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Beirut
بيروت Bayrūt
Beyrouth (French)

Seal
Beirut is located in Lebanon
Beirut
Location in Lebanon. The surrounding district can be seen on the map.
Coordinates: 33°53′13″N 35°30′47″E / 33.88694°N 35.51306°E / 33.88694; 35.51306
Country  Lebanon
Governorate Beirut, Capital City
Government
 - Mayor Abdel Mounim Ariss[1]
Area
 - City 85 km2 (32.82 sq mi)
Population (2009)
 - City 1 300 000
 Metro ~ 2 600 000
Time zone +2
 - Summer (DST) +3 (UTC)
Website City of Beirut
.Beirut (Arabic: بيروت‎, Bayrūt) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon with a population of over 2.1 million as of 2007. Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's coastline with the Mediterranean sea, it serves as the country's largest and main seaport and also forms the Beirut Metropolitan Area, which consists of the city and its suburbs.^ And so began Lebanon's plunge into the hell of civil war that pulverized the city center to powder and carved the rest of Beirut (and the rest of the country) into besieged ethnic cantons ruled by militias.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Lebanon’s tragedy is that instead of creating The Greater Beirut, we came up with The Greater Mount Lebanon...Lebanon’s tragedy was that the city was never able to impose its political role, and that instead, the old rivalries of the mountain took over the life of the country.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

.The first mention of this metropolis is found in the ancient Egyptian Tell el Amarna letters, dating to the 15th century BC, and the city has been continuously inhabited since.^ Interestingly, the remains of a tiny Christian church dating back to around the first century, really just a prayer room in somebody's house, were recently found near Megiddo (the biblical Armeggedon).
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

Beirut holds Lebanon's seat of government and plays a central role in the Lebanese economy with its city centre, Hamra, Verdun, and Ashrafieh based corporate firms and banks. The city is the focal point of the region's cultural life, renowned for its press, theatres, cultural activities, and nightlife. .After the destructive Lebanese civil war, Beirut underwent major reconstruction,[2][3][4] and the redesigned historic city centre, marina, pubs and nightlife districts have once again rendered it a tourist attraction.^ And many more besides during the Lebanese Civil War.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And so began Lebanon's plunge into the hell of civil war that pulverized the city center to powder and carved the rest of Beirut (and the rest of the country) into besieged ethnic cantons ruled by militias.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

.Beirut was named the top place to visit in 2009 by the New York Times.^ The World Clock – current times around the world Fixed Time Calculator – If it's 3 pm in New York, what time is it in the rest of the world?
  • The World Clock – Time Zone Converter 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

^ The World Clock – current times around the world Time Zone Converter – If it's 3 pm in New York, what time is it in Sydney?
  • International Dialing/Area codes calculator 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

^ Fixed Time Calculator – If it's 3 pm in New York, what time is it in the rest of the world?
  • International Dialing/Area codes calculator 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

[5] It was also listed as one of the ten liveliest cities in the world by Lonely Planet in 2009.[6]

Contents

History

.Beirut's history goes back more than 5000 years.^ A Lebanese-American historian based in West Beirut told me that Hezbollah is better armed and more militarily powerful than the Lebanese army.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

[7][8] Excavations in the downtown area have unearthed layers of Phoenician, Hellenistic, Roman, Arab and Ottoman remains.[9] The first historical reference to Beirut dates from the 14th century BC, when it is mentioned in the cuneiform[8] tablets of the "Amarna letters." Ammunira of Biruta[10] (Beirut) sent three letters to the pharaoh of Egypt.[11] Biruta is also referenced in the letters from Rib-Hadda of Byblos. The most ancient settlement was on an island in the river that progressively silted up. The city was known in antiquity as Berytus (Βηρυτός) (see also List of traditional Greek place names); this name was taken in 1934 for the archaeological journal published by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at the American University of Beirut.[12]

Hellenistic/Roman period

In 140 BC, the city was destroyed by Diodotus Tryphon in his contest with Antiochus VII Sidetes for the throne of the Seleucid monarchy. Beirut was soon rebuilt on a more regularized Hellenistic plan, renamed Laodicea in Phoenicia (Greek: Λαοδικεια ή του Φοινίκη) or Laodicea in Canaan, in honor of a Seleucid Laodice. .The modern city overlies the ancient one and little archaeology had been accomplished until after the end of the civil war in 1991; now large sites in the devastated city center have been opened to archaeological exploration.^ In 1991, he told me, the city looked like Rotterdam after World War II had gone to work on it.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pulse of Freedom '05 site includes information about the history of Lebanon, the civil war, Syrian rule, and the current political crisis.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And so began Lebanon's plunge into the hell of civil war that pulverized the city center to powder and carved the rest of Beirut (and the rest of the country) into besieged ethnic cantons ruled by militias.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

A dig in 1994 established that one of Beirut's modern streets, Souk Tawile, still follows the lines of an ancient Hellenistic and Roman one.
Mid-first century coins of Berytus bear the head of Tyche, goddess of fortune; on the reverse, the city's symbol appears: a dolphin entwines an anchor. This symbol was taken up by the early printer Aldus Manutius in 15th century Venice. Beirut was conquered by Agrippa in 64 BC and the city was renamed in honor of the emperor's daughter, Julia; its full name became Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus.[13][14][15] The veterans of two Roman legions were established in the city: the fifth Macedonian and the third Gallic. The city quickly became Romanized. Large public buildings and monuments were erected and Berytus enjoyed full status as a part of the empire.[13]
Under the Romans, it was enriched by the dynasty of Herod the Great, and was made a colonia, Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus, in 14 BC. Beirut's school of law was widely known at the time.[16] Two of Rome's most famous jurists, Papinian and Ulpian, both natives of Phoenicia, taught at the law school under the Severan emperors. When Justinian assembled his Pandects in the 6th century, a large part of the corpus of laws were derived from these two jurists, and Justinian recognized the school as one of the three official law schools of the empire (533). Within a few years, as the result of a disastrous earthquake (551),[8][13][17] the students were transferred to Sidon.[18] About 30,000 were killed in Berytus alone and, along the Phoenician coast, total casualties were close to 250,000.[14]
View of Beirut with snow-capped Mount Sannine in the background – 19th century

Middle Ages

Beirut passed to the Arabs in 635.[14][19] As a trading centre of the eastern Mediterranean, Beirut was overshadowed by Akka during the Middle Ages. From 1110 to 1291 it was in the hands of the Crusaders Kingdom of Jerusalem. John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut (1179–1236) rebuilt the city after the battles with Saladin, and also built the Ibelin family palace in Beirut.[19]

Ottoman rule

Beirut was controlled by local Druze emirs throughout the Ottoman period.[20] One of these, Fakr ed-Din Maan II, fortified it early in the 17th century,[21] but the Ottomans retook it in 1763.[21] With the help of Damascus, Beirut successfully broke Akka's monopoly on Syrian maritime trade and for a few years supplanted it as the main trading centre in the region. .During the succeeding epoch of rebellion against Ottoman hegemony at Akka under Jezzar and Abdullah pashas, Beirut declined to a small town (population about 10,000), and was an object of contention between the Ottomans, the local Druze, and the Mamluks.^ Estimates are that about 35-40,000 Christian Palestinians (roughly 35% of the total population pre 1948) fled as refugees.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

After Ibrahim Pasha captured Akka in 1832,[22] Beirut began its revival.
View of Beirut's Grand Serail- circa 1930
By the second half of the nineteenth century, Beirut was in the process of developing close commercial and political ties with European imperial powers, France in particular. .European interests in Lebanese silk and other export products transformed the city into a major port and commercial center.^ Groups of families and friends marched into the city center waving Lebanon's national cedar tree flag.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ You don't have to be a journalist, an activist, or even a Lebanese to get into the Freedom Camp tent-city.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

Meanwhile, Ottoman power in the region continued to decline. Sectarian and religious conflicts, power vacuums, and changes in the political dynamics of the region culminated in the 1860 Lebanon conflict. .Beirut became a destination for Maronite Christian refugees fleeing from the worst areas of the fighting on Mount Lebanon and in Damascus.^ If they're right about this - and I have little reason to believe that they aren't - it's a good first step toward forging Greater Beirut from the Greater Mount Lebanon.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

[23] .This in turn altered the ethnic composition of Beirut itself, sowing the seeds of future ethnic and religious troubles there and in greater Lebanon.^ If they're right about this - and I have little reason to believe that they aren't - it's a good first step toward forging Greater Beirut from the Greater Mount Lebanon.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

However, Beirut was able to prosper in the meantime. This was again a product of European intervention, and also a general realization amongst the city's residents that commerce, trade, and prosperity depended on domestic stability.[24]
In 1888, Beirut was made capital of a vilayet in Syria,[25] including the sanjaks Latakia, Tripoli, Beirut, Akka and Bekaa.[26] By this time, Beirut had grown into a very cosmopolitan city, and had close links with Europe and the United States. Beirut also became a centre of missionary activity that spawned impressive educational institutions, such as the American University of Beirut. Provided with water from a British company and gas from a French one, silk exports to Europe came to dominate the local economy. After French engineers established a modern harbor (1894) and a rail link across Lebanon to Damascus, and then to Aleppo (1907), much of the trade was carried by French ships to Marseille. French influence in the area soon exceeded that of any other European power. In 1911, the population mix was reported in the Encyclopædia Britannica as Muslims, 36,000; Christians, 77,000; Jews, 2500; Druze, 400; foreigners, 4100.
An aerial panoramic view of Beirut sometime in the last third of the 19th century

Modern era

.After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire following World War I Beirut, along with the rest of Lebanon, was placed under the French Mandate.^ And so began Lebanon's plunge into the hell of civil war that pulverized the city center to powder and carved the rest of Beirut (and the rest of the country) into besieged ethnic cantons ruled by militias.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lebanon may be the only place in the world where you can buy a necklace with a Christian cross and a Muslim crescent moon fused together as one.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Beirut may not be the only place in the world where you can find a church and a mosque right next to each other.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

After Lebanon achieved independence in 1943, Beirut became its capital city. It remained an intellectual capital of the Arab world and quickly became a financial center for much of the Arab world and major tourist destination. .This era of relative prosperity ended in 1975 when the Lebanese Civil War broke out throughout the country.^ And many more besides during the Lebanese Civil War.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have followed with great sympathy how the Lebanese, scarred by fifteen years of bloody civil war and post-war troubles, have set out to peacefully work for their country’s freedom and independence.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

[27][28] .During most of the war, Beirut was divided between a Muslim west part and the Christian east.^ They were, for the most part, terrified children during the war.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During the war we Christians and Druze fought each other.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Christians and Sunni Muslims never dare set foot inside.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

[29] The downtown area, previously the home of much of the city's commercial and cultural activities, became a no man's land known as the "Green Line." Many inhabitants fled to other countries. Thousands of others were killed throughout the war, and much of the city was devastated. .A particularly destructive period was the 1982 Israeli invasion, during which most of West Beirut was under siege by Israeli troops.^ His 1982 act at the wimpy cafe, where this poster stood, kicked off the Lebanese resistance to the Israeli occupation of Beirut.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most people who live in West Beirut -- the section of town taken over by the SSNP and Hezbollah -- mostly belong to the Sunni community.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by: Liason at February 26, 2009 1:07 PM Michael, At the time of the attack, did you or Hitchens realize that this sign commemorates a legendary event during the Israeli invasion of Beirut?
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1983, French and U.S. barracks were bombed.[30][31][32]
.Since the end of the war in 1990, the people of Lebanon have been rebuilding Beirut, and by the start of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict the city had somewhat regained its status as a tourist, cultural, and intellectual center in the Middle East, as well as a center for commerce, fashion, and media.^ I am concerned that there might be people who, like me, are confused about nominal Christians siding with people like Arafat and the SSNP. Are they representative of Christians in the Middle East?
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is an assumption among the not-very-well-informed that Jews and Christians are the good guys in the Middle East and that Muslims are the bad guys.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lebanon's civil war drew in four foreign powers: Syria, Iran, Israel, and the United States.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

.Reconstruction of downtown Beirut has been largely driven by Solidere, a development company established in 1994 by Rafik Hariri.^ We had just attended a massive rally downtown commemorating the fourth anniversary of the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rafik Hariri is buried in downtown Beirut, at the foot of the steps of the Khatem Al Anbiyaa Mosque and across the street from the democratic dissidents' tent-city on Martyr's Square.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Bahia Hariri, sister of the assasinated Rafik Hariri, teamed up with Nora Jumblatt, wife of famed Druse leader Walid Jumblatt, to kick off the National Unity Initiative festival in downtown Beirut.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

.Beirut is home to the international designer Elie Saab, jeweler Robert Moawad, and to some popular satellite television stations, such as LBC, Future TV, New TV and others.^ An SSNP fighter throws a molotov cocktail at Saad Hariri’s Future TV station during the fighting in May 2008.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A TV in the corner with the sound turned off showed a live news broadcast from downtown Beirut.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

The city was host to the Asian Club Basketball Championship and the Asian Football Cup. Beirut also successfully hosted the Miss Europe pageant eight times, 1960–1964, 1999, 2001–2002.
.The 2005 assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri near the Saint George Bay in Beirut shook the entire country.^ A Lebanese colleague told me he was brutally assaulted merely for filming the crew taking down the SSNP flags as the prime minister ordered.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We had just attended a massive rally downtown commemorating the fourth anniversary of the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The tragic death of your former Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri, a patriot and statesman whom I knew and respected, was not in vain.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

[33][34] Approximately one million people gathered for an opposition rally in Beirut, a month after the death of Hariri.[35][36] .The "Cedar Revolution" was the largest rally in Lebanon's history at that time.^ Jim Hake and Michael Totten met with Samir the first day that they were in Lebanon to support the Cedar Revolution and lend the support of SoA to that cause.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

[37] .The last Syrian troops withdrew from Beirut on 26 April 2005.[38] The two countries established diplomatic relations on 15 October 2008.[39] During the 2006 Lebanon War, however, Israeli bombardments seeking Hezbollah targets damaged the infrastructure of Beirut, especially the poorer and largely Shiite South Beirut, which is controlled by Hezbollah.^ He visited Lebanon during the war and immediately after.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by: Liason at February 26, 2009 1:07 PM Michael, At the time of the attack, did you or Hitchens realize that this sign commemorates a legendary event during the Israeli invasion of Beirut?
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Search this site: Archives September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 December 2008 November 2008 October 2008 September 2008 August 2008 July 2008 June 2008 May 2008 April 2008 March 2008 February 2008 January 2008 December 2007 November 2007 October 2007 September 2007 August 2007 July 2007 June 2007 May 2007 April 2007 March 2007 February 2007 January 2007 December 2006 November 2006 October 2006 September 2006 August 2006 July 2006 June 2006 May 2006 April 2006 March 2006 February 2006 January 2006 December 2005 November 2005 October 2005 September 2005 August 2005 July 2005 June 2005 May 2005 April 2005 March 2005 February 2005 January 2005 December 2004 November 2004 October 2004 September 2004 August 2004 July 2004 June 2004 May 2004 April 2004 March 2004 February 2004 January 2004 December 2003 November 2003 October 2003 September 2003 August 2003 July 2003 North American, European, and Australian Blogs .
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.In May 2008, violent clashes broke out in Beirut, after the government decided to disband Hezbollah's network of communications (which it later rescinded), between the government allies that were relocated in the capital and the forces of the opposition briefly before handing it over to the control of the Lebanese Army.^ Those SSNPers wrecking havoc in Beirut in May 2008 were mostly Sunnis themselves.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Lebanese-American historian based in West Beirut told me that Hezbollah is better armed and more militarily powerful than the Lebanese army.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When Hezbollah violently seized West Beirut last May,” I said, “the Syrian Social Nationalist Party followed them in.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

In the aftermath of these events, all clashing parties traveled to the Qatari capital, Doha, in a national dialogue conference after an invitation from the prince of the country. On the conclusion of the meeting, many decisions were reached, the appointing of a new president of the country, and the establishment of a new national government with all political adversaries involved in. As a result the opposition's camp in the capital was removed, which is underlined in the Doha Agreement.

Geography

Pigeons' Rock (Raouché)
Beirut seen from SPOT satellite
Beirut is positioned on a peninsula extending westward into the Mediterranean Sea,[40] about 94 km (58 mi) north of the Lebanon-Israel border.[41] The city is flanked by the Lebanon mountains; it has taken on a triangular shape, largely influenced by its situation between and atop two hills: Al-Ashrafieh and Al-Musaytibah. The Beirut Governorate area is of 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi), and the city's metropolitan area is of 67 square kilometres (26 sq mi).[40] .Beirut's coast is rather diverse; rocky beaches, sandy shores, and cliffs are situated beside one another.^ Post-script: Adventures like this one aren’t exactly part of my job, but I’d rather not get roughed up in Beirut for free.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

Climate

Beirut has a Mediterranean climate characterized by a hot and rain-free summer, pleasant fall and spring, and cool, rainy winter. August is the hottest month of the year with a monthly average high temperature of 29 °C (84 °F), and January and February are the coldest months with a monthly average low temperature of 10 °C (50 °F). During the afternoon and evening the prevailing wind direction is from the west, i.e., onshore, or inland from the Mediterranean Sea; at night the wind direction reverses to offshore, i.e., blowing from the land out to the sea.
The average annual rainfall is 860 millimetres (34.1 inches), virtually all of which falls in winter, autumn and spring. Much of the rain in autumn and spring falls on a limited number of days in heavy downpours. In winter, however, the rain is more evenly spread over a large number of days. Summer receives very little (if any) rainfall. Snow in Beirut is rare and usually occurs without accumulation. However, hail and sleet can occur quite frequently in winter. Exceptions are 3 big snowstorms that occurred in 1920, 1942 and 1950.
Climate data for Beirut
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 16
(57)
16
(60)
18
(64)
21
(70)
24
(76)
27
(80)
30
(86)
32
(89)
28
(82)
25
(77)
21
(69)
17
(61)
24
(75)
Average low °C (°F) 10
(50)
9
(49)
12
(52)
14
(58)
18
(63)
21
(69)
23
(74)
24
(75)
22
(72)
20
(68)
15
(59)
11
(51)
17
(62)
Precipitation cm (inches) 18
(7.4)
15
(6.0)
9
(3.8)
5.1
(2.0)
1.7
(0.7)
0.25
(0.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.5
(0.2)
4
(1.9)
12
(4.7)
17
(6.9)
86
(34.1)
Source: Weatherbase[42] 2009

Quarters and sectors

Beirut is divided into 12 municipality recognized quarters (quartiers):[43]
  • Achrafieh
  • Dar el-Mreisse
  • Bachoura
  • Mazraa
  • Medawar
  • Minet El Hosn
  • Moussaitbeh
  • Port Beirut
  • Ras Beirut
  • Rmeil
  • Saifi
  • Zoukak el-Blat
These quarters are divided into sectors (secteurs).[44]
Three of the twelve official Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon are located in Beirut: Burj el-Barajneh, Shatila and Mar Elias refugee camp, all located in the south of the city.[45] Of the fifteen unregistered or unofficial refugee camps, Sabra, which lies adjacent to Shatila, is also located in Beirut.[46]

Demographics

There are wide-ranging estimates of Beirut's population, from as low as 938,940 people,[47] to 1,303,129 people,[48] to as high as 2,012,000.[49] The lack of an exact figure is due to the fact that no population census has been taken in Lebanon since 1932.[50]
A mosque and church side by side
.Beirut is the most religiously diverse city of Lebanon and all of the Middle East,[51] with Christians, and Muslims both having a significant presence.^ Are the Christians in the SSNP representative of Christians in the middle east?
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am concerned that there might be people who, like me, are confused about nominal Christians siding with people like Arafat and the SSNP. Are they representative of Christians in the Middle East?
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fuck all those religious groups who've hijacked Middle Eastern cultures.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are nine major religious communities in Beirut (Sunni Muslim, Shiite Muslim, Druze, Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Armenian Apostolic, Armenian Catholic, and Protestant).^ They were founded by a Greek Orthodox philosophist named Antun Saadeh, and while many supporters are Greek Orthodox, they have many supporters who are also Shi'ite Muslims, Druze, Sunni Muslims, and Maronite Catholics.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most people who live in West Beirut -- the section of town taken over by the SSNP and Hezbollah -- mostly belong to the Sunni community.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Greek Orthodox are the largest sect in the SSNP. But the Muslim membership in the SSNP is also pretty big.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

Family matters such as marriage, divorce and inheritance are still handled by the religious authorities representing a person's faith. Calls for civil marriage are unanimously rejected by the religious authorities but civil marriages held in another country are recognized by Lebanese civil authorities. Until the mid-20th century, Beirut was also home to a Jewish community, in the Wadi Abu Jamil neighbourhood in the Bab Idriss sector of Zokak el-Blat.
Before the civil war the neighborhoods of Beirut were fairly heterogeneous, but they have become largely segregated by religion since the conflict. .East Beirut is characterized by a largely Christian population, with a small Sunni Muslim minority.^ And then a very small minority of Lebanese are pro-Israel, mostly ultra-right-wing Christians who are more conservative than the Phalange and Lebanese Forces are.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, West Beirut is categorized by a Muslim majority, primarily Sunni, with small communities of Shi'ites, Druze, and Christians.^ They were founded by a Greek Orthodox philosophist named Antun Saadeh, and while many supporters are Greek Orthodox, they have many supporters who are also Shi'ite Muslims, Druze, Sunni Muslims, and Maronite Catholics.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most people who live in West Beirut -- the section of town taken over by the SSNP and Hezbollah -- mostly belong to the Sunni community.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since the end of the civil war, East and West Beirut have begun to see an increase in Sunni Muslims and Christians moving into each half.^ There is an assumption among the not-very-well-informed that Jews and Christians are the good guys in the Middle East and that Muslims are the bad guys.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most people who live in West Beirut -- the section of town taken over by the SSNP and Hezbollah -- mostly belong to the Sunni community.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of its members are Orthodox Christians while most West Beirutis are Sunnis.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.Beirut's southern suburbs are largely populated by Shi'ite Muslims, while Beirut's Eastern suburbs are largely Christian.^ They were founded by a Greek Orthodox philosophist named Antun Saadeh, and while many supporters are Greek Orthodox, they have many supporters who are also Shi'ite Muslims, Druze, Sunni Muslims, and Maronite Catholics.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

Northern Beirut has had and continues to have a large Lebanese Protestant community since the 19th century.

