Bedbug: Wikis

  
  
  

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Bedbug
Cimex lectularius
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Heteroptera
Infraorder: Cimicomorpha
Superfamily: Cimicoidea
Family: Cimicidae
Latreille, 1802
Subfamilies, Genera & Species
Subfamily Afrociminae
Subfamily Cimicinae
  • Genus Bertilia
  • Genus Cimex
    • Cimex adjunctus
    • Cimex antennatus
    • Cimex brevis
    • Cimex columbarius
    • Cimex incrassatus
    • Cimex latipennis
    • Cimex lectularius
    • Cimex hemipterus (C. rotundatus)
    • Cimex pilosellus
    • Cimex pipistrella
  • Genus Oeciacus
    • Oeciacus hirundinis
    • Oeciacus vicarius
  • Genus Paracimex
  • Genus Propicimex
Subfamily Cacodminae
  • Genus Aphrania
  • Genus Cacodomus
  • Genus Crassicimex
  • Genus Leptocimex
    • Leptocimex boueti
  • Genus Loxaspis
  • Genus Stricticimex
Subfamily Haematosiphoninae
  • Genus Caminicimex
  • Genus Cimexopsis
    • Cimexopsis nyctalis
  • Genus Haematosiphon
    • Haematosiphon inodorus
  • Genus Hesperocimex
    • Hesperocimex coloradensis
    • Hesperocimex sonorensis
  • Genus Ornithocoris
    • Ornithocoris pallidus
    • Ornithocoris toledoi
  • Genus Psitticimex
  • Genus Synxenoderus
    • Synxenoderus comosus
Subfamily Latrocimicinae
  • Genus Latrocimex
Subfamily Primicimicinae
  • Genus Bucimex
  • Genus Primicimex
    • Primicimex cavernis
.Bedbugs (or bed bugs) are small, elusive, and parasitic insects of the family Cimicidae.^ Technorati Tags: bed bugs , bedbugs .
  • TREAT BED BUGS. ARE YOU SAFE? 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.treatbedbugs.net [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs are small insects that feed on the blood of mammals and birds.
  • UFT - Bed Bug Fact Sheet 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uft.org [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs are from the insect family Cimicidae and include three species that attack people.
  • Bed Bugs North Shore Massachusetts - Dura Tech Pest Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.duratechpestcontrol.com [Source type: General]

.They live strictly by feeding on the blood of humans and other warm-blooded animals.^ Their only food is the blood of warm-blooded animals.

^ After bed bugs arrive, they survive by feeding on any warm blooded animal.
  • Nature's Avenger Natural Bed Bug Killer 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.naturesavenger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are parasitic insects that feed on the blood of humans and other warm-blooded organisms.
  • Bed Bugs on the Rise 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC biology.about.com [Source type: General]

.The name 'bed bug' is derived from the insect's preferred habitat infesting houses and especially beds or other common areas where people may sleep.^ The Common Bed Bug prefers a human host.
  • Kentucky Bed Bugs Extermination, Pest Control, Kentucky Bed Bug Control, Kentucky Bed Bug Exterminator, Kentucky Bed Bug Removal 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.inspectorusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed bug bites? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs infesting a couch .
  • Bed Bugs | University of Kentucky Entomology 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.ca.uky.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bed bugs can infest anywhere where humans live but are most common in bedrooms or other sleeping areas.
  • KRB Pest COntrol, New Jersey Pest Control, NJ Pest Control, Montclair Pest Control, West Orange Pest Control, Short Hills Pest Control, The Caldwells Pest Control, Northern New Jersey Pest Control, New Jersey Pest elimination, NJ Pest elimination, Montclair Pest elimination, West Orange Pest elimination, Short Hills Pest elimination, The Caldwells Pest elimination, Northern New Jersey Pest elimination, New Jersey termite Control, NJ termite Control, Montclair termite Control, West Orange termite Control, Short Hills termite Control, The Caldwells termite Control, Northern New Jersey termite Control, New Jersey termite elimination, NJ termite elimination, Montclair termite elimination, West Orange termite elimination, Short Hills termite elimination, The Caldwells termite elimination, Northern New Jersey termite elimination, New Jersey animal Control, NJ animal Control, Montclair animal Control, West Orange animal Control, Short Hills animal Control, The Caldwells animal Control, Northern New Jersey animal Control 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.krbpestcontrol.com [Source type: News]

[1] .Bedbugs, though not strictly nocturnal, are mainly active at night and are capable of feeding unnoticed on their hosts.^ Bed bugs are not strictly nocturnal, but are more active at night.

^ Bed bugs are active mainly at night.
  • Bed Bugs | University of Kentucky Entomology 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.ca.uky.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BED BUG PICTURES 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City of Chicago - Bed Bugs: Frequently Asked Questions 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC egov.cityofchicago.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pest Control Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.callcraig.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.baneclene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Colorado State University Extension 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.wci.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are mainly active at night.
  • Bed Bug Facts: Interview with Bed Bug Fact Expert, Dr. Harold Harlan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diatect.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Largely eradicated as pests in the United States in the early 1940s, bedbugs have been resurgent in the past decade to near epidemic proportions.^ Bedbugs takes large steps both forward and sideways, building upon the best ingredients from projects past.
  • Caveman Recording | Bed Bugs | CD Baby 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.cdbaby.com [Source type: General]

^ However, the increase of international travel in recent decades has contributed to the resurgence of bed bugs in the United States.
  • Bed bug monitor invention 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notably the biology of this pest, its resurgence in the United States, where bed bugs are most often found and the key tips to preventing these pests from taking up residence in your home.
  • Bed Bug Prevention - MonkeySee 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.monkeysee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Biology

.The common bedbug (Cimex lectularius) is the species best adapted to human environments.^ The common bed bug, Cimex Lectularus, is the species of bed bug that has most adapted to living with humans.
  • Bed bug monitor invention 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is the species most adapted to living with humans.
  • Bed Bugs | University of Kentucky Entomology 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.ca.uky.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.baneclene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Clinton County Health Department - Bed Bug Information 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.clintoncountygov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common species is the Cimex lectularius , which is best adapted to human environments.
  • Bed Bug Information - get the facts on bed bugs, bed bug bites, and bedbug infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.tallmanscientific.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is found in temperate climates throughout the world and feeds on blood.^ It is found in temperate climates throughout the world and has been known since prehistoric times.
  • Bedbug - Cimex lectularius 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cirrusimage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human bedbugs are found throughout the world.

^ It is found in temperate climates throughout the world and has been known since ancient times.
  • Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbuginfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural remedies to eliminate Bed Bugs from your home. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Getting rid of bedbugs, Exterminators in New York City, New York City 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbugsnewyorkcity.com [Source type: General]
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other species include Cimex hemipterus, found in tropical regions, which also infests poultry and bats, and Leptocimex boueti, found in the tropics of West Africa and South America, which infests bats and humans.^ A second species of bed bug, Cimex hemipterus , is limited to tropical regions of the world.
  • Public Health and Medical Entomology 11 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.entm.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Public Health and Medical Entomology | Purdue | Biology | Entomology | Insects | Ticks | Diseases | Monitoring | Control | Hot Topics | Agriculture | Extension 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC extension.entm.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In tropical regions, C. hemipterus is the dominant species, but this species does not occur in California.
  • Bed Bug Management Guidelines--UC IPM 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.ipm.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cimex hemipterus is apparently confined to tropical regions (including Florida) and may also infest chickens and bats.

.Cimex pilosellus and Cimex pipistrella primarily infest bats, while Haematosiphon inodora, a species of North America, primarily infests poultry.^ Bat bug (Cimex pilosellus) .
  • Bat Bugs and Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cimex pilosellus and C. pipistrella primarily infest bats, while Haematosiphon inodora, a species of North America, preys on poultry.
  • Bedbug - Cimex lectularius 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cirrusimage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cimex pilosellus and C. pipistrella primarily infest bats, while Haematosiphon inodora, a species of North America, primarily infests poultry.
  • Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbuginfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Adult bedbugs are reddish-brown, flattened, oval, and wingless.^ Bedbugs are about 5-7 mm in length and are oval and reddish-brown.
  • Strange Bed(bug)fellows - Gothamist 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: General]

^ Adult bedbugs are a reddish brown, flattened, oval, and wingless, with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance.
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adults are oval shaped, mahogany colored (reddish-brown after feeding).

.Bedbugs have microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance.^ Adult bedbugs are a reddish brown, flattened, oval, and wingless, with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance.
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adult bedbugs are reddish brown, flattened, oval, and wingless, with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance.
  • Bed Bug Information - get the facts on bed bugs, bed bug bites, and bedbug infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.tallmanscientific.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbuginfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On their body, microscopic hairs give off a banded appearance.

.A common misconception is that they are not visible to the naked eye.^ They are visible to the naked eye, but often hide in cracks and crevices.
  • UFT - Bed Bug Fact Sheet 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uft.org [Source type: General]

^ The common bed bug is visible to the naked eye.

^ A common misconception is that they are not visible to the naked eye.
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Adults grow to 4–5 mm in length and 1.5–3 mm wide.^ They grow from 4 to 5 mm in length.
  • Bed Bug Signs - Learn How to Spot and Detect Bed Bugs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugsigns.com [Source type: General]

^ A common misconception is that they are not visible to the naked eye, but adults grow to 4 to 5 mm (one-eighth to three-sixteenths of an inch) in length and do not move quickly enough to escape the notice of an attentive observer.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people believe that you can not see bed bugs with the naked eye but adult bed bugs grow to 4 or 5 mm in length and because they’re slow movers can be seen by observant people.

.They do not move quickly enough to escape the notice of an observer.^ A common misconception is that they are not visible to the naked eye, but adults grow to about ¼ inch long and do not move quickly enough to escape the notice of an attentive observer.
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A common misconception is that they are not visible to the naked eye, but adults grow to about 5 mm (three-sixteenths of an inch) in length and do not move quickly enough to escape the notice of an attentive observer.
  • Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbuginfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bed bugs can be very hard to detect as they are capable of moving quickly to hide in tiny cracks and crevices.
  • Bed Bug Treatments Explained | DoItYourself.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.doityourself.com [Source type: General]

.Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color and become browner as they moult and reach maturity.^ Newly hatched nymphs are nearly colorless, becoming brownish as they mature.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC ohioline.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BED BUG PICTURES 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Security Pest Control...Bed Bugs Treatment, Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.securitypest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Expert Bed Bug Control..Bed Bugs Treatment, Bedbug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugcontrolma.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC pestid.anr.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newly hatched nymphs are translucent and lighter in color and continue to become browner and moult as they reach maturity.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The immatures (nymphs) resemble the adults, but are smaller and somewhat lighter in color, they become browner and molt as they reach maturity.
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
Bedbug (4 mm length 2.5 mm width), shown in a film roll plastic container.
^ Bedbugs are 5-7 mm in length with reduced wings.

^ Bedbug 4 mm length 2.5 mm width (Shown in a film roll plastic container.
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bedbugs are about 5-7 mm in length and are oval and reddish-brown.
  • Strange Bed(bug)fellows - Gothamist 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: General]

On the right is the recently sloughed skin from its nymph stage
.Bedbugs are true insects and are not arachnids, unlike dust mites and ticks.^ It is specially made for bedbugs and dust mites.
  • WikiAnswers - How do you get rid of bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Bedbugs are non-flying insects about one-fifth of an inch in size that are brownish in color and resemble a tick.
  • Bed Bug Infestation Service 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bbsteamatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bug Infestation Service 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bbsteamatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insecticides are pesticides designed primarily to kill insects, although the word "insecticide" is typically used to identify pesticides that control non-insect arthropods such as mites, ticks, and spiders.

.There are 6 recognized subfamilies of Cimicidae and up to 23 genera, while the number of species has been stated as anywhere from 75 to 108. Most species only feed on humans when other prey are unavailable.^ Bed bugs are small insects that feed only on blood and have adapted to human environments.

^ They can pop up anywhere inside your house or even in a hotel room, not just in your bedding, but they will most likely be close to your bed during the night hours where they can easily feed at night.
  • How To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs, Bed Bug Extermination, Removal 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC howtogetridofbedbugsnow.com [Source type: General]

^ Related species, such as the bat bug and bird bug, prefer to feed on bats, birds, and other wild hosts, but will also feed on humans if the opportunity arises or the preferred host dies or leaves the roost.
  • Bed bug bites? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

[3][4][5]
.C. lectularius and C. hempiterus will mate with each other given the opportunity, but the eggs then produced are usually sterile.^ It takes 5 weeks for a female to be reproductively active, but one female usually produces 500 eggs in the 100 days after that.Bed Bugs Are Not Dangerous, But They Are Annoying!
  • Learn about bed bugs and how to get rid of them. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.bed-sheets-only.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, they may attempt to feed at other times, given the opportunity, and have been observed to feed at any time of the day.
  • Bed Bugs: How to get rid of them 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC nycbedbugfree.net [Source type: General]

^ They mate with each other and produce babies that are just like themselves.
  • Bed bugs bite back - 'Don't let the bed bugs bite'- msnbc.com 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.In a 1988 study, 1 egg out of 479 was fertile and resulted in a hybrid, C. hemipterus x lectularius.^ The end result is that bugs and eggs may be distributed along the path out of the dwelling as they are removed.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6][7]
.Bedbugs use pheromones and kairomones to communicate regarding nesting locations, attacks, and reproduction.^ Don’t let this happen and protect the spreading of bedbugs by using a mattress cover to lock in these nests.
  • Bed Bug Signs - Learn How to Spot and Detect Bed Bugs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugsigns.com [Source type: General]

^ The studies I have read about DDT by the scientific community state that it is an excellent substance when used in selected locations, such as indoors for bed bugs.
  • The Tyee — Vancouver's Bedbug Plague 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC thetyee.ca [Source type: General]

.The life span of bedbugs varies by species and is also dependent on feeding.^ Life Cycle The life cycle of the conenose varies considerably depending on temperature, humidity, and availability of hosts.

^ Bed bugs have a one-year life span during which time a female can lay 200-400 eggs depending on food supply and temperature.
  • Bed Bugs - Toronto Public Health 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.toronto.ca [Source type: General]
  • Bed Bug Control - Pest Control Products | Get Rid of Bed Bugs | Kill Bed Bugs | Bed Bug Spray | Do it Yourself Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.pestproductsonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs have a one-year life span during which time a female can lay 200 to 400 eggs depending on food supply and temperature.
  • City of Ottawa - Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC ottawa.ca [Source type: General]

(See feeding habits, below.)

Feeding habits

.Bedbugs are bloodsucking insects.^ I point out that it's probably a good thing for him NOT to book the rooms with bedbugs, since that would mean, y'know, allowing bloodsucking insects to feast on someone else.
  • A Double Dose Of Bed Bug Related Hotel Complaints - The Consumerist 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC consumerist.com [Source type: General]

^ Unlike ticks, fleas, and other bloodsucking insects, bedbugs presently don't spread disease, but their bites are irritating, and their presence leads to anxiety, insomnia, and nausea.
  • Timothy McSweeney's Internet Tendency: Global War On Bedbugs: Letters from Bedbug City. 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.mcsweeneys.net [Source type: General]

.They are normally out at night just before dawn, with a peak feeding period of about an hour before sunrise.^ They are not strictly nocturnal though they are much more active at night with a peak attack period an hour or two before dawn.
  • Bed Bug Signs - Learn How to Spot and Detect Bed Bugs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugsigns.com [Source type: General]

^ I just want a normal night sleep!
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ They are very active during the night, especially an hour before the dawn breaks.
  • Bed Bugs - Symptoms - a knol by Alex Kentor 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: General]

.Bedbugs may attempt to feed at other times if given the opportunity and have been observed feeding during all periods of the day.^ Bedbugs can also sometimes be viewed during the day.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bedbugs are generally active only at night, with a peak attack period about an hour before dawn, though given the opportunity, they may attempt to feed at other times of day.
  • Bed Bug Information - get the facts on bed bugs, bed bug bites, and bedbug infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.tallmanscientific.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They will sometimes, however, attempt to feed at other times of day if food is near.
  • Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbuginfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They reach their host by walking, or sometimes climb the walls to the ceiling and drop down on feeling a heat wave.^ So i painted the walls with a latex paint they were not able to climb the walls.
  • Strange Bed(bug)fellows - Gothamist 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: General]

^ They will reach their host either by crawling straight towards them, or climbing a wall and then across the ceiling until they feel a heat wave - when they jump down onto their host.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also agree that they can drop off the ceiling.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bedbugs are attracted to their hosts by warmth and the presence of carbon dioxide.^ They are attracted by heat and carbon dioxide.
  • Bed Bug Plague - Battle the Bed Bug Plague 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugplague.com [Source type: General]

^ Attracted by warmth and the presence of carbon dioxide , the bug pierces the skin of its host with two hollow tubes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bedbug - Cimex lectularius 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cirrusimage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bedbugs are attracted by exhaled carbon dioxide and body heat, not by dirt.
  • Specialist Bed Bugs Treatment company operating in London, Surrey, M25 Borders and South East, offering Free 6 months guarantee on all treatments 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.bedbugstreatment.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bug pierces the skin of its host with two hollow feeding tubes.^ Bed Bugs feeding from a human host.
  • Bed Bug Control, Bed Bug Treatment, Bed Bug Prevention 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.heartspm.com [Source type: General]

^ Attracted by warmth and the presence of carbon dioxide , the bug pierces the skin of its host with two hollow tubes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bedbug - Cimex lectularius 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cirrusimage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When bed bugs bite they pierce the skin with two tubes.

.With one tube it injects its saliva, which contains anticoagulants and anesthetics, while with the other it withdraws the blood of its host.^ One tube injects saliva with anesthetics and anticoagulants, the other sucks out the blood.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ The saliva contains anticoagulants and anesthetics.
  • Dead Bed Bugs Non-Toxic & Safe Bed Bug Treatment :: Shop.QBased.com :: Effective bed bug products for your apartments or home. Treat for bed bugs in the privacy of your own home. Guaranteed effective against bed bugs, bed bug larvea and bed bug eggs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]
  • The Bed Bug Blog 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]

^ One tube injects an anticoagulant into their victim, while the other tube is used for blood extraction.

.After feeding for about five minutes, the bug returns to its hiding place.^ After feeding for about five minutes, the bug returns to its hiding place.
  • Bed Bug Information - get the facts on bed bugs, bed bug bites, and bedbug infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.tallmanscientific.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bug Killer - Kill Bed Bugs with Diatect's Indoor Insect Killer 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.diatect.com [Source type: General]
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bedbug - Cimex lectularius 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cirrusimage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bugs: How to get rid of them 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC nycbedbugfree.net [Source type: General]

^ After feeding for about five minutes, drawing only a drop or two of blood, bugs return to their hiding places.

^ After feeding a typical meal lasts about 5 minutes the bug returns to its lair.
  • Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbuginfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bites cannot usually be felt until some minutes or hours later, as a dermatological reaction to the injected agents, and the first indication of a bite usually comes from the desire to scratch the bite site.^ Cutaneous reactions occur at the sites of bites.
  • Diagnosis: Bed Bug Bites | Skin & Aging 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.skinandaging.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bites are not noticeable by the host until at least a few minutes or some hours afterwards.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bites cannot usually be felt until some minutes or hours later, as a dermatological reaction to the injected agents.
  • Bed Bug Information - get the facts on bed bugs, bed bug bites, and bedbug infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.tallmanscientific.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bedbug - Cimex lectularius 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cirrusimage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of their natural aversion for sunlight, bedbugs come out at night.^ It really attached a stigma to everybody because once you found out who had bedbugs, you were trying to stay away from everyone who did have them," he tells CBS 2.
  • New York City Launches Bedbug Task Force - wcbstv.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC wcbstv.com [Source type: General]

^ Bedbugs are nocturnal parasites which mean they rest during the day and come out to dine on the blood of humans at night.
  • Bed Bug Treatment Cleaning Services in NY, New Jersey, Connecticut | NJ | CT 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.aandbcarpet.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed Bugs are nocturnal and primarily come out at night to feed on people.
  • Bedbugs Queens- Bedbugs Elmont - Bedbugs Astoria - Bedbugs Flushing 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.thebedbugkingofqueens.com [Source type: General]

[8]
.Although bedbugs can live for a year or eighteen months without feeding, and purportedly up to three years in the case of the species Oeciacus vicarius (the cliff swallow bug),[9] they normally try to feed every five to ten days.^ Bedbugs may live for several weeks to several months without feeding, depending on temperature.
  • Bed Bugs - Kleen Green Enzymes - Natural Ginesis 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.naturalginesis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bedbugs feed for close to five minutes and then they are done.
  • The Bed Bug Blog 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Adult bed bugs have been known to live for a year without feeding.
  • O. Orkin Insect Zoo: Student Resources Component--Hemiptera 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC insectzoo.msstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bedbugs that go dormant for lack of food often live longer than a year, while well-fed specimens typically live six to nine months.^ A well fed bedbug can live anywhere from four to six months, while a dormant one might live without feeding for up to 18 months.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.bed-bug.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • /bed-bug facts.htm 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.killfireants.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Get Rid Of Bed Bugs Naturally, Kill Bed Bugs Safely with Diatomaceous Earth 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.earthworkshealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A well fed bed bug has a lifespan of about six to nine months.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adult specimens have lived for at least a year without food.
  • Foogle Business - The Bed Bug - Bedbug Information - Mahogany Flats - The Bed Louse - Cimex lectularius Linnaeus - (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cimicidae) - Sahara Supposition - Common Bedbugs - Sleep Tight - 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.thesahara.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the 57th Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America in 2009, it was reported that newer generations of pesticide-resistant bedbugs in Virginia could survive only two months without feeding.^ Entomological Society of America meeting.
  • Do-it-yourself Bed-bug Detector - Science News 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.sciencenews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can survive for weeks to months without feeding.
  • UFT - Bed Bug Fact Sheet 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uft.org [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs can survive up to six months without feeding.
  • Bed Bugs - Toronto Public Health 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.toronto.ca [Source type: General]

[10]
.Low infestations may be difficult to detect and in the early stages, victims may not realize they have bedbugs.^ Bed bugs are very difficult to detect at low infestation levels.
  • Information about bed bug symptoms, treatment and control. CDIS - Canine Detection and Inspection Services, Chicago, IL 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC wildgoosechasers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Low infestations may be difficult to detect, and it is not unusual for the victim not to even realize they have bedbugs early on.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may even have bites from bedbugs, but not realize what is biting them.

.Patterns of bites in a row or a cluster are typical, as the insects may be disturbed while feeding.^ Patterns of bites in a row or a cluster are typical as they may be disturbed while feeding.
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Physicians should be aware of the typical dermatologic signs and symptoms of bed bug bites, which may become increasingly common in the future.
  • Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment | CDC EID 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment | CDC EID 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ I’ve heard from experts that whether you get multiple bites in a pattern may have to do with whether the bed bug is disturbed while feeding (if you move, they may move and start over) and also whether your veins are easily accessed by the bed bugs (if they are, they need pierce only once).
  • Bed Bug Bites 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

.Bites may be found in a variety of places on the body.^ Bites may be found in a variety of places on the body, but the lower limbs are a favoured location.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bites may be found in a variety of places on the body.
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though you may display bed bug bites on your body that occur during the night, this is not a sure sign that a bed bug was the culprit.

Reproduction

A bedbug (Cimex lectularius) traumatically inseminates another.
.All bedbugs mate via a process termed traumatic insemination.^ This mating process is called “traumatic insemination”.
  • Notes From The Bedbug Workshop | newyorkshitty.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newyorkshitty.com [Source type: General]

^ All bedbugs mate via a process termed traumatic insemination.
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All bedbugs mate via a process termed traumatic insemination .
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11][12][13] .Instead of inserting their genitalia into the female's reproductive tract as is typical in copulation, males instead pierce females with hypodermic genitalia and ejaculate into the body cavity.^ Instead of inserting their genitalia into the female's reproductive tract as is typical in copulation, males instead pierce females with hypodermic genitalia and ejaculate into the body cavity.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The male penetrates the females abdomen with his external genitalia, inseminating into her body cavity.

