of Business Ethics. 37.1 (2002): 65-76. Print.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Stein, Elissa (2006). Beauty Queen: Here She Comes.... Chronicle Books. p. 37. ISBN 9780811848640. http://books.google.com/?id=x98xu9DPmjEC. 
    "Revues and other Vanities: The Commodification of Fantasy in the 1920s". Assumption College. http://www1.assumption.edu/ahc/vanities/. Retrieved 2 October 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "Miss United States Began In Galveston". The Islander Magazine. 2006. http://www.theislandermagazine.com/history/february2008/missus.html. 
  3. ^ a b c Cherry, Bill (25 October 2004). "Miss America was once Pageant of Pulchritude". Galveston Daily News. http://www.galvnews.com/story.lasso?ewcd=623557678868710e&-session=TheDailyNews:4A0612E91631c3859FiIR3DFCB8A. 
  4. ^ Brown, Bridget (17 May 2009). "Isle bathing beauty tradition reborn". Galveston Daily News. http://galvestondailynews.com/story.lasso?ewcd=ca097dc8342ddcc5. 
  5. ^ Savage, Candace (1998). Beauty queens: a playful history. Abbeville. p. 33. ISBN 9781550546187. http://books.google.com/?id=x-PM9-i19aIC. 
  6. ^ The Billboard: 49. 25 September 1948. http://books.google.com/books?id=Tx4EAAAAMBAJ. 
  7. ^ "Beauty and body image in the media". Media Awareness Network. http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/women_and_girls/women_beauty.cfm. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  8. ^ "Reigning Miss Universe Suspected of Having Cosmetic Surgery". http://cosmeticsurgerytoday.wordpress.com/2009/08/29/reigning-miss-universe-suspected-of-having-cosmetic-surgery/. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  9. ^ "Plastic Surgery: Bollywood, Miss Universe, and the Indian Girl Next Door". Gujarati Magazine (Sandesh). http://www.shahfacialplastics.com/media/plastic_surgery_bollywood.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 

External links



Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message