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"Beggar" redirects here. Distinguish from Begga and Bega.
For the 2009 album by Thrice, see Beggars (album)
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, "Beggar Boys Eating Grapes and Watermelon", (Alte Pinakothek).

Begging (or panhandling) is to request a donation in a supplicating manner. Beggars are commonly found in public places such as street corners or public transport, where they request money, most commonly in the form of spare change. They may use cups, boxes or hats to collect the donations.

Contents

History of begging

In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner

There are few current techniques for begging which have not been used for hundreds of years, or are not based on older techniques, adapted to modern technology. Beggars rarely recorded their techniques, and often used to disguise their own communication. What is known of them is largely from records of law enforcement, penitential or rogue literature. From early modern England the best examples are Thomas Harman, and Robert Greene in his coney-catching pamphlets. There is no reason to suppose that what he recorded was new. There are similar writers for many European countries in the early modern period.

Begging and spirituality

Child beggars on Tonlé Sap in Cambodia, February 2007

In some countries begging is much more tolerated and in certain cases encouraged. In many, perhaps most, traditional religions, it is considered that a person who gives alms to a worthy beggar, such as a spiritual seeker, gains religious merit.

Beggars are a common sight in Malaysia

Many religious orders adhere to a mendicant way of life, including the Catholic mendicant orders, Hindu ascetics, some dervishes of Sufi Islam, and the monastic orders of Buddhism. In the Catholic Church, followers of Saint Francis of Assisi and Saint Dominic became known as mendicants, as they would beg for food while they preached to the villages.

In traditional Christianity, the rich were encouraged to serve the poor.

Beggar in Pune, India, May 2003

In many Hindu traditions, spiritual seekers, known as sadhus, beg for food. This is because fruitive activity, such as farming or shopkeeping, is regarded as a materialistic distraction from the search for moksha, or spiritual liberation. Begging, on the other hand, promotes humility and gratitude, not only towards the individuals who are giving food, but towards the Universe in general. This helps the sadhu attain a state of bliss or samādhi.

In traditional Shaivite Hinduism , old men, having lived a full life as a householder in the world, frequently give up materialistic possessions and become wandering ascetic mendicants (sadhus), spending their last months or years seeking spiritual enlightenment. Villagers gain religious merit by giving food and other necessities to these ascetics.

In Buddhism, monks and nuns traditionally live by begging for alms, as did the historical Gautama Buddha himself. This is, among other reasons, so that lay people can gain religious merit by giving food, medicines, and other essential items to the monks. The monks seldom need to plead for food; in villages and towns throughout modern Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and other Buddhist countries, householders can often be found at dawn every morning streaming down the road to the local temple to give food to the monks. In East Asia, monks and nuns were expected to farm or work for returns to feed themselves up.[1][2][3]

There is also a long traditional of rather less spiritual beggars, in India and elsewhere, who are simply begging as a means to obtain material wealth. Some are even beggars for generations, and continue their family tradition of begging. A few beggars in the subcontinent even have sizable wealth, which they accumulate by "employing" other, newer beggars. They can claim to have territories, and then may engage in verbal and physical abuse of encroaching beggars.[citation needed]

Aggressive panhandling

Panhandler in San Francisco, California.

The definition of so called "Aggressive panhandling" may vary in time and space. In the USA, aggressive panhandling generally involves the solicitation of donations in an intimidating or intrusive manner. Examples may include:

  • Soliciting near ATM banking machines.[4]
  • Soliciting from customers inside a store or restaurant.
  • Placing an item (like a pack of bubble gum) next to a written sob story, offering the item as a gift, and asking for a contribution.
  • Extending the head and both arms, or even the hand, into a car window to solicit.
  • Soliciting after dark.[4]
  • Approaching individuals from behind, as they are exiting their vehicles, to solicit.
  • Soliciting in a loud voice, often accompanied with wild gesticulations.[4]
  • The use of insults, profanity, or veiled threats.
  • Refusing to take "No" for an answer or following an individual.[4]
  • Demanding more money after a donation has been given.
  • Invasion of personal space, cornering, blocking or inappropriate touching.[4]
  • A "team" of several beggars approaching an individual at once, often surrounding the person.
  • "Camping out" in a spot where begging negatively influences some other business (such as in front of a store or restaurant) in the hope that the business owner will give money to make the beggar go away.
  • Use of sales pitch techniques and appeals to emotion.