Economy

Middle East Airlines has its head office in Beirut.[52]

Government

The capital Beirut is the seat of the Lebanese Parliament[53] and of the government,[54] and encompasses all the Ministries, most of the public administrations, embassies and consulates.[55] .Beirut is one of six mohafazat (state governorates; mohafazah, singular), with the others being Beqaa, North Lebanon, South Lebanon, Mount Lebanon and Nabatiye.^ If the SSNP found out where we were staying, every single one of us would have to move to the other side of Beirut.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

[56]
Facade of the Beirut City Hall
Lebanese Parliament
United Nations headquarters in Beirut.
Governors of Beirut[57]
Name Took office Left office
1 Kamel Abbas Hamieh 1936 1941
2 Nicolas Rizk 1946 1952
3 George Assi 1952 1956
4 Bachour Haddad 1956 1958
5 Philip Boulos 1959 1960
6 Emile Yanni 1960 1967
7 Chafik Abou Haydar 1967 1977
8 Mitri El Nammar 1977 1987
9 George Smaha 1987 1991
10 Nayef Al Maaloof 1992 1995
11 Nicolas Saba 1995 1999
12 Yaacoub Sarraf 1999 2005
13 Nassif Kaloosh 2005

International organizations

The city is home to numerous international organizations. The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) is headquartered in Downtown Beirut[58][59] while the International Labour Organization (ILO)[60] and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)[61] both have regional offices in Beirut covering the Arab world. The Arab Air Carriers Organization (AACO) is also headquartered in Beirut.[62]

Education

Higher education in Beirut, and all over Lebanon, is provided by technical and vocational institutes, university colleges, university institutes and universities. Among these numbers of institutions nationwide, the Lebanese University is the only public institution in the capital.[63] The responsibility of the Directorate General of Higher Education is responsible for managing the university colleges, university Institutes and Universities in Beirut and nationwide.[63]
Among the private schools in Beirut are the Collège Notre-Dame de Jamhour, International College, Beirut, Carmel Saint-Joseph, College Louise Wegmann, the American Community School, Rawdah High School, the Saint Mary's Orthodox College ([1]), the Collège Protestant Français, Collège du Sacré-Coeur Gemmayzé, the Grand Lycée Franco-Libanais and the Collège Notre Dame de Nazareth.
The higher education system is based on the Lebanese Baccalaureate but the French Baccalaureate is accepted as an equivalent. Before being admitted to any higher education institution, one must achieve his or her Baccalaureate examinations. Baccalaureate technique is an alternative to credentials.[63]
Foreign students who wish to study in higher Lebanese institutions must also meet Lebanese qualifications. Their examinations must be equivalent to the Baccalaureate system before they are granted admission to higher institutions. They are not subject to any special quota system, and scholarships are granted within the framework of bilateral agreements concluded with other countries.[63] Degrees obtained outside Lebanon must be certified by the Lebanese embassy abroad and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Lebanon. Then, candidates must go in person to the Secretariat of the Equivalence Committee with required documents.[64]

Transportation

The city's renovated airport is the Rafic Hariri International Airport and is located in the southern suburbs.[65] By land, the latter are served by either service taxi or taxicab. A service taxi is cheaper than a normal taxi, however to avoid misunderstanding agreement over the pricing need to be made before setting off.[66]
Beirut has frequent bus connections to other cities in Lebanon and major cities in Syria. The Lebanese Commuting Company, or LCC in short, is just one of a handful brands of public transportation all over Lebanon.[67] On the other hand, the publicly owned buses are managed by Office des Chemins de Fer et des Transports en Commun (OCFTC), or the "Railway and Public Transportation Authority" in English. Buses for northern destinations and Syria leave from Charles Helou Station.[68]
Apart from the international airport, the Port of Beirut is another port of entry. As a final destination, Lebanon can be reached by ferry from Cyprus or by road from Damascus.[66]

Culture

The culture of Beirut has evolved under the influence of contact with many civilizations and peoples, including Greeks, Romans and Arabs. The law school in Beirut under the Romanized Berytus is believed to be the first law school in the world. This history of cosmopolitanism is a point of pride for the Lebanese.[69]
Beirut hosted the Francophonie and the Arab League summits in 2002. In 2007, Beirut hosted the ceremony for Le Prix Albert Londres,[70][71] which rewards outstanding Francophone journalists every year. The city also hosted the Jeux de la Francophonie in 2009.[72][73] Beirut is the United Nations 2009 World Book Capital, an homage for its cultural wealth.[74]
Beirut has also been called the "party capital of the Arab world".[75] Monot Street had an international reputation among clubbers before political violence stymied its reputation.[76]

Museums

The National Museum of Beirut
The National Museum of Beirut is the principal museum of archaeology in Lebanon. About 1,300 artifacts are exhibited, ranging in date from prehistoric times to the medieval Mamluk period.[77] .The American University of Beirut archaeological museum is the third oldest museum in the Middle East, exhibiting a wide range of artifacts from Lebanon and neighboring countries.^ I have long thought that the Christians in Lebanon--and the Middle East in general--were on the right side and that they resisted terror in all its forms.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

[78] Sursock Museum was built by the Sursock family at the end of the 19th century as a private villa. It was then donated to the Lebanese government and now houses Beirut's most influential and popular art museum. The permanent collection shows a collection of Japanese engravings and numerous works of Islamic art, and temporary exhibitions are shown throughout the year. Robert Mouawad Private Museum exhibits Henri Pharaon's private archaeology and antiques collection, located near Beirut's the Grand Serail.[79] Planet Discovery is a children’s science museum with interactive experiments, exhibitions, performances and workshops and awareness competitions.[80]

Media

Beirut is the main center in Lebanon for the television, newspaper, and book publishing industries. .The television stations include Tele Liban, LBC, Future TV, OTV (Orange TV), MTV , New TV, Al-Manar, ANB, and NBN. The newspapers include An-Nahar, As-Safir, Al Mustaqbal, Al Akhbar, Al-Balad, Ad-Diyar, Al Anwar, Al Sharq, L'Orient Le Jour and the Daily Star.^ An SSNP fighter throws a molotov cocktail at Saad Hariri’s Future TV station during the fighting in May 2008.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.Beirut is one of the two main media hubs in the Arab World, the other being Egypt.^ If the SSNP found out where we were staying, every single one of us would have to move to the other side of Beirut.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

Sports

Opening ceremony of the 2000 AFC Asian Cup in Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium
Beirut, in addition to Sidon and Tripoli, hosted the 2000 AFC Asian Cup.[81][82] There are two stadiums in the city, Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium and Beirut Municipal Stadium.
There are eight football teams in the Lebanese Premier League that are based in Beirut: Nejmeh, Al-Ansar, Al-Hikma, Al Ahed, Al-Mabarrah, Safa, Racing Beirut and Shabab Al-Sahel.
Beirut has two Basketball teams, Sporting Al Riyadi Beirut and Hekmeh, that participate in the premiere division of the Lebanese Basketball League .[83]
Other sports events in Beirut include the annual Beirut Marathon, Hip ball, a weekly horse racing at Beirut Hippodrome, and golf and tennis tournaments that take place at Golf Club of Lebanon.
Recently Beirut has taken to rugby league as well, with three out of the five teams in the Lebanon Championship based in Beirut.

Arts and fashion

There are hundreds of art galleries in Beirut and its suburbs. Lebanese people are very involved in art and art production. .More than 5000 fine art artists and equal artists working in music, design, architecture, theatre, film, photography and other forms of art are producing in Lebanon.^ I hate them more than I hate Hezbollah and other Opposition parties.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

Every year hundreds of fine art students graduate from universities and institutions. Artist Workshops are flourishing all around Lebanon.
Recently, The inauguration of the Beirut Art Center in the Jisr El Wati district of Beirut added to the number of exhibition spaces available in Beirut, with an addition of a screening and performance room, mediatheque, bookstore, cafe and terrace.
On another scale, fashion and couture are thriving Fashion houses are opening up and a number of international fashion designers have displayed their work in various fashion shows.[citation needed]
.Many fashion designers have opened shops in Beirut such as Versace and Gucci, but many designers live in and around Beirut, for instance Elie Saab a major designer for women's clothing, lives in Beirut.^ But writing "F***" on such a poster could have sparked a reaction from many others, including those who lived in Hamra in 1982 and who hate the current SSNP thuggery.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

Elie Saab has made dresses for the likes of Beyonce, Gwyneth Paltrow, Halle Berry and Micha Barton. Elie Saab always donates a Christmas tree to downtown Beirut every year.
Another fashion designer from Beirut is Zuhair Murad who has designed clothing for the likes of Ana Ortiz and Christina Applegate. He has worked for Mango clothing line, which has an outlet in Beirut, and has his own retail in Beirut.

Tourism

Beirut has been a destination for European Summer travelers and wealthy Arabs.[84] The once destroyed city centre is thriving once again. Its former reputation as a crossroads between three continents and gateway to the East has been restored. Beirut is the oft-invoked “Paris of the East”, and there is plenty of sightseeing, shopping, cuisine, and nightlife to keep a tourist within the city limits.[85] The city has sleek, modern buildings alongside arabesque Ottoman buildings, giving Beirut a unique and distinctive style often not seen in other Middle Eastern cities.[86]
In Travel and Leisure magazine's World Best Awards 2006, Beirut was ranked 9th best city in the world.[87] However, the list was voted upon before the war broke out in Lebanon that same year. Tourist numbers have increased exponentially these last few months.[88] .Recently, Lonely Planet named Beirut as ranking in its 2009 top ten liveliest cities on the planet.^ The HuffPo's Lonely Planet Foreign Policy Commentary Magazine - May 21, 2009 .
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.The New York Times ranked Beirut as the number one place to go in 2009 on its "44 places to go" list of 2009.[5] Many of the tourists are returning Lebanese expatriates, but many are also from Western countries.^ Search for city - search for a city not listed here Personal World Clock - shows just the cities you need Meeting Planner - find a suitable time for an international meeting Fixed Time Calculator - If it's 3 pm in New York, what time is it in the rest of the world?
  • The World Clock (long version) 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tue means Tuesday, September 8, 2009 (635 places listed).
  • The World Clock (long version) 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (DST) or summer time (297 places listed).
  • The World Clock (long version) 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Approximately two million visitors are expected to visit in 2009; the previous record was 1.4 million in 1974.[89]

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Beirut is twinned with:

See also

References

Bibliography

Notes

  1. ^ Word from the President, Beirut.gov.lb
  2. ^ Reconstruction of Beirut, Macalester College
  3. ^ Lebanon's Reconstruction: A Work in Progress, VOA News
  4. ^ Beirut: Between Memory and Desire, Worldview
  5. ^ a b "The 44 Places to Go in 2009 - Interactive Graphic". Beirut (Lebanon);Washington (DC);Galapagos Islands;Berlin (Germany);Las Vegas (Nev);Hawaii;Vienna (Austria);Doha (Qatar);Dakar (Senegal);Phuket (Thailand);Chicago (Ill);Dallas (Tex);Bhutan;Florida Keys;Rome (Italy);Cuba;Penang (Malaysia);Seychelles Islands;Florianopolis (Brazil);Copenhagen (Denmark);Monument Valley;Great Britain;Cologne (Germany);Reykjavik (Iceland);Red Sea;Egypt;Deauville (France);South Africa;India;Kazakhstan;Buffalo (NY);Madagascar;Tasmania (Australia);Stockholm (Sweden);Alaska;Pennsylvania;Zambia: NYTimes.com. 2009-01-11. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/01/11/travel/20090111_DESTINATIONS.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  6. ^ "Beirut Travel Information and Travel Guide — Lebanon". Lonely Planet. 2009-03-24. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/lebanon/beirut. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  7. ^ Under Beirut's Rubble, Remnants of 5,000 Years of Civilization, The New York Times
  8. ^ a b c Profile of Lebanon: History Lebanese Embassy of the U.S.
  9. ^ Research Projects - History and Archeology, American University of Beirut (AUB)
  10. ^ Phoenicia in Encyclopaedia Biblica, Case Western Reserve University
  11. ^ Phoenicia, Jrank.org
  12. ^ Berytus Archeological Studies, American University of Beirut (AUB)
  13. ^ a b c About Beirut and Downtown Beirut, DownTownBeirut.com. Retrieved November 17, 2007.
  14. ^ a b c Beirut Travel Information, Lonely Planet
  15. ^ Czech excavations in Beirut, Martyrs' Square, Institute for Classical Archaeology>
  16. ^ Beirut, Britannica.com
  17. ^ History of Phoenicia, fullbooks.com. Retrieved November 17, 2007.
  18. ^ "Saida (Sidon)". Ikamalebanon.com. http://www.ikamalebanon.com/national_heritage/south_nh/sth_cities_nh/saida.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  19. ^ a b Beirut, Britannica.com
  20. ^ Druze History, DHF Druze Heritage Foundation
  21. ^ a b Beirut, Jrank.org
  22. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae, by Moshe Sharon
  23. ^ Fawaz, Leila. "The City and the Mountain", 'International Journal of Middle East Studies' 16 no. 4 (Nov. 1984), 493.
  24. ^ Ibid., 490
  25. ^ Modern Beirut, Macalester College
  26. ^ An Alternate Alternative History, Foreign Policy
  27. ^ Dancing in the street, The Independent
  28. ^ Lebanon (Civil War 1975–1992, Global Security
  29. ^ Terrorism - Terrorist Attacks Chronology, CDI Terrorism Project
  30. ^ Frontline: Target America: Terrorist Attacks on Americans, 1979–1988, PBS.org
  31. ^ Historical Fact: Bombing of marine barracks, October 23, 1983, lebaneseforces.com
  32. ^ History of Lebanon (The Cedar Revolution), LGIC. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  33. ^ Watch - The Cedar Revolution, The Winds of Change. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  34. ^ 'Record' protest held in Beirut, BBC News
  35. ^ From Hopeful To Helpless At a Protest In Lebanon, Washingtonpost.com
  36. ^ Hariri sister calls for justice, CNN International
  37. ^ On This Day - 26 April, BBC.co.uk
  38. ^ "Syria, Lebanon Formally Launch Diplomatic Relations". Voanews.com. http://www.voanews.com/english/2008-10-15-voa44.cfm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  39. ^ a b Beirut - The Pearl of the Middle East
  40. ^ "Howstuffworks "Geography of Beirut"". Geography.howstuffworks.com. http://geography.howstuffworks.com/middle-east/geography-of-beirut.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  41. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Beirut". Weatherbase. 2007. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=104&refer=&units=us. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  42. ^ "Beirut's Official Webcite". http://www.beirut.gov.lb/www.beirut.gov.lb/MCMSAR/%D8%AD%D8%B6%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A9+%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%AA/. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  43. ^ "Beirut's Official Website". Beirut.gov.lb. http://www.beirut.gov.lb/www.beirut.gov.lb/MCMSEN/Maps+of+Beirut/. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  44. ^ Southern suburbal districts include: Chiyah, Ghobeiry, Haret Hreik, Laylake, Tahouitat al Ghadir, Hay al Sillum and formerly Hadath. Eastern suburbs include: Burj Hammoud, Sin el Fil, Dekouane and Mkalles. Hazmiyah is now recognised as an independent municipality. "Lebanon refugee camp profiles". UNRWA. 31 December 2006. http://www.un.org/unrwa/refugees/lebanon.html. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  45. ^ Sherifa Shafie. "Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon" (PDF). Force Migration. http://www.forcedmigration.org/guides/fmo018/fmo018.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  46. ^ "United Nations: "Demographic Yearbook 2003", page 53, 2003" (PDF). http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/DYB2003/Table08.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  47. ^ Lebanese Ministry of Environment: "Lebanon State of the Environment Report", Chapter 1, page 11, 2001.
  48. ^ "Encyclopedia of the Nations". Nationsencyclopedia.com. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Asia-and-Oceania/Lebanon-POPULATION.html. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  49. ^ Lebanese Ministry of Environment: "Lebanon State of the Environment Report", Chapter 1, page 9, 2001.
  50. ^ At Beirut Protest, a Reminder of Religious Diversity, The New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 2007.
  51. ^ "Contact Us." Middle East Airlines. Retrieved on 19 October 2009.
  52. ^ "Beirut from the sky, Parliament Square, Ryad el Solh square". Lebanonpanorama.com. http://www.lebanonpanorama.com/frame_src/english/beirut.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  53. ^ Monday, Jun. 07, 1926 (1926-06-07). "Great Lebanon — TIME". Time.com. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,722011,00.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  54. ^ "Links". Web.archive.org. 2007-10-12. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012050110/http://www.presidency.gov.lb/presidency/links/links.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  55. ^ Beirut - The Pearl of the Middle East
  56. ^ "Beirut's official website". Beirut.gov.lb. http://www.beirut.gov.lb/www.beirut.gov.lb/MCMSARdir1/%D9%85%D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8%D8%A9+%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%AA/. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  57. ^ ICPD+5 NEWS BULLETIN, United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved November 15, 2007.
  58. ^ "United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia". Escwa.org.lb. http://www.escwa.org.lb/. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  59. ^ "International Labour Organization (Lebanon)". Ilo.org.lb. http://www.ilo.org.lb/. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  60. ^ "UNESCO Beirut". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2007-09-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20070910202147/http://portal.unesco.org/beirut. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  61. ^ "Arab Air Carriers Organization". Aaco.org. http://www.aaco.org/contact.asp. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  62. ^ a b c d Lebanon - Education system Text-x-generic.svgRTF (26.5 KiB), Unesco.org
  63. ^ Education FAQs, informs.gov.lb
  64. ^ History Beirut International Airport
  65. ^ a b "Transportation & Communication". Ikamalebanon.com. http://www.ikamalebanon.com/info/transportation.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  66. ^ "Company profile". Lccworld.com. http://www.lccworld.com/profile.asp. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  67. ^ Beirut Transport
  68. ^ Inside Beirut: Culture, tripadvisor
  69. ^ Albert Londres Prizes, France Diplomatie
  70. ^ Daily Press Briefing, Embassy of France in the U.S.
  71. ^ (French) Les Jeux de la Francophonie au Liban Beyrouth 2009, Libanvision
  72. ^ (French) Les Jeux de la Francophonie, Moldavie.fr
  73. ^ 2009 World Book Capital, un.org
  74. ^ Butters, Andrew Lee (2009-03-17). "Drugs in the Middle East". Times/CNN. http://mideast.blogs.time.com/2009/03/17/drugs-in-the-middle-east/. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  75. ^ Sergeant, Mike (2008-02-13). "Is party over for Beirut's clubbers?". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7241147.stm. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  76. ^ History, National Museum of Beirut
  77. ^ "AUB Museum". Ddc.aub.edu.lb. http://ddc.aub.edu.lb/projects/museum/. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  78. ^ "Welcome to Robert Mouawad Private museum". Rmpm.info. http://www.rmpm.info/. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  79. ^ "Beirut City Center Culture — Planet Discovery". Solidere. http://www.solidere.com/history/planet.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  80. ^ China Ready to Face Tough Task in Asian Cup Bidding, People's Daily
  81. ^ Lebanese Football need to make their mark in Asia, Maxell
  82. ^ "Riyadi's History". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2007-03-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20070306093420/http://www.riyadi.com/history.html. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  83. ^ "Born-again Beirut". Fairfax Media. 2005-01-08. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2005/01/28/1106850092882.html. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
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  85. ^ Mohammad H. Hadla@ Webserv (2008-02-13). "What to See & Do in Beirut". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2008-02-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20080213054127/http://www.destinationlebanon.gov.lb/eng/Beirut/See.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  86. ^ Travel and Leisure: Top 10 Cities Overall
  87. ^ "Will tourists return to Beirut? - Trinity News". Trinitynews.ie. http://www.trinitynews.ie/articles.php?tn=1&issue=6&id=417. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  88. ^ Lutz, Meris (2009-09-26). "Lebanon tourism is back from a holiday". latimes.com. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-lebanon-tourism26-2009sep26,0,746311.story. Retrieved 2010-01-17. 
  89. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Twinning the Cities". City of Beirut. http://www.beirut.gov.lb/MCMSTest/Menu-Pages/SisterCitiesEN.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRORIGINALURL=%2fwww%2ebeirut%2egov%2elb%2fMCMSEN%2fTwinning%2bthe%2bCities%2f&NRNODEGUID=%7b18839037-0140-436E-A1AF-7F8F3693C3E6%7d&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest#. Retrieved 2008-01-13. 
  90. ^ "Beirut, Lebanon". Lacity.org. http://www.lacity.org/SisterCities/html/23.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  91. ^ "Sister Cities of Istanbul". http://www.greatistanbul.com/sister_cities.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  92. ^ "Isfahan, Beirut named sister cities". MNA. http://www.mehrnews.com/en/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=392389. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
  93. ^ "Yerevan Municipality – Sister Cities". © 2005–2009 www.yerevan.am. http://yerevan.am/main.php?lang=3&page_id=194. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : Middle East : Lebanon : Beirut
Beirut is a huge city with several district articles containing sightseeing, restaurant, nightlife and accommodation listings — consider printing them all.
City skyline: from harbor
City skyline: from harbor
.Beirut is the capital city of Lebanon with a population of approximately 2.1 million people in its metropolitan area.^ Beirut is the capital, largest city, and chief seaport of Lebanon.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Hotels and Lodging - TravelMuse 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.travelmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Beirut , capital and largest city of Lebanon, located on the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beirut (Bayrout) Profile Beirut, the capital of Lebanon .
  • Beirut Profile - Beirut Overview - Lebanon - Saidon.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.saidon.com [Source type: News]

.The city is on a relatively small headland jutting into the east Mediterranean.^ The city sits atop two hills, Al-Ashrafīyah (East Beirut) and Al-Muṣayṭibah (West Beirut), that protrude into the sea as a roughly triangular peninsula.
  • Beirut (Lebanon) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nightlife Beirut Unexpected Once known as the Paris of the Middle East, the city fell into chaos during Lebanons civil war.
  • TripConnect Beirut, Lebanon Main 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.tripconnect.com [Source type: General]

^ BEIRUT -- In the year 551, the magnificent, wealthy city of Berytus - headquarters of the imperial East Mediterranean Roman fleet - was struck by a massive earthquake.