^ The males have hypodermic genitalia which pierce the females anywhere on their abomen and ejaculate sperm into the body cavity.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "bedbug alarm pheromone" consists of (E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-hexenal.^ The two bed bug alarm pheromone ingredients are known as (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal.
  • Scientists Use Bed Bugs' Own Chemistry Against Them 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bed bugs release the pheromone blend of the small, volatile molecules ( E )-2-octenal and ( E )-2-hexenal when disturbed, Ryne says.
  • bed bugs | Clark Pest Control Blog 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blog.clarkpest.com [Source type: General]

^ Water loss nearly doubled with either (E)-2-hexenal or (E)-2-octenal applied alone and tripled with a blend of both pheromones.
  • Scientists Use Bed Bugs' Own Chemistry Against Them 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is released when a bedbug is disturbed, e.g. during an attack by a predator. .A 2009 study demonstrated that the alarm pheromone is also released by male bedbugs to repel other males who attempt to mate with them.^ To test the idea that the alarm pheromone helps mistakenly targeted males free themselves, Ryne painted nail polish over the glands that produce the substance, thus blocking its release.
  • bed bugs | Clark Pest Control Blog 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blog.clarkpest.com [Source type: General]

^ A mating attempt might indeed be disturbing, since males deliver their sperm by what's called traumatic insemination.
  • bed bugs | Clark Pest Control Blog 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blog.clarkpest.com [Source type: General]

^ Those who are unfamiliar with bedbug extermination techniques may attempt to use ineffectual techniques, such as fumigation.
  • Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbuginfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]

Bites

.Most observed bites consist of a raised red bump or flat welt, and are often accompanied by very intense itching.^ Bites from bed bugs are usually red in appearance and can be either flat or raised bumps.
  • Dead Bed Bugs Non-Toxic & Safe Bed Bug Treatment :: Shop.QBased.com :: Effective bed bug products for your apartments or home. Treat for bed bugs in the privacy of your own home. Guaranteed effective against bed bugs, bed bug larvea and bed bug eggs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]

^ Others will have a very intense itching sensation.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.bed-bug.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Get Rid Of Bed Bugs Naturally, Kill Bed Bugs Safely with Diatomaceous Earth 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.earthworkshealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bites from bed bugs are usually red in appearance and are either flat or raised bumps.
  • The Bed Bug Blog 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]

.The red mark is the result of an allergic reaction to the anesthetic contained in the bedbug's saliva, which is inserted into the blood of its victim.^ The saliva contains anticoagulants and anesthetics.
  • Dead Bed Bugs Non-Toxic & Safe Bed Bug Treatment :: Shop.QBased.com :: Effective bed bug products for your apartments or home. Treat for bed bugs in the privacy of your own home. Guaranteed effective against bed bugs, bed bug larvea and bed bug eggs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]
  • The Bed Bug Blog 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]

^ But, these saliva can cause allergic reactions.

^ The anesthetic contained in the bed bugs saliva causes an allergic reaction which results in the red bumps.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reactions to bedbug bites may appear indistinguishable from mosquito bites although they tend to last for longer periods.^ Just like mosquito bites, they swell and appear reddish.

^ They look very similar to mosquito bites, but last a lot longer.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bedbug bites do not look like mosquito bites.

.Bites may not become immediately visible and can take up to nine days to appear.^ Bites may not become immediately visible, and can take up to nine days to appear.
  • Bed Bugs: How to get rid of them 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC nycbedbugfree.net [Source type: General]

^ Bites can sometimes take up to nine days to become visible.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reactions to the bites may be delayed; up to 9 days before lesions appear.

.Bedbug bites tend not to have a red dot in the center such as is characteristic of flea bites.^ Unlike flea bites, bed bug bites do not usually have a red dot in the center.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Welts do not have a red spot in the center such as is characteristic of flea bites.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC ohioline.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC pestid.anr.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These welts do not have a red spot in the center like flea bites.

.A trait shared with flea bites is tendency towards the pattern of sequential bites often aligned in rows of three.^ Bites are often aligned three in a row .
  • Bed Bugs: How to get rid of them 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC nycbedbugfree.net [Source type: General]

^ Bedbugs bite in rows for three reasons.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ Though bedbug bites can occur singly, they often follow a distinctive pattern of a linear group of three bites, sometimes jokingly referred to as "breakfast, lunch and dinner".
  • Bedbug - Cimex lectularius 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cirrusimage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This may be caused by the bedbug being disturbed while eating and relocating half an inch or so farther along the skin before resuming feeding.^ These patterns of bites are caused when a bedbug is disturbed in feeding by a person moving, and then the bedbug resumes feeding.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bedbug - Cimex lectularius 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cirrusimage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For these reasons, infestations may go a long time unnoticed, and can become quite large before being detected.
  • Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius - Texas A&M University (Center for Urban & Structural Entomology) 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC urbanentomology.tamu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bugs | University of Kentucky Entomology 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.ca.uky.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BED BUG PICTURES 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City of Chicago - Bed Bugs: Frequently Asked Questions 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC egov.cityofchicago.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pest Control Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.callcraig.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.baneclene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Colorado State University Extension 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.wci.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Assured Environments your green pest management professionals 11 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.assuredenvironments.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, bedbugs may travel between units in multi-unit dwellings (such as condominiums and apartment buildings), after being originally brought into the building by one of the above routes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alternatively, the arrangement of bites may be caused by the bedbug repeatedly searching for a blood vein.^ The skin lesion produced by the bite of a Bed Bug resembles those caused by many other kinds of blood feeding insects, such as mosquitoes and fleas.
  • Bed Bug Killer :: How to Kill Bed Bugs, Bed Bug Information 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bed-bug.net [Source type: General]
  • Nature's Avenger Natural Bed Bug Killer 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.naturesavenger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An allergic reaction to the saliva may cause the area around the bite to become red, swollen and itchy.

^ The cause is the bedbug, the nocturnal, blood-sucking insect that is making a comeback in urban housing across North America.
  • Everything You Need to Know About Bedbugs but Were Afraid to Ask - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.People react differently to bedbugs, and individual responses vary with factors including skin type, environment, and the species of bug.^ Everyone’s skin is different, and many people react very differently to the Bed Bugs saliva.
  • The Bed Bug Blog 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Individual responses to bed bug bites will vary.

^ There is considerable individual variation in the response to bed bug bites.
  • Bed Bugs, Bed Bugs NY, Bed Bugs Long Island, LI Bed Bugs - Bugs in your bed? 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.acexterminating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bugs, Bed Bugs NY, Bed Bugs Long Island, LI Bed Bugs - Bugs in your bed? 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.acpestmanagement.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This also means the presence of itchy welts cannot be used as the only indicator of a presence.^ Itchy welts on skin, blood spots on sheets and/or black or brown spots on mattresses, bed frames or walls often indicate that there is a bed bug infestation.

^ This only means that they may no longer use the "disturbed" mud trail and build another trail away from the danger.
  • Major's Pest Management | Cockroach | Bed Bug | Rat 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.majorspest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We only use Amorphous Diatomaceous Earth in our DE, meaning any airborne dust from this product is completely safe if inhaled by humans.
  • Bed Bug Bureau Commercial Bed Bug Solutions :: Exterminate Bed Bugs in Your Place of Business Quickly and Effectively :: BedBugBureau.com 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]

.It is possible for an initial infestation within a household to be asymptomatic and go undetected.^ Sanitary problems within ones own household is not the primary reason for bed bug infestation.
  • Bed Bugs: How to Eliminate and Control Mild Infestations - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Early detection of bed bugs is difficult and low level infestations will often go undetected.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many cases bed bugs will go undetected during an inspection particularly during the early stages of an infestation when only a few bugs or eggs are present.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some rare cases, allergic reactions to the bites may cause nausea and illness.^ But their bites can cause infections and allergic reactions in some people.

^ Very rarely, some people may have an anaphylactic reaction to bed bug bites.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Severe allergic reactions may also occur.

.In a large number of cases, estimated to be fifty percent of all people, there is no visible sign of bites whatsoever, greatly increasing the difficulty of identifying and eradicating infestations.^ In a large number of cases, estimated to 50% of all people, there is no visible sign of bites whatsoever .
  • Bed Bugs: How to get rid of them 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC nycbedbugfree.net [Source type: General]

^ There's no signs that I took any bugs with me.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ Now, there is no sign of them!

.People commonly respond to bed bug infestations and their bites with anxiety, stress, and insomnia.^ Don't let the bed bugs bite!
  • Bed Bugs: How to Eliminate and Control Mild Infestations - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]
  • How to Get Rid of Bed Bugs - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Don’t let the bed bugs bite!

^ How dangerous are bed bug bites?
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.bed-bug.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Development of refractory delusional parasitosis is common, as victims develop an overwhelming obsession with bedbugs[15] Individuals may also develop skin infections and scars from scratching the bedbug bite locations.^ But scratching bites can lead to a secondary infection.

^ Those who scratch their bed bug bites may develop skin infections, which may leave behinds scars.

^ Some individuals, however, can get skin infections and scars from scratching bites.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bedbug - Cimex lectularius 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cirrusimage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A bedbug nymph feeding on host.
.Most patients who are placed on systemic corticosteroids to treat the itching and burning often associated with bedbug bites find that the lesions are poorly responsive to this method of treatment.^ The most common place to find them is the bed.
  • Bed Bugs | University of Kentucky Entomology 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.ca.uky.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BED BUG PICTURES 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Get rid of bedbugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.pestcontrolcanada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • City of Chicago - Bed Bugs: Frequently Asked Questions 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC egov.cityofchicago.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pest Control Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.callcraig.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.baneclene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Colorado State University Extension 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.wci.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bugs « Wondercide Blog 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.wondercide.com [Source type: General]
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bites of bedbugs may need treatment for the itching (eg.
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: News]

^ Bedbugs are often mistakenly associated with filth.
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Antihistamines have been found to reduce itching in some cases, but they do not affect the appearance and duration of the lesions.^ I dare say they are vary in appearance but these are the only ones I have found when doing bed bug work.
  • Seeing bites but no evidence of bugs « Got Bed Bugs? Bedbugger Forums 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

^ I found bed bugs after the first night and they moved us to a bigger room for the duration of our stay.

^ Got some pillow covers too in case they are inside there.

.Topical corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone, have been reported to resolve the lesions expediently and decrease the associated itching.^ Within the next few days, the pungent odor in the apartment cleared and her skin lesions, along with their associated pruritus, resolved.
  • Diagnosis: Bed Bug Bites | Skin & Aging 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.skinandaging.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms, and include: Applying a topical cream, such as cortisone to relieve itching.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, a menthol 0.5%/camphor 0.5%-containing topical lotion or a low-potency topical anesthetic- (pramoxine 1.0%) containing preparation may provide temporary relief of the lesion-associated itching.
  • Diagnosis: Bed Bug Bites | Skin & Aging 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.skinandaging.com [Source type: Academic]

[16]
.Victims may relieve itching and inflammation for several hours by using a blowdryer or hot washcloth to heat the area of the bite.^ Severe itching can lasts for several hours to days at the irritated, inflamed bite area.
  • Bed Bugs - Kleen Green Enzymes - Natural Ginesis 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.naturalginesis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bite marks may also be accompanied by severe itching that lasts for several hours to as long as days.
  • Bed Bugs - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

^ The treated area should be vacated for a period of several hours after the bed bug fumigation treatment before re-entering.
  • Pest Help UK - Bed Bug Pest Control|Stop|Get Rid of Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.pesthelp.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many patients experience temporary relief of itching and inflammation with the application of hot water.^ My regimen to combat the all over swelling, severe itch and uncomfortable feelings are this: NO. 1 I get out of my bed clothes and shower in hot water and soap all over with a mild soap.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ It itches intensely for a few seconds, but then there is relief for many hours.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I immediately washed all of the linens and pillows in hot water...many, many times...and steamed the mattress and box spring.

[17] .The water should be quite hot (about 50 °C / 120 °F), however, or this procedure may aggravate the symptoms.^ Those whose bodies do not initially react may subsequently develop symptoms, however, due to an allergic reaction caused by the development of antigen.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bedbug - Cimex lectularius 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cirrusimage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wash in hot water temperature above 120 degrees, dry using the hottest dry cycle available, and then place in clean bags and seal.
  • Bed Bug Treatment Solutions to solve bedbug infestations, steps for removal, what to do in case of a bedbug infestation 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbugsnyc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Washing clothing in hot water (at least 120 degrees) and drying in a hot dryer for at least 15 minutes kills bugs, nymphs and eggs.
  • As bed bugs continue to spread, travelers need to take steps avoid their bite: a NetWellness column | Health and Fitness - cleveland.com - - cleveland.com 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.cleveland.com [Source type: General]

.To avoid scalding the skin, this treatment should only be self-administered.^ Only licensed and knowledgeable pest control operators should attempt such treatments.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.hsph.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bugs - Cimex lectularius(Cimicidae) - Biology and Management 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.allergystore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bedbugs can often be seen alive for up to two weeks following treatment of a dwelling, although they should not be seen in great number (e.g., only one or two).
  • Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbuginfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This product should only be used in dry areas to be an effective treatment to kill and get rid of a bed bug infestation and to stop problem bed bug bites.
  • Pest Help UK - Bed Bug Pest Control|Stop|Get Rid of Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.pesthelp.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Disagreement exists as to why heat causes symptoms to abate. .Varying hypotheses propose that heat overwhelms the nerve endings that signal itch, that heat neutralizes the chemical that causes the inflammation, or that heat triggers a large release of histamine, causing a temporary histamine deficit in the area.^ ThermaPure Heat will reach inaccessible areas that chemicals or other pesticides are unable to reach.

^ This includes heat treating and bagging up items in the infested area - items that cannot be treated with chemicals.
  • Bat Bugs and Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Males that couldn't signal chemically ended up in longer embraces than males dabbed elsewhere with nail polish.
  • bed bugs | Clark Pest Control Blog 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blog.clarkpest.com [Source type: General]

.Another theory is that the heat denatures the proteins in the bedbug saliva, changing their composition enough so that they no longer trigger the body's defensive mechanisms.^ They were commonly treated with DDT which is no longer available and perhaps one factor why bed bugs have been growing in number in the late 90's.

^ Bedbugs can live for a year or longer without feeding but they normally try to feed every five to ten days.

^ I've been heating clothing and my tv set in my car by parking in the sun all day with the windows up, and that is hot enough to kill bedbugs.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

Disease transmission

.Bedbugs seem to possess all of the necessary prerequisites for being capable of passing diseases from one host to another, but there have been no known cases of bed bugs passing disease from host to host.^ Can I get a disease from bed bugs?

^ Bed bugs arent known to spread disease.

^ There have been no bedbugs since then.

.There are at least twenty-seven known pathogens (some estimates are as high as forty-one) that are capable of living inside a bed bug or on its mouthparts.^ Bed bugs do not like to be high or low; .
  • Bedbug, BEDBUG, bed bug, BED BUG, bedbug, Bed Bugs, bedbugs, bed bugcontrol 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bestpestproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around one and a half million bed bugs live in our bed.

^ Quote Comment Believe me - if there's one bed bug there are more.

.Extensive testing in laboratory settings concludes that bed bugs are unlikely to pass disease from one person to another.^ Do bed bugs carry disease?
  • Bed Bug 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bed-bug.blogspot.com [Source type: General]
  • Information about bed bug symptoms, treatment and control. CDIS - Canine Detection and Inspection Services, Chicago, IL 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC wildgoosechasers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike mosquitoes, which transmit and transfer diseases form one person to another, bed bugs bites are not that notorious.

^ Can I get a disease from bed bugs?

[18] .Therefore bedbugs are less dangerous than some more common insects such as the flea.^ Are bedbug bites dangerous for some people ?
  • BedBugs Bite DIY Control and Identification 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugoff.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed Bugs Killer: Natural Bedbug Removal Method Bed bugs are an insect that lives through hematophagy, which is the feeding of blood of warm-blooded hosts, such as pets and humans.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, it is extremely common for bedbugs to travel in multi-unit dwellings (such as condominiums and apartment buildings) from unit to unit, after having been originally brought into the building by one of the above techniques.
  • Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbuginfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other effects on health

.The salivary fluid injected by bed bugs typically causes the skin to become irritated and inflamed, although individuals can differ in their sensitivity.^ The salivary fluid injected by bed bugs typically causes the skin to become irritated and inflamed, although individuals can differ in their sensitivity.

^ Bed bugs do not live under the skin.

^ The fluid can cause a person's skin to itch and even become swollen.
  • Get Rid Of Bed Bugs Naturally, Kill Bed Bugs Safely with Diatomaceous Earth 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.earthworkshealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anaphylactoid reactions produced by the injection of serum and other nonspecific proteins are observed and there is the possibility that the saliva of the bedbugs may cause anaphylactic shock in a small percentage of people.^ Those whose bodies do not initially react may subsequently develop symptoms, however, due to an allergic reaction caused by the development of antigen.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few rare cases may experience an extreme allergic reaction with symptoms such as going into a state of shock, nausea, and even feelings of illness.
  • Dead Bed Bugs Non-Toxic & Safe Bed Bug Treatment :: Shop.QBased.com :: Effective bed bug products for your apartments or home. Treat for bed bugs in the privacy of your own home. Guaranteed effective against bed bugs, bed bug larvea and bed bug eggs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]

^ You can experience certain allergic reactions such as anaphylactic shocks to bed bug bites you should also go to the doctor and seek the necessary help.
  • Bed Bug Facts - Canadian Allergy Relief Store - The Allergy Guy (Canada) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.theallergyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also possible that sustained feeding by bedbugs may lead to anemia.^ Heavy rates of feeding can result in significant blood loss and eventually lead to anemia, especially in malnourished children.
  • Public Health and Medical Entomology 11 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.entm.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Public Health and Medical Entomology | Purdue | Biology | Entomology | Insects | Ticks | Diseases | Monitoring | Control | Hot Topics | Agriculture | Extension 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC extension.entm.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bedbugs may live for several weeks to several months without feeding, depending on temperature.
  • Bed Bugs - Kleen Green Enzymes - Natural Ginesis 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.naturalginesis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exterminators vary the different treatments, to eliminate the possibility of bedbugs that may have developed a resistance to specific insecticide preparations.
  • Bedbugs and their proper control - United Exterminating Company - Cherry Hill, New Jersey 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.unexco.com [Source type: General]

.It is also important to watch for and treat any secondary bacterial infection.^ As mentioned before, the biggest risk for humans comes from secondary bacterial infection, which in this case would be as a result of scratching the skin.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.August 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Systemic poisoning may occur if the bites are numerous.^ Bed bugs are not known to transmit communicable diseases, however, in humans allergic to bed bug bites, nervous disorders and/or something akin to a common cold may occur.
  • Bed Bugs: How to Eliminate and Control Mild Infestations - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Even though you may display bed bug bites on your body that occur during the night, this is not a sure sign that a bed bug was the culprit.

^ As reported by Leibold et al 10 in 2003, a disseminated bullous eruption with systemic reaction caused by C lectularius may occur, but is rare.

[19]

History

An 1860 engraving of parts of a bedbug. A. Intestines.—B. Antenna of the Male.—C Eye.—D. Haustellum, or Sucker, closed.—E. Side view of Sucker.—F. Under Part of Head.—G. Under Lip.—GG. Hair of the Tube, and outside Cases.—H. Egg-Bag.—I. Worm emerging from the Egg.
.Bedbugs are also known by a variety of names including wall louse, mahogany flat, crimson rambler, heavy dragoon, redcoat, and simply "bug". Its names in other languages include meanings such as "stinker" (French punaise), "nightcrawler" (German Nachtkrabbler), "bitter" (Sanskrit uddamsa), "pursuer" (Portuguese percevejo or perceveja, depending on the region), "flat" (Czech plostice), and "wall louse" (German Wandlaus).^ Distinguishing bed bug bites from the bites of other arthropods such as mosquitoes, fleas, and spiders is difficult.
  • Bed Bug Management Guidelines--UC IPM 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.ipm.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As bedbugs can live in nearly any wood or warm place, they have been known to breed in furniture, books and other clutter.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bed bugs are also known as: Cimex lectularius , chinches de camas, chintzes or chinches, mahogany flats, red coats, crimson ramblers, wall lice, the bug that nobody knows, lentils on legs, animated blood drops.

Middle East

.C. lectularius may have originated in the Middle East, in caves inhabited by bats and humans.^ C hemipterus (the tropical bedbug) bites mostly humans and is found in warm climates, whereas C lectularius (the common bedbug) also attacks bats and domestic animals (eg, chickens).

^ Bed bugs may have evolved when a close relative, the bat bug, switched to feeding off cave-dwelling humans.

^ When humans first started living in caves in prehistoric times, Bat Bugs that fed on bats in the caves, started feeding on the humans migrating into the caves.
  • The Bed Bug Blog 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]

[4]

Europe

Bedbugs were mentioned in ancient Greece as early as 400 BCE (later mentioned by Aristotle). .Pliny's Natural History, first published c.^ The ancient Greeks and Romans complained of them, and Pliny the Elder included them in his 77 AD book on natural history.

.77 CE in Rome, claimed that bedbugs had medicinal value in treating ailments such as snake bites and ear infections.^ Both should keep bedbugs from biting you, but if you stick an arm or leg outside of a peremthrin-treated sleeping bag, the bugs will get you, so DEET can be useful.
  • BEDBUG update and Villafranca de Bierzo - Camino de Santiago de Compostela forum 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.caminodesantiago.me [Source type: General]

^ Try as many of the valuable bedbug and bedbug bite tips and advice as you like.
  • BedBugs Bite DIY Control and Identification 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugoff.com [Source type: General]

^ Those who have high sensitivity or conditions such as eczema will have more reactivity to bedbug bites.
  • Notes From The Bedbug Workshop | newyorkshitty.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newyorkshitty.com [Source type: General]

.(Belief in the medicinal use of bedbugs persisted until at least the 18th century, when Guettard recommended their use in the treatment of hysteria.^ With the widespread use of DDT in the 1940s and '50s , bedbugs all but disappeared from North America in the mid-twentieth century.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the widespread use of DDT in the 1940s and '50s, bedbugs all but disappeared from North America in the mid-twentieth century.
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the 18th century it was generally believed that each species of life was separately created by God.
  • Foogle Business - The Bed Bug - Bedbug Information - Mahogany Flats - The Bed Louse - Cimex lectularius Linnaeus - (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cimicidae) - Sahara Supposition - Common Bedbugs - Sleep Tight - 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.thesahara.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]) .Bedbugs were first mentioned in Germany in the 11th century, in France in the 13th century, and in England in 1583,[4] though they remained rare in England until 1670. It was believed by some in the 18th century that bedbugs had been brought to London with supplies of wood to rebuild the city after the Great Fire of London (1666).^ Why didn't they just mention bedbugs first?

^ Until the 18th century it was generally believed that each species of life was separately created by God.
  • Foogle Business - The Bed Bug - Bedbug Information - Mahogany Flats - The Bed Louse - Cimex lectularius Linnaeus - (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cimicidae) - Sahara Supposition - Common Bedbugs - Sleep Tight - 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.thesahara.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the topics they cover (aside from bedbugs) are mold and mildew; roaches and vermin abatement and lead paint awareness.
  • Notes From The Bedbug Workshop | newyorkshitty.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newyorkshitty.com [Source type: General]

Scopoli noted their presence in Carniola (present day Slovenia and Italy) in the 18th century.[21][22]
.Eighteenth and 19th century Europeans believed bedbugs to feed on the sap of certain trees (especially fir), paste (which may have included tree sap), other insects, and Acari.^ Bedbugs are generally active only at dawn, with a peak attack period about an hour before dawn, though given the opportunity, they may attempt to feed at other times.
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ House centipedes feed on spiders, bedbugs, termites, cockroaches, silverfish, ants and other household arthropods.
  • Brownstoner | Forum: Bed Bug Question 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.brownstoner.com [Source type: General]

^ If people aren't available, they instead will feed on other warm-blooded animals, including birds, rodents, bats, and pets.
  • Kill Bed Bugs safely with Diatomaceous Earth from Dirt Works 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.dirtworks.net [Source type: General]

[23][24]

Americas

Bedbugs were known at least as early as 1726 in Jamaica.[25]
.Bedbugs were originally brought to the United States by early colonists from Europe.^ Finally, bedbugs may travel between units in multi-unit dwellings (such as condominiums and apartment buildings), after being originally brought into the building by one of the above routes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a landmark case a motel chain in the United States was successfully sued for [U.S.] $382,000 after guests were bitten by bedbugs [ Matthias v.

^ Outbreaks in the United States can often be traced to international travel from countries where the bugs are common, such as Asia, Africa, Europe, the Caribbean, or Central/South America.
  • Pest Control Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.callcraig.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bedbugs thrive in places with high occupancy, such as hotels.^ They can take up residence anywhere, but tend to thrive in well-trafficked places like hotels, housing complexes, and dormitories.

^ Those who have high sensitivity or conditions such as eczema will have more reactivity to bedbug bites.
  • Notes From The Bedbug Workshop | newyorkshitty.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newyorkshitty.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs will readily move between units in multi-occupancy settings such as hotels, apartments, hospitals, dormitories etc.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bedbugs were believed to be altogether eradicated 50 years ago in the United States and elsewhere with the widespread use of DDT.^ In a landmark case a motel chain in the United States was successfully sued for [U.S.] $382,000 after guests were bitten by bedbugs [ Matthias v.