Restriction of beggars

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Canada

Man begging in Vancouver in 2008.

The province of Ontario introduced its Safe Streets Act in 1999 to restrict specific kinds of begging, particularly certain narrowly-defined cases of "aggressive" or abusive panhandling.[5] In 2001 this law survived a court challenge under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. [6] The law was further upheld by the Court of Appeal for Ontario in January 2007.[7]

One response to the anti-panhandling laws which were passed was the creation of the Ottawa Panhandlers Union which fights for the political rights of panhandlers. The union is a shop of the Industrial Workers of the World.

British Columbia enacted its own Safe Streets Act in 2004 which resembles the Ontario law. There are also critics in that province who oppose such laws.[8]

United States

Panhandler in Oceanside, California
Beggar in front of Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, MN

In many larger cities, such as Chicago, Illinois, panhandling has been banned. In Chicago, there are a number of signs at regular intervals reminding people that peddling is banned. This rarely dissuades the beggar, and the constitutionality of such bans has not been firmly established by case law. In 2004, the city of Orlando, Florida passed an ordinance (Orlando Municipal Code section 43.86) requiring panhandlers to obtain a permit from the municipal police department. The ordinance further makes it a crime to panhandle in the commercial core of downtown Orlando, as well as within 50 feet (15 m) of any bank or automated teller machine. It is also considered a crime in Orlando for panhandlers to make false or untrue statements, or to disguise themselves, to solicit money, and to use money obtained for a claim of a specific purpose (e.g. food) to be spent on anything else (e.g. drugs). The potential for these latter restrictions to be enforced is minimal.

In Santa Cruz, CA, there are regulations for panhandlers on where they can and cannot "Spange". For example, they must be a certain distance away from the door of any business.

In parts of San Francisco, CA, aggressive panhandling is prohibited.[citation needed]

The Atlanta, Georgia, city council approved a ban on panhandling on August 16, 2005, and Mayor Shirley Franklin is expected to sign the ban into law.[citation needed]

However, vagrancy laws, which are sometimes proposed to curb panhandlers, have been outlawed in the US, by and large, since the 1970s. It is not a crime to be poor or "vagrant."[citation needed]

United Kingdom

Begging is illegal under the Vagrancy Act of 1824. However it does not carry a jail sentence and is not well enforced in many cities [9], although since the Act applies in all public places it is enforced more frequently on public transport.

Finland

Begging has been legal in Finland since 1987 when Poor Law was invalidated. In 2003, Public Order Act replaced any local government rules and completely decriminalized begging.[10]

In various nations

Louis Dewis, "The Old Beggar", Bordeaux, France, 1916
Woman begging in Venice, Italy, 2008
"The Man with the Twisted Lip", a beggar playing a major role in a Sherlock Holmes adventure.

Europe

In Europe, women from the poorer countries of the continent are sometimes forced by organized gangs to beg in cities in Western Europe such as Barcelona, the proceeds being collected by the gangs.[11]

Japan

Begging is illegal under the Article 1, 22 of Minor Offense Law. Buddhist monks in Japan may remain in their monasteries, only appearing in public when begging for alms.[12] Otherwise, street begging is generally not practiced, even by that nation's estimated 24,000 homeless people.[13]

Use of funds

A common criticism of beggars is that they spend money received on irresponsible or unnecessary items, particularly on drugs, alcohol or tobacco. This is often stated as a reason for not giving money to panhandlers. Also, in many communities in developed countries, various state and private charitable social services may be available such as welfare, soup kitchens and homeless shelters that may reduce any survival need for begging.