It is by far the biggest city in Lebanon. .Due to Lebanon's small size the capital has always held the status as the only true cosmopolitan city in the country, and ever since the independence, has been the commercial and financial hub of Lebanon.^ Under a French mandate, it became the capital of the new state of Lebanon in 1920 and capital of an independent Lebanon in 1943.
  • Beirut (Lebanon) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beirut is an ancient Phoenician port on the Mediterranean Sea which is nowadays the capital city of the Lebanon .

^ The Padova Hotel offers luxury accommodation in Beirut , the capital and largest city in Lebanon located on a peninsula facing the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Beirut Hotels 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.expedia.com [Source type: General]

.20km to its North is Jounieh, a city very closely associated with Beirut.^ Two weeks later, about 800 Marines of the 32nd would help evacuate nearly 600 civilians from two dozen countries out of Jounieh, a port city about 10 miles north of Beirut.
  • They Came in Peace - Marines Remember Beirut Brothers, 20 Years Later 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.coldwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the beaming smiles of the doormen at Four Seasons Hotel Beirut dazzle their very first guests, the city will take another quantum step forward ...

^ Business-friendly Beirut property with a seasonal outdoor pool This business-friendly Beirut property is situated close to National Museum of Beirut, Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium, and Beirut Municipality Stadium.
  • Beirut Hotels 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.expedia.com [Source type: General]

Districts

.The heart of Beirut, Downtown, should be the starting point of any visit, as it lies roughly in the center of the city; from there one can explore the surrounding areas.^ From there one can explore the surrounding areas.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Hotels and Lodging - TravelMuse 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.travelmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ The heart of Beirut, Downtown, should be the starting point of any visit.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Hotels and Lodging - TravelMuse 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.travelmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Start at the Beirut Marina in downtown and finish at Pidgeon Rocks, the city’s iconic landmark just off the coast.

.The commercial area of Beirut is rather small, making all major points of interest within short walking distances.^ The neighbourhood of Achrafieh, in what was formerly known as East Beirut, is a predominantly Christian area filled with small streets and hotch-potch buildings constructed on top of each other.
  • Beirut guide book from Hg2 city guides 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hg2.com [Source type: General]

^ Overview: Situated within easy reach of the major tourist and business areas, the Crowne Plaza Hotel Beirut is a good accommodation in Beirut for a wide variety of travelers.
  • Crowne Plaza Hotel Beirut Lebanon. Best Hotel Deals & Reviews 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon , is popular as one of the major commercial and cultural center of Middle East.
  • Beirut Hotels Lebanon, Beirut Hotels Accommodation, Beirut Hotels Discount, Cheap Hotels in Beirut, Hotel in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Charles Helou Station lies approximately one kilometer east of Nejmeh Square, on Charles Helou Avenue, facing the Beirut Port.^ "Beirut is one of the major Arab cities, which has seriously experienced the brutality of the Israeli Army so we understand today what Palestinians in Gaza are facing."
  • Electronic Lebanon: Beirut in solidarity with besieged Gazans 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC electronicintifada.net [Source type: General]

^ The worst faux pas a foreign visitor can make is to ask if one of the 2 million residents comes from east or west Beirut.

^ Owing to the fertility of the soil and the security of the harbour, Beirut soon became one of the most active commercial cities in the East.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Beirut - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From there you can take the city buses or hop onto the larger coaches that link Beirut with the neighboring cities.^ When the beaming smiles of the doormen at Four Seasons Hotel Beirut dazzle their very first guests, the city will take another quantum step forward ...

^ Beirut is now in the process of recovery, but it will take many years to complete the rebuilding programs and fully restore the infrastructure of the city.

^ If you’re in the young, vibrant neighbourhoods of Gemmayzeh or Achrafiye, Beirut is about living for the moment: partying, eating and drinking as if there’s no tomorrow.
  • Beirut Travel Information and Travel Guide - Lebanon - Lonely Planet 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

.
  • Downtown - Located in the heart of the city beside the Beirut port and Beirut marina; includes many cafés, restaurants, and places shop.^ Riviera Hotel - Beirut Lebanon One of Lebanon's leading Hotel / Resorts, located in one of the most exclusive areas of Beirut City, directly facing the Mediterranean Sea, with It's exclusive yacht club & marina & having easy access from Beirut International Airport and Harbor as well as the business districts, exhibition centers and major shopping areas.
    • Beirut Hotels - Beirut Lebanon 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hotelrooms.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "I really enjoyed the Riviera—it is a good location in comparison to the other hotels, with beach clubs in Beirut (closer to downtown).
    • Beirut Hotels - Rates, Reviews, and Photos of Beirut Hotels - IgoUgo 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Beirut is now in the process of recovery, but it will take many years to complete the rebuilding programs and fully restore the infrastructure of the city.

    .Also home to many historical sites.
  • Ashrafieh - The center of Western themed nightlife/life in the city.^ After dark, hit the town to dance the night away at one of the city’s many lively nightspots and discover why Beirut’s nightlife is considered unrivalled in the region.

    ^ Bustling streets such as Hamra and Ashrafieh provide hopping nightlife while the National Museum and the Gibran Museum give visitors a taste of the city's history.
    • Beirut Vacations, Tourism and Beirut, Lebanon Travel Reviews - TripAdvisor 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But with my career in the Corps coming to a close, and knowing that the Jacksonville, N.C. area will be my home, I look forward to all the many years to come and visit the site.
    • Beirut Stamp Initiatiave - Honoring the MultiNational Peacekeeping Force,Beirut Lebanon 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.beirutstamp.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Ashrafieh, is divided into smaller areas; Gemmayze and Monot Street are the most popular nightspots, while Sassine Square and Sodeco Square are mainly afternoon shopping areas.^ Most standard shopping can be done in the Mar Elias area, Hamra Street, Rashid Karam Street (ex Verdun), Ashrafieh and Furn el-Shebback.

    ^ The National Museum and busy commercial street of Rue Monot are both nearby, so too is the first-class shopping of the ABC Shopping Mall and Rue Gouraud also.
    • Beirut Hotels Lebanon: 62 Cheap Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Beirut’s graffiti, old or new, was used to divide the city into its many politically affiliated areas.
    • Beirut | ajc.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC projects.ajc.com [Source type: General]

    .Gemmayze consists of mostly pubs, though it does also contain a fine selection of restaurants.^ Here visitors have direct access to glittering nightlife, world-class shopping and many fine restaurants, pubs and cafes.
    • Beirut Hotels Lebanon: 62 Cheap Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

    .Many people are starting to think of it as a separate entity from Ashrafieh.^ The if-you-want-peace-get-ready-for-war argument: The idea is that If everyone has weapons, people will really think twice before starting a war.
    • The Beirut Spring | A Lebanese Blog 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC beirutspring.com [Source type: General]

    .Monot Street features a mix of restaurants, nightclubs, and pubs.
  • Ain El Mraiseh - Seafront district with plenty of hotels and restaurants.
  • Hamra - A hive of activity, and a shopping-lover's paradise.^ The Cavalier Hotel, one of the oldest, privately-owned hotels in Beirut, has quiet rooms, very friendly staff and is centrally located in the Hamra district.
    • Beirut tourist information | Holidays to Beirut | Fly bmi 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.flybmi.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Lebanon Hotels Accommodation - Lebanon Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with lebanon.travel lebanon.travel ...your local connection Accommodation Tours & Activities Lebanon Map Transportation Restaurants Shopping About Us Contact Us Send this page My booking .
    • Lebanon Hotels Accommodation - Lebanon Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with lebanon.travel 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lebanon.travel [Source type: General]

    ^ Most standard shopping can be done in the Mar Elias area, Hamra Street, Rashid Karam Street (ex Verdun), Ashrafieh and Furn el-Shebback.

    .Hamra became the center during the troubles in the 70's.^ During WWII the city was occupied by the Allies and, thanks to its port, became an important supply center.

    The more popular places are Bliss st., Hamra st., Sourati st. and Jeanne d'Arc st., each havings its own share of cafés, hotels, and restaurants. Hamra st. in particular has been redeveloped in recent years, with larger chains of restaurants and cafes opening there, including Starbucks, Costa, Nandos, and Roadsters. .There are also a few pubs still operating there.
  • Manara - The Westernmost district of Beirut.^ Because, like Beirut, it was still there.
    • Salon.com Life | Watching Beirut die 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: General]
    • Watching Beirut die - Salon.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Located in the most prestigious district of Beirut, the hotel overlooks the Mediterranean Sea and only few minutes away from Beirut International Airport.
    • Lebanon Hotels Accommodation - Lebanon Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with lebanon.travel 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lebanon.travel [Source type: General]

    ^ There are few in Beirut who won't share the uniformed doormen...
    • Beirut News 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC cgi.wn.com [Source type: General]

    .Ras Beirut literally translates to "the head of Beirut" due to its location on the tip of peninsula, home to the Manara Lighthouse and various beach clubs (though none feature any sandy beaches).
  • Rawcheh - The Pigeon Rocks, the focal point of this district, are located here.
  • Ramlet El Baida - A residential area just south of Rawcheh, here you'll find Beirut's only public beach.^ You’ll be pushed to find a cheaper apartment in Beirut online.
    • Beirut Apartments | Apartments in Beirut | Beirut Apartment | Apartment in Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.only-apartments.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You’ll be pushed to find a cheaper B &B in Beirut online.
    • Bed And Breakfast Beirut | Bed & Breakfast Beirut | B and B Beirut | B & B Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.only-apartments.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Ramlet el-Baida on the south coast of Beirut .

    .It is also the only beach featuring any sand.
  • Verdun - A trendy shopping area, Rue.^ Most standard shopping can be done in the Mar Elias area, Hamra Street, Rashid Karam Street (ex Verdun), Ashrafieh and Furn el-Shebback.

    ^ It is within walking distance of many beach clubs, and the Manara Lighthouse, but it is also close to the major business and shopping areas too.
    • Beirut Hotels Lebanon: 62 Cheap Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It is close to many scenic spots, including Jeita Grotto, Piegons’ Rock, and the nearby beaches, and also near some great shopping along Rue Gouraud too.
    • Beirut Hotels Lebanon: 62 Cheap Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

    Verdun (or Verdun st.) is the main area where you'll find most hotels and shops. The area also features cafes and restaurants. Many Gulf Arabs stay here during summer vacations.
  • Jnah - A predominantly residential area in southern Beirut, but also home to various beach clubs and hotels.
Martyr's Statue in Martyr's Square
Martyr's Statue in Martyr's Square

History

.Beirut has survived a rough history, falling under the occupation of one empire after another,.^ In 1516, under Druse control, Beirut became part of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Beirut Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We have another great project in Beirut Gate, one that has fast attracted mature...
  • Beirut Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beirut By 1914 this was one of the wealthiest cities of the Middle East, under what was effectively a French protectorate.
  • American University of Beirut Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about American University of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Originally named Bêrūt, "The Wells" by the Phoenicians, Beirut's history goes back more than 5000 years.^ Today, however, it bears little resemblance to the more Muslim areas of West Beirut, and has adopted a somewhat laid-back approach to life.
  • Beirut guide book from Hg2 city guides 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hg2.com [Source type: General]

^ Discover a city as old as history and the remarkable adventure through thousands of years of culture, politics, and development that made Beirut the incredible city it is today.

^ BEIRUT: Maher (not his real name) had been arrested more than 32 times and was constantly in and out of prison on drug charges before finally receiving help for his ad...
  • Beirut News 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC cgi.wn.com [Source type: General]

.Excavations in the downtown area have unearthed layers of Phoenician, Hellenistic, Roman, Arab and Ottoman civilizations.^ Excavations in the downtown area have unearthed layers of Phoenician, Hellenistic, Roman, Arab and Ottoman civilizations.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Hotels and Lodging - TravelMuse 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.travelmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ Explore the archaeological gems of the Central District, which help narrate the city’s 5000 year history and the presence of Phoenician, Hellenistic, Roman, Arab and Ottoman influence over the ages.

^ Under the city’s downtown area lie remnants of Ottoman, Mamluke, Crusader, Abbassid, Omayyad, Byzantine, Roman, Persian, Phoenician and Canaanite Beirut.

.Following World War II, Lebanon was granted its independence by France and Beirut became its capital.^ Under a French mandate, it became the capital of the new state of Lebanon in 1920 and capital of an independent Lebanon in 1943.
  • Beirut (Lebanon) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ottoman rule began in 1516, continuing for 400 years later until the defeat of the Turks in World War I. The French Mandate Period followed and in 1943 Lebanon gained its independence.

^ On April 25, 1920 the League of Nations granted a French mandate over Syria and Lebanon, and Beirut became the headquarters of the French High Commissioner as well as the capital of the state of Greater Lebanon.

.Beirut thrived as a major commercial and tourist center of the Middle East.^ During better times, money from rich Arab states used to flow through the international banks in Beirut, and the city was known as the "Paris of the Middle East."

^ World Heritage Sites in Beirut Baalbek Learn more » Often called "Paris of the Middle East", Beirut is a thriving hotspot for shopping, socializing and sightseeing, despite many wars and unrest.
  • Beirut Vacations, Tourism and Beirut, Lebanon Travel Reviews - TripAdvisor 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ Beirut was called the "Paris of the Middle East" because of its vibrant outdoor cafe culture and European architecture, and Beirut remained the intellectual capital of the Arab world and a major commercial and tourist center until 1975 when a brutal civil war broke out in Lebanon.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Hotels and Lodging - TravelMuse 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.travelmuse.com [Source type: General]

.It was a top destination among wealthy Arabs and European tourists, due to Beirut's unique geography, climate, diverse culture, and freedom.^ Beirut was called the "Paris of the Middle East" because of its vibrant outdoor cafe culture and European architecture, and Beirut remained the intellectual capital of the Arab world and a major commercial and tourist center until 1975 when a brutal civil war broke out in Lebanon.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Hotels and Lodging - TravelMuse 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.travelmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ During the 1950s and 1960s, Beirut was a popular tourist destination.
  • Beirut Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Europeans, Arabs, and Asians prefer to live with their own kind, within communities that are divided along religious and cultural lines.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

Beirut was seen as the "European gateway to the Middle East" and vice versa, and was often called the "Paris of the Middle East".
Beirut is and was home to over 10 recognized religious sects. .Religious tension between the Christian and Muslim factions sparked a brutal civil war in 1975. The conflict lasted nearly a decade and a half, ravaging the city.^ Fights between Christians and Muslims.
  • Beirut - LookLex Encyclopaedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was severely damaged during the Lebanese Civil War (1975–90), during fighting between Israeli forces and those of the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1982, and during the Israeli siege on Hezbollah in mid-2006.
  • Beirut (Lebanon) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lebanese civil war began in 1975 with when increasing Christian and Muslim strife was stirred by the toxic influence of the PLO and Syrian forces.
  • Gridskipper: beirut Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC gridskipper.com [Source type: General]

.The central area of the city, previously the focus of much of the commercial and cultural activities, became a no-man's land.^ The newly rebuilt Downtown area and the lovely Corniche by the sea, are restoring the city's reputation for culture and elegance.
  • Beirut tourist information | Holidays to Beirut | Fly bmi 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.flybmi.com [Source type: General]

^ Beirut is a mixture of Western and Arabic architecture, but is not very well organized: residential and commercial areas are interspersed, sometimes also with industrial activity.
  • Beirut - LookLex Encyclopaedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central area of the city, previously the focus of much of the commercial and cultural activities, became a no man's land.  Since the end of the war in 1989, the people of Lebanon have been rebuilding Beirut, and by the start of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict the city had somewhat regained its status as a tourist, cultural, and intellectual center in the Middle East, as well as a center for commerce, fashion, and media.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Hotels and Lodging - TravelMuse 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.travelmuse.com [Source type: General]

.Throughout the war, the city was divided between the largely Muslim west part and the Christian east, and tensions between different sects remains to this day.^ Fights between Christians and Muslims.
  • Beirut - LookLex Encyclopaedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fights between Christians and Muslims for the control of West Beirut.
  • Beirut - LookLex Encyclopaedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The city sits atop two hills, Al-Ashrafīyah (East Beirut) and Al-Muṣayṭibah (West Beirut), that protrude into the sea as a roughly triangular peninsula.
  • Beirut (Lebanon) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the end of the war in 1989, the people of Lebanon have been rebuilding Beirut.^ He frustrated all efforts by A. Jumayyil to end the civil war, and used the partial Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon to increase the territorial control of his militia forces and encircle Jumayyil and his forces in East Beirut .
  • American University of Beirut Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about American University of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In standard fashion, and in keeping with Israel's long history of brutality, Amnesty International made mention of Israeli war crimes against the people of Lebanon.
  • Trinicenter.com - Lapdog Blair Gets an Earful in Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.trinicenter.com [Source type: News]

^ The Russo-Turkish War comes to and end, and Beirut is transferred to the Ottomans, who leaves the city in neglect.
  • Beirut - LookLex Encyclopaedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The city has undertaken an aggressive rebuilding policy. .The city has since regained its status as a tourist, cultural and intellectual center of the Middle East, as well as a center for commerce, fashion and media.^ In the Press © Dia Media 2008 Dia Diwan is your gateway to Middle East chic: a luxury lifestyle website catering to the Middle East’s need for unique fashion and leisure, providing access to international brands, Arab and Middle Eastern designers and boutiques, as well as expert advice and opinion from the region.
  • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

^ The hotel's own collection of art and antiquities is on display in bedrooms and public areas, and the onsite conference center hosts cultural as well as business events.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Vacation Rentals | Beirut Lebanon SmartSearch Listings 1 - 15 of 17 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC rentalo.com [Source type: General]

^ During better times, money from rich Arab states used to flow through the international banks in Beirut, and the city was known as the "Paris of the Middle East."

As the rest of the Middle East has gained momentum.

People

.Some areas of Beirut have a friendly atmosphere, and some Beirutis have a reputation for being very sociable and outgoing.^ The Cavalier Hotel, one of the oldest, privately-owned hotels in Beirut, has quiet rooms, very friendly staff and is centrally located in the Hamra district.
  • Beirut tourist information | Holidays to Beirut | Fly bmi 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.flybmi.com [Source type: General]

^ Beirut is a mixture of Western and Arabic architecture, but is not very well organized: residential and commercial areas are interspersed, sometimes also with industrial activity.
  • Beirut - LookLex Encyclopaedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’m going to write some human-interest articles about the atmosphere in Beirut one year after the war.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

.The locals are used to the sight of foreigners and would be happy to show you around the city, if you ask them.^ The World Clock - current times around the world Search for some other city Personal World Clock - shows just the cities you need Meeting Planner - find a suitable time for an international meeting Time Zone Converter - Convert time between two time zones.
  • Beirut, local, Lebanon weather and forecast 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A couple of people who lived in the dahiyeh said they would not run the risk of showing me around their neighborhood.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A large selection of foreign restaurants serve cooking from around the world in surroundings as elegant or as cozy as you desire.

.However some areas are hostile against foreigners or even Beirutis from other neighborhoods.^ Not only have Christians and Muslims in Lebanon been divided against each other, they have been (and in some ways still are) divided against themselves.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some groups have argued against the inertia of the zuama clientele system, while others espoused Marxist causes.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the sight of foreigners being the operative term, it should be noted that your external appearance will determine some of the locals' reaction to you.^ As a registered user you have some advantages like theme manager, comments configuration and post comments with your name.
  • Trinicenter.com - Lapdog Blair Gets an Earful in Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.trinicenter.com [Source type: News]

^ Key West is a sunny, fun destination with enough sights to keep you busy when you're not snorkeling, parasailing or catching some rays.
  • Beirut Vacations, Tourism and Beirut, Lebanon Travel Reviews - TripAdvisor 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ We've cooked up some fun dynamic images for you to put on your homepage.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Forecast : Weather Underground 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wunderground.com [Source type: General]

.Badly dressed visitors must bear in mind that they should not expect the same warm reception from one and all that their well dressed counterparts may take for granted.^ The atlas is a must for all locals and regular visitors to the city… .
  • Zawarib Beirut :: About 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC zawaribbeirut.com [Source type: General]

^ Objective, make sure you know your traveling companion very well, before you embark on a such a journey, and you all agree on the same objective.

^ At various times over the next decade the United States Government attempted to do all of the above, sometimes all at the same time, sometimes one task at a time.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

.Racism and classism are closely linked in Lebanon, as a result of the French colonial legacy, which leads many Lebanese to readily identify culturally and ethnically with White Europeans, some denying Arab identity altogether.^ Lebanon was divided between a pro-Arab , mostly Islamic camp, which supported the Palestinians , and a Lebanese nationalist, Christian inspired camp, opposed to the dilution of the country's historic identity.
  • Lebanon, Lebanese, Maronites, Beirut - The Peace FAQ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The State of Greater Lebanon became the Lebanese Republic in 1926; it was not established as an independent republic, however, until 1943, and the French withdrawal was not completed until 1946.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The presence implied some measure of protection for the Lebanese authorities against those Lebanese, Palestinians, and other Arabs who adamantly opposed any normalization between Lebanon and Israel.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

Those historical factors have been further complicated by the influx of laborers and maids from Sri Lanka, Syria, Ethiopia, and other countries.
It is helpful to display some basic courtesies. .A simple Bonjour when entering a cafe or shop can work wonders, and might even get you a special rate, or when hopping into a taxi, might just keep the driver from overcharging you.^ You can participate by rating both the coverage and translation tweets with stars right on LiveTweeting.com Anyone can watch and rate; just point your browser to LiveTweeting.com!