^ I think that manufacturers are responding to the recent explosion of these once common bugs.Widespread use of DDT had virtually eliminated them.
  • Brownstoner | Forum: Bed Bug Question 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.brownstoner.com [Source type: General]

^ We have also been interested to discover that the rise in bed bugs is directly attributable to the lessening use of DDT, which nearly eliminated them in the 40's and 50's.
  • AT Survey: Bed Bugs Still? | Apartment Therapy New York 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.apartmenttherapy.com [Source type: General]

.One recent theory about bedbug reappearance involves potential geographic epicentres.^ Another story about how one student with bedbugs closed down an entire school district .

^ Also, who cares about potential mold when youve got real bedbugs.
  • FAQ: Killing bed bugs with steam 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

^ This is before the recent infestation, so no one actually thought they could be bedbugs.
  • AT Survey: Bed Bugs Still? | Apartment Therapy New York 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.apartmenttherapy.com [Source type: General]

.Investigators have found three apparent United States epicentres at poultry facilities in Arkansas, Texas and Delaware.^ It is found throughout the United States and the world.

^ The state holds landlords responsible for extermination in multi-unit buildings of three or more apartments if the bugs are found in two or more units or in common areas.....

^ About one in every three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in New York and its suburbs.

.It was determined that workers in these facilities were the main spreaders of these bedbugs, unknowingly carrying them to their places of residence and elsewhere after leaving work.^ If someone is in a place that is severely infested, bedbugs may actually crawl onto and be carried by people's clothing, although this is atypical behavior ?
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We do carry a line of mattress covers and boxspring covers(Mattress Safe Products) that are bedbug certified to place over your mattress or boxspring so you don't have to throw them away.

^ These days more than ever, we leave these on all day and all night, and as a source of heat could easily attract bedbugs.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

[26] .Bedbug populations in the United States have increased by 500 percent in the past few years.^ In a landmark case a motel chain in the United States was successfully sued for [U.S.] $382,000 after guests were bitten by bedbugs [ Matthias v.

^ In the past decade, bed bugs have begun making a comeback across the United States, although they are not considered to be a major pest.
  • Kill Bed Bugs safely with Diatomaceous Earth from Dirt Works 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.dirtworks.net [Source type: General]

^ After the war, insecticides came alone and wiped out the bedbug in North America until international travel reintroduced the population, now up by some estimates as much as 500 percent.
  • bed bugs | Clark Pest Control Blog 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blog.clarkpest.com [Source type: General]

.The cause of this resurgence is still uncertain, but most believe it is related to increased international travel and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bedbugs.^ What is the likelyhood that the new neighbour and the new pests are related?
  • FAQ: Killing bed bugs with steam 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

^ Increased international travel.
  • Notes From The Bedbug Workshop | newyorkshitty.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newyorkshitty.com [Source type: General]

^ International travel and changes in modern pest control are believed to be responsible for the resurgence.

[27] .In the last few years, the use of baits rather than insecticide sprays is believed to have contributed to the increase.^ When residual sprays meant to kill other insects were commonly being used, they resulted in a collateral insecticidal effect on potential bedbug infestations; the gel-based insecticides primarily used nowadays do not have any effect on bedbugs, as they are incapable of feeding on these baits.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exterminators NYC, Bed Bug Gallery 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exterminatorsnyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, with the increase in use of bait traps instead of broad spectrum sprays, specific pests such as ants and cockroaches are being targeted, and bed bugs are no longer being eliminated.

^ When asked which insecticides they generally used for treating bed bugs, respondents collectively mentioned more than 70 different products or materials.
  • The Business of Bed Bugs - Pest Management Professional 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.mypmp.net [Source type: News]

.December 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] With the advent of cockroach bait in the early 1990s, the use of residual insecticides and other liquid sprays were drastically reduced.^ Reduced use of residual insecticides in buildings.
  • How To Kill Bedbugs 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.epestsupply.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Miller: We were just able to spray them with insecticide [DDT] which we used very liberally in those days and got rid of them.
  • Bed bugs bite back - 'Don't let the bed bugs bite'- msnbc.com 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Even so, the researchers believe the use of alarm pheromones could increase the effectiveness of desiccant dusts and other kinds of residual insecticides used to kill bed bugs as well.

.As it turned out, pest control professionals had not realized that during their monthly treatments for cockroaches (particularly the German cockroach,[citation needed] which infests hotels as bedbugs do) they had helped in the control of bedbugs.^ Bedbug Pest Control - State wants help in fighting bedbugs .
  • bed bugs | Clark Pest Control Blog 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blog.clarkpest.com [Source type: General]

^ Pest control supplies for consumers for professionals .

^ A pest control professional will help advise you.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This process may have started with the use of DDT but it is no coincidence that the dramatic rise in bedbug activity came approximately 10 or so years after professionals stopped spraying for cockroach activity.^ If no activity is found, use the PT565XLO and spray lightly.
  • bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug infestation, Bedbug Infestation, BEDBUG INFESTATION, bedbug removal, Bedbug Removal, BEDBUG REMOVAL, bed bugs, Bed bugs, BED BUGS 11 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.bugspray.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cockroaches and bed bugs are of no use.
  • Bed Bug Plague - Battle the Bed Bug Plague 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugplague.com [Source type: General]

^ If no activity is found, use the .
  • Bedbug, BEDBUG, bed bug, BED BUG, bedbug, Bed Bugs, bedbugs, bed bugcontrol 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bestpestproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

New York City

.New York City has experienced increased cases of bedbug infestations since the early 2000s, with some reported in hotels, schools, and hospitals.^ New York City sports three of them.
  • Notes From The Bedbug Workshop | newyorkshitty.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newyorkshitty.com [Source type: General]

^ Has the city ever intervened regarding a bedbug infestation?
  • Notes From The Bedbug Workshop | newyorkshitty.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newyorkshitty.com [Source type: General]

^ And in some cases a not-so-nasty hotel.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

.In 2004, New York City had 377 bedbug violations.^ New York City sports three of them.
  • Notes From The Bedbug Workshop | newyorkshitty.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newyorkshitty.com [Source type: General]

^ Two reasons for the influx of bedbugs in New York City are as follows.
  • Notes From The Bedbug Workshop | newyorkshitty.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newyorkshitty.com [Source type: General]

^ New York City is exceptionally diverse.

.However, in the five-month span from July to November 2005, 449 violations were reported in the city, an increase in infestations over a short period of time.^ This means it is not practical to starve bed bugs by staying away for short periods of time, instead this activity may serve to spread bed bugs more quickly in a facility.
  • Bed Bugs, Bed Bugs NY, Bed Bugs Long Island, LI Bed Bugs - Bugs in your bed? 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.acexterminating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bugs, Bed Bugs NY, Bed Bugs Long Island, LI Bed Bugs - Bugs in your bed? 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.acpestmanagement.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of bed bug infestations reported from homes, resort hotels, apartments, universities and cruise ships.
  • Bed Bugs, Bed Bugs NY, Bed Bugs Long Island, LI Bed Bugs - Bugs in your bed? 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.acexterminating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bugs, Bed Bugs NY, Bed Bugs Long Island, LI Bed Bugs - Bugs in your bed? 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.acpestmanagement.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bedbug City — map of self-reported bedbug infestations Bedbug Registry — registry and maps of self-reported bedbug infestations Information from specialized sources .
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some domestic cases have escalated to extreme levels, causing residents to label the infestations "house herpes". Exterminators and entomologists blame the infestations on the fact that so many international travelers visit New York City each day.^ New York City sports three of them.
  • Notes From The Bedbug Workshop | newyorkshitty.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newyorkshitty.com [Source type: General]

^ It took filing a complaint with the City of New York to get an exterminator.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ New York City is exceptionally diverse.

Global resurgence

.Bedbug cases have been on the rise recently across the world.^ All but eradicated in the 1950s, bedbugs have made quite the comeback, hitchhiking their way across the world in luggage.
  • About Philly Bed Bug Dogs and Philadelphia Bed Bug Dog Detection Teams 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.phillybedbug.com [Source type: General]

.Prior to the mid-twentieth century, bedbugs were very common.^ With the widespread use of DDT in the 1940s and '50s , bedbugs all but disappeared from North America in the mid-twentieth century.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mid-20th century, the widespread use of DDT and various broad spectrum pesticides and insecticides caused the dramatic decline of the common bedbug -- at least in the more affluent countries of the world.
  • The Tyee — Vancouver's Bedbug Plague 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC thetyee.ca [Source type: General]

^ Bedbugs were once a common public health pest worldwide, which declined in incidence through the mid 20th century.

.According to a report by the UK Ministry of Health, in 1933 there were many areas where all the houses had some degree of bedbug infestation.^ Our s pecialty There are numerous reports of bedbugs in the Montreal area.

^ Repairs all cracks, seal the crevices in order to eliminate their shelter, caulking will work well in many areas, bedbug infested laundry need to be washed in extreme temperatures; cold or hot.
  • Stubbornella » Blog Archive » Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.stubbornella.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To complicate matters, many people have delayed reactions to bed bug bites and some people dont react to the bites at all, making it almost impossible to determine the specific timeframe a person was exposed to an infestation.
  • ENY-227/IG083: Bed Bugs and Blood-Sucking Conenose 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .Since the mid-1990s, reports of bedbug cases have been rising.^ Montreal public health authorities said the city has seen a marked increase in the number of bedbug cases since 2005.

^ Since travelers tend to carry bedbugs, this is yet another story in a long line of "the hotel's bedbugs bit me" - we remember a case at the Helmsley Hotel in 2003 .
  • bedbug coverage by Gothamist 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: General]

^ This tape has since gone missing, however FOX is happy to report that they have seen no “bedbugs” since the incedent was first uncovered.
  • Think Progress » Fox News infested by bed bugs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Figures from one London borough show reported bedbug infestations doubling each year from 1995 to 2001. The rise in bedbug infestations has been hard to track because bedbugs are not an easily identifiable problem.^ Bedbug City — map of self-reported bedbug infestations Bedbug Registry — registry and maps of self-reported bedbug infestations Information from specialized sources .
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its hard even to identify whos technically at fault because bed bugs can enter a space in so many ways.

^ Add 255 Mckibben st to the list - there's a really bad bedbug problem and no one is doing anything...
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Most of the reports are collected from pest-control companies, local authorities, and hotel chains.^ Call a professional pest control company.

^ (Your pest control company might have them too).

^ There are a number of pest control companies in your locality.

[28] .Therefore, the problem may be more severe than is currently believed.^ If there are no current rodent problems in the hotel, then I believe you can discount mites as the source of the problem.
  • Pest Control Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.callcraig.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bed bugs may in fact be the most challenging pest problem currently facing the pest control industry.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not uncommon for people to suffer from a bed bug infestation for several months or more before they finally realize that they have a problem with bed bugs (see also - Early Detection of Bed Bugs ).
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.As stated above, the most-cited reason for the dramatic worldwide rise in bedbug cases in recent decades is increased international travel.^ In a landmark case a motel chain in the United States was successfully sued for [U.S.] $382,000 after guests were bitten by bedbugs [ Matthias v.

^ People can often acquire bedbugs at hotels, motels, and bed-and-breakfasts, thanks to increased domestic and international tourism, and bring them back to their homes in their luggage.
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the elimination of DDT and the increase in worldwide travel, the entire globe has been forced to face a recent bed bug epidemic.

[29] .In 1999, four separate infestations throughout the United Kingdom alerted people to the possibility of an increase in the worldwide bedbug population, facilitated by international travel and trade.^ After the war, insecticides came alone and wiped out the bedbug in North America until international travel reintroduced the population, now up by some estimates as much as 500 percent.
  • bed bugs | Clark Pest Control Blog 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blog.clarkpest.com [Source type: General]

^ Infestations of the bedbug seem to be increasing around the world at an alarming rate, possibly due to insecticide resistance.

^ People can often acquire bedbugs at hotels, motels, and bed-and-breakfasts, thanks to increased domestic and international tourism, and bring them back to their homes in their luggage.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, there is evidence of a previous cycle of bedbug infestations in the United Kingdom.^ The visible bedbug infestation does not represent the infestation as a whole, as there may be infestations elsewhere in a home, however, the insects do have a tendency to stay close to their hosts (hence the name "bed" bugs).
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the infestation is severe however, there's a good chance that the neighboring apartments are affected and it's likely the bugs will eventually come back.

^ Bedbugs may be erroneously associated with filth in the mistaken notion that this attracts them, however, severe infestations are often associated with poor housekeeping and clutter.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Institution of Environmental Health Officers maintained statistics for bedbug infestations—data collected from reports and inspections.^ Bedbug City — map of self-reported bedbug infestations Bedbug Registry — registry and maps of self-reported bedbug infestations Information from specialized sources .
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If it's true that there are 500 infestations reported in New York so far in 2006, there's a lot more data we can collect...
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Toronto Public Health has reported that it handled 1,500 infestations in 2009, up from 46 in 2003.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

.In the period 1985–1986, the Institution of Environmental Health Officers reported treating 7,771 infestations in England and Wales, and 6,179 infestations in 1986–1987. There were also reports of infestations in Belfast and in Scotland.^ During the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of bed bug infestations reported from homes, resort hotels, apartments, universities and cruise ships.
  • Bed Bugs, Bed Bugs NY, Bed Bugs Long Island, LI Bed Bugs - Bugs in your bed? 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.acexterminating.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bed Bugs, Bed Bugs NY, Bed Bugs Long Island, LI Bed Bugs - Bugs in your bed? 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.acpestmanagement.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If it's true that there are 500 infestations reported in New York so far in 2006, there's a lot more data we can collect...
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Toronto Public Health has reported that it handled 1,500 infestations in 2009, up from 46 in 2003.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

[30]
Blood-fed Cimex lectularius (Note the differences in color with respect to digestion of blood meal)
.Since 1999, infestations have been reported in the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Australia, Canada, India, Israel[31] and the United States.^ Canada but requires one in the United States.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States is experiencing a tremendous amount of immigration from parts of the world where bed bug infestations are common.
  • How To Kill Bedbugs 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.epestsupply.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One or more of the surrounding units may have well established infestations that have not been reported by the occupants.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two separate studies in Tuscany, Italy offer further correlation of international travel with a resurgence in bedbug infestations.^ According to experts at Orkin Canada, the bed bug resurgence can likely be contributed to an increase in travel, changes in treatments, and incorrect management of infestations, among other factors.

^ Tags: bed bug , bed bugs , bedbug , bedbug.com , bedbugs , football , infestation , laundry bag , luggage liner , mattress covers , mattress protector , prevent bed bugs , suitcase liner , travel .

^ It is important to inspect all adjacent rooms for infestation, as bedbugs travel easily and quickly along pipes and boards.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In case 1, in summer 2003 a seven-year-old boy developed a number of papulae that caused severe itching on his lower legs.^ In both cases, it was more severe on my stomach, legs, arms; pretty much all over.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ ITCHING like CRAZY. theres a teensy bit of itching on my amrs and legs, but its mostly only on my inner thighs, and my lower butt, and some in my crack.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Thomas is a 9 year old boy with cerebral palsy and autism, who can neither walk nor talk.
  • World Famous Books Information - Books by Carolyn Ann Aish and others 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.scribesvalley.com [Source type: General]

.His parents suspected insects in the boy’s room, and found several in the folds of his mattress.^ I've seen several couches and mattresses in the garbage and plastic sheets hanging on fumigated rooms.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ I had to get rid of my bed room furniture including mattress and box spring and purchase brand new furniture and it’s been several months and we haven’t encountered any problems.
  • Stubbornella » Blog Archive » Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.stubbornella.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have sprayed the mattress and around the bottom of the bed frame went into the room and found a couple on the sheets.

.Two specimens were identified as C. lectularius and the room was treated with an insecticide.^ Bed bug infestations were considered confirmed if an entomologist or pest control operator identified a specimen collected at the shelter as C. lectularius .
  • Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment | CDC EID 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment | CDC EID 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Now that you have properly treated the rooms where you have identified the main activity, the next thing to do is to observe and inspect the results of your treatment.
  • bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug infestation, Bedbug Infestation, BEDBUG INFESTATION, bedbug removal, Bedbug Removal, BEDBUG REMOVAL, bed bugs, Bed bugs, BED BUGS 11 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.bugspray.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dont enter a room that has been treated with an insecticide for at least 4 hoursor whatever the insecticide label states, whichever is longer.

.The house had never been infested with bedbugs before.^ W.170th Street New York New York 10032 is infested with bedbugs with violations on record in the city housing authorities website.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ How to avoid infesting your house with hotel bed bugs The night before you check out, remove every item from your suitcase.

^ Dial-A-BedBug has a preparation sheet that will detail everything that will need to be done before our technician services your house.
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, one month earlier, two family friends had flown from Nepal to stay with the family for ten days.^ We put up our older son and his family in a hotel and had our younger son, his new (second) wife and their 5-month-old baby stay in our basement guest room.
  • Carolyn Hax: Hosts let bed bugs bite in-law - Sacramento Living - Sacramento Food and Wine, Home, Health | Sacramento Bee 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.sacbee.com [Source type: General]

^ I have known our whole lives he loved the drums and that he even taught one of our family friends the drums so she could play them in the st paddy's day parade with her family who play the pipes.
  • The ANT Colony 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under favorable conditions (70-90F), bed bugs can complete development (from egg to adult) in one two months.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Case 2, a forty-eight-year-old man traveled by car to Pisa, Italy from Prague, Czech Republic in June 2003 and stayed in a rented house with three friends.^ A friend of mine had them recently in a Greenpoint apartment and they managed to spread to her car and even her parents house in Connecticut.
  • AT Survey: Bed Bugs Still? | Apartment Therapy New York 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.apartmenttherapy.com [Source type: General]

^ My biggest concern is that I traveled to stay at a friend's beach house this past weekend.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ My wife and I just spent 3 weeks traveling through Germany and Italy - all the places we stayed were very nice hotels, and B&B's, all of then looked "spotless".
  • Bed Bugs - tips/hints ? - FlyerTalk Forums 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.flyertalk.com [Source type: General]

.After several days, the man noticed several bullous eruptions in linear patterns of three on his upper and lower extremities.^ Often bites may not be noticeable for several days.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A linear array of three papules is very suggestive of bed bug bites; this has been referred to as the “breakfast, lunch, and dinner” pattern.
  • Diagnosis: Bed Bug Bites | Skin & Aging 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.skinandaging.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chilling to a temperature of 32°F or lower and maintaining this temperature for several days also will kill bed bugs.
  • Bed Bug Management Guidelines--UC IPM 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.ipm.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The man found several insects in his room that were identified as C. lectularius.^ A search of the guest’s room found multiple insects and the business was immediately closed.”We washed everything and they put it back in circulation,” Aubrey said.

.The rented house was well kept and had never had a bedbug infestation.^ Most of what I brought came straight out of plastic bags and had been washed, but what is the liklihood that I brought bedbugs with me to her house as well?
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Rental vacancy is usually between 3% and 4.5%, well below the 5% threshold defined to be a housing emergency and used to justify the continuation of rent control and rent stabilization.

^ I rent a room in a house and wasn't told of the infestation when I moved in.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.However, a group of Germans had rented the house a few weeks before the Czech group arrived.^ She arrived there at only a few weeks old.

^ This helped for less than a week before they spread to the rest of the bedrooms in the house.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She hung out for a few weeks in this nice house and then, after a few days, ‎she laid a few eggs, like she does every day.

[29]
.Many bedbugs have grown resistant to insecticides (including DDT).^ But I guess it's best we not use it so much since mosquitos, bedbugs and other crawlies rapidly found ways to resist DDT and morph into super bedbugs .

^ Resistance: Bed bugs are known to be resistant to many insecticides, especially pyrethroids.
  • ENY-227/IG083: Bed Bugs and Blood-Sucking Conenose 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Noface Um, for those of you screaming for your DDT--bedbugs have developed resistence to it.
  • Strange Bed(bug)fellows - Gothamist 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: General]

.In a study at the University of Kentucky bedbugs were randomly collected from across the United States.^ In a landmark case a motel chain in the United States was successfully sued for [U.S.] $382,000 after guests were bitten by bedbugs [ Matthias v.

^ In the past decade, bed bugs have begun making a comeback across the United States, although they are not considered to be a major pest.
  • Kill Bed Bugs safely with Diatomaceous Earth from Dirt Works 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.dirtworks.net [Source type: General]

^ Bed bug resistance to pyrethroids has been documented in a recent study by researchers at the University of Kentucky (2007).
  • Managing Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC lancaster.unl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These “wild” bedbugs were up to several thousands of times more resistant to pyrethroids than were laboratory bedbugs.^ The effect of these bites on humans varies from person to person, but often cause welts and swelling that are more itchy and longer-lasting than mosquito bites.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Dial A Bed Bug 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dialabedbug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By partial spraying with these toxins (rather than true fumigation) are pilgrims helping to breed a super bedbug that will be resistant to the sprays.
  • BEDBUG update and Villafranca de Bierzo - Camino de Santiago de Compostela forum 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.caminodesantiago.me [Source type: General]

^ These days more than ever, we leave these on all day and all night, and as a source of heat could easily attract bedbugs.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

[32] .New York City bed bugs have been found to be 264 times more resistant to deltamethrin than Florida bedbugs due to nerve cell mutations.^ Posted in Bed Bug News , Bed bug stories .

^ More from Helium.com » News & Blogs for Bed bugs › .
  • Bed Bugs - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs hide in more than just mattresses.

[33] .Another problem with current insecticide use is that the broad-spectrum insecticide sprays for cockroaches and ants that are no longer used had a collateral impact on bedbug infestations.^ Cockroaches and bed bugs are of no use.
  • Bed Bug Plague - Battle the Bed Bug Plague 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugplague.com [Source type: General]

^ This method is no longer used.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Explaining the current creature comeback: One of the problems, according to researchers and the pesticide industry, is that there are few chemicals on the market approved for use on mattresses that are effective at reducing bedbug numbers.

.Recently, a switch has been made to bait insecticides that have proven effective against cockroaches but have allowed bedbugs to escape the indirect treatment.^ Destroy: Acquire treatment methods that are effective against Bed Bugs quickly and covertly.
  • Bed Bug Bureau Commercial Bed Bug Solutions :: Exterminate Bed Bugs in Your Place of Business Quickly and Effectively :: BedBugBureau.com 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]

^ University studies have proven DE to be an effective barrier against Bed Bugs.
  • Dead Bed Bugs: HOME 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]
  • Dead Bed Bugs Non-Toxic & Safe Bed Bug Treatment :: Shop.QBased.com :: Effective bed bug products for your apartments or home. Treat for bed bugs in the privacy of your own home. Guaranteed effective against bed bugs, bed bug larvea and bed bug eggs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]

^ I had to present them with damming information against them too in order to pressure them for more treatments) Toronto hosuing is also continuing to this day to be negligent with the bedbug issue in our building....
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[28]
.The number of bedbug infestations has risen significantly since the early 21st century.^ In addition, since bedbugs normally disperse, treatment of a bed or mattress is insufficient to eradicate an infestation.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italians emigrated to the city in large numbers in the early twentieth century.

^ Low infestations may be difficult to detect, and it is not unusual for the victim not to even realize they have bedbugs early on.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The National Pest Management Association reported a 71% increase in bedbug calls between 2000 and 2005.[32] The Steritech Group, a pest-management company based in Charlotte, North Carolina, claimed that 25% of the 700 hotels they surveyed between 2002 and 2006 needed bedbug treatment.^ Powered by phpBB © 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007, 2008 phpBB Group.
  • BEDBUG update and Villafranca de Bierzo - Camino de Santiago de Compostela forum 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.caminodesantiago.me [Source type: General]

^ Call a professional pest control company.

^ A good reference for any pest problem is the National Pest Management Association.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 2003, Burl and Desiree Mathias, a brother and sister staying at a Motel 6 in Chicago were awarded $372,000 in punitive damages and $10,000 in actual damages after being bitten by bedbugs during their stay.^ Hosts, the people being bitten during the .
  • Bedbug, BEDBUG, bed bug, BED BUG, bedbug, Bed Bugs, bedbugs, bed bugcontrol 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bestpestproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the lawsuit, which is seeking several million dollars in damages, the Blumings were bitten hundreds of times during their five-night stay leaving their skin red, swollen and itchy.