A 2002 study of 54 panhandlers in Toronto reported that of a median monthly income of $638 Canadian dollars (CAD), those interviewed spent a median of $200 CAD on food and $192 CAD on alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs, according to Income and spending patterns among panhandlers, by Rohit Bose and Stephen W. Hwang.[14] The Fraser Institute criticized this study citing problems with potential exclusion of lucrative forms of begging and the unreliability of reports from the panhandlers who were polled in the Bose/Hwang study.[15]

In North America, panhandling money is widely reported to support substance abuse and other addictions. For example, outreach workers in downtown Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, surveyed that city's panhandling community and determined that approximately three-quarters use donated money to buy tobacco products while two-thirds buy solvents or alcohol.[16] In Midtown Manhattan, one outreach worker anecdotally commented to the New York Times that substance abuse accounts for 90 percent of panhandling funds.[17]

Because of this, some advise those wishing to give to beggars to give gift cards or vouchers for food or services, and not cash.[18][16] Some shelters also offer business cards with information on the shelter's location and services, which can be given in lieu of cash.[19]

Begging on the Internet

Begging like other activities has also adapted to the net taking on an "e-panhandling" role. Instead of begging on the streets, cyber panhandlers set up a website where they "beg" for money. Later variants tried to request money for their personal needs that were beyond their financial ability with some success. Begging has also become commonplace in the chatrooms of various gambling and poker websites. In poker sites, one will frequently see someone claiming that they are so good at the game that if someone lends $10, that it will be back to the lender with interest in a very short period of time. These may be desperate gaming addicts who have run dry, or they may not gamble at all and simply withdraw the money for their own use. Players of online games may beg for in-game currency, such as Gold in MMOs or Lindens in Second Life, which can be converted to real world currency.

Notable beggars

See also

References

  1. ^ 農禪vs商禪
  2. ^ 僧俗
  3. ^ 鐵鞋踏破心無礙 濁汗成泥意志堅——記山東博山正覺寺仁達法師
  4. ^ a b c d e Johnny Johnson (November 3, 2008), In tough times, panhandling may increase in Oklahoma City, The Oklahoman, http://newsok.com/in-tough-times-panhandling-may-increase-in-oklahoma-city/article/3318618 
  5. ^ "Safe Streets Act". Government of Ontario. 1999. http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/DBLaws/Statutes/English/99s08_e.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  6. ^ "'Squeegee kids' law upheld in Ontario". CBC News. 2001-08-03. http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2001/08/03/squeegee_010803.html. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  7. ^ "Squeegee panhandling washed out by Ontario Appeal Court". CBC News. 2007-01-17. http://www.cbc.ca/news/story/2007/01/17/tor-squeegee.html. Retrieved 2007-03-19. 
  8. ^ "Police chief welcomes Safe Streets Act". CBC News. 2004-10-26. http://www.cbc.ca/bc/story/bc_graham20041026.html. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  9. ^ Beggar ban may spark nationwide crackdown, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1439443/Beggar-ban-may-spark-nationwide-crackdown.html 
  10. ^ Authorities powerless to act against beggars with children in tow, Helsingin Sanomat, http://www.hs.fi/english/article/Authorities+powerless+to+act+against+beggars+with+children+in+tow+/1135229326508 
  11. ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2006-03-08). "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2005 (Romania)". U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61641.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  12. ^ "The Zen - Teaching of Mu". Japan National Tourist Organisation. http://www.jnto.go.jp/eng/indepth/featuredarticles/kie/zen/kie_zen_01.html. Retrieved 2008-07-27. 
  13. ^ Scanlon, Charles (26 April 2002). "Japan's homeless demand help". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1953023.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-27. 
  14. ^ Bose, Rohit and Hwang, Stephen W. (2002-09-03). "Income and spending patterns among panhandlers". Canadian Medical Association Journal. pp. 167(5): 477–479. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=121964. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  15. ^ "Begging for Data". Canstats. 3 September 2002. http://www.fraserinstitute.ca/canstats/readdetail.asp?id=406. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  16. ^ a b ""Change for the Better" fact sheet" (PDF). Downtown Winnipeg Biz. http://www.downtownwinnipegbiz.com/inc/app/winnipegbiz/data/CFTB_factsheet.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  17. ^ Tierney, John (1999-12-04). "The Big City; The Handout That's No Help To the Needy". The New York Times. p. B1. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10D11FF3E5A0C778CDDAB0994D1494D81. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  18. ^ "Real Change, not Spare Change". Portland Business Alliance. http://www.portlandalliance.com/downtown_services/real-change.html. Retrieved 2006-09-30. 
  19. ^ Peace Studies Program. "Homelessness Contact Cards". George Washington University. http://www.gwu.edu/~peace_st/homelessness.html. Retrieved 2006-09-30. 