^ You can't have the main street, a shopping and commercial street, in a civilized city patrolled by intimidators who work for a Nazi organization.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That we might just maybe get an English language newspaper or magazine -- or even a French one.
  • Watching Beirut die - Salon.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: General]

.Say Merci when given or offered something, and if you'd rather not accept, then say La'a merci and smile; otherwise you might be taken as rude, even though you're not.^ BBCode itself is similar in style to HTML: tags are enclosed in square braces [ and ] rather than < and > and it offers greater control over what and how something is displayed.
  • FAQ :: Forums @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forums.beirut.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted by: maryatexitzero at February 28, 2009 9:17 AM I applaud the action taken by Hitchens even though it could have ended very badly.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Your representative in parliament will not be, cannot be, an urban cosmopolitan even if you're an urban cosmopolitan yourself.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

.Most Beirutis love going out, and the nightlife in Beirut is arguably world-class.^ So eager were they to visit Beirut after T+L named it nine out of the world's best 10 cities, that they hopped right into their tanks and chugged on over.
  • Gridskipper: beirut Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC gridskipper.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted by Tommy Beirut in Productivity 0 Comments This is going to be one of the most “stating of the obvious” posts I’ve ever made in my life.

^ Even though roughly half of Lebanon's people live in or around Beirut, most of the voting districts are out in the countryside.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

.If (and when) you go out at night, dressing up well will most certainly get you some respect.^ Dress as you please..but in general, the Lebanese dress up to go on a night out ;-) Leave a Comment .
  • Beirut Nightlife - Travel Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ In conclusion, get dressed up, wear your party shoes and go out to monot and have a great night :) Ok..everyone who's not lebanese that I've met has talked about how much effort lebanese people place on how they look..so I'd say get dressed to impress when going out.
  • Beirut Nightlife - Travel Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ We've cooked up some fun dynamic images for you to put on your homepage.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Forecast : Weather Underground 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wunderground.com [Source type: General]

The locals like to see that foreigners are doing what they can to fit in. Expect to be offered a drink or a cigarette. (alcohol is very cheap in shops and supermarkets, yet in night venues, prices can rise up to european standards (aka: 8,000L.L/Beer, 15,000L.L/Cocktail))
.Smoking is rather common in Beirut, a large portion of the people smoke both outdoors and indoors.^ Im not sure whether this is common in Beirut, but when i learned spanish in cetralamerica ages ago it was common and a good way to learn local people to know.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Travel Forum - VirtualTourist.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forum.virtualtourist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most restaurants have special smoking areas that are ventilated, so make sure you ask whether a particular restaurant or cafe is smoking or not, and ask for a non-smoking table if you don't want to end your night with a bad headache.^ What, you don't have firedancers at your BBQs?
  • beirut coverage by Gothamist 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: General]

^ We don't want to harm you.
  • Lebanon, Lebanese, Maronites, Beirut - The Peace FAQ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The extraordinary restaurants of the InterContinental Phoenicia are also worth noting as they are sure to please even the most demanding food lovers.
  • Short trips to Beirut, Lebanon from Larnaca, Cyprus 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.varianostravel.com [Source type: General]

Language

Beirut is very culturally diverse, and thus, multilingual. .Arabic and French are the official first languages but English is widely spoken, and younger people are generally more likely to be fluent in English than older people, and than in French.^ Arabic is the official language, but English and French are also widely spoken.
  • Lebanon Hotels Accommodation - Lebanon Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with lebanon.travel 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lebanon.travel [Source type: General]

^ To those who tell us that fighting the Syrians is extremism, we will answer that the French Resistance against the Nazis was no more than a farce.
  • Lebanon, Lebanese, Maronites, Beirut - The Peace FAQ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If I could find similar bookshops in Tel Aviv, with a wide selection of contemporary titles in French, English and Arabic and knowledgeable, multi-lingual staff, I would cry with joy.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

.Shop signs are in English, so are most restaurant menus, and event listings and such.^ Showtimes Browse movies Add event Shopping cart Sign in Username Password Forgot your password?
  • 0 events matching 'Event Search for Tag : Beirut' in Houston - Eventful 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC eventful.com [Source type: General]

^ In Beirut, the sponsors list of any given cultural event proudly lists the banks, foreign NGOs, and other corporations that make such importation and implantation of outside culture possible.
  • Daniel Drennan: A Black Panther in Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Toledo Blade Recently reviewed restaurants (English) Summaries of recently reviewed area restaurants, in the order in which they were reviewed, with the most recent at the top.
  • Beirut News 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC cgi.wn.com [Source type: General]

Road signs however are in French and Arabic.

Get In

By Plane

.Beirut Rafik Hariri International Airport [1] (IATA: BEY), is the country's only international airport and the hub of Lebanon's national carrier, Middle East Airlines (MEA [2]).^ Location Located close to downtown Beirut, this elegant property is just 10 minutes drive from the Rafic Hariri International Airport.
  • Crowne Plaza Hotel Beirut Accommodation City Centre Beirut Travel 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC coastbeaches.com [Source type: News]

^ Emirates Increases Flights To Three Key Middle Eastern Hubs 01/04/2009 Reinforcing and strengthening the airline?s commitment to the Middle East, Emirates has announced increased services to three of its key regional gateways including: Dammam, Beirut and Tehran.

^ In the early 1990s Lebanese billionaire Rafiq Hariri, who became Lebanon's prime minister, launched a multibillion dollar effort, through the company Solidere, to rebuild central Beirut as a symbol of the nation's postwar aspirations.
  • Beirut Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most international airlines have daily flights between Beirut and the major European capitals.^ Located in the most prestigious district of Beirut, the hotel overlooks the Mediterranean Sea and only few minutes away from Beirut International Airport.
  • Lebanon Hotels Accommodation - Lebanon Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with lebanon.travel 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lebanon.travel [Source type: General]

^ Avenue de l'Aroport, a major thoroughfare, runs from the port area to the Beirut International Airport, 8 km (5 mi) south of the city's center.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beirut was known as the most liberal of the Arab capitals, and it provided a safe haven in the Middle East for Arabs who wanted to experience Western cultures.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The airport is located 7km south of Beirut, and is roughly a 10 to 15 minute drive from the city center.^ Damour, a 15- 20 minute drive south from Beirut + 961 3 998080 .
  • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

^ Jiyeh - 15/20 minute drive south from Beirut.
  • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

^ Jiyeh, 20 minute drive south of Beirut on main highway.
  • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

.You may purchase a 15-day tourist visa at the airport for $17 or a 30-day tourist visa for $34. Citizens of certain countries do not require a visa to enter , and can go straight through the "Immigration" terminal.^ If you require more information about Beirut, you may be able to obtain it from the Beirut Tourist Board.
  • Hotels Beirut, guest house, accommodation Beirut, Lebanon 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.a1tourism.com [Source type: General]

^ If you want to license the use of a photo for publication you need to go through Getty .

^ Step 3: Enter the number you are going to call .
  • International Dialing/Area codes calculator 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

.Check with your embassy or a Lebanese embassy for detailed inquiries.^ Check out The Scene's recommendations for the Lebanese capital and send us your own suggestions below.
  • Beirut: News & Videos about Beirut - CNN.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

At the moment, there is no public transportation to or from the airport. .However, taxis are plentiful, and comfortable taxis that are authorized by the airport are parked next to the terminal in the arrivals level and have an airport logo on the side (official airport taxi fares [3]).^ Posted by: anand at February 25, 2009 11:42 PM I just contributed taxi fare for your next escape...
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We were floored at Keyspan Park two years ago, and are excited to see them bring it to another level at the Garden next month.
  • beirut coverage by Gothamist 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: General]

As these taxis are regulated by the airport authorities, they are guaranteed to be honest in their rates. Regular taxis are also available and are located a little farther from the airport, but these are not guaranteed and are to be used at ones own risk. .In the future, there are plans to offer regularly scheduled bus services from the airport to various parts of the city and even other parts of the country.^ But parts of the country were deteriorating, and outside the airport perimeter were slums that bred recruits for militant groups like Hezbollah, which was responsible for the October 23 bombing.

^ In addition to air connections through Beirut International Airport, Beirut is linked by railroad and highway to Damascus, Syria, and other Middle East cities.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most other countries, ambassadors are expelled and embassies shut down when there is violation of sovereignty and sponsored murder.
  • From Beirut to the Beltway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC beirutbeltway.com [Source type: Original source]

Bus shelters are already constructed at the airport.
All major car rental companies have booking offices inside the airport.

By Car

There are four border crossing points between Lebanon and Syria:
  • Masnaa (on the Beirut-Damascus Highway)
  • Qaa (at the northern edge of the Békaa Valley)
  • Arida (north of Tripoli along the coast)
  • Aboudiyeh (northeast of Tripoli).
.You can travel between Lebanon and Syria by private/rental car, bus, private taxi, or service taxi.^ I mean, why issue a travel advisory to Lebanon, and then say that you should Lebanon, at the same time?” .
  • beirut « Qifa Nabki | A Lebanese Political Blog 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC qifanabki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lebanon Hotels and Lebanon Tours booking service is operated by lebanon.travel - Grey Matter SARL .
  • Lebanon Hotels Accommodation - Lebanon Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with lebanon.travel 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lebanon.travel [Source type: General]

^ There was a stillborn negotiation that was supposed to take place, at least in the American view, between Lebanon and Syria.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

Visa can be issued at the border. .If traveling by land, contact your embassy in Beirut beforehand.^ Write your own description of Beirut On this Page: Compare Prices • Photos • User Reviews • Hotels • Geography Find and Compare Travel Deals In Beirut!
  • Beirut Travel Guide | MyTravelGuide.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.mytravelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By Bus

.Buses from Damascus and regions south of Beirut drop passengers off at an intersection adjacent to the Cola bridge\overpass, which is located in the southern part of the city (Mazraa) a couple of km south of Hamra and southwest of downtown.^ The area of the city is roughly 67 sq km (26 sq mi); some sites located outside the municipal boundary are commonly associated with the city.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beirut , capital and largest city of Lebanon, located on the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around the historic core of Beirut , areas of poverty have spread, particularly to the south, linking the city with adjacent suburbs.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From here, you can get a private taxi to Hamra or Center Ville for LL10000 or a shared "service" taxi for LL2000. Be clear with the taxi driver if you want service [ser-vee-s].^ Beirut to Damascus Bus Service Posted: Thu January 31, 2008 06:52 PM UTC We want to travel from Beirut to Damascus on bus or taxi service.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Travel Forum - VirtualTourist.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forum.virtualtourist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where do you want to go?” our driver said.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Here, the strange is normal.” I wanted to answer, in a casual tone, “I know what you mean.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

.If the taxi driver asks you to pay 2 or 3 service, they are asking for you to pay for two or three spots in the cab, which is usually unnecessary.^ Two are active duty Marines (Generals) and asked that their names be withheld to avoid perception that they would be endorsing Spirit of America.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When asked if he thought this was a rare phenomenon in the camp, he said “You can find a lot of people that think this way, but they will never say it.

^ Try asking the board administrator if they can install the language pack you need or if it does not exist, please feel free to create a new translation.
  • FAQ :: Forums @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forums.beirut.com [Source type: General]

Just wait for the next cab. .There are about a dozen government bus routes, but service taxis are typically easier and just as cheap.^ I could go on all day about them, but it’s much easier to just click the link below and take in all those numbers for yourself!

^ For every one of these programs with genuine substance– there are dozens that are just hot air and a bunch of rhetoric.

Get around

By taxi

.There are two types of taxis in Beirut; the old (often) battered hail-taxis, and the prebooking taxis.^ Fatteh: there are two types of fatteh served: one has chickpeas and yoghurt in it..and the other has eggplant and yoghurt and pine seeds.
  • Beirut Restaurants - Beirut Restaurants Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Here's what they did to Hadi Jaafar : two years old from Ghaziyeh ...and here is his father posted by Beirut at 1:50 AM 0 comments .

.
  • Hail-taxi - The most convenient form of transport in Beirut, as they are absolutely everywhere.^ Consequently, new generations return to the villages of their ancestors in order to vote, even if they have lived in Beirut for most of their lives.

    .Those taxis are predominantly Mercedes Benz cars (though recently, due to increasing petrol prices, taxi drivers are opting for more economic forms or transport) and can be pretty easily identified by their yellow illuminated taxi sign on the roof and red number plate.^ Can anyone tell me the approximate price to hire a car and driver for day trips to places such as Baalbeck, Sidon, the Cedars?
    • Beirut, Lebanon Travel Forum - VirtualTourist.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forum.virtualtourist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Fixed meters aren't provided so it is recommended to ask how much your trip will cost before hopping in.^ How much do daily things cost, like bread and simple food and necessary items to bring to the flat?
    • Beirut, Lebanon Travel Forum - VirtualTourist.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forum.virtualtourist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Otherwise, how much should we pay for a taxi (round trip) for 4 people from the port to Byblos?
    • Beirut, Lebanon Travel Forum - VirtualTourist.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forum.virtualtourist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Theme: Other Address: Verdun Street Directions: Ask anyone you can't miss Add to Your Trip Planner .
    • Beirut Shopping - Reviews, Tips, Photos - VirtualTourist.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

    The fare will be charged per destination and not per distance traveled (which is an advantage since traffic is a big problem in the city). .A typical journey from one side of Beirut to the other (roughly 3 km) may cost LL10.000 (€5.00).^ If the SSNP found out where we were staying, every single one of us would have to move to the other side of Beirut.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Terre Brune is a four star hotel overlooking the Faqra Roman temple and Beirut from one side, and the Faraya Mzaar ski slopes from the other side.
    • Lebanon Hotels Accommodation - Lebanon Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with lebanon.travel 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lebanon.travel [Source type: General]

    ^ The coffee is better at X Café,” he responded, naming a place in a neighborhood on the other side of Beirut.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Many taxi drivers speak at least a few words of English and French.^ Of course I made sure that he did not support Sharon!” he assured me only half-jokingly, speaking English with a strong French accent.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I don't remember if I was speaking English or French at that time.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They have light-coloured skin and speak beautiful English and French.

    .Knowing the name of your destination in the local language may solve any misunderstandings.^ Country Guide Destination Guide Local Events Lebanon Weather Lebanon Photos Lebanon Videos Responsible Accommodation Your Local Connection .
    • Lebanon Hotels Accommodation - Lebanon Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with lebanon.travel 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lebanon.travel [Source type: General]

    .note: keep in mind the names of the landmarks around the city, as they will come in handy when traveling by public transport (some drivers mightn't be that good at orienteering!^ Refugees in a public school in Alley keep the record of this war : in theboard , she's writing the names of the villages in the south and the dateswhen each was evacuated.

    ^ They did not appear to come into the city.
    • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

    ).
  • .
  • Prebook taxi - These require that you call them and book a ride, they generally cost more but are much more luxurious and are normally air conditioned.^ If you require more information about Beirut, you may be able to obtain it from the Beirut Tourist Board.
    • Hotels Beirut, guest house, accommodation Beirut, Lebanon 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.a1tourism.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But the books I saw in Beirut gave a much more diverse, thoughtful, perspective.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The so called civilized world may offer these two war criminals the titles they wish for, in the eyes of the Lebanese they will remain war criminals and no less than war criminals.
    • Lebanon, Lebanese, Maronites, Beirut - The Peace FAQ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: Original source]

    .All hotels should provide you with a taxi directory, if you wish to use this type of service.^ He should have added: "All of you, whoever you are."

    ^ If still get no response you should contact the owner of the domain (do a whois lookup) or, if this is running on a free service (e.g.
    • FAQ :: Forums @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forums.beirut.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You can also use your Lebanon map to help you choose your hotel in Lebanon based on location.
    • Lebanon Hotels Accommodation - Lebanon Tours - Book Online at discounted rates with lebanon.travel 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lebanon.travel [Source type: General]

    Taxi prices are considered cheap if compared to US and European taxis. Major taxi companies are: Geryes Taxi (00961-1-332747), Taxi Premiere (Tel 1260 or 00961-1-389222). Allo Taxi (Tel 1213 or 00961-1-366661),

By service

.The more common form of transport, especially with daily commuters, as they are cheaper than the taxis, but ironically, are in fact the same.^ There are now more than one PLUM. In fact, there are four if you count the outlet store in St Nicholas (Achrafieh).
  • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

^ Drivers honked their horns more insistently than they do all the time anyway, if such a thing is even possible.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But it's certainly a more common sight here than anywhere else.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

.Service [ser-vee-s] are shared-taxis, the same taxis as above but shared between four people.^ The deeply instilled Four Seasons culture is personified in its employees - people who share a single focus and are inspired to offer great service.
  • Four Seasons Hotel Now Open in Magical and Intriguing Beirut - news from CBS MoneyWatch.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC finance.bnet.com [Source type: General]

The biggest advantage with these are that the fare is split between all other passengers, and thus, a typical journey will only cost around 2,000 L.L (€1). .They come with drawbacks of course, and apart from having to share a small car with three other complete strangers (great for meeting new people actually), the service only travels a specific route (usually up and down a street), which means you'll have to get out and take another service at the end of the route.^ Not only were they empty of people.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I mean, what other choice do you have?
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A general arranged to meet with her and other wives to share the latest news.

Hailing a service or taxi usually entails yelling your destination to the driver if he slows down, then chasing the name of your destination with either 'taxi' or 'service'.
.It is important that you specify what type of ride you want (when hailing a taxi or service), if you fail to do so, the driver will assume you asked for taxi, and will overcharge you at taxi-rate.^ Beirut to Damascus Bus Service Posted: Thu January 31, 2008 06:52 PM UTC We want to travel from Beirut to Damascus on bus or taxi service.
  • Beirut, Lebanon Travel Forum - VirtualTourist.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forum.virtualtourist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where do you want to go?” our driver said.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The user group moderator will need to approve your request; they may ask why you want to join the group.
  • FAQ :: Forums @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forums.beirut.com [Source type: General]

By bus

There are currently two public transport companies. .The OCFTC [4] that operates a fleet of blue and white city-buses, and the LCC [5] with a fleet of red and white minibuses; Bus fares cost around 600 to 750L.L ($0.40 to 0.50).^ A giant red, white, and black sign was dramatically erected next to the tent-city.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

.The service is very efficient and the buses come very often, to get onto a bus you must stand at the side of the road and signal with your hand as a bus approaches; the buses will stop anywhere.^ "You have blood on your hands in the service of a foreign country."
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile you will have your own muscle on call - good idea - but ISTM you will likewise have to have a good signal and a half minute to talk or text.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By using them you ensure that when you come to paint onto the paper it will have an extraordinary luminous quality – the paint will truly shine.

By car

.Driving in Beirut is not to be recommended for much of the day, particularly in the city center.^ Around the historic core of Beirut , areas of poverty have spread, particularly to the south, linking the city with adjacent suburbs.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Delighat you Mother in Beirut on her special day o Mother's Day with a Mother's Day Flower bouquet and show her how much you love her.

^ The Hamra district in West Beirut , south of the American University of Beirut , has replaced the downtown area as the city's center.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Traffic is heavy, and impossible during rush hour. .There is so much to see and being stuck in a traffic jam is the last thing anyone would want to spend their time doing.^ Having heard so much about this protest camp, I wanted to see it for myself.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally the craftsmen would always spend a great deal of time on these pages.

^ There wasn’t much he could do, and I did not see him again.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.Walking around the city is much more of an experience, and is in fact necessary in the very center since that part of the city is a pedestrian area.^ At the very least we all would have been much more severely injured.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Around the historic core of Beirut , areas of poverty have spread, particularly to the south, linking the city with adjacent suburbs.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hamra district in West Beirut , south of the American University of Beirut , has replaced the downtown area as the city's center.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It can be difficult to find parking other than in multi-story and off-street car parks.^ The streets were also empty of parked cars.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A third punched him and knocked him into the street between two parked cars.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A car bomb has ripped through a predominantly Christian area of Beirut early Saturday, sheering off part of a multi-story office building and raising concerns about more violence in the volatile Lebanese capital.
  • Beirut: News & Videos about Beirut - CNN.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.On-street parking, if you are lucky enough to find one, is allowed for a short time of two hours.^ You have to allow me this one moment of anger."
  • James Bovard: The Reagan Roadmap for an Antiterrorism Disaster 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: News]

^ Search for some other city Personal World Clock - shows just the cities you need Meeting Planner - find a suitable time for an international meeting Time Zone Converter - Convert time between two time zones.
  • The World Clock - Time Zones - North America 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]
  • The World Clock - Time Zones - Asia 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you' re lucky, you can also find some pieces by Gardem.
  • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

.Tickets must be purchased through the parking meters usually located at either end of a street.^ The new PLUM is now located on Park Avenue, in DownTown Beirut (a few meters down from Banque Audi HQ).
  • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

They can be paid by either cash or card. .Overstaying your time may get you a ticket.^ The times are almost certainly correct; however, what you may be seeing are times displayed in a timezone different from the one you are in.
  • FAQ :: Forums @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forums.beirut.com [Source type: General]

^ That might be compatible with the safeties on your fight reflex that no doubt inhibited you from the timely infliction of harm in this case.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The user group moderator will need to approve your request; they may ask why you want to join the group.
  • FAQ :: Forums @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forums.beirut.com [Source type: General]

.Enforcement of the parking limit isn't done very efficiently, but obviously the last thing anyone would want to find is a ticket that will ruin their day and set them back financially.^ If anyone tries something like that with me in the future, things will play out very differently.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The last thing they want to do is create a similar living hell for their own children.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The President said he could not set any time limit: "These incidents are the type of thing that can happen, and the best answer to them is for the Israelis, the Syrians and what remains of the PLO there are, to go back beyond their own borders."
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

.Renting a car is recommended if you're planing to visit neighboring towns and cities such as Jounieh, or if you're planing to go out late at night when public transport isn't operating, or maybe simply to enjoy the Lebanese "see-and-be-seen" lifestyle.^ I admire the pinky-finger tactic, but once you let go, you're back to square one.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They made their own ballots, their own ballot boxes, and they're carrying them to every city and town in the country.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ That's not something you're ever likely to see in America.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

.Car rental prices range from economical 40.000L.L/day (€20.00/day) to luxury and exotic standard prices.^ Can anyone tell me the approximate price to hire a car and driver for day trips to places such as Baalbeck, Sidon, the Cedars?
  • Beirut, Lebanon Travel Forum - VirtualTourist.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forum.virtualtourist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US & Canada: 1-800-780-5733 Europe: 00-800-11-20-11-40 Promo Code: 134277 Skip to Search Results Skip Refine Search Results Destination .
  • WTZ – Properties Beirut, LEBANON 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC travel.ian.com [Source type: General]

^ US & Canada: 1-800-780-5733 Europe: 00-800-11-20-11-40 Promo Code: 134277 from $166.
  • WTZ – Properties Beirut, LEBANON 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC travel.ian.com [Source type: General]

.Those can change according to season, so make sure you contact the car rental company beforehand to check prices as well as pickup/drop-off locations.^ You know these guys are widely suspected for setting off most or all of the car bombs,” I said.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I kept turning around and checking behind us to make sure we weren’t being followed.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Please try the following: • If you typed the page address in the Address bar, make sure that it is spelled correctly.
  • Beirut: News & Videos about Beirut - CNN.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

Note: Driving in Beirut is on the right-hand side of the road.
.Note: Only the central areas of Beirut have traffic lights operating, though plans have been made to cover all of the city.^ The Arabic name Beirut came from the Canaanite word for .wells.; the city was so named because of the underground water supply in the area.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around the historic core of Beirut , areas of poverty have spread, particularly to the south, linking the city with adjacent suburbs.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All flowers are arranged by our florists in Beirut and personally delivered, not posted so quality is always assured as only a real florist can.