^ Although I had done a bit of research on bedbugs in the past I was reminded that they actually feed off of human blood, not unlike a tick, and we never wake during the process.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

[34][35][36] .These are only a few of the reported cases since the turn of the 21st century.^ Every night since, we check to see if we see any more bed and in the morning only saw a few.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only since 2000 have researchers and manufacturers been researching, testing, and training on these difficult pests.

^ The only caveat was that Wort Hotel could possibly have bed bugs since there was a few reviews on TripAdvisor about them, citing room 233.

[37]
The resurgence of infestations led the United States Environmental Protection Agency to hold a National Bed Bug Summit April 14–15, 2009.[38]

Infestations

Bedbug (shown on writing paper)
.There are several ways in which dwellings can become infested with bedbugs.^ There are several means by which dwellings can become infested with bedbugs.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I didn't know there was such thing as bedbugs until several months of living in my apt with an infested used mattress.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Purchase or rental of secondhand mattresses, box springs, and furniture is another way that bed bugs are transported into previously non-infested dwellings.

.One common way is for them to be picked up while traveling or when staying at temporary lodging such as hotels, bed-and-breakfasts, hostels, or motels—which are places that have been traditionally associated with an increased risk for housing bedbugs due to their higher rate of turnover and continual influx of temporary residents.^ One common way to get them is by carrying them home with you from somewhere you stayed while travelling.
  • Dead Bed Bugs: HOME 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]

^ This bedbug will have a one way trip to his destiny.

^ I got bit, while travelling & staying in a nice hotel.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

.Once acquired at such travel locations, the now hitchhiking bedbugs may then be transported and brought back to the homes of the guests in their luggage where a new infestation can then take place inside the home.^ She’d traveled inside a ‎suitcase that was brought home by the mother of the home.

^ International travel and commerce are thought to facilitate the spread of these insect hitchhikers, because eggs, young, and adult bed bugs are readily transported in luggage, clothing, bedding, and furniture.
  • BED BUG PICTURES 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.doyourownpestcontrol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kill Bed Bugs safely with Diatomaceous Earth from Dirt Works 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.dirtworks.net [Source type: General]

^ DDT may not be the answer, but we need to take a more aggressive stance on developing new pesticides and using them in a more conservative manner.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

.Bedbugs can also be picked up inadvertently through bringing infested furniture or contaminated, used clothing into a household.^ They also can pick them up by inadvertently bringing infested furniture or used clothing to their household.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dont buy or pick up used furniture.

^ I didn't know there was such thing as bedbugs until several months of living in my apt with an infested used mattress.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though such furniture does not necessarily have to have been previously owned or discarded—as even brand new furniture can be exposed to bedbugs during storage or in delivery vehicles.^ In addition, discarded items are often picked up by other people (maybe even your neighbor), spreading the problem to new areas.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bernard Grater has posted a tip on January 3, 2010, 4:26 am put fabric furniture into storage until bedbug problem is solved(or throw away).

^ Second, understand that you could have gotten the bedbugs from anywhere, including your new furniture -- if the person who loads the furniture has bedbugs, you could get them.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

.Nor do the used clothes have to be clothing that had been previously obtained through borrowing, secondhand purchase or through donation — since any exposed and unwashed apparel is capable of transferring bedbugs.^ Purchase or rental of secondhand mattresses, box springs, and furniture is another way that bed bugs are transported into previously non-infested dwellings.

^ That's why people have to be very cautious when purchasing used furniture, since they never know when they would be inheriting bed bugs.
  • Dead Bed Bugs Non-Toxic & Safe Bed Bug Treatment :: Shop.QBased.com :: Effective bed bug products for your apartments or home. Treat for bed bugs in the privacy of your own home. Guaranteed effective against bed bugs, bed bug larvea and bed bug eggs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs are easily transported and can spread through luggage, secondhand mattresses, infested furniture, and clothing.

.Toys such as stuffed dolls or other bedroom items can be infested as well.^ It is also suggested to slash or mark up infested items so that others do not take them back into the building.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some companies also de-infest such items with specialized heating equipment.
  • Bed Bugs | University of Kentucky Entomology 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.ca.uky.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Placing clothing, footwear, rugs, toys, stuffed animals, backpacks and other non-launderable items in the dryer for a certain length of time can conveniently remove bed bugs.

.Bedbugs may also introduce themselves into a new residence by traveling between multi-unit housing such as condominiums, dormitories, and apartment buildings, or arrive after having exited infested furniture that has been thrown out, discarded and/or placed outside for garbage collection or for treatment.^ Finally, bedbugs may travel between units in multi-unit dwellings (such as condominiums and apartment buildings), after being originally brought into the building by one of the above routes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I just moved into this apartment with brand new furniture.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The building is old but the apartment themselves have been remodel.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

This unintentional spread between adjacent homesites and nearby units is dependent, in part, upon the degree of infestation at the source (i.e. a heavier infestation is more likely to spread), but also upon the building material used to partition units and the material used to seal connecting pipes, vents, wires, etc. Further potential to spread is also directly related to the manner in which infested items are disposed of — such as whether or not contaminated furniture is dragged through common areas while being removed, which can result in the shedding of bedbugs or their eggs while being dragged — and whether or not infested items have been properly sealed once discarded.
.Bedbugs can also be transmitted via animal vectors including wild birds and household pets.^ They can also suck, as alternatives, blood of dogs, cats, birds, or whatever animal or pet they can get their mouth into.

^ If people aren't available, they instead will feed on other warm-blooded animals, including birds, rodents, bats, and pets.
  • Kill Bed Bugs safely with Diatomaceous Earth from Dirt Works 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.dirtworks.net [Source type: General]

^ Although C. lectularius prefers feeding on humans, it will also bite other warm-blooded animals, including dogs, cats, birds and rodents.
  • Bed Bugs | University of Kentucky Entomology 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.ca.uky.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
.In places that are severely infested, bedbugs may actually crawl onto a person's clothes and be carried from location to location allowing the bugs to spread in this manner—though, it should be noted, that this sort of hitchhiking behavior is typically associated only with severe cases or with cases of heavy infestations that are poorly managed.^ If someone is in a place that is severely infested, bedbugs may actually crawl onto and be carried by people's clothing, although this is atypical behavior — except in the case of severe infestations, bedbugs are not usually carried from place to place by people on clothing they are currently wearing.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bugs have spread to several apartments.
  • The Tyee — Vancouver's Bedbug Plague 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC thetyee.ca [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs can be found in various places including hotels, hospitals, dorms, airports and laboratori While a bed bug infestation may seem daunting, they don't actually pass any disease to humans while they feed on their blood.
  • Bed Bugs - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

It is also common for bedbugs to nest in clothing articles that are generally not washed often (i.e. living and nesting inside of jackets, coats, purses, shoes, etc.) and for them to then spread when such apparel is either stored publicly with other apparel (as in locker rooms and on coat racks) or to spread when the unwashed, contaminated clothing comes into direct contact with high-trafficked public surfaces. .Otherwise, bedbugs will not be usually carried from place to place by people on the clothing they are currently wearing.^ As long as there are people to carry the bedbugs from place to place, I do not see how they can be controlled...
  • BEDBUG update and Villafranca de Bierzo - Camino de Santiago de Compostela forum 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.caminodesantiago.me [Source type: General]

^ "Hotel [managers] will often say 'we don't have them,' but the easiest way to see if a place has bedbugs is to stand outside on a hot summer day when people wear shorts and you can see all the bites.
  • The Tyee — Vancouver's Bedbug Plague 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC thetyee.ca [Source type: General]

^ Bedbugs are capable of travelling as far as 100 feet to feed, but usually remain close to the host in bedrooms or on sofas where people may sleep.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.General machine washing and drying on high heat will disinfect most clothing of potential bedbugs and will kill their eggs as well.^ Will the high heat drying cycle do the trick?
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Freezing and heating kills bedbugs, too.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

^ The high heat will kill the bugs instantly and more importantly the eggs.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

The transmission of bedbug eggs is also an issue. .It is not uncommon for the live bedbugs amongst an infestation to be completely eradicated during an effective treatment cycle only to have the remaining or surviving eggs hatch and reinfest the location.^ That means the shaggy sleuths can help a mid-size 500-room property entirely eradicate any or all bedbug infestation in about a week.

^ But the heat can't always penetrate to the center of a mattress, where the bedbugs live, and isn't always effective.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ Once the visitor is gone the pregnant female gets busy laying eggs which in turn hatch and allow an infestation to get established.
  • bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug infestation, Bedbug Infestation, BEDBUG INFESTATION, bedbug removal, Bedbug Removal, BEDBUG REMOVAL, bed bugs, Bed bugs, BED BUGS 11 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.bugspray.com [Source type: Original source]

.The bedbug eggs themselves are usually unaffected by and/or not killed by most approved pesticides.^ Spraying Raid: While Raid will kill on direct contact, you usually won't see all of them and the Raid is not killing the eggs.

^ When used as directed, our Bed Bug Contact Killing Spray is one of the most effective, non-toxic, non-pesticide formulas on the market!
  • Dead Bed Bugs: HOME 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]
  • Dead Bed Bugs Non-Toxic & Safe Bed Bug Treatment :: Shop.QBased.com :: Effective bed bug products for your apartments or home. Treat for bed bugs in the privacy of your own home. Guaranteed effective against bed bugs, bed bug larvea and bed bug eggs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]

^ (This is because there is absolutely no pesticide that can kill an egg.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

The eggs can also have an incubation period of up to several weeks and may be deposited in hidden areas that are difficult to penetrate, difficult to find, or simply hidden away from what otherwise would have been a quick lethal treatment (i.e. lethal treatment such as the killing of a bedbug's eggs through heat—by hot ironing fabric surfaces where bedbugs have hidden, through steaming [typically using a fabric steamer], via direct machine drying, or through a procedural use of boiling water, etc.). This stubborn tendency of bedbug infestations towards reemergence can be incredibly problematic and made all the more difficult to detect due to a now smaller size of the newly re-emerged bedbug nymphs. .Reinfestation can also be made more difficult to discover early enough due to a corresponding decrease in the 'size' of infestation symptoms—such as fewer and now much smaller fecal droppings that may be scattered in between and more difficult to detect (droppings that may then be found resembling lone, tiny pinhead-sized dabs from a black permanent-marker).^ Sydney had at least one infected room, and because it wasn't detected early enough, it spread to other rooms in the hotels, and people transmitted them from location to location."
  • The Tyee — Vancouver's Bedbug Plague 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC thetyee.ca [Source type: General]

^ For these reasons, infestations may go a long time unnoticed, and can become quite large before being detected.

^ Finally, bedbugs may travel between units in multi-unit dwellings (such as condominiums and apartment buildings), after being originally brought into the building by one of the above routes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As well as other 'smaller' infestation symptoms such newer sloughed off skins that tinier in size and the potential for hiding locations that are more narrow and thus harder to find during reinfestation, etc.^ This study was conducted to document the magnitude and adverse effects of bed bug infestations in homeless shelters and other locations in Toronto.
  • Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment | CDC EID 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment | CDC EID 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Eggs are carefully placed in cracks, crevices and other well protected sites surrounding the main location of food.
  • bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug infestation, Bedbug Infestation, BEDBUG INFESTATION, bedbug removal, Bedbug Removal, BEDBUG REMOVAL, bed bugs, Bed bugs, BED BUGS 11 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.bugspray.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A smaller army is tough because they hide very well.

.The result of a recurrent bedbug infestation can prove dispiriting, disheartening, demoralizing, and even depressing to households that may have already gone great lengths (in expense, labor, treatment, containment measures, lost furniture, etc.^ With regards to the elapsed time from the initial infestation, even a single female bedbug brought into a home has a potential for reproduction, with its resulting offspring then breeding, resulting in a geometric progression of population expansion if control is not undertaken.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bedbugs may be erroneously associated with filth in the mistaken notion that this attracts them, however, severe infestations are often associated with poor housekeeping and clutter.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furniture and other room contents can be contained within a styrofoam box and heated with household oil-filled heaters to 113-115°F while the room is treated with residual pesticides.
  • ENY-227/IG083: Bed Bugs and Blood-Sucking Conenose 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) to try and contain an infestation. .Fortunately, more effective (as well as cost-effective) approaches towards successful treatment can come with experience.^ New Bed Bug Formula Even More Effective Bed bugs evolve over the years to become immune to traditional pesticides and bed bug treatments.
  • Dead Bed Bugs: HOME 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Who will pay for the costs of treatment and my lost time from work if bed bugs where I work come home with me?

^ Most of the time, bed bug infestations will require more than one treatment as well as physical means of control.

.Adult bedbugs, the nymphs, or their eggs may also follow home movers into their new homesite infesting the new location as well—often following movers who were, in fact, moving out due to an unmanaged infestation.^ With regards to the elapsed time from the initial infestation, even a single female bedbug brought into a home has a potential for reproduction, with its resulting offspring then breeding, resulting in a geometric progression of population expansion if control is not undertaken.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The visible bedbug infestation does not represent the infestation as a whole, as there may be infestations elsewhere in a home, however, the insects do have a tendency to stay close to their hosts (hence the name "bed" bugs).
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this were an apartment building or motel that was known to be infested, I would most likely claim defeat and move out.

.The numerical size of a bedbug infestation can range from a few staked out offenders up to hundreds, thousands, or even tens of thousands of bedbugs within a single infestation (albeit in the heaviest of cases).^ With regards to the elapsed time from the initial infestation, even a single female bedbug brought into a home has a potential for reproduction, with its resulting offspring then breeding, resulting in a geometric progression of population expansion if control is not undertaken.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A bed bug infestation is rather stressful with the potential to cause delusional parasitosis or even post-traumatic stress disorder in extreme cases.

^ That means the shaggy sleuths can help a mid-size 500-room property entirely eradicate any or all bedbug infestation in about a week.

.And the exact numbers of an infestation can be highly variable, as it is a function of the elapsed time from the initial infestation.^ The numerical size of a bedbug infestation is to some degree variable, as it is a function of the elapsed time from the initial infestation.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With regards to the elapsed time from the initial infestation, even a single female bedbug brought into a home has a potential for reproduction, with its resulting offspring then breeding, resulting in a geometric progression of population expansion if control is not undertaken.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even a single female bedbug brought into a home has a potential for reproduction with its resulting offspring then breeding and potentially leading to a geometric progression of their numbers—i.e.^ With regards to the elapsed time from the initial infestation, even a single female bedbug brought into a home has a potential for reproduction, with its resulting offspring then breeding, resulting in a geometric progression of population expansion if control is not undertaken.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead of inserting their genitalia into the female's reproductive tract as is typical in copulation, males instead pierce females with hypodermic genitalia and ejaculate into the body cavity.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, bedbugs may travel between units in multi-unit dwellings (such as condominiums and apartment buildings), after being originally brought into the building by one of the above routes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

if swift measures are not undertaken to contain and control the budding infestation. .In any case, bedbugs reproduce prolifically and it is not at all unusual for exterminators to encounter thousands of bedbugs in even a single mattress.^ Not all exterminators are familiar with extermination techniques for bedbugs.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Low infestations may be difficult to detect, and it is not unusual for the victim not to even realize they have bedbugs early on.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if the exterminator can take care of all the little bastards.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sometimes people are not aware of the insects and do not notice the bites.^ I am the only one out of three people in my apt who has noticed bites.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

.The visible bedbug infestation does not represent the infestation as a whole, as there may be infestations elsewhere in a home and the sighting of one bedbug typically means that there may be many more in hiding.^ There does not seem to be visible, heavy infestations.

^ Having been in many homes with active infestations, .
  • Bedbug, BEDBUG, bed bug, BED BUG, bedbug, Bed Bugs, bedbugs, bed bugcontrol 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bestpestproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The visible bedbug infestation does not represent the infestation as a whole, as there may be infestations elsewhere in a home, however, the insects do have a tendency to stay close to their hosts (hence the name "bed" bugs).
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the insects do have a tendency to stay close to their hosts, hence the name 'bed' bugs.^ The bed bug will grab the hosts .
  • Bedbug, BEDBUG, bed bug, BED BUG, bedbug, Bed Bugs, bedbugs, bed bugcontrol 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bestpestproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bed bugs feed when hosts are inactive.

^ Bed bugs are blood-feeding insects.

.In some critical cases or where warranted, the detection of bedbug infestations can be aided by the use of bed bug detection dogs that have been trained to find bedbugs by their scent—in the same manner that search dogs used for law enforcement are trained to find drugs or explosives.^ How do I find out if I have bed bugs?

^ What are the chances I have bed bugs and if they are, what can I do if I can’t find them.
  • Stubbornella » Blog Archive » Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.stubbornella.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bed bug scent detection is not perfect.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A trained bedbug dog and handler can detect and pinpoint a bedbug infestation within minutes.^ A trained team (dog and handler) can detect and pin point a bedbug infestation within minutes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some exceptional cases, the detection of bedbug hiding places can be aided by the use of dogs that have been trained to signal finding the insects by their scent much as dogs are trained to find drugs or explosives.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This association provides the insurance that the training facilities, training methods, and dog/handler teams have met the high standards set by NESDCA. Training facilities that are NESDCA certified are listed on the NESDCA website.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though this remains a fairly costly service that is not used in the majority of cases, but can be very useful in difficult cases.^ This is a fairly costly service that is not used in the majority of cases, but can be very useful in difficult cases.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notifying occupants of surrounding units is a sensitive and sometimes difficult proposition however; the reality is that failure to do so end up being very costly in the long run.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fumigation—that is the use of poison gases—is costly, and though this has been tried as a method of control in isolated cases, it is transient.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reportedly, bedbugs have shown capable of infesting a variety of institutions and different types of businesses including nursing homes, furniture rental stores, hospitals, jails, homeless shelters, movie theaters, cruise ships, public housing, moving vehicles, and public transportation, etc.^ Although initial reports in Toronto indicated that bed bug infestations were occurring primarily in homeless shelters, our study showed that bed bugs are found in a wide variety of locations in the urban environment, including single-family dwellings, apartments, and rooming houses.
  • Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment | CDC EID 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment | CDC EID 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ But the list continues apartments, barracks, buses, cabins, churches, community centers, cruise ships, dormitories, dressing rooms, health clubs, homes, hospitals, jets, laundromats, motels, motor homes, moving vans, nursing homes, office buildings, resorts, restaurants, schools, subways, theaters, trains, used furniture outlets.

^ W.170th Street New York New York 10032 is infested with bedbugs with violations on record in the city housing authorities website.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

Nesting locations

An engorged female bedbug (Cimex lectularius) with eggs, discovered in the screw hole of a wooden bed frame.
.Bedbugs travel easily and quickly along pipes and boards, and their bodies are very flat, which allows them to hide in tiny crevices.^ Their flat bodies allow them to hide in cracks and crevices around the room and in furniture joints.

^ Bedbugs are very flat, which allows them to hide in tiny crevices.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is important to inspect all adjacent rooms for infestation, as bedbugs travel easily and quickly along pipes and boards.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the daytime, they tend to stay out of the light, preferring to remain hidden in such places as mattress seams, mattress interiors, bed frames, nearby furniture, carpeting, baseboards, inner walls, tiny wood holes, and/or room clutter.^ The bugs are hard to spot because they hide in dark, sheltered places, such as bed frames, mattresses, wall crevices and baseboards.

^ A thorough inspection of the mattress, bed, headboard and all wood in the room, including furniture, floorboards, baseboards, outlets and light switches.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bed bugs hide in mattresses, bed frames, skirtings and carpets.

.Bedbugs can be found on their own but will more often congregate in groups once established.^ Bedbugs can be found on their own, but more often congregate in groups.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bed bugs can be found alone but more often congregate in groups.

^ Maybe if a few of these officials and politicians found their homes infested with bedbugs they might be a little more compassionate.
  • The Tyee — Vancouver's Bedbug Plague 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC thetyee.ca [Source type: General]

.They tend not to travel further than 100 feet (30 m) from their host to feed and will usually remain close to their blood supply in the same bedroom or living quarters where people sleep.^ Bed bugs usually bite people at night while they are sleeping.

^ During the daytime, they prefer to hide close to where people sleep.

^ Bedbugs are capable of travelling as far as 100 feet to feed, but usually remain close to the host in bedrooms or on sofas where people may sleep.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Exact nesting locations of a typical infestation can vary greatly as bedbugs will often attempt to hide themselves within a wide range of tiny areas or spaces, within cracks and crevices, or simply in darker locations where they are out of plain sight.^ Anything with seams, cracks or crevices present prime nesting areas.
  • bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug infestation, Bedbug Infestation, BEDBUG INFESTATION, bedbug removal, Bedbug Removal, BEDBUG REMOVAL, bed bugs, Bed bugs, BED BUGS 11 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.bugspray.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They like to hide in cracks and crevices.

^ Bedbugs are very flat, which allows them to hide in tiny crevices.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such hiding spots may not always be immediately obvious to an inexperienced searcher—although bedbugs will indeed be much easier to find and locate once an infestation has become concentrated.^ The trick is finding their hiding spots.

^ And within seconds find their hiding spots.

^ In some exceptional cases, the detection of bedbug hiding places can be aided by the use of dogs that have been trained to signal finding the insects by their scent much as dogs are trained to find drugs or explosives.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A single intricate bed frame or mattress can hold a wealth of choice areas for bedbugs to hide so careful, meticulous inspection is a must.^ Bed bugs hide in mattresses, bed frames, skirtings and carpets.

^ Bedbugs like to hide near the victim and are commonly found on seams of mattresses, or within the structure of box springs.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mark Adams tilts up the plastic-encased mattress he and his wife sleep on and peels the bed frame's oak slats one by one from their Velcro fasteners.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

.A standard mattress, however, is most likely to house bedbugs along the sewn piping material running along the outer edges on both the top and bottom sides of the mattress.^ There are many mattress and box spring encasements available to the consumer; however most of these encasements have not been designed specifically for use with bed bugs.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bedbugs like to hide near the victim and are commonly found on seams of mattresses, or within the structure of box springs.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, as with most modern insects, bedbugs likely appeared in more or less their present form about 60 to 50 million years before that.

.The common bedbug is also most likely to hide in certain sections or parts of various types of beds if the segments are, in fact, present (i.e., hiding in the wooden head or footboard, for example, if the bed has one).^ The most common place to find them is the bed.

^ This is a common hiding place and presents the most likely place you will find them on either of the mattresses.
  • bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug infestation, Bedbug Infestation, BEDBUG INFESTATION, bedbug removal, Bedbug Removal, BEDBUG REMOVAL, bed bugs, Bed bugs, BED BUGS 11 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.bugspray.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is there that various species of the bed bug infest poultry, bats, humans, and other types of birds.

.Bedbugs may also quietly nest themselves under the cover of various materials and lie completely still for long periods making detection even more difficult.^ For these reasons, infestations may go a long time unnoticed, and can become quite large before being detected.

^ Although bedbugs will not be in the middle of the floor, they may be under the carpets at the edges of rooms.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A recent paper by Professor Brian J. Ford and Dr Debbie Stokes gives views of a bedbug under various microscopes .
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This manner of actively elusive behavior creates significant problems in successfully getting rid of them.^ The notion that getting rid of bedding helps solve the problem is misguided.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is clear, also, that getting rid of infested bedding alone does not solve the problem.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The person that said they found bed bugs on the head board and threw the head board away may have solved his/her problem just by getting rid of the harborage.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.The potential places where a typical bedbug may choose to hide are numerous.^ In some exceptional cases, the detection of bedbug hiding places can be aided by the use of dogs that have been trained to signal finding the insects by their scent much as dogs are trained to find drugs or explosives.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It requires the knowledge of a well trained and experienced person to find ALL of the adult and junior bedbug stages plus hiding places where eggs have been laid.

^ Unfortunately these can have several little nooks and crannies for bedbugs to hide in, and if you keep stuff in your endtable, you may have to destoy some of it.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

.It is, however, very common for bedbugs to nest in whatever furniture it is that a person sleeps and naps on—which is not at all limited to beds, but also includes upholstered chairs, loveseats, sofas, plush furniture, futons, etc., as well as other non-traditional beds such as camping cots, floor pads, hide-a-beds, bean bags, strollers, cradles, etc.^ That person has moved out and all of his furniture is out as well.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ This includes desks, chairs, armoire, etc.
  • bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug infestation, Bedbug Infestation, BEDBUG INFESTATION, bedbug removal, Bedbug Removal, BEDBUG REMOVAL, bed bugs, Bed bugs, BED BUGS 11 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.bugspray.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They also hide in upholstery of chairs and sofas.