Further material


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BEGGAR, one who begs, particularly one who gains his living by asking the charitable contributions of others. The word, with the verbal form "to beg," in Middle English beggen, is of obscure history. The words appear first in English in the 13th century, and were early connected with "bag," with reference to the receptacle for alms carried by the beggars. The most probable derivation of the word, and that now generally accepted, is that it is a corruption of the name of the lay communities known as Beguines and Beghards, which, shortly after their establishment, followed the friars in the practice of mendicancy (see Beguines). It has been suggested, however, that the origin of "beg" and "beggars" is to be found in a rare Old English word, bedecian, of the same meaning, which is apparently connected with the Gothic bidjan, cf. German betteln; but between the occurrence of bedecian at the end of the 9th century and the appearance of "beggar" and "beg" in the 13th, there is a blank, and no explanation can be given of the great change in form. For the English law relating to begging and its history, see Charity, Poor Law and Vagrancy.


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Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


Although it has made ample provision for the relief of the poor, the Mosaic legislation does not contain any prescription with regard to beggars; nor has the Biblical Hebrew a specific term for professional beggary, the nearest expression being "to ask [or seek] bread" and "to wander" (see below). Wherever the Bible commends charity, or even "gifts" to the needy (Est 9:22), it does not mean such as are urged by an intruding or supplicating mendicant, but such charitable deeds as are practised spontaneously by the giver—whenever there is a need for them. Thus the Bible praises a worthy woman with the words: "She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy" (Prov 31:20; compare Deut 15:7; Isa 58:7).

Contents

Unknown to the Bible.

This omission of all care for beggars wandering from door to door is not without reason, but lies in the very nature of the Mosaic law. The distribution of the Holy Land among all the children of Israel in equal parts corresponding to the number of the members of each family; the manifold provisions for the relief of families or individuals impoverished by misfortune or disease; the strict prohibition of every kind of usury; the cancellation of all debts in the sabbatical year; the restoration of all the destitute landowners to their former estate at the recurrence of the jubilee year; and, finally, the provision that a poor Hebrew who sold himself to his wealthier brother should serve him until the jubilee only, without becoming deprived of his citizenship, and that his master was forbidden to treat him as a slave (Lev 25:39 et seq.)—all these laws, as far as actually practised, must have rendered the existence of beggars quite impossible.

In somewhat later times, however, with the development of larger cities, begging seems to have been known to the Jews, either as occurring among them or among neighboring nations. This may be inferred from Ps 10910, where the children of the wicked are cursed with beggary in contradistinction to the children of the righteous, who will never have to seek bread (Ps 3725; for the Hebrew expression corresponding to "begging," compare Ps 5916 and cix. 10).

In the Apocrypha and N. T.

The first clear denunciation of beggary and almstaking is found in Ecclus. (Sirach) xl. 28-30, where the Hebrew word for "begging" (according to the edition of Cowley and Neubauer, Oxford, 1897) is as in Ps 10910 (compare Ecclus. [Sirach] xxix. 23 et seq.). Here, as well as in Tobit, and especially in the New Testament, where beggars are frequently mentioned (Mk 10:46; Jn 9:8; Acts 3:2, 3), the word ἐλεημοσύνη has already assumed the specialized sense of alms given to begging poor (Tob 4:7, 11, 16, 17; xii. 8-11; Ecclus. [Sirach] iii. 14, 30, 33; vii. 10-12; xvi. 14; xxix. 11-13; xxxi. 11; Mt 6:2-4; Lk 11:41; xii. 33; Acts 9:36; x. 2, 4, 31; xxiv. 17).

Women Did Not Beg.