Rent a car: below is a selected list of car hire companies.

On foot

As the city is quite compact, walking is the best way of getting around, and perfect for getting off the beaten track to find unexpected surprises. .Streets are generally well signposted, but few Beiruti locals would know how to navigate according to their names, directions are usually given by building placement ("straight down the road until you reach building X, turn left there, then right..."^ If you do not know how to do it, do not start it.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In our continuing effort to make your Video experience the best it can be, we encourage you to let us know how we're doing and what you would like to see.
  • Beirut live at Amoeba Music 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.amoeba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was hope that the MNF would stabilize the situation--but how it was to do so, none could say.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

), and many streets have local nicknames that wouldn't match the map. .That said, if you find yourself lost in the streets, simply ask any passer-by for directions; no one will refuse to help!^ Perhaps there is a one-button iPhone app that would send out a blurt to your tag team, with GPS and googlemap street directions.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you cannot find who that is, you should first contact one of the forum moderators and ask them who you should in turn contact.
  • FAQ :: Forums @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forums.beirut.com [Source type: General]

^ Jews are terrible drinkers.” Everyone laughed in response, but no-one asked me any questions.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

Otherwise you can stop at the nearest hotel or shop and ask. Hotel concierges and shop keepers will most definitely speak English.
Some roads in Beirut are in poor condition. .Not so much in the center, but the farther you get from downtown the more road works you will most probably find.^ Defense Secretary Weinberger announced that "nothing can work against a suicide attack like that, any more than you can do anything against a kamikaze flight."
  • James Bovard: The Reagan Roadmap for an Antiterrorism Disaster 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: News]

^ Having enjoyed both you and Christopher's work, I'm glad it didn't turn into something far more serious.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is inspiring news, but the work involved also compels us to remind you more urgently than ever to subscribe and/or make a (tax deductible) donation if you can afford it.
  • James Bovard: The Reagan Roadmap for an Antiterrorism Disaster 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: News]

So take care!
.You can always check out a Beiruti-run walking tour called Walk Beirut.^ You can always wait them out."
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On Monot there is only one place to go; check out the new look of Rai and be part of Beirut’s in-crowd!
  • Beirut Nightlife - Travel Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Marwa, from her hospital bed in Beirut, calls Mirna everyday but she always gets Wissam instead.

They offer weekly tours around the city.

See

.Beirut was once the self-proclaimed "Paris of the Middle East". It still has a outdoor cafe culture, and European architecture can be found.^ During better times, money from rich Arab states used to flow through the international banks in Beirut, and the city was known as the "Paris of the Middle East."

^ Once a famous port, and as recently as the 1970s a banking and cultural center for the Middle East, Beirut was devastated by civil war and successive occupation by Syria and Israel between 1975 and 1991.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sumac, a lemony-tasting spice found in Mediterranean regions and the Middle East.
  • Beirut News 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC cgi.wn.com [Source type: General]

.Many Beirutis can speak French and/or English, to varying degrees, along with Arabic.^ He speaks English - and perhaps even Arabic - with a Down Under accent.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course I made sure that he did not support Sharon!” he assured me only half-jokingly, speaking English with a strong French accent.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It presents the Lebanese Cedar tree flag along with a national unity slogan printed in three different languages, Arabic, English, French: "Lebanon: United for Life."
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

Each district has its own sights and places to visit. .The following listings are just some highlights of things that you really should see if you can during your visit to Beirut.^ I don't have a paypal ac, but you do know my e-mail address: point me at your Amazon wish list and I'll do what I can .
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, as you can tell from my name, i do support hezbollah, am an athiest born into a shia family and don't really give a crap if an Israeli got into Beirut.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They’re the first thing you see.

The complete listings are found on each individual district page.
  • Pigeon Rocks (Rawcheh District) A monumental natural arch jutting up from the Mediterranean. .Great place to sit at one of the roadside cafes and watch the sun set.
  • Solidére Clock Tower (Downtown District), originally built by the French in the early 20th century in the very center of the Downtown district, it suffered a lot of war damage during the war but recently has been restored.
  • Martyr's Statue Downtown Martyr's Square, east of Nejmeh Square towards Ashrafieh.
  • Jeita Grotto is a compound of crystallized caves in Lebanon located 20 km north of Beirut in the Valley of Nahr al-Kalb (Dog River).^ Current location: Beirut, Lebanon .
    • Beirut, Lebanon News - Topix 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]
    • Beirut, Lebanon News - Topix 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]

    ^ He visited Lebanon during the war and immediately after.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Just yesterday, coming back from a pre-election beach session north of Beirut, we passed a convoy of about 20 tanks riding down the highway at about 50 km/h.

    .This grotto is made up of two limestone caves, upper galleries and a lower cave through which a 6230 m long river runs.^ Two days after the punch up, various factually inaccurate versions of the story made their way into the blogosphere.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    Geologically, the caves provide a tunnel or escape route for the underground river. .In this cave and galleries, the action of water in the limestone has created cathedral-like vaults full of various sizes, colors and shapes of stalactites and stalagmites, majestic curtains and fantastic rock formations.^ Like the SSNP, the Egyptians and the Romans were more action-oriented than the creators of blood libel.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The total length of the cave is more than 9000 m and there is one among the biggest stalactites in the world hanging 8,20 m.^ Damascus feeds its imperial ambitions and has always dreamt of becoming a "Great Syria " in which Lebanon would be no more than one of the docile provinces.
    • Lebanon, Lebanese, Maronites, Beirut - The Peace FAQ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are now more than one PLUM. In fact, there are four if you count the outlet store in St Nicholas (Achrafieh).
    • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

    ^ However, in mid-September 1982, the massacre of more than 700 Palestinian refugees threatened to plunge Lebanon into total chaos.
    • James Bovard: The Reagan Roadmap for an Antiterrorism Disaster 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: News]

    .The grotto accommodates a huge hall with a distance of 108 m from the ceiling till the water level.
  • National Museum Of Beirut [12] (Ras El Nabaa, South Ashrafieh) Archeology and History.^ Welcome to the InterContinental Phoenicia Beirut Hotel, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea and located next to area attractions such as the National Museum, the Beach Club and downtown Beirut.
    • Beirut Luxury Hotels, 5 Star Hotels in Beirut, Online Hotel Reservations 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.luxurytravel.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Business-friendly Beirut property with a seasonal outdoor pool This business-friendly Beirut property is situated close to National Museum of Beirut, Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium, and Beirut Municipality Stadium.
    • Beirut Hotels 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.expedia.com [Source type: General]

    ^ National Museum of Beirut is an area attraction, along with Beirut Municipality Stadium and Camille Chamoun ...
    • Beirut Hotels 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.expedia.com [Source type: General]

    Tu-Su 9AM-5PM, closed Mon and Holidays, Fee: 5.000L.L (adult), 1.000L.L (students, under 18).
  • Sursock Museum (Ashrafieh District), Rue. .Sursock (street), Ashrafieh, Beirut.^ Theme: Other Address: Gourad Street Directions: Lies between Mar Maroun and the Ottoman mansions of Sursock Quarter to the south and Beirut Port to the north.
    • Beirut Nightlife - Travel Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Ashrafieh, Tabaris, 100 Liban street, Mhanna bldg, 2nd floor, Beirut, Lebanon +961 1 575585 http://www.sarahsbag.com .
    • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

    (Contemporary Modern art), the building itself is a perfect example of the typical 18th century Lebanese palace. .Lebanese and International art is permanently displayed in the intricately preserved interior.
  • Beirut Art Center (Sin El-Fil District), Rue.^ The Hamra district in West Beirut , south of the American University of Beirut , has replaced the downtown area as the city's center.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In Beirut, an Art Center rises in an industrial neighborhood, and touts its communal use.
    • Daniel Drennan: A Black Panther in Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Avenue de l'Aroport, a major thoroughfare, runs from the port area to the Beirut International Airport, 8 km (5 mi) south of the city's center.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .97 (street), Sin El-Fil, Beirut.^ Sin El-Fil-Beirut-Lebanon.
    • Beirut International Movers-Sin El Fil-Beirut Lebanon-Camil Chamoun Street. 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.beirutmovers.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Beirut International Movers-Sin El Fil-Beirut Lebanon-Camil Chamoun Street.
    • Beirut International Movers-Sin El Fil-Beirut Lebanon-Camil Chamoun Street. 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.beirutmovers.com [Source type: News]

    .(Contemporary Modern art), the first non-profit public space in Beirut, housing an exhibition space, screening and performance auditorium, bookstore, mediatheque, cafe and terrace.^ "There is little scholarship about modern art but, instead, an ever-growing number of exhibition catalogues arising from the increasing number of contemporary shows of Middle East art.

    ^ Drink , Beirut ) Torino was Gemmayze's first bar and has become over the years, the meeting point for the city's art scene and local djs.
    • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There is an overlapping network developing of artists, non-profit cultural groups, publications, galleries, cinema spaces, art buyers, educational programs, festivals, bloggers, curators, exhibits and funding.

    Designed by architect Raed Abi Lama. .Tel: 01 397 018.
  • Matignon Gallery (Lebanese and International contemporary art), Sin El Fil, Greater Beirut, +(961) 1-500265, 484115 (fax: +(961) 1-484115).^ Sin El-Fil-Beirut-Lebanon.
    • Beirut International Movers-Sin El Fil-Beirut Lebanon-Camil Chamoun Street. 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.beirutmovers.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Tel : 961 1 49 55 00 Cel : 961 3 61 77 12 Fax : 961 1 49 77 00 P.O.Box : 55-050 Sin El-Fil WebSite : www.beirutmovers.com E-Mail : .
    • Beirut International Movers-Sin El Fil-Beirut Lebanon-Camil Chamoun Street. 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.beirutmovers.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Theme: Eating and Drinking Address: Saifi Village, Beirut Phone: tel: 961 1 575858 Directions: Mar Maroun Street, Saifi Village - Downtown Beirut.
    • Beirut Nightlife - Travel Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

    Mon-Fri 10AM-6PM, Sat 10AM-2PM.  .'listing', 'Beirut');return false;" title="click to edit Matignon Gallery">edit
  • AUB Museum (Hamra District) [13] Archeology and History, the Middle East's oldest museum.^ Car Bombs Return to Beirut TCS Daily - 12/13/2005 .
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In addition to air connections through Beirut International Airport, Beirut is linked by railroad and highway to Damascus, Syria, and other Middle East cities.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Economy: Since the civil war, Beirut has been struggling to regain its position as a center of commerce and banking in the Middle East.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Rue. Bliss (Rue. .33), Hamra,(01)340549. Mon-Fri 10:00-16:00, closed holidays.
  • Emmagoss Gallery, Emmaniel Guiragossian Art School, New Jdeideh, Greater Beirut, 00961 1 900091 (), [14].^ Posted at 10:16 AM in About Beirut , photo archives .

    ^ More Jan 10, 1:30pm LOFT965 Last year The New York Times named Beirut the #1 place to go to in 2009.
    • Beirut > Elbows Music Blog Aggregator 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC elbo.ws [Source type: General]

     .'listing', 'Beirut');return false;" title="click to edit Emmagoss Gallery">edit.
  • Atelier Camille Allam Beirut (Gallery), Sursock street, Tabaris, Ashrafieh, Beirut, (), [15].^ Ashrafieh, Tabaris, 100 Liban street, Mhanna bldg, 2nd floor, Beirut, Lebanon +961 1 575585 http://www.sarahsbag.com .
    • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Rejuvinate , Beirut ) Very cute nail spa Said Freiha Street, Verdun and Nagib Trad Street, Tabaris.
    • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Moutran Street, Beirut Down Town +961 1 991-111 http://www.aishti.com .
    • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

    9 to 9.  edit
  • Sanayeh Park, Emmile Eddé Road, Hamra, Beirut
  • Horsh Beirut (Beirut Pine Forest), (adjacent to the Beirut Hippodrome south of Ashrafieh)
  • Khalil Gebran Park Downtown District (between Amir Amine St. and Toufik Khaled St.)
  • Debbas Square Saifi village Downtown (bewteen Charles Debbas St. and Dmascus St.)
  • Nejmeh Square Central Downtown
  • Herbal Garden Riad El Solh St. Downtown.
Events
.To stay up to date on Beirut's nightlife scene, visit any Virgin Megastores branch to ask about any upcoming events.^ Robert Fisk: Elegy for Beirut home / subscribe / about us / books / events / archives / search / links / faq .

^ We went to Beirut to film a TV show about the city's newly vibrant culinary and cultural scene.
  • Watching Beirut die - Salon.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: General]

^ Argue as you might about the events leading up to the establishment of Israel .
  • Lebanon, Lebanese, Maronites, Beirut - The Peace FAQ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: Original source]

Many live concerts are held throughout the year with international musicians and DJ's. .Beirut has hosted some of the world’s biggest names in Dance music such as Paul Van Dyk, Ferry Corsten, Nick Warren, Anthony Pappa, Sasha, John Digweed, Danny Howells, Steve Lawler and Tiesto.^ The city also known as the 'European getaway' hosts some world acclaimed shopping outlets that boasts number of trendy shops and jewelry stores.
  • Beirut Hotels Lebanon, Beirut Hotels Accommodation, Beirut Hotels Discount, Cheap Hotels in Beirut, Hotel in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where there is religious debate some nut says the world's worst crimes were done in the name of atheism.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ White Rabbits Beirut Shows Some Spanish Styles @ Music Hall Of Williamsburg, Brooklyn 5/18/08 .
  • Beirut on Stereogum 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC stereogum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Beirut on Stereogum 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC cdn.stereogum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Alternatively keep an ear out for the radio:
  • Beirut International Film Festival, [18]. .Held annually in October, the Beirut Film Festival exhibits films from all over the middle east, usually in either Arabic or French.^ During better times, money from rich Arab states used to flow through the international banks in Beirut, and the city was known as the "Paris of the Middle East."

    ^ Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon , is popular as one of the major commercial and cultural center of Middle East.
    • Beirut Hotels Lebanon, Beirut Hotels Accommodation, Beirut Hotels Discount, Cheap Hotels in Beirut, Hotel in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In addition to air connections through Beirut International Airport, Beirut is linked by railroad and highway to Damascus, Syria, and other Middle East cities.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The films vary enormously and some can be intensely political.
  • Beirut International Jazz Festival, [19].^ I heard that Beirut filmed about 12 of these videos and a dvd will be released soon, anyone else shed some light on this?
    • Beirut - Beirut - LA BLOGOTHEQUE 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blogotheque.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Held annually during the month of July over a period of four days, some of the greatest international jazz artists as well as musicians from around Lebanon play some quality music near the Beirut marina.
  • Festival du cinéma francophone [20], Held between the month of march and April over a period of two weeks, films are in French.^ Search for some other city Personal World Clock - shows just the cities you need Meeting Planner - find a suitable time for an international meeting Time Zone Converter - Convert time between two time zones.
    • The World Clock - Time Zones - Asia 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The board is not designed to handle the changeovers between standard and daylight time so during summer months the time may be an hour different from the real local time.
    • FAQ :: Forums @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC forums.beirut.com [Source type: General]

    ^ That cease-fire across the border in South Lebanon held for the next eleven months in spite of minor violations (Habib's description).
    • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

    Cinéma Métropolis - Masrah Al Madina, Beirut, (tel: 00961 1 293 212).
  • One Big Sunday, Beach party with live DJs held every Sunday during the summer months in various resorts and beaches, organised by Mix FM[21].
  • Bacardi Night, Annual festival held during the summer with some of the hottest DJs from around the world, organised by Mix FM[22].

Do

.Things to do in Beirut are virtually unlimited.^ So I gathered up my things to go and meet my mysterious virtual friend on the other side of Beirut.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

.Check the different districts to find out what each has to offer.^ Then, on my balcony - a glance to check the location of the Israeli gunboat far out in the sea-smog - I find older clippings.

Meanwhile, here are a few highlights:
A Beach Club in Greater Beirut. Most do not offer a sandy beach, however.
.
A Beach Club in Greater Beirut.
^ Welcome to the InterContinental Phoenicia Beirut Hotel, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea and located next to area attractions such as the National Museum, the Beach Club and downtown Beirut.
  • Beirut Luxury Hotels, 5 Star Hotels in Beirut, Online Hotel Reservations 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.luxurytravel.com [Source type: News]

.Most do not offer a sandy beach, however.
  • Bet on an Arabian thoroughbred every Sunday in the Beirut Hippodrome, officially called Hippodrome Du Parc De Beyrouth [23].^ On my final night in Beirut I ate what will surely remain one of the most remarkable meals of my life, at an Armenian restaurant called Mayrig.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ BEIRUT for every moment offered by your music....I LOVE IT!!!!!
    • Beirut - Beirut - LA BLOGOTHEQUE 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blogotheque.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The hippodrome is home to popular horse races, attracting a dedicated betting crowd (often old taxi drivers). .Foreigners should join the fun in the afternoon for free entrance (ID or passport required).^ A security guard has been taken care of so as to lift the gate of a back entrance should circumstances require our fleeing through a back way.
    • Watching Beirut die - Salon.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: General]

    .Open on Sundays only.
  • Soak up the sun in one of the beach clubs on the Beirut coast.^ Hans was one of the few people in Beirut who knew I was Israeli, but he was not the only one.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One hopes only for the little things: that they'll fire up the pizza oven today.
    • Watching Beirut die - Salon.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We had planned the Beirut one a few weeks before, everything was set up, when Okkervill’s label called me to suggest we might do a new Take Away Show with them.
    • Beirut - Beirut - LA BLOGOTHEQUE 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blogotheque.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Very few actually have sandy beaches, and most unfortunately have been converted into spas with swimming pools and paved terraces, but despite all that, they all have access to the sea.^ We will tell their stories to our children; they will tell their own children the story: the story of a great people, one that never lost faith despite all the crimes, pains and injustices.

    ^ Beirut ) The mega luxury store also has a very nice day spa, with all the best products (Carita, Dr. Sebbagh...
    • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In fact, quite a few of those I met seemed not to like him very much at all.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    A few of them are completely private and members-only, but can be accessed by paying for a guest ticket if going in with a member. .The Saint George Yacht club in Ain El Mreisseh and the Riviera Beach and Yacht Club at the Riviera Hotel are two such popular clubs, where access to the beach club for non-members is US$20 per day.^ Welcome to the InterContinental Phoenicia Beirut Hotel, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea and located next to area attractions such as the National Museum, the Beach Club and downtown Beirut.
    • Beirut Luxury Hotels, 5 Star Hotels in Beirut, Online Hotel Reservations 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.luxurytravel.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Ain el Mreisseh Street +961 1 369 334 or +961 3 856 111 .
    • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Bars, restaurants and beach clubs are plentiful and popular both with locals and travelers.
    • Beirut Hotels - LOWEST DISCOUNT RATES for all Hotels in Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.agoda.com [Source type: General]

    .You can chill in one of the pools or have a drink at the bars and cafes while listening to music in the afternoons.^ But that night we went to Club Social, which, with its live music, pool table and lounge bar atmosphere, was more my style.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    Long Beach Club is another good place. The entrance is just to the left of the Ferris wheel on the Cornish right before the hill. Bring a beach towel.
The Cornich before sunset.
.
The Cornich before sunset.
  • Test your golfing skills at The Golf Club of Lebanon (18 hole), Ouzai - Beer Hassan, P.O.Box 11-3099, Beirut (next to Henry chehab barrack), 00961 1 826335-6-7 (, fax: 00961 1 822474), [24].^ Welcome to the InterContinental Phoenicia Beirut Hotel, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea and located next to area attractions such as the National Museum, the Beach Club and downtown Beirut.
    • Beirut Luxury Hotels, 5 Star Hotels in Beirut, Online Hotel Reservations 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.luxurytravel.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Posted by: anand at February 25, 2009 11:42 PM I just contributed taxi fare for your next escape...
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

     .'listing', 'Beirut');return false;" title="click to edit The Golf Club of Lebanon">edit
  • Take a ride on the Beirut Balloon (30 passenger helium filled balloon, offering breathtaking views from an altitude of 300m.), Allenby St., Downtown Beirut (Entrance is through Biel Convention Centre.^ Welcome to the InterContinental Phoenicia Beirut Hotel, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea and located next to area attractions such as the National Museum, the Beach Club and downtown Beirut.
    • Beirut Luxury Hotels, 5 Star Hotels in Beirut, Online Hotel Reservations 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.luxurytravel.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Abdel Baki St - Hamra, Beirut, Lebanon Phone: +961 (0) 1 353 001 .
    • Beirut Hotels, Lebanon - Hotels in Lebanon - Smooth Hound 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.smoothhound.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ All the Take Away Shows Beirut Beirut [myspace] The Flying Club Cup • MP3blog Beirut, transatlantique Et c’est reparti.
    • Beirut - Beirut - LA BLOGOTHEQUE 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blogotheque.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Look for it in the sky!
    ), 00961 1 985901. 10AM-10PM.  .'listing', 'Beirut');return false;" title="click to edit Beirut Balloon">edit
  • Walk, jog, skate, cycle, stroll (or whatever you consider exercise) along Paris Avenue which links up to General De Gaulle Avenue (both locally known simply as the corniche) which stretch around the entire Central Beirut perimeter (approx.^ On the city's northern edge, the port area dominates East Beirut ; in West Beirut , important tourist facilities and institutions, including many of the city's hotels, foreign embassies, and the American University of Beirut , are located along the shore on the Avenue de Paris.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Marines’ mission was to control the area around the Beirut International Airport -– Lebanon’s link to the outside world.