.Bedbugs will attempt to nest in any of these sleeping structures if given the opportunity and will take cover in nearby areas as well (sleeping directly on the floor, for example, may cause them to feed but then nest in the nearby carpeting and furniture).^ Bedbugs are capable of travelling as far as 100 feet to feed, but usually remain close to the host in bedrooms or on sofas where people may sleep.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I may depending on the hotel next time, bring an air matress and sleep on the floor.
  • Bed Bugs - tips/hints ? - FlyerTalk Forums 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.flyertalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Although bedbugs will not be in the middle of the floor, they may be under the carpets at the edges of rooms.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bedbugs tend to want to hide as close as possible to where they feed.^ Bed bugs prefer to hide close to where they feed.

^ Bedbugs are capable of travelling as far as 100 feet to feed, but usually remain close to the host in bedrooms or on sofas where people may sleep.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They will want to feed immediately and every meal will enable them to shed their skin, completing an "instar" and reach reproducing adulthood after 5 such instars.
  • bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug infestation, Bedbug Infestation, BEDBUG INFESTATION, bedbug removal, Bedbug Removal, BEDBUG REMOVAL, bed bugs, Bed bugs, BED BUGS 11 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.bugspray.com [Source type: Original source]

If a person sleeps on a couch within a room where bedbugs are present, for example, then it could be generally expected that the bedbugs in the given room would quickly find their way onto the sofa as well as onto the sleeping person where they may then feed (i.e. unless the couch had been effectively segregated or isolated beforehand to prevent bedbugs from crawling onto it). Then, upon the sleeping host providing a blood meal, it could be expected that the engorged bedbugs will attempt to make the couch itself their nesting location—with the bugs congregating under the sofa, in the seams and folds of the fabric, in the crevices, in the creases atop and behind the headrest, amongst the armrests, in the cushions, in the wooden assembly, etc. .Bedbugs usually will not wander too far from their meal.^ Bedbugs are capable of travelling as far as 100 feet to feed, but usually remain close to the host in bedrooms or on sofas where people may sleep.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And this process of searching out a host, honing in to feed, then hiding in immediate and nearby crevices can take place over the course of a single night and, in such a manner, a couch or an upholstered chair may become heavily infested with bedbugs within a very short time.^ Bedbugs are very flat, which allows them to hide in tiny crevices.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upholstered chairs and sofas should be checked, especially seams, tufts, skirts, and crevices beneath cushions.

^ According to an AP report , the folks at the Environmental Protection Agency have decided to put some heads together to do something about the issue: the EPA is hosting its first-ever bedbug summit , set to take place today and tomorrow.

.An effective isolation of lounge furniture and/or taking steps to avoid sleeping on couches (esp.^ A quite effective way to avoid any bed bug bites is to have both the mattress cover and the spray in use while sleeping in any unfamiliar bed such as in a hotel room.

in high risk environments) will help to prevent this.
.Minimizing potential nesting locations (such as through the removing of, disposal, and/or bagging of various clutter often surrounding the typical bed—i.e.^ With a preference to temperate climates, the bed bug is often found in warm temperatures, especially in locales such as Florida and the tropics of West Africa and South America.

^ The thing that is throwing me the most is that typically bed bugs will feed on exposed skin such as arms, neck, face and possibly legs.
  • Seeing bites but no evidence of bugs « Got Bed Bugs? Bedbugger Forums 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

^ Vacuum bags should then immediately be removed and placed in doubled plastic bags and placed into strong plastic bag for disposal.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

both on, around, and under it) can make it easier to pinpoint the remaining areas where bedbugs may be hiding. .But such additional hiding spots are often times unique to each case of infestation since virtually any small space or crack in a given room can be useful as a nesting site to bedbugs—so long as it is close to the host.^ Additional signs, such as blood spots help detect an infestation.

^ The visible bedbug infestation does not represent the infestation as a whole, as there may be infestations elsewhere in a home, however, the insects do have a tendency to stay close to their hosts (hence the name "bed" bugs).
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some exceptional cases, the detection of bedbug hiding places can be aided by the use of dogs that have been trained to signal finding the insects by their scent much as dogs are trained to find drugs or explosives.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unchecked, bedbugs will eventually expand their overall nesting locations into nearby furniture such as dressers or nightstands, in drawers, in the cracks of picture frames, in screw or nail holes to bedroom fixtures, behind mirrors, etc.^ In the daytime, they tend to stay out of the light, preferring to remain hidden in such places as mattress seams, mattress interiors, bed frames, nearby furniture, carpeting, baseboards, inner walls, tiny wood holes, or bedroom clutter.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, bedbugs may travel between units in multi-unit dwellings (such as condominiums and apartment buildings), after being originally brought into the building by one of the above routes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dusting behind wall plates, wall voids, treating behind baseboards, pictures, crack & crevice spraying with a residual insecticide where ever possible.

.Then into the carpet, or under rugs, up the walls, and into the corners and such—the potential for nesting sites among such a wide range of appliances is numerous.^ When not feeding, bedbugs are likely to be found hiding in shaded areas such as the seam along which the floor and wall meet, or under the edge of the carpet.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seam, cracks and gaps in the floor present a wonderful nest location for bed bugs and they will readily take up residence if such an opportunity presents itself.
  • bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bed bug control, Bed Bug Control, BED BUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug control, Bedbug Control, BEDBUG CONTROL, bedbug infestation, Bedbug Infestation, BEDBUG INFESTATION, bedbug removal, Bedbug Removal, BEDBUG REMOVAL, bed bugs, Bed bugs, BED BUGS 11 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.bugspray.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After getting the pest controller back 3 times he that they were probably under the carpet and it needed to be ripped up which was going to cost me a lot of money.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Within a single bed, bedbugs may nestle themselves in the mattress (along the tufts, folds, and seams), in the supporting box spring, platform, or bunkie board, in the framed support structures as well as in the cracks where the individual parts and segments are attached.^ Bedbugs like to hide near the victim and are commonly found on seams of mattresses, or within the structure of box springs.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bed bugs often hide within seams, tufts, and crevices of the mattress, box spring, bed frame and headboard.

^ Get a new mattress and box spring.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.They may hide amongst the remaining bed frame (in the headboard, footboard or hollows of the siderailings and bed posts), within rips and tears or holes in the bed, under the base/platform, in between the bedding between the layers of sheets and mattress covers (etc.^ Cover bed with 5 sheets.

^ They hide in the folds and tufts of mattresses, coils of springs, cracks and hollow posts of bed stands bed rails and headboards.

^ Cover the mattress with a sheet and it is safe to sleep on.

), in the wheels of the bed, among the bunk ladder assembly, under bed skirts, in the bedcoverings, etc. .Complete disassembly and subsequent treatment of the entire bed frame may be necessary to reveal all nesting spots when bedbugs are present.^ Bedbugs usually do not nest on beds .
  • Bedbug, BEDBUG, bed bug, BED BUG, bedbug, Bed Bugs, bedbugs, bed bugcontrol 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bestpestproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That means the shaggy sleuths can help a mid-size 500-room property entirely eradicate any or all bedbug infestation in about a week.

^ Your mattresses may be sprayed lightly when doing a bed bug treatment.
  • Bed Bug Control - Pest Control Products | Get Rid of Bed Bugs | Kill Bed Bugs | Bed Bug Spray | Do it Yourself Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.pestproductsonline.com [Source type: General]

.A thorough inspection would also include checking the entire room for telltale signs of harborages and inspecting the surrounding flooring, baseboards, and walls, etc.^ I've thoroughly searched the couch and surrounding area and not seen anymore bugs, or any of the other signs of them (blood stains, shedded skins, etc.
  • Brownstoner | Forum: Bed Bug Question 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.brownstoner.com [Source type: General]

^ This includes preparing the apartment so the pest management professional can easily inspect rooms and treat if necessary.

^ Prevention: seal cracks and crevices between baseboards, on wood bed frames, floors and walls with caulking.
  • Bed Bug Control - Pest Control Products | Get Rid of Bed Bugs | Kill Bed Bugs | Bed Bug Spray | Do it Yourself Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.pestproductsonline.com [Source type: General]

.Bedbugs will also infest and nest in clutter that is often scattered around a typical bed—such as in shoeboxes stored underneath or in boxed documents and photos.^ Bedbugs usually do not nest on beds .
  • Bedbug, BEDBUG, bed bug, BED BUG, bedbug, Bed Bugs, bedbugs, bed bugcontrol 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bestpestproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a preference to temperate climates, the bed bug is often found in warm temperatures, especially in locales such as Florida and the tropics of West Africa and South America.

^ Bedbugs may be erroneously associated with filth in the mistaken notion that this attracts them, however, severe infestations are often associated with poor housekeeping and clutter.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They may be found in nightstands as well as in objects placed on them.^ Bites may be found in a variety of places on the body, but the lower limbs are a favoured location.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We think we found the host on the mattress before taking it out because that was the only place they were in, one area, but i knew probably they were at the other end as well.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This has helped as well because they have no place to hide.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Or they may hide amongst clothes lying about in the room (though, it should be noted, that simply bagging all worn day clothing next to the bed every night while sleeping will help to prevent this).^ For the next two weeks, I washed all their bedding and pajamas every single day.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs usually bite people at night while they are sleeping.

^ They normally feed at night, but may feed in the daylight in rooms that are not used at night.

.Bedbugs will also tend to nest in the baseboards along the bottoms of the walls, along the molding, under loose flooring or carpet, etc.^ I steamed the entire carpet and along the baseboards.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thin layer along baseboards, under and around bed, etc.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Other common places to find bed bugs include: along and under the edge of wall-to-wall carpeting (especially behind beds and furniture); cracks in wood molding; ceiling-wall junctures; behind wall-mounts, picture frames, switch plates and outlets; under loose wallpaper; amongst clothing stored in closets; and inside clocks, phones, televisions and smoke detectors.

.And, depending on the proximity of such sites to the host and extent of the infestation, these locations should be expected.^ To control these parasites, the birds and their nests must be removed, and an application of with a residual spray such as Cyonara 9.7 should be applied to the area.

.There are a multitude of other places where bedbugs have been known to hide as this list is by no means exhaustive.^ In some exceptional cases, the detection of bedbug hiding places can be aided by the use of dogs that have been trained to signal finding the insects by their scent much as dogs are trained to find drugs or explosives.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Add 255 Mckibben st to the list - there's a really bad bedbug problem and no one is doing anything...
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ As bedbugs can live in nearly any wood or warm place, they have been known to breed in furniture, books and other clutter.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Where exactly it is that bedbugs go to nest may, in fact, be dependent on wherever it is that they can go—albeit without going too far.^ Will they go away without treatment?
  • Dead Bed Bugs Non-Toxic & Safe Bed Bug Treatment :: Shop.QBased.com :: Effective bed bug products for your apartments or home. Treat for bed bugs in the privacy of your own home. Guaranteed effective against bed bugs, bed bug larvea and bed bug eggs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]

^ From then on they can go for a year without feeding.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Bedbugs are capable of travelling as far as 100 feet to feed, but usually remain close to the host in bedrooms or on sofas where people may sleep.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But the extremes of their nesting locations are often relative to the numerical extent of the infestation, its source of origin, and how it is managed.^ It is difficult to find a company that is very experienced and really understands how to effectively manage bed bug infestations.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pest control company who has the contract for the resort was having a real problem locating the source of the infestation and it was spreading to more rooms.

^ Successful treatment of a bedbug infestation is often highly dependent on how thorough the pest control professional is.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bedbugs, for example, nesting in the ceiling may indicate that they had entered the room and/or are spreading via the ceiling (i.e. possibly through the ceiling panels, vents, ceiling fixtures, pipes, etc.).
.If children are in the house, bedbugs may also hide in toys and other recreational objects or in areas where younger ones play and/or nap.^ Finally, bedbugs may travel between units in multi-unit dwellings (such as condominiums and apartment buildings), after being originally brought into the building by one of the above routes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you can, get your hands on some fossil powder, and dust it around the legs of your bed, and other areas you think bugs may be hiding.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ When not feeding, bedbugs are likely to be found hiding in shaded areas such as the seam along which the floor and wall meet, or under the edge of the carpet.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bedbugs have also been found in door hinges, electrical fittings, in fire alarms, in lighting fixtures, amongst windowsills, in the cracks of plaster, behind peeled wallpaper, around curtains, in the cracks of brick and mortar, inside electronic devices, in various furniture, in floor cracks.^ Look in folds and creases in mattresses and box springs, pleats of curtains, behind loose wallpaper, in spaces of wicker furniture, behind cove molding, and in corners of drawers.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Other common places to find bed bugs include: along and under the edge of wall-to-wall carpeting (especially behind beds and furniture); cracks in wood molding; ceiling-wall junctures; behind wall-mounts, picture frames, switch plates and outlets; under loose wallpaper; amongst clothing stored in closets; and inside clocks, phones, televisions and smoke detectors.

^ Look in the pleats of curtains, beneath loose pieces of wallpaper near the bed, the corners and drawers of desks and dressers, within spaces of wicker furniture, behind door, window, and baseboard trim, and in laundry or other items on the floor or around the room such as cardboard boxes.

.And in blankets, purses, suitcases, lamp shades, inside speakers, under lamps, in vents, in shoes, above doorways and windows, under appliances, underneath linoleum, in storage, in books, in scattered paper, in envelopes, behind wiring, along piping (including both gas and plumbing pipes), in velcro, inside hollow doors, in ceiling fixtures, above the bed, in toys, in the ceiling, in phones, etc.^ Bed bugs travel easily along pipes and wires and the insides of walls can harbor them.

^ Other common places to find bed bugs include: along and under the edge of wall-to-wall carpeting (especially behind beds and furniture); cracks in wood molding; ceiling-wall junctures; behind wall-mounts, picture frames, switch plates and outlets; under loose wallpaper; amongst clothing stored in closets; and inside clocks, phones, televisions and smoke detectors.

^ (Wallets,purses,belts,hats,phones,shoes, clothes,keys etc.Get an air tight bucket spray the inside and keep those things in there when you are not using them.Always remember that those little pests can hide any where!After you have sprayed everything in your place.Close all doors and windows and place a bomb in each room and maybe 2 in the worst places.Now that you are outside, spray all around your doors and windows.

-- put simply, it is possible that bedbugs may nest into any cracks or crevices that lie nearest to their hosts. .Also, wicker furniture is known to be particularly targeted by bedbugs as a preferred nesting haven and should be removed in suspected areas.^ As bedbugs can live in nearly any wood or warm place, they have been known to breed in furniture, books and other clutter.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Throw away any fabric furniture, and beware of cardboard whch bedbugs like to nest in.

^ After removing the drawers from the furniture, the inside of the cabinetry should be sprayed as well as the bottom and sides of the drawers.

.Bedbugs, in some instances, can be incredibly localized in their tendency to remain generally close to their primary meal supply—even making it possible for the sleeping quarters on the side of one room to become heavily infested while the sleeping areas of a different side in the same room can seem to get by relatively untouched.^ Dont sleep in a different room.

^ Bedbugs are capable of travelling as far as 100 feet to feed, but usually remain close to the host in bedrooms or on sofas where people may sleep.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are several means by which dwellings can become infested with bedbugs.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This esoteric tendency of bedbugs toward localized colonization can make detection of a growing infestation even more difficult up until the last minute.^ She knew if she waited another minute the pain would be unbearable and it wouldnt stop up until she reported in.
  • 865 Words Sci Fi for Young Adults. All Critiques Welcome. (slight swearing) 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.mywriterscircle.com [Source type: General]

^ It is not uncommon for people to suffer from a bed bug infestation for several months or more before they finally realize that they have a problem with bed bugs (see also - Early Detection of Bed Bugs ).
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A trained team (dog and handler) can detect and pin point a bedbug infestation within minutes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But, in any case, bedbugs will expand into nearby locations either as the infestation grows, as they are inadvertently transported from location to location and forced to hide, as they are repelled from various stimuli, or bedbug infestations will expand as they are cut off from nourishment and forced to traverse new whereabouts in search of a new blood supply.^ In some exceptional cases, the detection of bedbug hiding places can be aided by the use of dogs that have been trained to signal finding the insects by their scent much as dogs are trained to find drugs or explosives.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the bugs are introduced into the new structure, their secretive and cryptic lifestyle renders them undetected for several months or more in many cases.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And I suspect the first people we know had it (in August 2004) moved out as well because of it, leaving the new tenants to get it (we know the new tenants got an infestation right as they moved in...
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Although bedbugs show a clear preference for hiding amongst certain materials such as wood or fabric, the nesting sites of a bedbug's choosing can literally be in any location that might allow them to remain nearest to their host and meal supply undetected.^ Bedbugs are capable of travelling as far as 100 feet to feed, but usually remain close to the host in bedrooms or on sofas where people may sleep.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If alternate hosts are present such as mice, the bed bugs may continue to survive regardless of how long the structure remains vacant.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throw away any fabric furniture, and beware of cardboard whch bedbugs like to nest in.

.It is also possible that the nesting location may be physically on the host themselves inside their clothes—especially if the clothes are not washed regularly or if the host is typically immobile, etc.^ Now that you've got your clothes out of the closet and dresser, wash them on the hottest setting possible, then dry them on the hottest setting possible.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Washing bed clothes, sheets, blankets, etc and everything else in the room in Hot Water and Dryer.

^ Wash any clothes, bedding, pillows, teddy bears you think may have come anywhere near your bed in HOT water several times.
  • Strange Bed(bug)fellows - Gothamist 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: General]

.Bedbugs may also take refuge in unsuspected areas such as cars, luggage, moving vans, RVs, etc.^ Finally, bedbugs may travel between units in multi-unit dwellings (such as condominiums and apartment buildings), after being originally brought into the building by one of the above routes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bed bugs will readily move between units in multi-occupancy settings such as hotels, apartments, hospitals, dormitories etc.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When not feeding, bedbugs are likely to be found hiding in shaded areas such as the seam along which the floor and wall meet, or under the edge of the carpet.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

And, where possible, will also feed on and nest nearby pets who may also be bitten. .Bedbugs may also nest near other intruding animals that might be living within the house structure (such as near the roosting sites of bats, rodents, or birds, etc.^ If bat bugs or bird bugs are involved, roosting and nesting sites should also be treated, and the animals excluded from the building.

^ If you had a bat infestation or bird nests .
  • Bedbug, BEDBUG, bed bug, BED BUG, bedbug, Bed Bugs, bedbugs, bed bugcontrol 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bestpestproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is there that various species of the bed bug infest poultry, bats, humans, and other types of birds.

).
.The more adept one is at spotting bedbugs and uprooting them at their harborage points, then the better and more equipped one will be in helping to prevent infestations, in greatly minimizing them, and at reducing their spread.^ Maintaining a clean and uncluttered environment may help to prevent infestations.

^ A trained team (dog and handler) can detect and pin point a bedbug infestation within minutes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As noted here, the use of protective encasements to protect bedding after treatment or to enclose bedbugs when the items are being thrown away are invaluable in preventing spread of infestation.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Detection of bedbug nesting locations is also of paramount importance because the nocturnal insects have an uncanny tendency, and often frustrating ability, to hide wherever possible.^ In some exceptional cases, the detection of bedbug hiding places can be aided by the use of dogs that have been trained to signal finding the insects by their scent much as dogs are trained to find drugs or explosives.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only thing a mess provides is more hiding locations for bedbugs.
  • Strange Bed(bug)fellows - Gothamist 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: General]

^ They are known as nocturnal insects since they tend to feed and usually come out of hiding at night-time.
  • Dead Bed Bugs Non-Toxic & Safe Bed Bug Treatment :: Shop.QBased.com :: Effective bed bug products for your apartments or home. Treat for bed bugs in the privacy of your own home. Guaranteed effective against bed bugs, bed bug larvea and bed bug eggs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]

.It is not abnormal for the bedbugs within a dwelling to find the host as opposed to the other way around—despite a reasonable search effort.^ But I guess it's best we not use it so much since mosquitos, bedbugs and other crawlies rapidly found ways to resist DDT and morph into super bedbugs .

^ Dunno makes his way north, trying to find out the reason for his existence.
  • World Famous Books Information - Books by Carolyn Ann Aish and others 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.scribesvalley.com [Source type: General]

^ A mixed result, one dog alerts and the second does not, could be viewed as reason to perform a visual inspection in an effort to find bugs or eggs.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Effective experience in locating them will also contribute to accurately confirming whether or not a bedbug infestation has been thoroughly eliminated. .And can also provide additional assistance to pest control operators which is required for successful treatment, or allow one to, perhaps, eradicate a moderate to light infestation altogether on their own.^ I have done require only one treatment.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland How to control, eliminate, kill, exterminate, eradicate or manage pest problems.

^ If you suspect that you have a bed bug infestation, you can either choose to treat them yourself or you can call in a professional Pest Control Operator.

Detection

.Confirming the presence of bedbugs can be a tricky matter—particularly in cases where an infestation is light, recurrent, or when a user has no prior experience in dealing with bedbugs.^ Getting rid of bedbugs has been one of the worst experiences I've ever had to deal with.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ Shenandoah- Unfortunately, with exterminators no longer using DDT, they are actually quite ill equipped to deal with your bedbugs.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ I had no idea what a bedbug was and i sure never thought I would have to deal with them.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Because of this, it is advisable that a person become aware of the telltale signs of a budding infestation and, if noted, seek to have it treated immediately (either through self-treatment, in taking measures to isolate the problem, or through the hiring of a professional) before the infestation has a chance to grow and spread into something that will be more difficult to contain later on.^ Chances are itll spread, not fix, the problem.

^ People sometimes resort to self-treatment (which is not a good idea at home, and definitely not at work); still others decide the problem can’t be successfully treated.
  • Got bed bugs? Bedbugger.com for bed bug news, information, activism, and support 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

^ For these reasons, infestations may go a long time unnoticed, and can become quite large before being detected.

.In light infestations, bedbugs will often lodge themselves unnoticed into the tiniest of crevices away from viewing and will usually come out to feed only deep in the middle of the night.^ Bedbugs are capable of travelling as far as 100 feet to feed, but usually remain close to the host in bedrooms or on sofas where people may sleep.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It often takes hours to properly inspect and treat a bed bug infestation, and follow-up visits are usually required.

^ Bedbugs may be erroneously associated with filth in the mistaken notion that this attracts them, however, severe infestations are often associated with poor housekeeping and clutter.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But this rule is not set in stone as there will be exceptions—particularly in heavy infestations where it will then become common to see bedbugs crawling about in broad daylight.^ I've been scouring through the internet reading everything there is to read about bedbugs, but I can't seem to find answers to my questions.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are 92 different kinds of bedbugs, some you can't even see.

^ This should signal an alert from the homeowner to immediately start looking around their home to see if there are any bed bugs crawling in site .
  • Dead Bed Bugs Non-Toxic & Safe Bed Bug Treatment :: Shop.QBased.com :: Effective bed bug products for your apartments or home. Treat for bed bugs in the privacy of your own home. Guaranteed effective against bed bugs, bed bug larvea and bed bug eggs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]

.Early infestations can be difficult to detect and the symptoms of bedbugs might often be detected before the bugs themselves.^ Early detection of bed bugs is difficult and low level infestations will often go undetected.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following steps are recommended for landlords and property managers dealing with bed bug infestations: Early detection of bed bug infestation: respond to tenant’s complaint about bed bugs, and conduct proper inspections.
  • Bed Bug Control - Pest Control Products | Get Rid of Bed Bugs | Kill Bed Bugs | Bed Bug Spray | Do it Yourself Bed Bug Control 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.pestproductsonline.com [Source type: General]

^ For these reasons, infestations may go a long time unnoticed, and can become quite large before being detected.

.Typical symptoms of a bedbug infestation may include the discovery of fecal spots, crushed bedbugs and/or bloodstains on the sheets, the finding of cast skins that have been discarded, the development of itchy welts from their bites (in those that react), etc.^ Also look for cast skins and blood spots.

^ But try and find some fecal spots.
  • Seeing bites but no evidence of bugs « Got Bed Bugs? Bedbugger Forums 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

^ To those who are suffering from Bed Bug bite symptoms, the experience can be downright traumatizing.
  • Dead Bed Bugs: HOME 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]

.Use of a crevice tool to reach into small spaces as well as the use of a magnifying glass and/or flashlight can assist in the successful detection of bedbugs and their symptoms.^ The use of mattress and box spring encasements is one of the most economical and useful tools that can aid in the early detection of bed bugs.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Broad surface bedbug treatments should be kept to a minimum if they are used at all; bed bugs are most likely to get lethal doses in cracks and crevices.

^ Bed bugs are small, cryptic and agile, escaping detection after crawling into suitcases, boxes, and belongings.