The existence of house-to-house begging in Mishnaic and Talmudic times may be inferred from Peah viii. 7; Shab. 1. 1, 151b; Meg. 15b (with this passage compare Targ. Esth. ix. 14); Ket. xiii. 3; B. B. 9a; and Sifre, Deut. 116. By these passages, however, it can not be decided with certainty whether there were only itinerant mendicants, or also resident beggars. The expression used in Peah viii. 7, "'ani ha'ober mi-maḳom le-maḳom," probably alludes to the first class, while the other terms, "maḥazir 'al hapetaḥim" and the Aramaic "ahadore appitḥa" may include both classes. Women did not beg from house to house. The support of a needy woman was, therefore, thought preferable to that of a needy man (Hor. iii. 7; Maimonides, "Yad," Mattenot 'Aniyim, viii. 15; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 251, 8). Professional beggars were a despised class; and it was forbidden to support them from the general charity fund with more than small alms (B. B. 9a; see Rashi on the passage; Yoreh De'ah, 250, 3, and the annotations of Shabbethai Cohen, according to which private benefactors may also observe the same rule). But it was also forbidden to drive a beggar away without giving him any alms (B. B. l.c.; Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah, l.c. vii. 7). Non-Jewish beggars were also recommended for support with food and garments (Tosef., Giṭ. v. [iii.] 4; Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah, l.c., vii. 7; Yoreh De'ah, 251, 1, gloss); but Jews were prohibited from receiving alms publicly from non-Jews, unless they were in danger of life (Sanh. 26b, see Rashi; Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah, l.c. viii. 9; Yoreh De'ah, 254, 1). Allusion is also made to a class of professional mendicants who feigned diseases or deformities in order to attract the sympathetic notice of passers-by. Such beggars were looked upon with contempt and aversion (Peah viii. 9; Tosef., Peah, iv. 14; Yer. Peah vii. 21b; Ket. 68a). Among the Samaritans there were many professional beggars, and the Midrash (Lev. R. v. 8; Midr. Teh. xix.) describes in a very amusing way the methods of these Samaritan mendicants.

Post-Talmudic Times.

To what extent begging was practised among the Jews of post-Talmudic times up to the eleventh century, is a question which can not be decided with certainty, since Hebrew sources of this period of Jewish history are very scanty. Judging from the undoubted fact that one of the chief forms that Jewish charity assumed was to discountenance begging from door to door, it is almost certain that before the period of the ghetto, and especially in smaller towns, there were no Jewish beggars at all (Abrahams, "Jewish Life in the Middle Ages," p. 309, Philadelphia, 1896).

The fact that the Jews formed distinct communities in the midst of contemptuously indifferent oractively hostile environments, caused them to draw closer to one another, and tended to soften and bridge over the differences of poverty and position. Hence in most Jewish communities before the thirteenth century, though the inroad of itinerant mendicants was a grievous burden on Jewish benevolence, the number of settled, resident beggars was very small (ib.).

Ghetto Age.

This was changed with the beginning of the ghetto age, when Jews were restricted to certain streets or quarters. Within the ghetto the Jews formed one large family, and house-to-house begging was carried on without publicity. Thus the system received a new impetus in the ghetto centuries, and reestablished itself in Jewish life. But the begging was restricted to Fridays and the middle days of festivals (Vogelstein-Rieger, "Gesch. der Juden in Rom," ii. 315). Begging in the streets of the ghetto or in front of the synagogue was, however, sternly forbidden (Berliner, "Gesch. der Juden in Rom," ii. 2, 56 et seq.). The system of house-to-house begging was occasionally favored by wealthier Jews, but the ordinary middle class were opposed to it; and their view carried the day (Yoreh. De'ah, 250, 5).

Seventeenth Century Onward.

In the seventeenth century the system was revived; and especially on Fridays and on the eves of festivals the Jewish poor went about from house to house gathering alms. In modern Jewish life this system became a full-grown abuse; and irrepressible crowds of pushing beggars assembled about the synagogue doors (Abrahams, l.c., p. 310). To-day the Jewish beggar, the so-called "schnorrer," is a persistent and troublesome figure in modern Jewish society.

As another kind of begging must be regarded the collections made for the Jewish settlers in Palestine. See also Alms, Charity, Ḥaluḳḳah, Russia, and Schnorrer.

Bibliography: Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah, Mattanot 'Aniyim; Ṭur, Yoreh, De'ah; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, Ẓedaḳah; F. D. Michaelis, Mosaisches Recht, ii. § 142; Jos. L. Saalschütz, Archäologie der Hebräer, ii. ch. lxviii., lxx., Königsberg, 1855-56; Hamburger, Realencyklopädie, i., under Almosen, Arme, Armenfürsorge; Riehm, Handwörterbuch zu den Büchern des A. T., s.v. Almosen; Hastings, Dict. Bible, and Cheyne and Black, Encyc. Biblica, under Alms; Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, ch. xvii., xviii., Philadelphia, 1896.

This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.
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