    ^ By February of 1983, the Marines were involved in disturbing incidents as they guarded their perimeter around Beirut International Airport.
    • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

    5km). Start the walk, jog, skate etc... at the .Beirut marina (Downtown Beirut District) about an hour or so before sunset and finish at the Pigeon Rocks in Rawcheh, in time to watch the sun go down while sipping on a drink at one of the outdoor cafés.
  • Scuba Dive:, With 300 sunny days a year, 36 shipwrecks, impressive walls, canyons, caves, Ray habitats and shark habitats, Beirut definitely has something to offer for a serious scuba diver.^ It is definitely going to be one to watch.
    • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Exactly one year after that 34-day explosion of violence that is called the Second Lebanon War in Israel, and the July War in Lebanon, I went to Beirut because I was pulled by insatiable curiosity.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Name * Email * Website Comment « Beirut, one year after the war: my article for Time Out Tel Aviv Lebanon postscript » .
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The French WWII submarine Le Souffleur, the British freighter Alice B which sank during the civil war in the 80's, The Macedonia freighter which sank in 1962 and the National Star freighter in 1991, the Mediterranean flagship of Admiral Sir George Tryon HMS Victoria which sank in 1893, The British Lesbian which sank during WWII, make just a few of Beirut's shipwreck collection.^ Once a famous port, and as recently as the 1970s a banking and cultural center for the Middle East, Beirut was devastated by civil war and successive occupation by Syria and Israel between 1975 and 1991.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most of its members joined the Lebanese National Movement and fought alongside the PLO throughout the 1975 Civil War.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And many more besides during the Lebanese Civil War.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Historical cities dot ancient Phoenicia' s shore, providing us today with many interesting submerged historical sites, some littered with Phoenician and Roman marble stones, granite columns, pathways, old stone anchors, amphorae and bits of pottery.^ The area of the city is roughly 67 sq km (26 sq mi); some sites located outside the municipal boundary are commonly associated with the city.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ So many of these streets were built by Parisians under the French mandate and they have been exquisitely restored, their mock Arabian doorways bejewelled with marble Roman columns dug from the ancient Via Maxima a few metres away.

    .There are several Dive Centers around Beirut:
    • Calypso Beirut Diving Club, Movenpick Hotel & Resort, General de Gaulle Avenue, Raouche, Beirut, +961-3-314557 (, fax: +961-1-785300), [25].^ President Sarkis Avenue, Sodeco Phone: +961 1 616849 / 616850 / 616851 Nasser El Khalil Law Firm Beirut, Lebanon Commercial, Banking and Investment Law Firm .
      • Beirut, Lebanon Attorneys & Law Firms - Lawyers Beirut, Lebanon 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hg.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Luxury Travel Hotels Hotels > Middle East > Lebanon > Beirut Luxury Hotels Search our Hotel Directory...
      • Beirut Luxury Hotels, 5 Star Hotels in Beirut, Online Hotel Reservations 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.luxurytravel.com [Source type: News]

      ^ Saint-Antoine Building 150 Abdel Wahab al-Inglizi Street 2061 0904 Beirut, Lebanon T: +961 (0)1 322 786 http://www.over-thecounter.com .
      • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

       .'listing', 'Beirut');return false;" title="click to edit Calypso Beirut Diving Club">edit
    • NISD (National Institute for Scuba Diving) [26], Solidere Beirut Marina, Downtown Beirut, P.O. Box : 113-6691, (+961-3-204422) (email: info@nisd-online.com fax: +961-1-739206).
    • LD (Lebanon Divers) [27], Mardelli Building 2nd Floor, Saide Street Ashrafieh - Beirut, (00961-1-322826/00961-3-602614) (email: info@lebanondivers.com fax: 00961-1-329441).
    • Atlantis [28], Bel Azur Hotel, Jounieh, Greater Beirut, (email: dive@atlantisdivingcollege.com).
  • AUB [29]- American University of Beirut - The American University of Beirut (AUB) was founded in 1866 as a private, independent, non-sectarian institution of higher learning, functioning under a charter from the State of New York.^ Assaf Building, Hamra, Baalbeck Street Phone: +961 1 750682 Obeid Law Firm (OLF) Beirut, Lebanon Makarem Building, 1st Floor Sami el-Solh Street P.O. Box 116/2234 Palace of Justice Phone: 961-1 395163 Omar Khatib Law Firm Beirut, Lebanon Full Service Legal Firm in Lebanon .
    • Beirut, Lebanon Attorneys & Law Firms - Lawyers Beirut, Lebanon 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Gemayzeh is the Beirut equivalent of London’s Shoreditch or Hackney, or New York’s Williamsburg: a formerly run-down area close to downtown and central Beirut, with old buildings and cheaper rents.
    • Beirut guide book from Hg2 city guides 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hg2.com [Source type: General]

    ^ John F. Kennedy Street, Beirut donwtown, opposite Phoenicia Hotel.
    • The Blackbook: Beirut | Dia Diwan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.diadiwan.com [Source type: General]

    .AUB has grown from 16 students in a rented house to a major university with over 6,900 students located on a 73-acre campus overlooking the Mediterranean Sea.^ Beirut , capital and largest city of Lebanon, located on the Mediterranean Sea.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The University is governed by an autonomous Board of Trustees comprised of international leaders in business, education, diplomacy, engineering, philanthropy, science, and medicine.
  • LAU [30]- Lebanese American University - The Lebanese American University is an American institution chartered by the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York and operating in Lebanon.^ Most of the Lebanese factions and leaders already believed that the United States was deeply involved in Lebanon and that the United States was actively backing certain players.
    • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Lebanese government appealed to President Reagan to send American troops back into Beirut as a stabilizing factor, and Reagan quickly obliged.
    • James Bovard: The Reagan Roadmap for an Antiterrorism Disaster 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Dr Walid Phares , a native of Lebanon and formerly a lawyer in Beirut, and an instructor of political sociology at the Jesuit University of Beirut and Florida International University in Miami, is currently a professor of political science at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Florida.
    • Lebanon, Lebanese, Maronites, Beirut - The Peace FAQ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Currently, LAU has two campuses: one located in Beirut, and a second in the Mount Lebanon city of Jbeil (Byblos).^ Beirut , capital and largest city of Lebanon, located on the Mediterranean Sea.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon , is popular as one of the major commercial and cultural center of Middle East.
    • Beirut Hotels Lebanon, Beirut Hotels Accommodation, Beirut Hotels Discount, Cheap Hotels in Beirut, Hotel in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Exactly one year after that 34-day explosion of violence that is called the Second Lebanon War in Israel, and the July War in Lebanon, I went to Beirut because I was pulled by insatiable curiosity.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    The university offers programs leading to Associate's, Bachelor's, and Master's degrees in the arts and sciences, and Doctorates in Pharmacy. LAU is the only institution outside of the United States with an ACPE-accredited pharmacy program. .LAU is currently a candidate for accreditation by the Commission on Institution of Higher Education of the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC).
  • USJ [31]- Universitee Saint-Joseph - A private university founded in 1875. A member of the Association of Arab Universities, the International Association of Universities, the Association of French speaking universities (AUPELF) the International Federation of Catholic Universities, the European Federation of Catholic Universities, the Association of Jesuit Institutions of Higher Learning in Europe and Lebanon and the Euro-Med University (Téthys).
  • Lycee Abdel Kader [32]- A private French Lycee in the traditional area of Karakol El Druze near Beirut downtown: it is particularly known for offering French and Lebanese baccalaureates and for its highly competent students and staff.^ The Christian Lebanese were particularly influenced by the French.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The neighbourhood of Achrafieh, in what was formerly known as East Beirut, is a predominantly Christian area filled with small streets and hotch-potch buildings constructed on top of each other.
    • Beirut guide book from Hg2 city guides 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hg2.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It has now been designated an ‘area of traditional character’ by the Lebanese Ministry of Tourism, with its original red-tile roofs and buildings dating back to the 1930s and ’40s French mandate days.
    • Beirut guide book from Hg2 city guides 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hg2.com [Source type: General]

    It is ranked among the top 5 private schools in Lebanon with a 100% success rate in the French Bac.

Buy

.Clothes and fashion - Beirut is the fashion capital of Lebanon and the region, with some fashion designers that rival the best in the world (Elie Saab [33], Basil Soda [34], Pierre Katra [35] and Robert AbiNader [36].^ Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon , is popular as one of the major commercial and cultural center of Middle East.
  • Beirut Hotels Lebanon, Beirut Hotels Accommodation, Beirut Hotels Discount, Cheap Hotels in Beirut, Hotel in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plot of the nations who believe that by sacrificing the integrity of Lebanon they will be able to solve the problems of the region according to their own interests, this plot seems to have reached even those capitals regarded as incarnating the defense of the free world's values.
  • Lebanon, Lebanese, Maronites, Beirut - The Peace FAQ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.peacefaq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Beirut , capital and largest city of Lebanon, located on the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)

Shopping streets

There are several shopping districts around the city.
.
  • Downtown Beirut - The recently renovated city center that boasts fancy and designer stores.
  • Hamra Street - A less expensive shopping area, the perfect place to do bulk shopping since prices are relatively low.
  • Mar-Elias Street - A busy street towards the south of Beirut.^ The Hamra district in West Beirut , south of the American University of Beirut , has replaced the downtown area as the city's center.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The neighbourhood of Achrafieh, in what was formerly known as East Beirut, is a predominantly Christian area filled with small streets and hotch-potch buildings constructed on top of each other.
    • Beirut guide book from Hg2 city guides 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hg2.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon , is popular as one of the major commercial and cultural center of Middle East.
    • Beirut Hotels Lebanon, Beirut Hotels Accommodation, Beirut Hotels Discount, Cheap Hotels in Beirut, Hotel in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Many of the shops are Lebanese brands which means this is the perfect place to find bargains as most brands are local and cheap.
  • Rue.^ Many Lebanese fled the capital, and most services in the city collapsed.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Verdun
    - A shopping street with several high-end shopping malls and department stores.
  • ABC Mall, Achrafieh Alfred Naccache Street, Mar Mitr, 00961 1 212888 [37].^ Ras Beirut also contains the upmarket shopping neighbourhood of Verdun, which fights to compete with the boutiques downtown, which has many of the same stores.
    • Beirut guide book from Hg2 city guides 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hg2.com [Source type: General]

    .All the international brands are here along with great restaurants, cafes, and a movie theater all in an outdoor setting.
  • Souks de Beirut is a new mall in downtown with international brands in an outdoor setting.
  • Beirut Mall, Tayouneh roundabout, 00961 1 385888, [38].
  • ABC Beauté, Bab Idriss, downtown, 00961 1 991888. Offering a wide range of international cosmetics and perfume brands, nail bar, professional hairdressers and stylists.^ Empty cafes in downtown Beirut.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You know these guys are widely suspected for setting off most or all of the car bombs,” I said.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ East and West Beirut are packed from one end to the other with restaurants, bars, nightclubs, casinos, bohemian bookstores, outdoor cafes, and shopping districts that rival the best in the world.
    • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

    Open Mon-Sat 10AM-7PM.
  • Miss ABC, Hamra street, facing Cinema strand, 00961 1 344740. Women's specialty store. .Open Mon-Sat 9:45-7:45, closed Sunday.
  • City Mall, Dora highway roundabout, Greater Beirut, 00961 1 905555. Includes 100 stores, 15 cafes and restaurants, a Hypermarket, and 9 movie theaters.
  • Dunes Center, Centre Dunes, Verdun Str., +961 1 785310, [39].^ Phone: +961 1 39 52 52 Choueiri Law Firm Beirut, Lebanon Bouchrieh-City Hospital street-Aoun Center-3rd floor #40- Phone: +961 3 901574 Etude Me Roger Najjar Beirut, Lebanon Obeid Building, Nazareth Street, Asrafieh Phone: 9611202408 Farah Law Firm Beirut, Lebanon Full-Service Law Firm in Beirut .
    • Commercial Law Attorney, Lawyer, Law Firm Beirut, Lebanon 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.hg.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Beshara el Kori Str - Banna Bld Phone: +961 3 946263 Kantari Law Firm Beirut, Lebanon Specialized International Lawyers and Consultants .
    • Commercial Law Attorney, Lawyer, Law Firm Beirut, Lebanon 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.hg.org [Source type: News]

    ^ In addition to air connections through Beirut International Airport, Beirut is linked by railroad and highway to Damascus, Syria, and other Middle East cities.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Displaying some of the latest shopping brands, as well as many cafes and a movie theater.
  • Virgin Megastore - Currently four branches in Beirut: Beirut International Airport, Martyr's square Downtown (claims to be the biggest Virgin Megastore outside the UK), City Mall (Dora roundabout), ABC department store (Ashrafieh).
  • Music, Books, Event Tickets: Virgin Megastores Currently four branches in Beirut: Beirut International Airport, Martyr's square Downtown (claims to be the biggest Virgin Megastore outside the UK), City Mall (Dora roundabout), ABC department store (Ashrafieh).

Markets

Flea markets are surprisingly hard to find, occasional organized markets are held that are made to resemble flea markets.
.
  • Souk El Tayeb Held every Saturday in the Saifi village downtown between 9AM-2PM, feed your soul as well as your face in Beirut's first organic farmer's market.^ I eat there every time I visit Beirut.” When I think of all the reasons I regret not being able to return to Beirut, I think first of that wonderful restaurant.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    Promoting traditional methods of farming and preserving, it's a great place to pick up local honey, cheese and breads, plus artisans' crafts. .It also runs regular cookery classes, to learn how to make that perfect tabouleh (bulgur salad).
  • Sunday Market Get up early and join the locals for a rummage at the Sunday Market which opens between 7AM and 1PM, next to Beirut River in the east.^ A fundamental division runs between the two hills on which Beirut was built: Lebanese Christians live mostly in Ashraf+yah, in East Beirut , while Lebanese Sunni Muslims live in Musaytibah, in West Beirut .
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thus, by the early 1980s the LF controlled East Beirut and Mount Lebanon, and Jumayyil was its de facto president.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .You might find antique jewellery, clothing and beads, or maybe just bric-a-brac, but there's an eclectic selection of goodies on show.^ Search for some other city Personal World Clock - shows just the cities you need Meeting Planner - find a suitable time for an international meeting Time Zone Converter - Convert time between two time zones.
    • The World Clock - Time Zones - Asia 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Search for city - search for a city not listed here Personal World Clock - shows just the cities you need Meeting Planner - find a suitable time for an international meeting Fixed Time Calculator - If it's 3 pm in New York, what time is it in the rest of the world?
    • The World Clock (long version) 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It's not online, but you might find it in a university library.

    Remember to bargain hard!
  • Burj Hammoud Beirut's Armenian quarter, perfect place to shop for cheap bric-a-brac, artisan's crafts, souvenirs, copper and brass ware and faus-brands. Don't forget to haggle. Burj Hammoud is located to the East of ashrafieh across the Beirut river.

Eat

Lebanese Cuisine

The Mediterranean diet is one of the healthiest in the world. Lebanese cuisine in particular enjoys a worldwide reputation for its richness and variety as well as, of course, its Mediterranean health factor. The Lebanese gastronomy is a rich mixture of various products and ingredients coming from the diverse Lebanese regions. Olive oil, herbs, spices, fresh fruits and vegetables are commonly used, as well as dairy products, cereals, fishes and various types of meat. .A visit to Beirut is no real visit unless you try (at least once) the traditional Lebanese Mezze (Meza), an elaborate variety of thirty hot and cold dishes.^ Also, as you can tell from my name, i do support hezbollah, am an athiest born into a shia family and don't really give a crap if an Israeli got into Beirut.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Suddenly he interrupted me and, with a hard, suspicious look on his face, asked “Lisa, what are you really doing in Beirut?” .
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And he has no real support from outside—an unfortunate requirement for Lebanese politicians.
  • From Beirut to the Beltway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC beirutbeltway.com [Source type: Original source]

.A typical Mezze may consist of salads such as the Tabboule and Fattouch, together with the caviars: Hommos and Moutabal, and some patties such as the Sambousseks and finally the stuffed grape leaves, with of course the Lebanese flat pita bread which is essential to every Lebanese Mezze.^ Arguably, the fact that parties with such diverse political platforms can run together as a ‘coalition’ displays the vaccuousness of the Lebanese block voting system.

Must try:
.
  • Mankoushé: a Lebanese pizza, or at least that's what it looks like, the Mankoushé is a baked pizza-shaped dough with either a mixture of local cheeses or thyme (or a mixture of both) on top, can be bought from all bakeries as well as special Forn Mankhoushé which specialize in this type of food, usually had for breakfast.^ Neither Egyptians (some say they might have at least 10 reasons) nor Romans ever claimed blood libel and all other crap like that.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They looked like their could have just stepped out of Top Shop on Oxford street.

    ^ If I do vote, not much will change either, but at least I can pretend that it will make me look like Carla Bruni”.

    cost between .1.000L.L and 3.000L.L .
  • Ka'ek: a different version of the classic bagel, only about a foot in diameter and hollow, normally filled with thyme but you can ask for cheese spread as well.^ Are you going to write about Lebanon?” she asked.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The only place to buy these are from the local street vendors (no shops sell them) that ride bicycles or motorized scooters and honk a manual horn.^ Nightclubs, restaurants, coffee shops, and bars are no longer filled only with ghosts.
    • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lebanon may be the only place in the world where you can buy a necklace with a Christian cross and a Muslim crescent moon fused together as one.
    • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These places are small clusters of apartment towers with shops at street level.
    • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Although not of Lebanese origins, they're quite popular and are always found near Rawcheh area, they're worth a try.^ If we were to go after the SSNP, it would have to be because they're thugs and not because they don't believe in an independent Lebanese State.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    cost about 1.000L.L .
  • Roastery Nuts: roasted nuts are certainly the local favorite appetizers particularly with the older people. .Local brands such as Al Rifai[40] and Al Andalous have dedicated roasteries where customers walk in and order fresh, they produce some of the best nuts in the region, and certainly the most varied.^ Antisemitism in Europe obviously started as religious, priests were for the most part ringleaders in the various pogroms against the Jews, certainly not any kind of positive moderating influence.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Consequently, new generations return to the villages of their ancestors in order to vote, even if they have lived in Beirut for most of their lives.

    ^ In the newspaper, the two generators we have are out of order and they’re cutting the electricity in some 15 minutes.

    Pecans, Cashews, Macadamias, Hazelnuts, Almonds, Pistachios, Peanuts its all there. .Ask for Krikri in thyme, spice, or cheese flavor.
  • Sweets: every religious or national event sees stalls set up on sidewalks outside churches and in public squares, where traditional Lebanese sweets are sold such as: Maamoul, Ktaef, Halawet el Jibn, Halawet el Riz,and Ashta.^ But what we have here is a prime example of why, one day after Lebanese independence day, this nation is doomed thanks to the prevalence of such trash.
    • From Beirut to the Beltway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC beirutbeltway.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hitler's birthday was celebrated every year by the German church right up until the end of the Reich, by order of the Vatican.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    .If you're lucky enough to come across those be sure to give them all a try, otherwise visit any påtisserie such as the famous Sea Sweet [41] where the same sweets can be purchased (but of course lacking the same authenticity!^ But then you already know all this I'm sure.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hitler might have been an atheist (btw, the statement you contradict by quoting Gebbels) but how do you explain all those tenth of millions kirkha going murderers?
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I am also wary of coming across as some eco-feminist warrior missionary, for such dogmatism is surely never useful either.

    ).
One of the best new restaurants in downtown is Lebneniyet, near the Place de L'Etoile. It uses only locally produced, natural ingredients from local farmers and its recipes are perfected by an award-winning Chef who also has a TV show on a local channel. Its cooking techniques mean that normally heavy Lebanese food such as mechwe is light and cooked to perfection.

International Cuisine

.Beirut's different cultures brought different tastes for food, and restaurants of all different origins have opened all around the city, particularly in the Ashrafieh District.^ Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon , is popular as one of the major commercial and cultural center of Middle East.
  • Beirut Hotels Lebanon, Beirut Hotels Accommodation, Beirut Hotels Discount, Cheap Hotels in Beirut, Hotel in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around the historic core of Beirut , areas of poverty have spread, particularly to the south, linking the city with adjacent suburbs.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hamra district in West Beirut , south of the American University of Beirut , has replaced the downtown area as the city's center.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Restaurants have different price ranges, depending of course on the quality of the ingredients used; check the different districts for the listings.

Fast food

.If you're on a tight budget, or if you simply miss the food that you can get back at home, fast food is your best option.^ Your representative in parliament will not be, cannot be, an urban cosmopolitan even if you're an urban cosmopolitan yourself.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I admire the pinky-finger tactic, but once you let go, you're back to square one.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What You're Missing in our subscriber-only CounterPunch newsletter .