.A crevice tool, however, can be improvised but—very importantly—should consist of a non-conductive material such as plastic or wood if it is to be used to probe walls, baseboards, and/or electronics, etc.^ Baseboards should also be vacuumed using the crevice tool—not swept—prior to the exterminator's arrival.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dusting behind wall plates, wall voids, treating behind baseboards, pictures, crack & crevice spraying with a residual insecticide where ever possible.

^ In addition to playing an important role in managing a bed bug infestation, encasements can also be a very useful pro-active tool to help aid in the early detection of bed bugs should they be introduced into a dwelling that was not previously infested.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(to prevent electric shock).
Slide of Cimex lectularius
.The presence of defecations will be one of the primary, indirect signs that bedbugs have taken a foothold in a given location.^ Bedbugs never crawl under one's skin and markings implying this may be signs of other skin infections or a severe allergic reaction to bedbug bites.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As bedbug droppings are solidly black or nearly black in color, they will often appear as dots or specks that are similar in appearance to a drop of ink that has dried (black in color).^ They lack wings and they're often confused with ticks because of their rounded, flat appearance.

^ As bedbugs can live in nearly any wood or warm place, they have been known to breed in furniture, books and other clutter.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They lifted the mattress and saw more black dots, plus a few bugs scurrying away.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

The defecation itself is digested blood. .These small pitch-black droppings will vary in size (ranging from tiny and difficult to see up to the size of the bugs themselves) but can be distinguished from other dark debris in that bedbug droppings will readily smear (or bleed in color) if rubbed with a wetted finger or if contacted with water.^ Bed bugs are very small in size.

^ These ectoparasites vary in size.
  • Dead Bed Bugs Non-Toxic & Safe Bed Bug Treatment :: Shop.QBased.com :: Effective bed bug products for your apartments or home. Treat for bed bugs in the privacy of your own home. Guaranteed effective against bed bugs, bed bug larvea and bed bug eggs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs of varying age and size .

.Rubbing the black fecal spots with wet wipes or baby wipes to see if they smear is also an option.^ The fecal spots will not flake off if rubbed and will smear if wiped with a wet rag.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people say that you can see tiny spots of blood on the sheets from where they bite you.
  • Stubbornella » Blog Archive » Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.stubbornella.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I see little black or brown spots on my legs when I feel it crawl..if you squoosh it it turns red as if bleeding, are these really bed bugs?
  • Stubbornella » Blog Archive » Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.stubbornella.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dark droppings may also be discovered appearing as black ink-like markings that already seem to have faded or that already seem to have been partially absorbed into the material they've been deposited on.^ That like most other bugs, bed bugs will just go into a hibernation state and once it warms up, they will be on the prowl again.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In my personal experience, and from what I've read, it seems to me that women are more likely to get bitten than men.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I’ve bombed and used lawn and garden spray which seems to control them in the apartment, but still get bit up as they get sent back to my apartment.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.The deposits may also be found, not as circular dots, but as dark pinstripe-like markings that are small and streaked in appearance.^ Their feces look like little balck marking pen dots.

^ When they are clear like this there can also be seen a small black dot in its abdomen section.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Although most photos online are of the fecal stains on mattresses (which may look like black marker ink), you also might see fecal specks, which are small specks that may look like little flecks of dark black pepper.
  • Seeing bites but no evidence of bugs « Got Bed Bugs? Bedbugger Forums 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

These black defecations can be spotted anywhere bedbugs may be harbored but might also be found at the location of the host site or along route back to a nesting location --- i.e. which might be on the pillowcase or in between, on the mattress, sheets, bed frame, curtains, in baseboards, in crevices, in seams, under the couch, under chairs, etc. Successful detection of a bedbug's defecations might require a considerable degree of extra vigilance and careful searching in light cases of infestation. .Detection can also be aided, as recommended, through outfitting the bed with white sheets (both fitted and flat) and through the use of pillowcases that are also white in color—which will make it much easier to spot bedbugs and/or the occurrence of their defecations on the bed.^ In some exceptional cases, the detection of bedbug hiding places can be aided by the use of dogs that have been trained to signal finding the insects by their scent much as dogs are trained to find drugs or explosives.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of mattress and box spring encasements is one of the most economical and useful tools that can aid in the early detection of bed bugs.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But I guess it's best we not use it so much since mosquitos, bedbugs and other crawlies rapidly found ways to resist DDT and morph into super bedbugs .

.White or light-colored sheets may also be placed over a couch or sofa to make crawling bedbugs easier to spot.^ Bedbugs hitchhike, making it near-impossible to place blame.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

^ Putting them in place ahead of time (proactively) makes bed bugs easier to see since encasements have no piping or tags and theyre light-colored.

^ I found a bed bug 3 weeks later on my light colored sheets.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bedbugs are also known for being elusive, transient, and often nocturnal which can make individual bugs difficult to detect in lighter cases.^ Bedbugs are known for being elusive, transient and nocturnal.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some exceptional cases, the detection of bedbug hiding places can be aided by the use of dogs that have been trained to signal finding the insects by their scent much as dogs are trained to find drugs or explosives.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The longer the bed bugs exist without being detected, the greater their opportunity to disperse within the environment, thus making it harder to find and eliminate 100% of the reproducing adult females.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While individuals have the option of contacting a pest control professional to help determine if a bedbug infestation exists, there are several do-it-yourself methods that may work equally well.^ Pest control supplies for consumers for professionals .

^ Call a professional pest control company.

^ The Professional Pest Management Association, a US advocacy group for pest control operators (PCOs) conducted a "proactive bed bug public relations campaign" in 2005 and 2006, resulting in increased media coverage of bedbug stories and an increase in business for PCOs, possibly distorting the scale of the increase in bedbug infestations.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often the case is that bedbugs will manage to hide in the cracks of a bed (within the frame), in the mattresses, in furniture, up under couches, in the seams of chairs, in the creases of upholstery, etc.^ Bed bugs often hide within seams, tufts, and crevices of the mattress, box spring, bed frame and headboard.

^ Have been hiding under my bed ever since.
  • The ANT Colony 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bed bugs hide in mattresses, bed frames, skirtings and carpets.

or in areas that an inexperienced person is least likely to check—hence the bedbug's survival. They may also be detected harboring themselves within the pockets and insides of clothes that are not regularly washed (i.e. jackets, coats, etc.). For reasons such as this, it may be a good idea to have the assistance of an experienced person with respect to detecting an infestation.
.Finding the exoskeletal remains from the bedbug's molting process (ecdysis) is another indicator that they are present but, perhaps, well hidden.^ Perhaps they were found to be progressive bedbugs?
  • Think Progress » Fox News infested by bed bugs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aside from already being present at a home or business, bed bugs can travel from one place to another while being hidden in furniture, clothing, moving boxes and luggage.
  • Dead Bed Bugs Non-Toxic & Safe Bed Bug Treatment :: Shop.QBased.com :: Effective bed bug products for your apartments or home. Treat for bed bugs in the privacy of your own home. Guaranteed effective against bed bugs, bed bug larvea and bed bug eggs. 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC shop.qbased.com [Source type: General]

^ It requires the knowledge of a well trained and experienced person to find ALL of the adult and junior bedbug stages plus hiding places where eggs have been laid.

.Bedbugs will shed their skins throughout multiple stages of their lives and the discarded outer-shells (which will vary in size according to the stage and can be extremely small) might be found near any of the various locations where they have harbored.^ I dare say they are vary in appearance but these are the only ones I have found when doing bed bug work.
  • Seeing bites but no evidence of bugs « Got Bed Bugs? Bedbugger Forums 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

^ We found a bedbug near the suitcase that my husband took to Boston with him.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You also want to be familiar with the shed skins that bed bugs leave behind as they go from one immature stage to the next (similar to how a snake sheds its skin).
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sloughed off skins (pictured above) will appear as clear, empty exoskeletons of the bugs themselves.^ I got up and removed the sheets off the bed and i did see a bug on my mattress but he didn’t look like the pictures I’ve seen out here.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Things to look for are the bed bugs themselves, and the light-brown, molted skins of the nymphs.

^ Also present will be eggs and eggshells, molted skins of maturing nymphs, and the bugs themselves.

.And the actual living bugs may or may not be nearby the discarded shells.^ Unproven encasements may provide a false sense of security and can actually protect or promote the survival of the bed bugs.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This may cause the bed bugs to move to find other places to live and spread the problem.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Live bugs or eggs may drop off while moving things from one place to anotheritems with bed bugs should be sealed in a bag before moving them.

.The presence of bedbugs may also be confirmed through direct discovery and identification of the insects collected or by a pattern of bites.^ This is not a confirmation however it does provide the grounds for suspecting that bed bugs may be present and that a professional should be called in to perform an inspection for the presence of bed bugs in the structure where the bites occurred.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the cases that I do the occupants tends to be more highly strung and may in fact react to the presence of insects rather than bites.
  • Seeing bites but no evidence of bugs « Got Bed Bugs? Bedbugger Forums 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

^ How to handle situations where the presence of bed bugs could not be confirmed through visual inspection?
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though bites can occur singularly, they often follow a distinctive linear pattern marking the paths of blood vessels running close to the surface of the skin.^ Bedbug bites also often occur in lines marking the paths of blood vessels running close to the surface of the skin.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bites often occur in lines of 3.
  • Strange Bed(bug)fellows - Gothamist 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: General]

^ Though bedbug bites can occur singly, they often follow a distinctive pattern of a linear group of three bites, sometimes macabrely referred to as "breakfast, lunch and dinner".
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It should also be noted that confirmed bedbugs may vary slightly (or even markedly) in appearance, color, or shape and depending on the insect's current size, stage in life, and whether or not they have recently fed.^ Although bedbugs will not be in the middle of the floor, they may be under the carpets at the edges of rooms.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They keep insects from growing to a mature size.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are a light tan color, but turn dark-reddish brown once they have fed on blood.

.A bedbug's appearance (particularly in color) can vary even to the extent where an identified bedbug may appear, to unfamiliar eyes, to be a different bug altogether.^ When the bed bug reaches maturity, it is reddish brown in color with a flattened, oval appearance.

^ Its hard even to identify whos technically at fault because bed bugs can enter a space in so many ways.

^ I dare say they are vary in appearance but these are the only ones I have found when doing bed bug work.
  • Seeing bites but no evidence of bugs « Got Bed Bugs? Bedbugger Forums 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

.Detection of bedbugs will be required during infestation as well as after initial treatment efforts.^ A trained team (dog and handler) can detect and pin point a bedbug infestation within minutes.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As noted here, the use of protective encasements to protect bedding after treatment or to enclose bedbugs when the items are being thrown away are invaluable in preventing spread of infestation.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, since bedbugs normally disperse, treatment of a bed or mattress is insufficient to eradicate an infestation.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

And the difficulties associated with treating bedbugs as well as the possibility of reinfestation means that detection has to be an ongoing process. .Daily periodic monitoring for their signs is a good idea even up to several months after an infestation has been cleared or as a preventive measure in suspected areas.^ Those who end up disposing of suspect items should enclose them in vinyl mattress encasements, to prevent shedding bugs and eggs on their way to the disposal site.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, discarded items are often picked up by other people (maybe even your neighbor), spreading the problem to new areas.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not uncommon for people to suffer from a bed bug infestation for several months or more before they finally realize that they have a problem with bed bugs (see also - Early Detection of Bed Bugs ).
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is recommended to search throughout all cracks and crevices (on beds, couches, chairs, furniture, etc.^ Upholstered chairs and sofas can also harbour bed bugs and should be treated with careful vacuuming and laundering of all possible parts (cushions, slipcovers, skirts, etc.

^ Their flat bodies allow them to hide in cracks and crevices around the room and in furniture joints.

^ I think I could live with tossing the mattress and boxspring, the couch, and fabric covered chairs, but I can steam clean the wood furniture and be ok, right?
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

checking underneath as well) using a flashlight to search for signs of bedbugs or for the bugs themselves. .And, when searching a dark room at night, bedbugs may be spotted crawling about looking for a blood meal but will usually remain completely stationary congregating in ideal hiding spots nearest to the host.^ Also look for cast skins and blood spots.

^ They emerge from their hiding spots at night.

^ The sneaky bastards hide anywhere they can and then in the middle of the night they come crawling out, looking to sink their bloodsucking fangs into your throat...or is that count Dracula?

.If awakened during the middle of the night, it is also optional do a quick search for bedbugs using red LED night vision lights as opposed to regular white flashlights—with red LEDs being less bothersome to night eyes.^ She cannot find bedbugs when she searches her mattress in the middle of the night.

^ As noted here, the use of protective encasements to protect bedding after treatment or to enclose bedbugs when the items are being thrown away are invaluable in preventing spread of infestation.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bedbugs only come out at night, usually just before dawn, they hide during the day.
  • Stubbornella » Blog Archive » Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.stubbornella.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Red LED lights are normally used by campers or hikers to read maps in the middle of the night without agitating their eyes or harming their night vision but are applicable to the searching for bedbugs in the dark as they can help prevent from waking light sleepers and will also allow an awakened person to return to sleep easier.^ They normally feed at night, but may feed in the daylight in rooms that are not used at night.

^ She cannot find bedbugs when she searches her mattress in the middle of the night.

^ Although bedbugs will not be in the middle of the floor, they may be under the carpets at the edges of rooms.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Red LED night vision lights are available as stand-alone flashlights, as headlamps, as clip-ons, etc. -- or as an additional 'night' feature to these same types of camping flashlights.

Control and elimination

Pesticides

.With the widespread use of DDT in the 1940s and '50s, bedbugs mostly disappeared from North America in the mid-twentieth century.^ Bedbugs and Malaria were both eradicated in North America with DDT by the 1930's.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed bug infestations were common in the United States before World War II. But with improvements in hygiene, and especially the widespread use of DDT during the 1940s and '50s, the bugs all but vanished.

^ Shenandoah- Unfortunately, with exterminators no longer using DDT, they are actually quite ill equipped to deal with your bedbugs.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

[40] .Infestations remained common in many other parts of the world and in recent years have also begun to rebound in North America.^ They became relatively scarce during the latter part of the 20th century, but their populations have resurged in recent years, particularly throughout parts of North America, Europe, and Australia.

^ The pests remained prevalent, though, in other regions of the world including Asia, Africa, Central/South America and Europe.

^ They were part of many peoples lives in the U.S. and around the world before World War II. .

.Thanks to rises in rampant hoarding around the United States, bedbugs are able to hide and reproduce without immediate detection.^ In some exceptional cases, the detection of bedbug hiding places can be aided by the use of dogs that have been trained to signal finding the insects by their scent much as dogs are trained to find drugs or explosives.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The address is: 15 Scadding Avenue Unit Toronto Ontario M5A 4E9 I am battling a bedbug problem currently thanks to the negligence of Toronto Housing (owned by the City of Toronto).
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Reappearance of bedbugs has presented new challenges for pest control due to their developed resistance to various pesticides including DDT, and organophosphates.^ Bed bugs are challenging pests to control.

^ Michael F. Potter, Extension Entomologist University of Kentucky College of Agriculture: "Bed bugs are challenging pests to control.

^ Changes in modern pest control practice - and less effective bed bug pesticides - are other factors suspected for the recurrence.

[41][42] .In fact, using DDT on today's bedbug makes it more active.^ DDT may not be the answer, but we need to take a more aggressive stance on developing new pesticides and using them in a more conservative manner.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ Shenandoah- Unfortunately, with exterminators no longer using DDT, they are actually quite ill equipped to deal with your bedbugs.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ But I guess it's best we not use it so much since mosquitos, bedbugs and other crawlies rapidly found ways to resist DDT and morph into super bedbugs .

[43]
.Another reason for their increase is that more pest control services use gel-based pesticide baits for control of cockroaches and ants, the most common pests in structures, instead of residual sprays.^ (Baits designed to control ants and cockroaches are ineffective).

^ Changes in modern pest control practice - and less effective bed bug pesticides - are other factors suspected for the recurrence.

^ Now, with the increase in use of bait traps instead of broad spectrum sprays, specific pests such as ants and cockroaches are being targeted, and bed bugs are no longer being eliminated.

.When residual sprays were used to kill the more common insect pests, they resulted in the collateral control of bedbug populations.^ Gentrol and Phantom can also be used for bedbug control.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With regards to the elapsed time from the initial infestation, even a single female bedbug brought into a home has a potential for reproduction, with its resulting offspring then breeding, resulting in a geometric progression of population expansion if control is not undertaken.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When residual sprays meant to kill other insects were commonly being used, they resulted in a collateral insecticidal effect on potential bedbug infestations; the gel-based insecticides primarily used nowadays do not have any effect on bedbugs, as they are incapable of feeding on these baits.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gel-based insecticides primarily used today to control cockroach and ant populations do not have any effect on bedbugs, as bed bugs are not attracted to baits.^ (Baits designed to control ants and cockroaches are ineffective).

^ Bed Bugs can be controlled using diatomaceous earth.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What are the dangers of using insecticides to fight bed bugs?

Yet another perceived cause of the bedbug resurgence is the growing push to recycle mattresses. .Not only are mattresses to be recycled collected and stored with those already processed, but it is very difficult to ensure that no bedbugs or eggs survive the processing.^ Keep those items sealed for AT LEAST 18 MONTHS! Bedbugs can survive without feeding for up to 18 months.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is the only one who commented in such a very intelligent and logical and cool calm collected manner.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs are very difficult not only to find but to control and sometimes we as PMPs need specialized equipment.

.The National Pest Management Association, a US advocacy group for pest management professionals conducted a "proactive bedbug public relations campaign" in 2005 and 2006, resulting in increased media coverage of bedbug stories and an increase in business for pest controllers.^ Get a pest management professional (PMP) involved.

^ Pest control supplies for consumers for professionals .

^ The best business software for Canadian pest control professionals.

[44]

Controlled atmospheres

.Experiments with high concentrations of carbon dioxide have succeeded in killing bedbugs within 24 hours.^ Bernard Grater has posted a tip on January 3, 2010, 4:40 am Steam treatments , or heating the room to a high temperature may kill bedbugs.

^ It is heat, not water, that kills any bedbugs residing within the laundered items; therefore items should be washed in hot water, regardless of normal washing directions, and should be dried with medium heat (preferably high heat) for 20 minutes or more.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But unfortunately, and again I speak form first hand experience and countless hours of research, if you find a bedbug, you have a bedbug problem.
  • Brownstoner | Forum: Bed Bug Question 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.brownstoner.com [Source type: General]

[45]

Biological control (predatory species)

.Natural enemies of bedbugs include cockroaches,[46] ants, spiders, mites, centipedes, and the masked hunter or "masked bedbug hunter" (Reduvius personatus).^ Centipedes Choosing a pro, Classified ads , Clothes moths Clover Mites Cockroaches , Controlling pests , D elusionary parasitosis Employment ads , Finding a Pro , Fleas , Flies Flour Beetles Get rid of : Bedbugs Carpenter Ants Gnats .

^ Mites or bedbugs (and we are pretty sure it is mites), getting bit by an unseen enemy is distressing, insomnia-inducing, and just plain uncomfortable.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ Termite control, Mice, Wasps, Cockroaches, Bedbugs, Millipedes, Ants, Centipedes and Wild life removal .

The Pharaoh ant's (Monomorium pharaonis) venom is lethal to bedbugs. .Rodents eat bedbugs, but bats do not, due to their distaste for the bedbug alarm pheromone, which is released when they are attacked.^ Bedbugs need to eat and they need to eat you.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While bedbugs are not regarded as a vector of transmissible diseases, they may be a significant source of alarm or distress.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unfortunately, biological control is not very practical for eliminating bedbugs from human dwellings.^ Steam Treatment Steam is the most common method of pest control and will eliminate all stages of the bed bug, but not necessarily all bedbugs.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The consumer really needs to be very aware that it is very difficult, and sometimes impossible to eliminate 100% of the bed bugs in a dwelling.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]

Traditional methods

.Plants traditionally used as bedbug repellents include black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), Pseudarthna hookeri, and Laggera alata (Chinese yángmáo cǎo | 羊毛草), though information about their effectiveness is lacking.^ (Osborn used to get a couple of calls about bedbugs a year.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed frames can be effectively rid of adult bedbugs and eggs by use of steam or, used with caution, by spraying rubbing alcohol on any visible bugs (although this is not a permanent treatment).
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seriously, though, part of any effective bed bug prevention plan includes keeping these ‎bugs out of your clothing.

[47] .Eucalyptus saligna oil kills bedbugs, and eucalyptus-based insect repellents may be effective against them.^ Says: May 16th, 2008 at 7:08 pm Has anyone tried 100% DEET repellant against bed bugs?
  • Stubbornella » Blog Archive » Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.stubbornella.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bernard Grater has posted a tip on January 3, 2010, 4:40 am Steam treatments , or heating the room to a high temperature may kill bedbugs.

^ Spray any bedbugs you see with an insecticide (Check the label of the insecticide to be sure it's effective against bedbugs) and then vacuum them up.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

[48]
.In the 18th century, turpentine was used in combination with henna (Lawsonia inermis, aka camphire) flowers and alcohol, as an insecticide that also reputedly killed bedbug eggs.^ It is also not true that eggs can be killed with insecticides.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the widespread use of DDT in the 1940s and '50s , bedbugs all but disappeared from North America in the mid-twentieth century.
  • Bedbug.eu 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bedbug.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can also kill them by spraying with isopropyl alcohol…but the eggs hatch every day!
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

[49]
.Other items that were believed to kill bedbugs in the early 19th century include "infused oil of Melolontha vulgaris" (presumably a kind of cockchafer), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), Actaea spp.^ In the absence of DDT, exterminators use a constellation of other methods to kill bedbugs: liquid, gas, earth, and fire.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

(e.g. black cohosh), tobacco, "heated oil of Terebinthina" (i.e. turpentine), wild mint (Mentha arvensis), narrow-leaved pepperwort (Lepidium ruderale), Myrica spp. (e.g. bayberry), Robert Geranium (Geranium robertianum), bugbane (Cimicifuga spp.), "herb and seeds of Cannabis", "Opulus" berries (possibly a kind of maple, or European cranberrybush), masked hunter bugs (Reduvius personatus), "and many others."[50]
The use of black pepper is attested in George Orwell's 1933 non-fiction book Down and Out in Paris and London.

Domestic treatment

.Use of steam or by spraying rubbing alcohol on any visible insects is done to effectively rid bed frames of adult bedbugs and eggs, although it does not serve as a permanent treatment.^ Professional control methods include the use of an alcohol-based insecticide to treat the mattress and box spring, and the use of steam to kill bed bugs on surfaces that people will come into contact.
  • Bed Bug Chemicals: Safety & Treatment 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.orkin.com [Source type: General]

^ As long as you have bedbugs, you must spray the vacuum cleaner after you use it b/c a bug could be hanging out in the tube and find another bug of the opposite sex to mate with, and then you'll have 500 eggs you can't see until after the 1st of 5 molts.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

^ Start with the area near the bed, and try to get the spray under or behind the baseboard (where bedbugs may also be hiding).
  • Bed Bug Chemicals: Safety & Treatment 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.orkin.com [Source type: General]

.Small steam cleaners have been very effective for local treatment.^ Steaming is very effective.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eliminating bed bugs with a vacuum cleaner can be a very effective method but be cautioned that vacuums can readily become infested by bed bugs (precautionary measures are discussed below).
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While steam can be a very effective method, it is one that may best be left to professional pest management professional as there are many details that go into the effective and efficient use of this method.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A suspect mattress is sometimes protected by wrapping it in a disposable plastic sheeting, sealing all the seams and putting it on a protected bed after a final visual inspection.^ I sprinkle it on the mattress and then put a bed sheet over it so I don't breathe it in.

^ Some pest control firms treat seams, tufts, and crevices of bed components, but they will not spray the mattress surface, bed sheets, blankets, or clothing.

^ They are usually found on and around the bed area, particularly along the seams of mattresses.

Sanitization: In this method, bedding is sanitized by a 120 °F (49 °C) laundry dryer. .Once sanitized, bedding is not allowed to drape to the floor.^ Regardless, once home you should unpack on a floor that will allow you to see bed bugsstay off carpets!

.Storing sanitized sleeping clothes in the bed during the day and bathing before entering the bed are observed to be effective to quarantining a protected bed.^ I work nights and sleep during the day, and the other day, I saw this strange bug on my pillow.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed Bug Identification Bed Bug Biology and Behavior Disease and Bite Symptoms Bed bugs and Sanitation Bed Bug Resurgence Avoiding Infestations Protect yourself when you travel How do I know I have bed bugs?
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then back to the apartment to live out of Ziploc bags for six weeks and wash their bedding every day before a second round of fumigation and spraying.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

.Encasing mattress and box springs in impermeable bed-bug-bite-proof encasements after a treatment for an infestation is an alternative treatment which works better and is more comfortable whereas wrapping bedding in plastic causes sweating.^ We have encased our mattress / box springs in BB proof covers.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An additional benefit is realized as the encasements prevent the subsequent infestation of the mattress and box spring.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bed bugs hide in more than just mattresses.

Extreme temperatures

.The use of a fabric steamer on the infestations will kill the eggs and the bugs instantly.^ The high heat will kill the bugs instantly and more importantly the eggs.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ How do I kill bed bug eggs?

^ Sixty minutes in a hot dryer heat will kill bed bug eggs, and freezing (below 32F) for 30 days will too.

.August 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The bed bugs cannot handle the intense heat and are killed in a couple of seconds.^ Heat: Extreme heat will kill bed bugs.

^ Heat is deadly to bed bug.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can steam kill bed bugs?

.Since steam will penetrate the pores of a mattress, it can reach deep into the corners of beds.^ This after I isolated my bed (washing and drying all bedding) and applying zipped mattress covers after steaming.
  • Seeing bites but no evidence of bugs « Got Bed Bugs? Bedbugger Forums 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, you will not have to throw away your mattress or other furniture because the heat will penetrate deep within the materials and kill any bugs inside.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Here's a fucker in here, too--couple of 'em," he says, turning the steam wand to the corner of the bed frame to dispatch another two.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.The thermal death point for the common bedbug (C. lectularius) is 45°C (113°F), and all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46°C (115°F).^ Death to all bedbugs!
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ All crawling life stages will die.

^ Steam kills all five stages/phases of bedbugs.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

[51] .However, to ensure that bedbugs do not survive by hiding in locations that do not quite reach the thermal death point, the US Department of Defense recommends using a temperature of at least 49°C (120°F), at 20-30% relative humidity, for at least 20 minutes.^ Temperatures of about 120 degrees F are lethal to most insects, provided they cannot escape to a cooler location.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All stages of bed bugs including the eggs can be killed by exposing them to temperatures in excess of 115oF for at least five minutes.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Professionals enclose the structure, using tools to guarantee that it reaches the right temperature.

[45] .Oven-like devices have been designed specifically for this purpose and are available on the market.^ There are many mattress and box spring encasements available to the consumer; however most of these encasements have not been designed specifically for use with bed bugs.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BugLock encasements, manufactured by Protect-A-Bed of Chicago were the first encasements to become commercially available that were specifically designed for bed bugs.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Enclosing a mattress in a black plastic bag and placing it in the sun on a hot day is not considered an effective method of killing bedbugs, due to the difficulty of maintaining a high temperature across the entire surface area of the mattress.^ Anything that can’t be laundered, you can put in a black plastic bag and sit in the sun on a very (VERY) hot day.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, the idea of heating bugs in plastic in the sun on a hot day is NOT true.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Individual items, for example, can be wrapped in plastic and placed in a hot, sunny location for at least a few days (the 120F minimum target temperature should be monitored in the centermost location with a thermometer).

[52]
.There is uncertainty as to how long bedbugs can survive cold temperatures.^ If alternate hosts are present such as mice, the bed bugs may continue to survive regardless of how long the structure remains vacant.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can survive ordinary cold temperatures, though - Seattle winters are no challenge at all.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ For one thing, I think that bedbugs can survive very low temperatures.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Below 16.1°C (61°F), adults enter semi-hibernation and can survive longer.^ WAIT! WAIT! I just read on the University of Maine's website that only adults can survive temperatures below 50 deg Fahrenheit!
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[53] .Bedbugs can survive for at least five days at -10°C (14°F) but will die after 15 minutes of exposure to -32°C (-25.6°F)[47] It is believed that storing infested items below -19°C (0°F) for at least four days will be successful.^ It has been reported that bed bug eggs have been killed after an exposure of one hour at 113° F, and first-instar nymphs died after 15 minutes of exposure to the same temperature.
  • Bed Bugs are Back! - Pest Management Professional 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.mypmp.net [Source type: General]

^ Keep those items sealed for AT LEAST 18 MONTHS! Bedbugs can survive without feeding for up to 18 months.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One the bedbug smoker has been activated you will not be able to return to the property for at least four hours (each product has a different time).
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Carbon dioxide deployed in the form of "snow" may kill bedbugs by rapid freezing.^ Freezing and heating kills bedbugs, too.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

^ As several people have already noted, freezing kills bedbugs.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ Bernard Grater has posted a tip on January 3, 2010, 4:40 am Steam treatments , or heating the room to a high temperature may kill bedbugs.

[45]

Food source isolation

.Due to the difficulty in eliminating the bugs from the room or dwelling, the (suspected) bed is isolated, thus removing the insects' food source - humans.^ How to I check a room for bed bugs?

^ What shouldnt I do when trying to eliminate bed bugs?

^ Remove bed bugs .
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bedbugs cannot cross petroleum jelly and have difficulty climbing metal or glass, hence each of the bed legs is put in a tin can (the bottom of which is thickly coated with petroleum jelly) to avoid movement from the bed to the hiding places.^ I have put petrolem jelly on the rails and legs of the bed.

^ Then last but not least we put vasoline on the bottom of all the legs of them bed.

^ Dont put the legs of the bed frame in kerosene or coat them with petroleum jelly.

.Although bedbugs cannot fly, they have been observed climbing a higher surface in order to then fall to a lower one, such as climbing a wall in order to fall onto a bed.^ (BBs can't fly, and this way they can't crawl onto the bed either.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They have no grooming behaviormeaning that insecticides meant to be swallowed by roaches and flies wont work on bed bugs.

^ I have also heard that sticking double sided tape onto the bed frame can help in catching them when they crawl onto the bed.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.They can also jump a few feet, and so could jump from the wall onto the nearby bed.^ I have also heard that sticking double sided tape onto the bed frame can help in catching them when they crawl onto the bed.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The implications of this are that when baseboards were being treated regularly, a few bed bugs that may have been introduced by the international traveler were likely to contact pesticide as they left the luggage and traveled to the bed.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The guy didn't see anything on the mattress but he saw a few dark spots in the wood in my bed frame which he believes could be from them.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hence alternatively, a double-sided sticky tape (such as carpet tape) is applied around each bed leg, or to keep each leg on a plastic furniture block in a tray of water.^ Coat the legs with double-sided carpet tape or petroleum jelly.

^ Putting boric acid on the bed rails and around the sides of your walls/floors can help.
  • Stubbornella » Blog Archive » Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.stubbornella.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keep area and walls around bed especially clean with alcohol and or clorox.

.However, this does not prevent bugs from biting you on your couch or in other areas of your dwelling.^ This is not a confirmation however it does provide the grounds for suspecting that bed bugs may be present and that a professional should be called in to perform an inspection for the presence of bed bugs in the structure where the bites occurred.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though you may display bed bug bites on your body that occur during the night, this is not a sure sign that a bed bug was the culprit.

^ Just because you have bed bugs does not mean that you have to wait for a professional to kill them.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Barrier Strategy

.When it is necessary to live with bedbugs in the short term (either during treatment or while in the process of figuring out the best approach for treatment), it is possible to create a makeshift, temporary barrier around a bed that will help prevent bedbugs from crawling back onto it.^ (BBs can't fly, and this way they can't crawl onto the bed either.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They will reach their host either by crawling straight towards them, or climbing a wall and then across the ceiling until they feel a heat wave - when they jump down onto their host.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As per the experts, unfortunately there really is not a method to pre treat the apartments for bed bugs to help prevent them from entering your apartment.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.A successful barrier, however, assumes the entire bed itself has been completely disinfected of all bedbugs and their eggs beforehand.^ I have complete disassembled my bed and have seen absolutely NO evidence that there are bedbugs in my home.
  • Seeing bites but no evidence of bugs « Got Bed Bugs? Bedbugger Forums 19 November 2009 17:50 UTC bedbugger.com [Source type: General]

^ Under favorable conditions (70-90F), bed bugs can complete development (from egg to adult) in one two months.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should I assume we are infested in all bed in the house?
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

.Using such a strategy to isolate a bed can provide immediate relief and comfort from further bedbug bites.^ I didn't know there was such thing as bedbugs until several months of living in my apt with an infested used mattress.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The major use of d-phenothrin is in the control of nuisance insects such as bed bugs and human lice.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Treatment of Beds with Pesticides Never treat a bed with pesticides unless you are using a product that has been specifically designed and intended for such use.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An example of duct tape curled over lengthwise to create a sticky barrier.
.A disinfected bed can be isolated and protected by applying a layer of duct tape around each leg of the bed—using regular duct tape that has been curled lengthwise over on itself with the sticky side out.^ Used duct tape upside down around trap.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ I used a twisty and duct tape.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Putting boric acid on the bed rails and around the sides of your walls/floors can help.
  • Stubbornella » Blog Archive » Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.stubbornella.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This creates a simple yet sticky barrier that will prevent most bedbugs from being able to crawl up the legs and onto the bed.^ I have also heard that sticking double sided tape onto the bed frame can help in catching them when they crawl onto the bed.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That like most other bugs, bed bugs will just go into a hibernation state and once it warms up, they will be on the prowl again.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, bed bug barriers on the bottom of your bed legs will not always work as bed bugs have been known to crawl up the wall and fall on their prey if they cannot get up the bed.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.This barrier technique may also be used in multiple strips or rows placed side by side to create an even stronger barrier (in areas where an infestation is heavy or where there exists a higher chance that bedbugs will attempt to crawl over the sticky tape).^ What are the chances there are bedbugs in this stuff?
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When using the Dead Bed Bugs™ System in a multi-unit environment you will be able to create a barrier in your unit that inhibits Bed Bugs from reinfesting your living space from other units or untreated common areas after you have eliminated your Bed Bug problem.
  • Dead Bed Bugs: HOME 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]

^ There are more stuck to the double-sided tape on which the bed frame's legs rest, more still in the bathroom.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

.However, in using duct tape as a barrier, it is usually necessary to first place down a protective layer of some sort to prevent the duct tape from damaging the surfaces adhered to as well as to the prevent the duct tape barrier from leaving behind a sticky residue once it is finally removed.^ Used duct tape upside down around trap.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ I used a twisty and duct tape.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by ramanan50 on January 17, 2010 at 6:50 AM · Report Comment by ramanan50 on January 17, 2010 at 6:57 AM 69 69 Once you get rid of the bug, place some leaves of Neem tree between the mattress and the cot.No bugs.You may do this to prevent bugs any where.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

.This protective layer, if used, can be created by placing a layer of painter's tape (also called masking tape) around the legs of the bed first—before placing the duct tape.^ Used duct tape upside down around trap.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ I used a twisty and duct tape.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are more stuck to the double-sided tape on which the bed frame's legs rest, more still in the bathroom.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

The painter's tape will help protect the surfaces wherever the 'curled duct tape' barrier is placed as the duct tape is adhered only directly over top the protective layer of painter's tape. .Also, as a substitute to masking tape, Saran wrap can be wrapped tightly around the legs of a bed and used as the initial protective layer instead (where the curled duct tape is then placed over the Saran wrap).^ Used duct tape upside down around trap.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ I used a twisty and duct tape.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are more stuck to the double-sided tape on which the bed frame's legs rest, more still in the bathroom.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

.Typically, isolating a bed should be done only after encasing both the mattress and the box spring (if the bed has one).^ Mattresses and box springs should be steam-cleaned.

^ We have encased our mattress / box springs in BB proof covers.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is absolutely necessary to encase both the mattress and the box spring.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As well as done only after successfully disinfecting the entire bed frame.^ I took the bed apart and inspected the mattress and boxspring as well as the cast-iron frame.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have purchased vinyl bed covers as well as dust mite/allergen covers, new metal be frames that will serve as boxsprings( throwing away my old boxsprings).
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now that bed bugs are well situated in the country they are not only being introduced from foreign countries but are disseminating at a rapid rate within our country from well established populations.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mattresses can be encased using zippered vinyl or plastic mattress encasements, or by creating a homemade/improvised encasement where the affected mattress is completely wrapped in a layer of plastic (typically plastic drop cloth) then carefully sealed tight with tape.^ Mattresses can be wrapped in zippered bed encasements, available from allergy supply companies, or wrapped and sealed in plastic film.

^ Also we wrapped our mattresses using (non-plastic) wraps from Sears.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ After each use the vacuum can be stored and sealed tightly in a heavy contractor grade plastic bag (> 3ml), or stored in an air tight storage container.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mattress can also be fully covered and sealed using mattress encasements that are specially designed either for bedbugs and/or dust mites (which are specialized mattress covers which, though they tend to cost more than vinyl and plastic encasements, are usually more comfortable and will also help to prevent sweating).^ Special mattress covers which enclose the entire mattress may also help prevent an infestation.

^ Encase your treated mattress and boxspring in a bedbug-sealed mattress cover.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Don't use any more than you have to.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

Improvised duct tape barrier (over protective masking tape) around the leg of a bed.
.There is also the option to isolate a bed using double-sided duct tape (also called carpet tape) to create the sticky barrier instead, although, carpet tape may be somewhat more expensive in length per foot than regular duct tape curled over—something to consider if the taping method is used extensively.^ There are more stuck to the double-sided tape on which the bed frame's legs rest, more still in the bathroom.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

^ Coat the legs with double-sided carpet tape or petroleum jelly.

^ If there are no signs of bed bugs on it, use it to keep your suitcase off the floor and away from the bed.
  • Bed Bugs: How to Get Rid of Bed Bugs, Getting Rid of Bedbugs – Orkin.com 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.orkin.com [Source type: General]

.In any case, curled duct tape (with the sticky side out) can also be used in length on floors as a perimeter barrier to help quickly isolate or quarantine furniture (where it can span multiple feet on the floor around furniture or used to surround and isolate 'legless' beds with bases that are flush to the floor etc.^ I used a twisty and duct tape.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A few respondents also mentioned heat treatment, cold treatment with RapidFreeze (carbon dioxide snow), sealing cracks and crevices, applying double-sided sticky tape around bed legs and scrubbing bed bug eggs with toothbrushes.
  • The Business of Bed Bugs - Pest Management Professional 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.mypmp.net [Source type: News]

^ Putting boric acid on the bed rails and around the sides of your walls/floors can help.
  • Stubbornella » Blog Archive » Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.stubbornella.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

). .The technique can also be used to help prevent bedbugs from crawling up along walls where warranted.^ Also, bed bug barriers on the bottom of your bed legs will not always work as bed bugs have been known to crawl up the wall and fall on their prey if they cannot get up the bed.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it will suck up some bed bugs and, used frequently, help keep their numbers down.

^ My family has tried bombing the house twice, and using bedbug killing spray.I'v'e been vacuuming to try and suck the little bastards up, but thats not working either!
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

Long strips of this taping method (i.e. curled duct tape over painter's tape) can be used on standard floors to cordon off, surround, and isolate infested furniture, to protect clean furniture, or as part of a treatment effort to help prevent bedbugs from crawling toward specific areas. If used this extensively, it then becomes particularly more important to apply a protective layer of painter's tape first to prevent the duct tape from damaging and/or ruining painted surfaces or from leaving behind a sticky residue when finally pulled up. .It should also be noted that the width of the painter's tape can be as narrow as one inch (which is typically less expensive per foot than wider versions of masking tape) since regular duct tape, though much wider initially, will fit within the one-inch width of the painter's tape—after the duct tape has been curled over on itself lengthwise.^ I had used a McCulloch mc125 and was not to expensive, less than a $100 dollars.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I couldn't find matress covers, so I bought 4 vinyl fitted sheets (2 for mattress, 2 for boxspring), put them on, and duct taped them at the seams.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course, they are more expensive than the cheaper ones.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

.Once a bed is disinfected and isolated, care should be taken to avoid reinfesting the bed by not sleeping or resting on the bed in clothing that has been potentially contaminated.^ Some people believe that they can avoid bed bugs by sleeping in a different area of their home.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regardless, once home you should unpack on a floor that will allow you to see bed bugsstay off carpets!

^ Fahrenheit is recommended for bed bugs and care should be taken not to exceed this temperature!
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

Vermin and pets may also complicate a barrier strategy. .Bedbugs prefer human hosts, but will resort to other warm-blooded hosts if humans are not available, and some species can live up to eighteen months without feeding at all.^ Bedbugs can live up to 6 months without feeding, and eggs can take 3 to 4 months to hatch.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Bed bugs can live for up to 2 years without feeding.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ It is there that various species of the bed bug infest poultry, bats, humans, and other types of birds.

.A co-infestation of mice can provide an auxiliary food source to keep bedbugs established for longer or the isolating of a bedbug's food source may cause the infestation to spread.^ One or more of the surrounding units may have well established infestations that have not been reported by the occupants.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This year, Bill Clinton and his staff had to vacate their offices in Harlem for a bedbug infestation, which kicked off the predictable jokes about Clinton keeping a bed in his office.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ This may cause the bed bugs to move to find other places to live and spread the problem.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Likewise, a house cat or human guest might easily defeat a barrier by sitting on a protected bed.^ Bugs that might escape visual detection by a human may be detected by a bed bug sniffing dog and vice versa.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PARAVINYL Mattress Encasements create a durable and protective barrier between you and the Bed Bugs’ favorite breeding ground — your mattress.
  • Dead Bed Bugs: HOME 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]

.Preventing the bed from touching the walls, as well as preventing bedding from draping the floor, or not allowing objects to lean against the bed frame will help to stop bedbugs from being reintroduced onto the bed.^ Putting boric acid on the bed rails and around the sides of your walls/floors can help.
  • Stubbornella » Blog Archive » Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.stubbornella.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A proper encasement can serve as an early detection tool (see also Early Detection of Bed Bugs or Mattress and Box Spring Encasements) as well as prevent the mattress and box spring from becoming infested.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I took the bed apart and inspected the mattress and boxspring as well as the cast-iron frame.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Such considerations should be part of any barrier strategy.

Household actions

.The cleanliness of the environment has an effect on the control of bedbugs but, unlike cockroaches, it does not have a direct effect as they feed on their hosts and not on waste.^ Does anyone know if they have a bedbug history?
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although I had done a bit of research on bedbugs in the past I was reminded that they actually feed off of human blood, not unlike a tick, and we never wake during the process.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ SO.....they're either in the tempurpedic mattress (I called tempurpedic and they said they haven't heard of any bedbugs living in the tempurpedic and that the foam is not supposed to be able to host ANY organic matter...*sigh)....
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Good housekeeping in association with proper preparation and mechanical removal assist in its control.^ The owner must do the necessary preparation and do the cultural and mechanical control work while the PMP handles the insecticides.

Catching techniques and traps

.A technique for catching bedbugs in the act is to have a light source quickly accessible from your bed and to turn it on at about an hour before dawn, which is usually the time when bedbugs are most active.^ The most active time for a bed bug is about one hour before sunrise - the peak time for feeding.
  • What Are Bed Bugs? How To Kill Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bed bugs usually feed while people sleep, about an hour before dawn.

^ Bed bugs grow fastest and lay most eggs at about 80F. They feed only on blood.

.A flashlight/torch is recommended instead of room lights, as the act of getting out of bed will cause any bedbugs present to scatter before you can catch them.^ Bedbug glad you found out what the problem was, and it's correctable .
  • The ANT Colony 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We recommend you always check for new and old PbN feedback as well as the Theft Report Forum before considering any deal here.
  • :::///::massive sale::\\\::: - PbNation 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.pbnation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the moment I'm considering directing a short documentary about bedbugs in Vancouver, and you guys really stood out with your self motivated blog.

.If you awaken during the night, leave your lights off but use your flashlight/torch to inspect your mattress.^ I think those two, plus the use of mattress and pillow covers, should finish them off.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ You will be eligible to receive 10% OFF your next order plus $20 OFF the following order.
  • Dead Bed Bugs: HOME 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC deadbedbugs.com [Source type: General]

^ In winter time, leave your windows open and your air conditioning or heating off to freeze the bugs to death, if you can afford to.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bedbugs are fairly fast in their movements, about equal to the speed of ants.^ BedBug , (10:27 PM) Thinking about you, ANT. ♥ Have a strong and peaceful day, ANT and Colony.
  • The ANT Colony 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They may be slowed down if they have engorged on their food source.^ Spritz walls in suspect areas with ammonia-based glass cleaner (makes 'em twitch so they can be seen and slows them down).
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

.When the bedroom light is switched on, it may temporarily startle them allowing time for you to get a dust pan and brush kept next to the bed and sweep the bugs into the pan then immediately sweep them into a cup or mug full of water where the bugs drown quickly.^ You need evidence: a bed bug.

^ Are you sure those are bed bugs?
  • Stubbornella » Blog Archive » Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.stubbornella.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do you think it may be possible that bed bugs are not my problem?
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Dispose of the water down the sink or toilet. .Disinfect the mattress, skirting boards and so on regularly.^ Quote Comment Vacuuming, steaming regularly in the crevices and cracks of base boards & mattress & furniture...pesticides are a good option by a trained professional...

.Glue traps placed in strategic areas around the home, sometimes used in conjunction with heating pads or balloons filled with exhaled breath offering a carbon dioxide source, may be used to trap and thus detect bedbugs.^ Insect sticky traps/glue boards are often placed out in an effort to catch bed bugs and while these traps will capture some, they are not reliable monitoring devices since any bugs caught on them were by chance and the monitors should not be used as the basis for concluding that an area is free of bed bugs.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Look at it this way: Bed bugs can be so difficult to detect that different methods may prove to be useful from one location to the next.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some bedbug sufferers use a desiccant powder called Results, which is natural pyrethrin (sometimes pyrethrum).
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

.This method has varied reports of success.^ I'll report in the future in case I have any success with any of my methods.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

.There are also commercial traps like 'flea' traps whose effectiveness is questionable except perhaps as a means of detection.^ Right now there are no traps or monitors proven to detect a population when its still small.

^ My main question is, we don't have access to a washer and dryer except a laundry matt, and I have confirmed that the washers there don't get hotter then 80 degrees, is this hot enough?
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Perhaps the easiest trapping method is to place double-sided carpet tape in long strips near or around the bed and check the strips after a day or more.^ There are more stuck to the double-sided tape on which the bed frame's legs rest, more still in the bathroom.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

^ I have also heard that sticking double sided tape onto the bed frame can help in catching them when they crawl onto the bed.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not everyone reacts to bed bites in the same fashion, some people have reactions that are delayed for several days or more while others do not react at all.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, bedbugs can simply walk across the sticky surface of tape, which, while slowing them down, will not stop them from crossing.^ "You apply DDT to a baseboard and if a bedbug walks across it years later, it'll die.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

.Some traps placed around furniture legs use a combination of petroleum jelly and slippery surfaces to catch bedbugs.^ As bedbugs can live in nearly any wood or warm place, they have been known to breed in furniture, books and other clutter.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Insect sticky traps/glue boards are often placed out in an effort to catch bed bugs and while these traps will capture some, they are not reliable monitoring devices since any bugs caught on them were by chance and the monitors should not be used as the basis for concluding that an area is free of bed bugs.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most people feel the bedbugs arrived via international (primarily Asian) luggage and clothing, but there are some old, fairly ram-shackled places throughout downtown furnished with used furniture - so, who knows?
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

.Traps have been devised using a combination of heat, carbon dioxide and kairomones to attract bedbugs into a container from which they cannot escape.^ Shenandoah- Unfortunately, with exterminators no longer using DDT, they are actually quite ill equipped to deal with your bedbugs.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ But I guess it's best we not use it so much since mosquitos, bedbugs and other crawlies rapidly found ways to resist DDT and morph into super bedbugs .

^ These days more than ever, we leave these on all day and all night, and as a source of heat could easily attract bedbugs.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

Recent methods

.A recent trend in bedbug control is to use canine detection teams to pinpoint infestation areas because hiding places are very hard to find.^ Many companies have not lowered their prices yet because they have not learned that bed bug infestations are often very localized.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is difficult to find a company that is very experienced and really understands how to effectively manage bed bug infestations.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason that encasements are so helpful is because your mattress and box spring have many hiding places for bed bugs making inspection time consuming and difficult.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bed bug detection dogs are trained to find the bed bugs by sweeping through suspected infestation areas and alerting to the scent of bedbugs.^ How do I find out if I have bed bugs?