.All major international fast food restaurants have opened chains in Beirut (KFC, McDonald's, Burger King, Hardee's, TGI Fridays, Domino's Pizza, Pizza Hut, Dunkin' Donuts, Subway etc...^ Avenue de l'Aroport, a major thoroughfare, runs from the port area to the Beirut International Airport, 8 km (5 mi) south of the city's center.
  • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I eat there every time I visit Beirut.” When I think of all the reasons I regret not being able to return to Beirut, I think first of that wonderful restaurant.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

)
, but many local fast food restaurants have sprung up to compete with the major franchisers. eg:
If you're looking for mid budget American food, then you can try
.
  • Roadster Diner-Hamra Street,Achrafieh, Downtown one of the most famous American diners in town.^ The Hamra district in West Beirut , south of the American University of Beirut , has replaced the downtown area as the city's center.
    • Beirut's History, Metropolitan Area, Economy, Population, Education and Culture. - Beirut Internet Relay Chat Network @ Beirut.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC chat.beirut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ She was a child of privilege – raised in one of Amman’s most exclusive areas, and educated at an elite American university.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    The staff is friendly and the service is excellent.
  • Let's Burger-Achrafieh
  • Bob's Diner -Verdun Street

Drink

Nightlife: Alcohol in Beirut is a part of daily life. .Each of Beirut's districts has its own fair amount of cafes, bars, and clubs.^ East and West Beirut are packed from one end to the other with restaurants, bars, nightclubs, casinos, bohemian bookstores, outdoor cafes, and shopping districts that rival the best in the world.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The city is solidly packed from one end to the other with the classiest hotels, the hippest night clubs, the most stylish bars, the coziest cafes, and the best shopping districts this side of New York and Paris.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

This said, two of the hotter nightspots, with the highest concentration of pubs and nightclubs are
both located within close range in the Ashrafieh district. .New places open, old ones close, others change name at the drop of a hat and hip venues can suddenly become unfashionable.^ He admires them for their lack of corruption and integrity, in that their actions have been consistent with their principles, unlike most other Lebanese political parties who have been known to change their allegiance at the drop of a hat.

^ Soon various Lebanese groups were fighting one another as old feuds revived and new atrocities demanded revenge.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The coffee is better at X Café,” he responded, naming a place in a neighborhood on the other side of Beirut.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

.The best way to find out what's in and whats not is by checking the local press or simply going there and seeing for yourself!^ Let me see what I can find out about this.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Find your own place/city in the list (or a city in the same time zone as yourself), select the time and press the button to get local time all over the world at the fixed time and place you entered.
  • The Fixed Time World Clock – setup 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

^ President Reagan told a press conference on September 28: "And the Marines are going in there into a situation with a definite understanding as to what we're supposed to do.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

.There is no curfew in Beirut so the parties actually do go on until the break of dawn.^ But there were no openly identified Jews in Beirut anymore, although I heard rumors of a small, wealthy community living as Christians in the Jounieh area.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There will be no surprises, for example, in Beiut III disctrict, which is already known will go to Saad Hariri’s Future Party.

^ I'd like to go back, do it properly, deface the thing with red paint so there's no swastika visible.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

SkyBar in Biel, just next to downtown, has been voted as one of the hottest bars in the world. It has an outdoor area overlooking the Sea.
White. .Is a rooftop bar on top of the an-Nahar newspaper building, with an outdoor area overlooking the Sea, Downtown, and the mountains.^ An ex-pat friend took me for a whirlwind tour of some of the major hot spots one night: I had already visited the Sky Bar, a huge outdoor bar perched on the top of a new high-rise building.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

Taboo. A loud club in downtown, opposite the Harriri Mosque.
I-Bar. An upstairs club in downtown, opposite the Harriri Mosque.
Citrus/Pure. Upstairs bar in downtown, directly over Taboo. Opposite the Harriri Mosque.
.Increasingly, there are many bars opening in Kaslik, a suburb between Beirut and Jounieh.^ But there were no openly identified Jews in Beirut anymore, although I heard rumors of a small, wealthy community living as Christians in the Jounieh area.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There was also a negotiation between the Palestinians and the Lebanese over the departure of Palestinian fighters from areas outside Beirut.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were indeed many remarkable similarities – the attractive people, the café culture, the beachfront promenade, the stylish restaurants, bars and boutiques.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

.Dress up: dressing up in Beirut is a task of its own, Beirutis love looking their best and this is particularly noticeable when going out.^ Either they were too tipsy to notice what I’d said, or they thought it perfectly natural to hang out with a Jew at a bar in Beirut.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So I gathered up my things to go and meet my mysterious virtual friend on the other side of Beirut.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

Beirutis definitely have a "party hard" attitude.
Locally brewed beer include Almaza[43] and Laziza. Both worth a try when visiting.
.Wine Tasting: Lebanon is one of the oldest sites of wine production in the world and today enjoys a burgeoning industry producing award-winning wines for export throughout the world, mainly in the UK, Europe and the United States.^ At various times over the next decade the United States Government attempted to do all of the above, sometimes all at the same time, sometimes one task at a time.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the Lebanese factions and leaders already believed that the United States was deeply involved in Lebanon and that the United States was actively backing certain players.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The new MNF deployment required a new agreement between Lebanon and the United States.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

Wine Tasting is an absolute must with any visit to Lebanon. Below are some wine producers in Lebanon for you to keep an eye out for:
  • Chateau Musar [44]
  • Chateau Ksara [45]
  • Chateau Kefraya [46]
  • Domaine Wardy [47]
  • Vin Héritage [48]
  • Chateau Fakra [49]
  • Chateau Nakad [50]
  • Massaya [51]
  • Domaine des Tourelles [52]
  • Clos Saint Thomas [53]
  • Cave Kouroum [54]
  • Clos de Cana [55]
  • Nabise Mont Liban [56]
  • Enotica
  • Chateau Khoury [57]
  • Couvent St. Sauveur

Sleep

.There are lots of hotels in Beirut's metropolitan area, ranging from cheap hostels to luxury suite hotels.^ But there were no openly identified Jews in Beirut anymore, although I heard rumors of a small, wealthy community living as Christians in the Jounieh area.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When I expressed an interest in Beirut architecture, he told me he knew a lot about the subject and offered to take me on a walking tour of some interesting areas.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There was also a negotiation between the Palestinians and the Lebanese over the departure of Palestinian fighters from areas outside Beirut.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

.Prices are relatively hight compared to similar hotels around the Mediterranean and Middle east, but if you look well enough, there's bound to be the perfect hotel inside whatever budget you set.^ I am concerned that there might be people who, like me, are confused about nominal Christians siding with people like Arafat and the SSNP. Are they representative of Christians in the Middle East?
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From inside you can see both the soft turqouise waters of the Mediterranean and the snow-capped peak of Mt.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is an assumption among the not-very-well-informed that Jews and Christians are the good guys in the Middle East and that Muslims are the bad guys.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

Check the different districts to find places to sleep.
.

Stay safe

.The US government has issued a warning to travelers visiting Lebanon.^ Home Hotels Reviews Community Travel Guide Contact us My Booking Add Your Hotel FAQ Worldwide Hotels » Middle East » Lebanon » Beirut Hotels .
  • Beirut Hotels Lebanon, Beirut Hotels Accommodation, Beirut Hotels Discount, Cheap Hotels in Beirut, Hotel in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The violence in Naher al-Bared has ceased but beware of possible terrorist activity. If you choose to visit Lebanon, visit the isolated cities like Jounieh, Byblos or Tyr. .Beirut is safe, but avoid South Beirut if there is political discord with Israel.^ Or simply because there were so few tourists in Beirut, due to the political crisis, that my mere presence invited unwanted questions for which I had no convincing answers.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

Baalbeck is safe, but also visit with caution for it is a Hezbollah stronghold. .The mountain cities around Beirut and in the North are generally safe but always be on the lookout for political turmoil.^ That night, Pierre took me out for dinner at a restaurant in a mountain town north of Beirut.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He took me on a lovely tour of the towns in the mountains just north of Beirut.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As it turned out there was plenty to see and experience in Beirut ex-dahiyeh , and in the towns immediately to the north of the city.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

Try to avoid any political demonstrations. The South has a high level of Hezbollah influence/control but is by no means off-limits. Be aware that the South has a high Shia Muslim population and dress and act conservatively.
.It is strongly discuraged to visit Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, unless you are with someone who lives in/ is familiar with the camps.^ Palestinians live in their refugee camps.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by: Squires at February 27, 2009 6:21 PM MJT and others, can you speak about how Palestinian are treated in Lebanon?
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not until I visited Beirut, however, did I met people who lived in the dahiyeh but told me they were completely secular Shi’a – or, in one case, not Shi’a at all.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

.Camps vary in size/appearance(the camps in Beirut are like slums, more rural camps can resemble more open villages)and hostility, however, and you should bear in mind that Palestinians, who have no civil or political rights in Lebanon and are barred from most professions, will generally feel no reason not to be as open and civil to you as a Lebanese person might be.^ Beirut along with some chilling nightclubs and bars, also boasts few recreational like skiing in the slopes of Mt.
  • Beirut Hotels Lebanon, Beirut Hotels Accommodation, Beirut Hotels Discount, Cheap Hotels in Beirut, Hotel in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The anger that any human soul should feel at such suffering and loss was expressed so well by Lebanon's greatest poet, the mystic Khalil Gibran, when he wrote of the half million Lebanese who died in the 1916 famine, most of them residents of Beirut: .

^ Clashes over who was in charge between the Palestinians and Lebanese security and military led to armed incidents flaring up all over Lebanon, as the Palestinians were operating from refugee camps in the South, in and around Beirut, and in the North.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

Photography of military personnel and installations is prohibited.
Avoid talking about politics and religion, even if asked, for this might lead to trouble. Avoid any governmental or military convoys that may be passing by. .The Lebanese people have adapted to all those situations.^ Compromise and the ability to reach a consensus are skills all mature Lebanese people acquire.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Lebanese, like all Middle Easterners, are a people with a vivid imagination.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

Weather

Beirut enjoys Mediterranean climate. Come in April to June for warm, dry days and long, cool evenings (19–25°C). .Temperatures in July and August rise to around 30°C and humidity can be somewhat overwhelming – make sure your hotel has air conditioning.^ I kept turning around and checking behind us to make sure we weren’t being followed.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

The wettest months are December to February so bring a good coat and umbrella, the rain can sometimes be heavy. Lebanon's ski season runs from December till early April.
Despite the diverse climate that changes noticeably per season, the weather is very predictable; the weather forecast, on radio and TV stations are normally very accurate, so you normally shouldn't find yourself caught in a sudden downpour in the winter months.

Public Holidays

.Due to Lebanon's diverse culture, many public holidays are celebrated, some of which more than once: New Year's Day, Armenian-Orthodox Christmas (6 Jan), Eid al-Adha – Feast of Sacrifice, celebrating the last day of Hajj, the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, Al Hijrah – Islamic New Year, Feast of St Maroun (9 Feb), Eid Milad Mnabi – Prophet's Anniversary, Good Friday and Easter Monday (Apr), Labour Day (1 May).^ The Cedar marks the graves of some of the more than 300 American military, embassy, and civilian personnel who were killed in Beirut in the 1980s.
  • 6. Lebanon: 1982-1984 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.rand.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On my first day in Beirut, the man who sold me a newspaper told me, “Many things are strange in Lebanon.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At least one major European television news station received Hans’s information the same day, but waited more than two days to make the correction.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

Martyrs' Day (6 May), Liberation of the South (25 May), Assumption (15 Aug), Eid al-Fitr - Festival of the Breaking of the Fast, All Saints' Day (1 Nov), Independence Day (22 Nov), Christmas Day (25 Dec). Based on the lunar calendar, Islamic holidays move forward approximately 11 days every Western year.

Dress

Anything goes in Beirut. Shorts and T shirts are perfect for the summer heat, for both men and women, while heavier clothing is necessary during the winter. .You should cover up if visiting religious sites, such as mosques and churches.^ Posted by: TerryW at March 1, 2009 8:12 AM TerryW: As soon as the little bastard grabbed Hitchens, the three of you should have beaten him up and left him on the street.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As soon as the little bastard grabbed Hitchens, the three of you should have beaten him up and left him on the street.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Beirut may not be the only place in the world where you can find a church and a mosque right next to each other.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

Going out at night is a smart affair, so dress fashionably to fit in.
  • Currency:The official currency is the Lebanese Pound. However along with the Lebanese Pound, the US dollar is used. US$1 is roughly equivalent to 1512LL.
  • Payment cards: Many shops, hotels, restaurants, bars etc accept international payment cards such as Visa, Mastercard, Maestro or American Express.
  • Automatic bank tellers: Withdrawal can be made from any automatic bank teller found in any region of the country
  • Traveler's checks: Lebanese banks can exchange them very easily.

Stay in touch

.Many cafes and restaurants provide free WiFi to customers.^ I enjoyed many fascinating human encounters, and edifying conversations, with people I met in shops, cafes, restaurants and clubs.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

.Internet Cafes are plentiful in Beirut, and they should all provide printing and copying services as well as web surfing.^ Not until I visited Beirut, however, did I met people who lived in the dahiyeh but told me they were completely secular Shi’a – or, in one case, not Shi’a at all.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

The inner-city internet cafes tend to be more expensive (approx $2-3/hr) than those in the residential areas (approx $0.50/hr), but are also usually 'nicer' eg: providing a faster internet connection with new fast computers:
.
  • GDS Global Data Systems, Sodeco Square, ground floor Sodeco Street, Ashrafieh, Beirut, +961-1-615578 (, fax: +961-1-615578), [60].^ The streets of Christian East Beirut and Sunni Muslim West Beirut emptied into Martyr's Square and the rest of downtown.
    • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

    10:00 AM to 11:00 PM. $2.5 per hour.  .'listing', 'Beirut');return false;" title="click to edit GDS Global Data Systems">edit
  • GDSonline, Downtown,Maarad street,287B. Beirut central district, 01/970121 (, fax: 01/970121).^ The streets of Christian East Beirut and Sunni Muslim West Beirut emptied into Martyr's Square and the rest of downtown.
    • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

    11AM till 1AM. $2.5 per hour.  edit
.Payphones [61] can be found on all main streets all around the city, however, they can only take smart cards called Telecarte which provide a specific amount of prepaid calling time and can be used from any payphone.^ You can't have the main street, a shopping and commercial street, in a civilized city patrolled by intimidators who work for a Nazi organization.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But just as importantly they stay up all night getting to know each other for the first time.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If you only know the time zone acronym/abbreviation, please try these cities as substitutes: .
  • The World Clock Meeting Planner 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

Telecarte denominations come in 10.000L.L (€6.6) and 30.000L.L ($20.00). Telecarte can be purchase at OGERO Sales Offices and MoT offices (most Minimarkets/Supermarkets/Hypermarkets as well as Mobile phone stores sell them).
Telecarte:
  • allows you to save 10% on International Direct Calls.
  • allows you to make national calls to any regular line at 100 LL/min.
  • allows you to make national calls to any cellular line at 300 LL/min.

Radio stations

.Radio in Beirut is quite popular, particularly with the younger people who listen to the English-spoken stations as all events and concerts are advertised through those.^ Hans was one of the few people in Beirut who knew I was Israeli, but he was not the only one.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Not until I visited Beirut, however, did I met people who lived in the dahiyeh but told me they were completely secular Shi’a – or, in one case, not Shi’a at all.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Most people who live in West Beirut -- the section of town taken over by the SSNP and Hezbollah -- mostly belong to the Sunni community.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

Arabic and French broadcasted stations are plentiful, and are worth a listen if you'd like to experience the traditional culture. Below are radio stations that are broadcasted in English:
  • NRJ (99.1FM), [62]
  • Mix FM (104,4FM), [63]
  • Radio One (105.5FM), [64]
  • BBC World Service (in English) (1323 AM), [65]

Newspapers

Official Newsboxes can be found throughout the commercial areas in the city, mainly in Sassine Square ashrafieh, Verdun st. Verdun, Concorde st. Hamra. All Minimarkets/Supermarkets/Hypermarkets distribute newspapers and magazines as well.
  • The Daily Star [66] Independent daily English-language newspaper covering local, national and international news.
  • Monday Morning [67] Independent weekly English-language journal.
  • L'Orient Le Jour [68] a popular independent French-language newspaper.
.There is a huge variety of Arabic newspapers of all sorts, as well as ethnic newspapers such as the Armenian Aztag Daily.^ Into this small country is packed such a variety of scenery that there are few places to equal it in beauty and choice.
  • Beirut Hotels - Asia Travel Hotels Air Tickets Reservation, Hotels in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC asiatravel.net [Source type: News]

^ There are huge numbers of them posted by evangelicals, almost all of them with ratings disabled and comments censored, so they can delete any comments from "elites" and retain only the "amen"s.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.
Emergency number
Dial 112
  • American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) (Internal medicine, General surgery, Heart surgery, Maternity, Pediatrics, Urology, Ophthalmology, Specialized Eye center, Family medicine, Intensive care unit, Physiotherapy, Blood bank, Pharmacy, Laboratory, and Emergency services.), Makdissi Street, Hamra, P.O. Box: 113-6044, Beirut, 01-350000;1-340460;1-340740;1-374444;1-374374 (, fax: 01-345325), [69].^ Hamra Street, West Beirut .
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ An American woman living in Beirut in 1916 described how she "passed women and children lying by the roadside with closed eyes and ghastly, pale faces.

    ^ Hamra Street, West Beirut.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

     .'listing', 'Beirut');return false;" title="click to edit American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC)"> edit
  • Hotel Dieu Hospital: (Internal Medicine, General Surgery -Heart Surgery, Kidney, Liver and Bone marrow transplant, Maternity, Pediatrics, Intensive Care Units, One day surgery, Outpatient care, Diagnostic procedures, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, blood bank, Medical Imaging services, Radiation Oncology, Hem dialysis, Pharmacy, Physiotherapy, Emergency services.), Adib Ishak Street, BVD. Alfred Naccache, Achrafieh, Beirut - P.O. Box: 166830, 01-615300;01-615400 (, fax: 01-615295), [70].^ Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon , is popular as one of the major commercial and cultural center of Middle East.
    • Beirut Hotels Lebanon, Beirut Hotels Accommodation, Beirut Hotels Discount, Cheap Hotels in Beirut, Hotel in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The following day, after a night of bar hopping that had produced what was quite possibly the worst hangover of my life, I saw Najib at Café de Prague, a popular student hangout near the American University of Beirut.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Perhaps one day a new generation will manage to find a new way out.
    • From Beirut to the Beltway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC beirutbeltway.com [Source type: Original source]

     .'listing', 'Beirut');return false;" title="click to edit Hotel Dieu Hospital:">edit
  • Saint George Hospital University medical center: (internal medicine, general surgery, heart surgery, maternity, pediatrics, intensive care unit, physiotherapy, blood bank, pharmacy, laboratory and emergency services.), Rmeil, Youssef Sursock street P.O. Box: 166378, Achrafieh, Beirut, 01-585700; 01-525700 (, fax: 01-582560), [71].^ Alphabetical Listing of Hotels in Lebanon (Beirut) .
    • Beirut Hotels - Asia Travel Hotels Air Tickets Reservation, Hotels in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC asiatravel.net [Source type: News]

    ^ Patients, hospital employees, doctors, nurses, and medical school students all lined up to put their signature on a ballot and drop it in the box.
    • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

      edit
  • Clinique Dr. Rizk Hospital: (Services Provided: Internal medicine, surgery, maternity, pediatrics, kidney transplant, specialized eye center, intensive care unit, physiotherapy, pharmacy, laboratory and emergency services.), Zahar St., Achrafieh P.O. Box: 11-3288, Beirut, 01-200800;01-328800 (, fax: 01-200816), [72].  edit
  • Makassed Hospital: (Internal medicine, surgery, bone marrow transplant, maternity, pediatrics, intensive care unit, physiotherapy, blood bank, pharmacy, laboratory and emergency services.), Ouzai St., Tarik Al-Jadida P.O. Box: 6301, Beirut, 01-646590/1/2/3/4/5/6 (, fax: 01-646589), [73].  edit
  • Najjar Hospital: (Internal medicine, Surgery, Maternity, Pediatrics, Intensive care unit, Blood bank, Pharmacy, Laboratory and Emergency services.), Maamari Street, Ras Beirut P.O. Box: 113-5984, Beirut, 01-340626; 03-669911 (, fax: 01-343992).  edit
  • Sahel Hospital: (Internal medicine, general surgery, maternity, intensive care unit, physiotherapy, blood bank, pharmacy, laboratory and emergency services.), Airport Ave., Dergham Street P.O.Box: 99/25, Ghobeiry, Beirut, 01-858333 (, fax: 01-840146), [74].  .'listing', 'Beirut');return false;" title="click to edit Sahel Hospital:">edit
  • Trad Hospital and Medical Center: (Internal medicine, surgery, maternity, pharmacy, and laboratory services.), : Mexico Street, Fifth Floor, Clemenceau, Hamra P.O. Box: 113-6431, Beirut, 01-341740, 01-369494/5 (fax: 01-361663).^ Patients, hospital employees, doctors, nurses, and medical school students all lined up to put their signature on a ballot and drop it in the box.
    • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

     .'listing', 'Beirut');return false;" title="click to edit Trad Hospital and Medical Center:">edit
  • Fuad Khoury Hospital: (internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, blood bank, pharmacy, laboratory and emergency services.), Maktabi Bldg., Abdelaziz Street, Hamra, Beirut, 01-742140/3/7, 01-348811 (, fax: 01-350208), [75].^ Hamra Street, West Beirut .
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hamra Street, West Beirut.
    • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

     .'listing', 'Beirut');return false;" title="click to edit Fuad Khoury Hospital:">edit
  • Barbir Hospital: (Internal medicine, surgery, maternity, pediatrics, intensive care unit, physiotherapy, blood bank, pharmacy, laboratory and emergency services.), Fuad The First Street, Barbir P.O.Box: 11/4302, Beirut, 01-652915/6/7/8; 01-652955 (, fax: 01-631429).^ I eat there every time I visit Beirut.” When I think of all the reasons I regret not being able to return to Beirut, I think first of that wonderful restaurant.
    • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

     edit

Get out

.Once you leave Beirut, visit any of the other cities in Lebanon.^ Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon , is popular as one of the major commercial and cultural center of Middle East.
  • Beirut Hotels Lebanon, Beirut Hotels Accommodation, Beirut Hotels Discount, Cheap Hotels in Beirut, Hotel in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted by: Squires at February 27, 2009 6:21 PM MJT and others, can you speak about how Palestinian are treated in Lebanon?
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Beirut may not be the only place in the world where you can find a church and a mosque right next to each other.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

.The country is relatively small, so no single journey to any other city should take more than two hours.^ I hate them more than I hate Hezbollah and other Opposition parties.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At least one major European television news station received Hans’s information the same day, but waited more than two days to make the correction.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And then a very small minority of Lebanese are pro-Israel, mostly ultra-right-wing Christians who are more conservative than the Phalange and Lebanese Forces are.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.Depending on the season visiting, you can go skiing in one the six mountain resorts, or go to the beaches in Tyr or one of the beach resorts in Jounieh.^ I admire the pinky-finger tactic, but once you let go, you're back to square one.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.Visit the national heritage sites around Lebanon; every city in the country has at least some form of ancient or historic site.^ A core group of sixty people will divide themselves into smaller groups and visit every single village in Lebanon - even those controlled by Hezbollah.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the benefits of Lebanon's miniscule size is that every last inch of it is close to the city.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the tent-city residents have told me their goals are not only national.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

.Buses that head to the North city of Tripoli or to Syria and Jordan operate from the Charles Helou bus station, which is also the station for long-distance taxis that link Beirut to neighboring cities as well as Syria and Jordan.^ As it turned out there was plenty to see and experience in Beirut ex-dahiyeh , and in the towns immediately to the north of the city.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

Charles Helou is located next to Port of Beirut. .It can be difficult to understand the main bus routes at first but you can always ask, bus drivers are like everybody else in Lebanon, friendly and may be able to communicate in English or French.^ Lebanon may be the only place in the world where you can buy a necklace with a Christian cross and a Muslim crescent moon fused together as one.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Are you going to write about Lebanon?” she asked.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After we launched our project to support Lebanon’s independence movement a few of our supporters emailed asking “what are you doing in Lebanon, what does that have to do with us?” And, “what does this have to do with helping the Marines in Iraq?” .
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.BEIRUT or BEYROUT. (1) A vilayet of Syria, constituted as recently as 1888, which stretches along the sea-coast from Jebel el-Akra, south of the Orontes, to the Nahr Zerka, south of Mount Carmel, and towards the south extends from the Mediterranean to the Jordan.^ The coast faces the great Mediterranean Sea .
  • Lebanon Map - Map of Lebanon - Beirut Map 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lebanon-hotels.com [Source type: General]

^ Ramlet el-Baida on the south coast of Beirut .