^ Bed bug scent detection is not perfect.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Canine scent detection is another method that can be employed to detect bed bugs.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A bedbug dog can detect bedbugs in a bedroom within minutes, with an accuracy rate of 90%, whereas a (human) pest control practitioner would need an hour to complete the task.^ Then, I looked into another of my options which was pest control company in my area MITEBUSTER, I called them and had them come over my house they inspected and sure enough there were eggs within the crevices and folds of my 1 bedroom with a queen and the twin.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ Steam Treatment Steam is the most common method of pest control and will eliminate all stages of the bed bug, but not necessarily all bedbugs.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bugs that might escape visual detection by a human may be detected by a bed bug sniffing dog and vice versa.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]
.There are more frequent reports of success in controlling bedbugs by the use of diatomaceous earth as an environmentally friendly non-toxic insecticide to which the bedbugs cannot develop a resistance.^ See non-insecticidal control for more ideas.

^ If it's true that there are 500 infestations reported in New York so far in 2006, there's a lot more data we can collect...
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ But I guess it's best we not use it so much since mosquitos, bedbugs and other crawlies rapidly found ways to resist DDT and morph into super bedbugs .

.The diatomaceous earth abrades the waxy cuticle that covers an insect's exosekeleton, causing them to die of dehydration[citation needed].^ The most common suggested solution for killing bed bugs (from visitors) has been to use Diatomaceous Earth because it kills insects by dehydrating them.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bought the bed covers, diatomaceous earth… etc.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fossil dust (33 to 86 percent silica, 5 percent sodium, other percent other stuff) sucks the waxy lipids out of a bedbug's exoskeleton, turning all that human blood in its guts into a scab and causing it to die of dehydration.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

.Bedbugs exposed to diatomaceous earth typically die within two days of contact.^ In my experience, diatomaceous earth (DE) actually works with bedbugs.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ I had bedbugs for a few months, used the d.e., and they were gone within two weeks.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ A few days after they are exposed to the products, they will die.
  • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the United States, about 100 dogs are used to find bed bugs as of mid-2009, according to Greg Bauman, vice president of technical services for the National Pest Management Association.^ How do I find out if I have bed bugs?

^ "Bed bugs in America: a pest management industry survey."
  • The Business of Bed Bugs - Pest Management Professional 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.mypmp.net [Source type: News]

^ Do bed bug-sniffing dogs work?

[54]

Measures while traveling

Since most bedbugs are carried by travelers through contact with beds and hotel rooms in infected locations, certain measures taken while traveling help in control of bedbugs:[55]
.
  • Examining the room for potential hiding places of bedbugs, such as carpet edges, mattress seams, pillow case linings, bedboards, wall trim or other tiny crevices in which bedbugs could hide.
  • Looking specifically at the mattress seams for signs of bedbug activity: droppings, eggs, bloodstains or even bedbugs themselves, hiding in tiny folds and seam lines.
  • Keeping a flashlight nearby while sleeping to immediately observe suspected activity during the night without having to get up out of bed which would otherwise give them time to hide in safety.
  • Not leaving clothing lying on the bed, or any location of possible infestation (as mentioned above) and instead, using hangers or hooks capable of keeping all cloth distant from the floor or bed.^ I'm not too upset that I had no idea he had bedbugs, after all there were no visual signs (not that I would know what to look for at the time).
    • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So, I got up and with a flashlight began to look all over the mattress and boxspring.
    • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Just keep sleeping in your bed.
    • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Suspend new shopping in bags the same way.
  • Closing all luggage (suitcase, travel bag etc.^ Today, with the absence of these pesticides, as these same bugs are introduced from abroad, they are able to travel freely and safely from the luggage to the bed and successfully begin an infestation.
    • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I plan to put all of my travel stuff including my suitcase and shoes and all the crap I travelled with into large black plastic lawn bags and put the bags in the sun this weekend.
    • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When you travel, inspect rooms, keep luggage closed and use luggage racks away from the walldont leave things on the bed!

    ) when not in use. This way, during the night the bugs may move over the top of the bags and have difficulty getting inside.
  • Elevating luggage off the floor to luggage stand, tables or chairs, although these can also be hiding places.

Current research

Scanning electron micrograph shot of the mouth of a bedbug, Cimex lectularius
.The Texas A&M Center for Urban and Structural Entomology and the University of Arkansas Department of Entomology have been collaborating to study bedbugs on a genetic level in the hopes to shed light on their recent resurgence.^ The standards that are being utilized by NESDECA are based upon research on canine scent detection conducted by scientists at The University of Florida, Department of Entomology.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do a search for Toronto/New York university studies on bedbugs and how to get rid of them it's a global problem.

^ NESDCA (National Entomology Scent Detection Canine Association) The National Entomology Scent Detection Canine Association (NESDCA) was recently formed and held its first meeting at the University of Florida Department of Entomology's Southeast Pest Management Conference.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By studying the genetic variation within bedbug populations, researchers can gain insight into insecticide resistance and insect dispersal.^ But I guess it's best we not use it so much since mosquitos, bedbugs and other crawlies rapidly found ways to resist DDT and morph into super bedbugs .

^ The insecticidal action of DDT and certain pyrethroids happens to be the same and affects the sodium channel of the nerves: that's the reason for some insect populations exhibiting resistance to DDT and also some to certain pyrethroids, such as deltamethrin.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

Researchers have two theories as to how bedbug resurgence has occurred in the United States. .One theory is that the source of current bedbug populations is from other countries without bedbug pesticides that have made their way through air travel, and another theory is that the surviving bed bug populations were forced to switch hosts to birds such as poultry, and bats.^ It is there that various species of the bed bug infest poultry, bats, humans, and other types of birds.

^ Will bed bugs actually travel on me?

^ What other names do bed bugs have?

The theory that the surviving bedbug populations were forced to switch hosts to birds is also supported by the research carried out at Texas A&M and the University of Arkansas. In a recent study, researchers subjected 136 adult bedbugs from 22 sampled populations from nine U.S. states, Australia, and Canada to genetic analysis. .Their finding concluded that the bedbug populations were never completely eradicated from the United States as there was no evidence of a genetic bottleneck in either the mitochondrial or nuclear DNA of the bedbugs.^ I've been scouring through the internet reading everything there is to read about bedbugs, but I can't seem to find answers to my questions.
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm not too upset that I had no idea he had bedbugs, after all there were no visual signs (not that I would know what to look for at the time).
  • The Bedbug Blog: Bedbug Attack Strategy 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Add 255 Mckibben st to the list - there's a really bad bedbug problem and no one is doing anything...
  • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Researchers suspect that resistant populations of bedbugs have slowly been propagating in poultry facilities, and have made their way back to human hosts via the poultry workers.^ But I guess it's best we not use it so much since mosquitos, bedbugs and other crawlies rapidly found ways to resist DDT and morph into super bedbugs .

[56][57]
.Other research is being conducted at the University of Arkansas and Virginia Tech to be able to use bedbugs in forensic science.^ But I guess it's best we not use it so much since mosquitos, bedbugs and other crawlies rapidly found ways to resist DDT and morph into super bedbugs .

^ The standards that are being utilized by NESDECA are based upon research on canine scent detection conducted by scientists at The University of Florida, Department of Entomology.
  • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the absence of DDT, exterminators use a constellation of other methods to kill bedbugs: liquid, gas, earth, and fire.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

.Researchers have been successful at isolating and characterizing human DNA taken from bedbug blood meals.^ Although I had done a bit of research on bedbugs in the past I was reminded that they actually feed off of human blood, not unlike a tick, and we never wake during the process.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ While humans are commonly referred to as the main sufferers of this pest, the bed bug also seeks out other warm-blooded hosts for their meals.

^ If my next-door neighbor doesn't use dessicant powder, then her bedbugs will come through the walls to my house, and when they do, they will not be able to reach the human to get a blood meal.
  • Parasite City: A gnawing bed bug problem grows in Southeast Baltimore | Baltimore City Paper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.citypaper.com [Source type: General]

.One advantage that bedbugs have over other blood feeders being used in forensics is that they do not remain on the host, and instead remain in close proximity to the crime scene.^ One tube injects saliva with anesthetics and anticoagulants, the other sucks out the blood.
  • Bugs in Your Bed - Features - The Stranger, Seattle's Only Newspaper 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC www.thestranger.com [Source type: General]

^ Shenandoah- Unfortunately, with exterminators no longer using DDT, they are actually quite ill equipped to deal with your bedbugs.
  • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ But I guess it's best we not use it so much since mosquitos, bedbugs and other crawlies rapidly found ways to resist DDT and morph into super bedbugs .

Therefore bedbugs could potentially provide crucial evidence linking the suspect to the crime scene. Researchers are able to identify what hosts are being fed upon, and are taking further steps to be able to identify the individual by genotyping, and to predict the duration from the time of feeding to recovery of viable DNA.[58][59]

See also

References

  1. ^ Marc L. Fisher, School IPM Training program assistant and Dini Miller, Assistant professor, Department of Entomology; Virginia Tech http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/entomology/444-420/444-420.html.
  2. ^ Cranshaw. W.S. F.B. Peairs. "Bat Bugs and Bed Bugs." http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/INSECT/05574.html.2005.
  3. ^ http://www.bioimages.org.uk/html/t159942.htm
  4. ^ a b c Gary Richard Mullen and Lance A. Durden, Medical and veterinary entomology, 2002, p. 80
  5. ^ Australian Faunal Directory, http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/CIMICIDAE
  6. ^ Med Vet Entomol. 1988 Jul;2(3):297-300."Production of a hybrid between the bedbugs Cimex hemipterus and Cimex lectularius." http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2980186
  7. ^ "A field study of mating between two species of bedbug in northern KwaZulu, South Africa" http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119457083/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
  8. ^ http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/158065.php
  9. ^ Oeciacus vicarius may survive up to three years without natural hosts, and have been found to survive for up to a year without feeding in a laboratory environment. Vide Janella E. Loye, The life history and ecology of the cliff swallow bug, PhD thesis, (University of Oklahoma, 1985).
  10. ^ Polanco, Andrea et al. 2009. Survivorship and growth potential of modern bed bug populations (Cimex lectularius) in the United States. Presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, December 13–16. Cited in Science News, January 16th, 2010; Vol.177 #2 (p. 8) "Do-it-yourself bed-bug detector" by Susan Milius. http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/51188/title/Do-it-yourself_bed-bug_detector
  11. ^ Carayon, J. 1959 Insémination par “spermalège” et cordon conducteur de spermatozoids chez Stricticimex brevispinosus Usinger (Heteroptera, Cimicidae). Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 60, 81–104.
  12. ^ Carayon, J. 1966 Traumatic insemination and the paragenital system. In Monograph of the Cimicidae (Hemiptera – Heteroptera) (ed. R. L. Usinger), pp. 81–166. College Park, MD: Entomological Society of America.
  13. ^ Carayon, J. 1977 Insémination extragénitale traumatique. In Traité de Zoologie 8(V-A) (ed. P. P. Grassé), pp. 351–390. Paris: Masson.
  14. ^ Ryne, C. In press. "Homosexual interactions in bed bugs: Alarm pheromones as male recognition signals." Animal Behaviour. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.09.033 Cited in Cited in Science News, November 21st, 2009; Vol.176 #11 (p. 13) "Scent of alarm identifies male bed bugs" by Susan Milius. http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/48927/title/Scent_of_alarm_identifies_male__bed_bugs
  15. ^ Susan C. Jones, PhD http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/pdf/2105.pdf Extension Fact Sheet "Bed Bugs, Injury" January, 2004
  16. ^ a b Mark D. Scarupa and Athena Economides, MD Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology "Bedbug bites masquerading as urticaria" Vol. 117, Issue 6, June 2006, p.1508–1509
  17. ^ Sulzberger, M. B., et al. Dermatology: Diagnosis and Treatment. Chicago: Yearbook, 1961; p. 94
  18. ^ Sean Rollo http://thebedbugresource.com/?page_id=50#6 The Bed Bug Resource "Can bed bugs pass diseases?" 2007
  19. ^ Encyclopedia Americana, 1996 ed., v. 3, p. 431
  20. ^ William Smith and Charles Anthon, A dictionary of Greek and Roman antiquities, 1847, pp. 252-253 http://books.google.com/books?id=41oMAAAAYAAJ&dq=cimex&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  21. ^ "That soon after the Fire of London, in some of the new-built Houses they were observ'd to appear, and were never noted to have been seen in the old, tho' they were then so few, as to be little taken notice of; yet as they were only seen in Firr-Timber, 'twas conjectured they were then first brought to England in them; of which most of the new Houses were partly built, instead of the good Oak destroy'd in the old." John Southall, A Treatise of Buggs [sic], pp. 16-17. http://www.archive.org/details/atreatisebuggss00soutgoog
  22. ^ "According to Scopoli's 2nd work (loc. cit.), found in Carniola and adjoining regions. According to Linnaeus' 2nd work on exotic insects (loc. cit.), before the era of health, already in Europe, seldom observed in England before 1670." Johann Friedrich Wolff and Johann Philip Wolff, Icones Cimicum descriptionibus illustratae, fourth fascicle (1804), p. 127. http://www.archive.org/details/iconescimicumdes00wolf
  23. ^ "Their beloved Foods are Blood, dry'd Paste, Size, Deal [fir], Beach [beech], Oiler, and fome other Woods, the Sap of which they lick; and on any one of these will they live the year round. Oak, Walnut, Cedar and Mahogoney they will not feed upon; all Pairs I put up with thofe Woods for Food, having been soon starved to death." John Southall, A Treatise of Buggs, pp. 23-24 http://www.archive.org/details/atreatisebuggss00soutgoog
  24. ^ "Many years ago I found numerous specimens in hidden places among wooden beams, where without a doubt Acari [mites and ticks] and a few other insects supplied them with nourishment." Johann Friedrich Wolff and Johann Philip Wolff, Icones Cimicum descriptionibus illustratae, fourth fascicle, 1804, p. 127 http://www.archive.org/details/iconescimicumdes00wolf
  25. ^ John Southall, A Treatise of Buggs [sic], pp. 16-17. http://www.archive.org/details/atreatisebuggss00soutgoog
  26. ^ Austin, James.http://urbanentomology.tamu.edu/bedbugs/bedbugs.cfm
  27. ^ James Owen http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/05/0513_040513_bedbugs.html National Geographic “Bloodthirsty Bedbugs Stage Comeback in U.S., Europe” 13 May 2004.
  28. ^ a b c Boase, Clive J, "Bed-bugs - reclaiming our cities" The Pest Management Consultancy, Haverhill, UK, Biologist April 2004, Vol. 51 issue 1, p9–12
  29. ^ a b Masetti, Massimo and Bruschi, Fab hell rizio "Bedbug Infestations recorded in Central Italy" Parasitology International Volume 56, Issue 1, March 2007, p81–83
  30. ^ King, F; Dick, I; Evans, P. Bed bugs in Britain. Parasitology Today. Vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 100–102. 1989
  31. ^ זהירות, הפשפשים חוזרים!, (hebrew) www.haaretz.co.il, retrieved 05.08.08
  32. ^ a b Voiland, Adam "You May not be Alone" U.S. News & World Report 7/16/2007, Vol. 143, Issue 2, p53–54.
  33. ^ Journal of Medical Entomology, 45 (6), 2008, pp. 1092–1101
  34. ^ Kimberly Stevens (2003-12-25). "Sleeping with the Enemy". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/12/25/garden/sleeping-with-the-enemy.html?sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  35. ^ Judge Richard Posner (2003-10-21). [http://www.projectposner.org/case/2003/347F3d672 "347 F.3d 672 BURL MATHIAS and DESIREE MATHIAS, Plaintiffs-Appellees/Cross-Appellants, v. ACCOR ECONOMY LODGING, INC. and MOTEL 6 OPERATING L.P., Defendants-Appellants/Cross-Appellees. UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SEVENTH CIRCUIT Nos. 03-1010, 03-1078"]. http://www.projectposner.org/case/2003/347F3d672. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  36. ^ Shavell, Steven (2007), "On the Proper Magnitude of Punitive Damages: Mathias v. Accor Economy Lodging, Inc." (PDF), Harvard Law Review 120: 1223–1227, http://www.harvardlawreview.org/issues/120/march07/shavell.pdf, retrieved 2010-01-16 
  37. ^ Initi, John "Sleeping with the Enemy" Maclean's, 1/14/2008, Vol. 121, Issue 1, p54–56
  38. ^ "National Bed Bug Summit". United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/cb/ppdc/bedbug-summit/index.html.4-17-09. Retrieved 2009-04-22. 
  39. ^ Waldvogel, M., C Apperson. 2006 " Bed Bugs." http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/notes/Urban/bedbugs.htm 21 November 2008
  40. ^ Bedbugs are back and so are their bites. - Nov. 29, 2005
  41. ^ http://pct.texterity.com/pct/200707/?pg=50
  42. ^ Steelman, C.D., A.L. Szalanski, R. Trout, J.A. McKern, C. Solorzano, and J.W. Austin. 2008. Susceptibility of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to selected insecticides. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 25:(1) (in press)
  43. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1677073.stm
  44. ^ Bayer
  45. ^ a b c US Department of Defense Armed Forces Pest Management Board Technical Guide #44 http://www.afpmb.org/pubs/tims/TG44/TG44.htm
  46. ^ Encyclopedia Americana, 1996 ed., v. 3, p. 413
  47. ^ a b c d IPM Practitioner, XXIX(3/4) March/April 2007, http://www.birc.org/MarApril2007.pdf
  48. ^ Schaefer, C.W. and A.R. Pazzini, eds. 2000. Heteroptera of Economic Importance. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  49. ^ Rictor Norton, Early Eighteenth-Century Newspaper Reports: A Sourcebook, "Getting Rid of Bed-Bugs", 18 November 2001, updated 30 November 2001 <http://grubstreet.rictornorton.co.uk/bedbugs.htm>
  50. ^ Johann Friedrich Wolff and Johann Philip Wolff, Icones Cimicum descriptionibus illustratae, fourth fascicle (1804), p. 127. http://www.archive.org/stream/iconescimicumdes00wolf#page/n163/mode/2up
  51. ^ IPM Practitioner, XXIX(3/4) March/April 2007 http://www.birc.org/MarApril2007.pdf
  52. ^ Journal of Economic Entomology 99(6):2132-2135. 2006: "Encasing Mattresses in Black Plastic Will Not Provide Thermal Control of Bed Bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)" http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/0022-0493%282006%2999%5B2132%3AEMIBPW%5D2.0.CO%3B2?journalCode=ecen
  53. ^ http://www.augustineexterminators.com/galleryDetail.asp?gallery_id=26
  54. ^ Juliano, Michael C., "Dogs don't tlet the bed bugs bite", The Advocate of Stamford, Connecticut, p 1, August 21, 2009
  55. ^ http://www.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/ef636.asp
  56. ^ Szalanski, Allen L., James W. Austin, Jackie A. McKern, C. Dayton Steelman, and Roger E. Gold. 2008.Mitochondrial and Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 Diversity of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 45(2): 229–236link
  57. ^ Austin, James.http://urbanentomology.tamu.edu/bedbugs/bedbugs.cfm. "Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius."2007
  58. ^ Szalanski, Allen L., James W. Austin, Jackie A. McKern, C. Dayton Steelman, Dini M. Miller, and Roger E. Gold. 2007 Isolation and Characterization of Human DNA from Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L., (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Blood Meals. Journal of Agric. Urban Entomology 23(3): 189–194link
  59. ^ Szalanski, A.L, J.W. Austin, J.A. McKern, T. McCoy, C.D. Steelman, and D.M. Miller. 2006. Time course analysis of bed bug, "Cimex lectularius" L., (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) blood meals using PCR. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 23: 237-241

Further reading

  • David Cain, Richard Strand. .Bed Bug Beware: An easy to understand guide to bed bugs, their prevention and control. Loughborough, United Kingdom: Foxhill publishing, March 2009. ISBN 978-0-9562617-0-0
  • Larry Pinto, Richard Cooper, Sandy Kraft.^ Please let me what can I do to prevent the bed bugs.
    • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Document ALL prevention and control in a unit.

    ^ Can I prevent bed bugs with insecticides?

    .Bed Bug Handbook: The Complete Guide to Bed Bugs and Their Control. Mechanicsville, Maryland: Pinto & Associates, December 2007. ISBN 978-0-9788878-1-0
  • Martin Leverkus, Ryan C. Jochim, Susanne Schad et al.^ Kate says: December 11, 2009 at 2:45 pm I am pretty sure I was getting bitten by bed bugs, but have never been able to find anything.
    • Bed Bug Treatment 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.badbedbugs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (Even in the pest controll world bed bugs are widely hated) Good thing is, the co.
    • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Under favorable conditions (70-90F), bed bugs can complete development (from egg to adult) in one two months.
    • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Bullous allergic hypersensitivity to bed bug bites mediated by IgE against salivary nitrophorin.^ I'm not sure if it was bed bug bites any advice ?
    • Sleep Disorders: Unwanted Guests: Bed bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In many cases bed bug bites are mistaken for scabies, chicken pox, dermatological reactions, etc.
    • Bed Bugs 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC prague.njfam.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Even though you may display bed bug bites on your body that occur during the night, this is not a sure sign that a bed bug was the culprit.

    J. Invest. Dermatol. (2006) 126, 91–96.
  • Forsyth, Adrian. A Natural History of Sex: The Ecology and Evolution of Mating Behavior. Richmond Hil mr.l, Ontario: Firefly Books, 2001. ISBN 1-55209-481-2.
  • MacQuitty, Miranda, and Lawrence Mound. Megabugs: The Natural History Museum Book of Insects. .New York: Random House Children's Books, 1995. ISBN 1-898304-37-8, ISBN 1-85868-045-X.
  • Goddard, Jerome A. The Physician’s Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance (second edition).^ W.170th Street New York New York 10032 is infested with bedbugs with violations on record in the city housing authorities website.
    • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I called New York housing, but to no avail.
    • The Bedbug Blog: Known Bedbug Infestations 3 February 2010 14:35 UTC bedbugblog.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8493-5160-X.
  • Forsyth, Adrian. Die Sexualität in der Natur. Vom Egoismus der Gene und ihren unfeinen Strategien. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1991. ISBN 3-423-11331-6.
  • Quammen, David. The Flight of the Iguana: A Sidelong View of Science and Nature. New York: Delacorte Press, 1988. ISBN 0-385-29592-8, ISBN 0-385-26327-9, ISBN 0-684-83626-2. Provides detail about Xylocaris maculipennis.

External links

.

Information from specialized sources

University or colleges

News stories

.

Simple English

Bedbug
File:Bed bug, Cimex
Cimex lectularius
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Heteroptera
Infraorder: Cimicomorpha
Superfamily: Cimicoidea
Family: Cimicidae
Latreille, 1802
Subfamilies, Genera & Species

Subfamily Afrociminae

  • Genus Afrocimex
    • Afrocimex constrictus

Subfamily Cimicinae

  • Genus Bertilia
  • Genus Cimex
    • Cimex adjunctus
    • Cimex antennatus
    • Cimex brevis
    • Cimex columbarius
    • Cimex incrassatus
    • Cimex latipennis
    • Cimex lectularius
    • Cimex hemipterus (C. rotundatus)
    • Cimex pilosellus
    • Cimex pipistrella
  • Genus Oeciacus
    • Oeciacus hirundinis
    • Oeciacus vicarius
  • Genus Paracimex
  • Genus Propicimex

Subfamily Cacodminae

  • Genus Aphrania
  • Genus Cacodomus
  • Genus Crassicimex
  • Genus Leptocimex
    • Leptocimex boueti
  • Genus Loxaspis
  • Genus Stricticimex

Subfamily Haematosiphoninae

  • Genus Caminicimex
  • Genus Cimexopsis
    • Cimexopsis nyctalis
  • Genus Haematosiphon
    • Haematosiphon inodorus
  • Genus Hesperocimex
    • Hesperocimex coloradensis
    • Hesperocimex sonorensis
  • Genus Ornithocoris
    • Ornithocoris pallidus
    • Ornithocoris toledoi
  • Genus Psitticimex
  • Genus Synxenoderus
    • Synxenoderus comosus

Subfamily Latrocimicinae

  • Genus Latrocimex

Subfamily Primicimicinae

  • Genus Bucimex
  • Genus Primicimex
    • Primicimex cavernis

A bedbug (or bed bug) is a small, elusive, parasitic insect of the family Cimicidae. They live by feeding on the blood of humans and other warm-blooded animals.[1] The name 'bed bug' is used as the bug likes to live in houses, and especially in beds or other areas where people may sleep. Bedbugs are mainly active at night and can feed without people noticing. They leave a small itchy bite, like a mosquito.

References

  1. Reinhardt, Klaus; Siva-Jothy, Michael T. (Jan 2007). "Biology of the Bed Bugs (Cimicidae)". Annual Review of Entomology 52: 351–374. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.52.040306.133913. http://www.falw.vu.nl/nl/Images/siva%202006_tcm19-30750.pdf. Retrieved 26 May 2010. 
bjn:Pampijit

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