^ BEIRUT or BEYROUT. (1) A vilayet of Syria , constituted as recently as 1888, which stretches along the sea-coast from Jebel el-Akra, south of the Orontes , to the Nahr Zerka, south of Mount Carmel , and towards the south extends from the Mediterranean to the Jordan.

.It includes five sanjaks, Latakia, Tripoli, Beirut, Acre and Buka'a.^ It includes five sanjaks, Latakia , Tripoli , Beirut, Acre and Buka'a.

^ His projects include a housing complex in Tyre, schools in North Lebanon and designs for public spaces in Beirut and Tripoli.
  • Beirut, Beirut | MIT World 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC mitworld.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(2) The chief town of the vilayet (anc.^ The chief town of the vilayet (anc.

.Berytus), the most important seaport town in Syria, situated on the south side of St George's Bay, on rising ground at the foot of Lebanon.^ Berytus ), the most important seaport town in Syria, situated on the south side of St George's Bay, on rising ground at the foot of Lebanon .

^ The nearest small town on the coastline was called Antaradus then, and is today known as Tartous, the second-largest seaport in Syria.
  • Beirut Lebanon and Arwad Island 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.phoenician.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cite This Source Cultural Dictionary Lebanon Republic in the Middle East , located on the Mediterranean Sea , bordered to the north and east by Syria and to the south by Israel .
  • Beirut Definition | Definition of Beirut at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

Pop. .120,000 (Moslems, 36,000; Christians, 77,000; Jews, 2500; Druses, 400; foreigners, 4100).^ (Moslems, 36,000; Christians, 77,000; Jews , 2500; Druses , 400; foreigners, 4100).

.Berytus, whether it is to be identified with Hebrew Berothai or not (2 Sam.^ Berytus, whether it is to be identified with Hebrew Berothai or not (2 Sam.

viii. 8; Ezek. xlvii. .16), was one of the most ancient settlements on the Phoenician coast; but nothing more than the name is known of it till B.C. 140, when the town was taken and destroyed by Tryphon in his contest with Antiochus VII. for the throne of the Seleucids.^ There are more than 230 terraces at Four Seasons Hotel Beirut, including one from every room and suite?
  • Four Seasons Hotel Beirut | Hotel Press Kits | Press Room | Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC press.fourseasons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have a Blast at B-108 Bar in Beirut  Not so catchy name, but this is actually one of the most legendary bars in Beirut, located in that part of the city that served as a refugee camp during the ...
  • Beirut - Find all Bars - World Bar Guide 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.findallbars.com [Source type: General]

^ An ancient city with a venerable past, 5,000 years ago Beirut was a prospering town on the Canaanite coast and 3,000 years ago it was entering the Phoenician age.
  • Places in Lebanon - Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC almashriq.hiof.no [Source type: News]

.It duly passed under Rome, was much favoured by the Herods and became a colonic. It was famous for its schools, especially that of law, from the 4th century A.D. onwards.^ In the 3rd century, Beirut had a famous school of Roman law .
  • Mediterranean City, Dialogue among Cultures, Beirut, Lebanon 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bibalex.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The golden age for the school was under Septimus Severus (192-212 AD) when it excelled the schools of Constantinople, Athens and Rome.
  • Beirut Historical Sites, Lebanon Archeology Photos 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lgic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its name appeared in cuneiform inscriptions as early as the 14th century B.C. In the first century B.C., Berytus, as it was then called, became a Roman Colony and under Roman rule was the seat of a famous Law school which continued into the Byzantine era.
  • Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.middleeast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Beirut Profile - Beirut Overview - Lebanon - Saidon.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.saidon.com [Source type: News]

.Justinian recognized it as one of the three official law schools of the empire (A.D. 533), but within a few years, as the result of a disastrous earthquake (551), the students were transferred to Sidon.^ Justinian recognized it as one of the three official law schools of the empire (A.D. 533), but within a few years, as the result of a disastrous earthquake (551), the students were transferred to Sidon .

^ About the middle of the third century Berytos became the seat of the most renowned law school in the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Beirut - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BEIRUT -- In the year 551, the magnificent, wealthy city of Berytus - headquarters of the imperial East Mediterranean Roman fleet - was struck by a massive earthquake.

.In the following century it passed to the Arabs (635), and was not again a Christian city till 1111, when Baldwin captured it.^ It was captured by the Arabs in ad 635.
  • Beirut (Lebanon) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beirut was captured by the Arabs in 635.
  • Mediterranean City, Dialogue among Cultures, Beirut, Lebanon 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bibalex.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The city was captured on 27 April, 1111, by Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem, and with the exception of short intervals was held by the Franks till 1241.
  • Beirut - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Saladin retook it in 1187, and thenceforward, for six centuries and a half, whoever its nominal lords may have been, Saracen, Crusader, Mameluke or (from the 16th century) Turk, the Druse emirs of Lebanon dominated it (see DRUSES).^ After Roman power waned, Greek influence dominated in the Byzantine period beginning in the 4th century A.D. Later, the Crusaders held the city for some 200 years.
  • Beirut travel guide 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.world66.com [Source type: News]

^ UK, Thursday November 19, 2009 Dominic Waghorn, Middle East correspondent Forensic experts may have discovered the remains of a British journalist kidnapped by Palestinians a quarter of a century ago in Lebanon.
  • Beirut - News, Pictures and Video | Sky.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sky.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of these, Fakr ed-Din Maan II., fortified it early in the 17th century; but the Turks asserted themselves in 1763 and occupied the place.^ The Beit Eddine palace complex was built over a thirty year period by Emir Bechir El-Chehab II early 19th century.
  • Beirut Profile - Beirut Overview - Lebanon - Saidon.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.saidon.com [Source type: News]

^ Beirut were already one of the most promising bands in the country; they just inched themselves closer to fulfilling it with these five tunes.
  • Lon Gisland - EP by Beirut – Download Lon Gisland - EP on iTunes 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC phobos.apple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This palace was built by Emir Bechir Chehab II in the early 19th century.

.During the succeeding epoch of rebellion at Acre under Jezzar and Abdullah pashas, Beirut declined to a small town of about 10,000 souls, in dispute between the Druses, the Turks and the pashas, - a state of things which lasted till Ibrahim Pasha captured Acre in 1832. When the powers moved against the Egyptians in 1840, Beirut had recently been occupied in force by Ibrahim as a menace to the Druses; but he was easily driven out after a destructive bombardment by Admiral Sir Robert Stopford (1768-1847).^ During the succeeding epoch of rebellion at Acre under Jezzar and Abdullah pashas, Beirut declined to a small town of about 10,000 souls, in dispute between the Druses, the Turks and the pashas, - a state of things which lasted till Ibrahim Pasha captured Acre in 1832.

^ When the powers moved against the Egyptians in 1840, Beirut had recently been occupied in force by Ibrahim as a menace to the Druses; but he was easily driven out after a destructive bombardment by Admiral Sir Robert Stopford (1768-1847).

^ In 1840 the English fleet bombarded the city to expel the Egyptian army of Ibrahim Pasha.

.Since the pacification of the Lebanon after the massacre of the Christians in 1860 (for later history, see LEBANON), Beirut has greatly increased in extent, and has become the centre of the transit trade for all southern Syria.^ See all mp3's from Beirut » albums .
  • Beirut MP3 Downloads - Beirut Music Downloads - Beirut Music Videos - Beirut Pictures - MP3.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.mp3.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See all Beirut reviews .
  • Beirut Vacations, Tourism and Beirut, Lebanon Travel Reviews - TripAdvisor 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the pacification of the Lebanon after the massacre of the Christians in 1860 (for later history, see LEBANON), Beirut has greatly increased in extent, and has become the centre of the transit trade for all southern Syria.

.In 1894 a harbour, constructed by a French company, was opened, but the insecurity of the outer roadstead militates against its success.^ In 1894 a harbour, constructed by a French company, was opened, but the insecurity of the outer roadstead militates against its success.

^ Similarly, the Four Seasons company, which has a hotel scheduled to open late next year in Beirut, still plans to complete construction.
  • Journeys - Can Beirut Make Another Comeback? - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC travel2.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.Nevertheless trade is on the increase.^ Nevertheless trade is on the increase.

.In 1895 a French company completed a railway across the Lebanon to Damascus, and connected it with Mezerib in the Hauran, whence now starts the line to the Hejaz.^ In 1895 a French company completed a railway across the Lebanon to Damascus , and connected it with Mezerib in the Hauran, whence now starts the line to the Hejaz .

^ Ships of the heaviest tonnage visit its harbour; railroads connect it with Damascus by way of Lebanon , and with Tripoli; carriage-roads connect it with the inland and seaboard towns.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ships of the heaviest tonnage visit its harbour; railroads connect it with Damascus by way of Lebanon, and with Tripoli; carriage-roads connect it with the inland and seaboard towns.
  • Beirut - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since 1907 it has also had railway communication with Aleppo; and a narrow-gauge line runs up the coast to Tripoli.^ Since 1907 it has also had railway communication with Aleppo ; and a narrow- gauge line runs up the coast to Tripoli.

^ The steepness of the Lebanon railway, and the break of gauge at Rayak, the junction for Aleppo, have prevented the diversion of much of the trade of North Syria to Beirut.

.The steepness of the Lebanon railway, and the break of gauge at Rayak, the junction for Aleppo, have prevented the diversion of much of the trade of North Syria to Beirut.^ His projects include a housing complex in Tyre, schools in North Lebanon and designs for public spaces in Beirut and Tripoli.
  • Beirut, Beirut | MIT World 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC mitworld.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anyone bemoaning the return of Syria to Lebanon should pause and reflect on how Hizbullah has pretty much filled the role previously played by Syrian intelligence.
  • From Beirut to the Beltway 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC beirutbeltway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the books I saw in Beirut gave a much more diverse, thoughtful, perspective.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

.The town has been supplied with water, since 1875, by an English company, and with gas, since 1888, by a French company.^ The city was shelled in 1840 by the English and in 1860 occupied by the French after the frightful slaughter of Christians in Syria ; since that date it has been steadily thriving.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Beirut - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are many American and European institutions in the city: the American Presbyterian mission, with a girls' school and a printing office, which published the Arabic translation of the Bible, and now issues a weekly paper and standard works in Arabic; the Syrian Protestant college with its theological seminary, medical faculty, training college and astronomical observatory; the Scottish mission, and St George's institute for Moslem and Druse girls; the British Syrian mission schools; the German hospital, orphanage and boarding school; the French hospital and schools, and the Jesuit "Universite de St Joseph" with a printing office.^ George's Institute" has charge of Mussulman or Druse girls.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Beirut - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since 1860 the British Syrian Mission has had a parish , 10 schools , and a normal school for women .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lebanese capital enjoys a vigorous press that publishes in Arabic, English, French and Armenian.

.In summer most of the richer residents reside on the Lebanon, and in winter the governor of the Lebanon and many Lebanon notables inhabit houses in Beirut.^ In the years since, Lebanon has become one of the most liberal Arab counties when it comes to sexuality and sexual behavior, according to Michael T. Luongo, the editor of the 2007 book “Gay Travels in the Muslim World,” which was translated and printed in Arabic this summer by a Beirut publishing house, Arab Diffusion.
  • Beirut, the Provincetown of the Middle East - NYTimes.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC travel.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ After World War II and the creation of Israel in 1948, thousands of Palestinian refugees entered Lebanon, many settling in Beirut.
  • Beirut Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On my first day in Beirut, the man who sold me a newspaper told me, “Many things are strange in Lebanon.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

The town has many fine houses, but the streets are unpaved and the bazaars mean. The Moslem inhabitants, being in a minority, have often shown themselves fanatical and turbulent. .There are several fairly good hotels for tourists.^ There were no tourist hotels or resorts.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Plaza Hotel Beirut Hamra Street 0.7 mi Conveniently located within the most popular tourist areas, the Plaza Hotel Beirut is a good choice for a wide range of travelers.
  • Beirut Hotels Lebanon: 62 Cheap Accommodation Deals 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

(C.W. W.; D. G. H.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
Beirut
Plural
-
Beirut
  1. The capital city of Lebanon.
  2. The drinking game of beer pong.

Translations

Anagrams


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

In Phoenicia, a titular Latin see, and the residential see of several prelates of Oriental rites. The earliest form was likely Beeroth "springs", not Beroth (2Kg 8:8) or Berotha (Ezech., xlvii, 16), probably situated near Baalbek in Coele-Syria. It difficult to explain the more usual form, Berytos, but it probably comes from Berûti, the Phoenician name of a fish-goddess related to the god of Gebal or Byblos, two towns of the Giblites, a Chanaanite tribe. Berytos was the birthplace of Sanchoniathon, an early Phoenician author, and seems to have been unimportant in remote times. It is mentioned by the Greeks before Alexander, but is not spoken of in connection with the expeditions of this conqueror. After the time of Antiochus IV, Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.), Berytos was known as Laodicea of Chanaan, a name which it kept until the reign of Alexander II, Zabinas (129-123 B.C.); see J. Rouvier, in "Revue de numismatique" (1896), and "Revue biblique", VII, 272-275. According to Strabo (XVI, ii, 9) it was destroyed by King Tryphon (137-134 B.C.). If this be true, it must have been rebuilt after a short time, for there are records for the complete series of the coins of Berytos from 123 to 14 B.C. It is certain that the Romans enlarged and embellished it; that it was garrisoned by two legions, the Leg. V Macedonica and Leg. VIII Augusta, and that in the year 14 B.C. it became a Roman colony with the name Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus, so called after Julia, the daughter of Augustus (Mommsen, Res gestae divi Augusti, II, 119). The Jewish kings Herod the Great, Herod Agrippa I, and Herod Agrippa II built sumptuous monuments at Berytos and gave gladiatorial combats there (Josephus, Bell. Jud., I, xxi, 11; Antiq., XVI, xi, 2; XVII, x, 9; XIX, vii, 5; XX, ix, 4); Titus also, after the siege of Jerusalem, gave gladiatorial games at Berytos, in which the combatants were Jews. (Josephus, Bell. Jud., VII, iii, 1.) From that time dates the magnificent aqueduct, the remains of which are yet visible, which carried to the city the waters of the River Magoras, now Nahr Beiruth. About the middle of the third century Berytos became the seat of the most renowned law school in the Eastern Roman Empire. Many celebrated jurisconsults were among its teachers (Montreuil, Hist. du droit byzantin, I, 264-273, 279-283). This school was spared by Justinian when he closed all similar schools in favour of Constantinople. The town had suffered much from an earthquake in 529, and when taken by the Arabs about 635 it had fallen into decay.
Berytos became a Christian see at an early date, and was a suffragan of Tyre in Phoenicia Prima, a province of the Patriarchate of Antioch. In antiquity its most famous bishop was Eusebius, afterwards Bishop of Nicomedia, the courtier-prelate and strong supporter of Arianism in the fourth century. Lequien (II, 815-820) gives a list of thirteen Greek bishops reaching to 1673, rectified and completed by Cyril Charon, a Greek Catholic priest (in Al-Mashriq, Beirut, 1 March, 1905). In 450 Beirut obtained from Theodosius II the title of metropolis, with jurisdiction over six sees taken from Tyre; but in 451 the Council of Chalcedon restored these to Tyre, leaving, however, to Beirut its rank of metropolis (Mansi, VII, 85-98). Thus, from 451 Beirut was an exempt metropolis depending directly on the Patriarch of Antioch. .The city was captured on 27 April, 1111, by Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem, and with the exception of short intervals was held by the Franks till 1241. At an early date they established there a Latin see subject to Tyre and, with the provinces of Arabia and Phoenicia Prima, erroneously comprised in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem.^ I have no idea what Hezbollah plans to do there or how they can possibly avoid being a controversial lightning rod, but perhaps we shall see.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As it turned out there was plenty to see and experience in Beirut ex-dahiyeh , and in the towns immediately to the north of the city.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

Lists of its Latin bishops are available (Lequien, III, 1325-27; Gams, 434; Eubel, I, 137; II, 117; Revue benedictine, 1904, 133-34).
.Owing to the fertility of the soil and the security of the harbour, Beirut soon became one of the most active commercial cities in the East.^ Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon , is popular as one of the major commercial and cultural center of Middle East.
  • Beirut Hotels Lebanon, Beirut Hotels Accommodation, Beirut Hotels Discount, Cheap Hotels in Beirut, Hotel in Beirut 11 September 2009 7:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On my final night in Beirut I ate what will surely remain one of the most remarkable meals of my life, at an Armenian restaurant called Mayrig.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Private firm security guards, East Beirut.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

The Druse Ameer Fakhr ed-Din (1595-1634) improved the city and made it better known in Europe. He was a ruler of genius, and succeeded in creating a principality all but independent of the Porte. Beirut was his residence, and the environs his gardens. He planted near the city the beautiful pine wood which is still its finest walk. He had relations with the Venetians and with the Medici at Florence; in 1633 he embraced Catholicism, and in the following year suffered martyrdom for his faith. The fact is undeniable, for the letters of the Capuchin who was the means of his conversion have just been published (de Barenton, O. M. C., "La France catholique en Orient", 158-164). In the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the Turkish Government succeeded in reducing the power of several native families that had forced themselves upon Beirut; at the present time Turkish authority is supreme. The city was shelled in 1840 by the English and in 1860 occupied by the French after the frightful slaughter of Christians in Syria; since that date it has been steadily thriving. Ships of the heaviest tonnage visit its harbour; railroads connect it with Damascus by way of Lebanon, and with Tripoli; carriage-roads connect it with the inland and seaboard towns. The country is well watered and cultivated, and the view from the city is beautiful. Beirut is the capital of a homonymous vilayet. .The population, which is about 150,000, shows a steady increase.^ Estimates are that about 35-40,000 Christian Palestinians (roughly 35% of the total population pre 1948) fled as refugees.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are 40,000 Mussulmans, besides the small garrison; 40,000 Maronites, 35,000 Greeks, 12,000 Catholic or Melchite Greeks, 2,000 Latins, 2,000 Protestants, 2,000 Jews, Druses, and Gregorian Armenians, 2,000 Catholic Syrians and Armenians.^ They were founded by a Greek Orthodox philosophist named Antun Saadeh, and while many supporters are Greek Orthodox, they have many supporters who are also Shi'ite Muslims, Druze, Sunni Muslims, and Maronite Catholics.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Estimates are that about 35-40,000 Christian Palestinians (roughly 35% of the total population pre 1948) fled as refugees.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by: jd at February 27, 2009 6:42 AM jd - aboout 35-40% of the people living in Palestine in 1947 were Jews.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

.Apart from its interest as a Latin titular bishopric, it may be noted that Beirut is: (1) a Greek metropolitan see with about 70,000 believers and many elementary schools; in the city of Beirut are 5 schools for girls conducted by 23 teachers in the pay of the Russian Government; (2) a metropolitan see for Catholic Greeks or Melchites, who number about 15,000 and have a large college at Beirut; (3) a Maronite see, with 50,000 subjects; 50 churches and chapels, 30 priests, and a seminary and college located in the city; (4) a Syrian Catholic see, with about 1,000 faithful, the residence of the Syrian patriarch having been transferred from Mardin to Beirut.^ Having heard so much about this protest camp, I wanted to see it for myself.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They were founded by a Greek Orthodox philosophist named Antun Saadeh, and while many supporters are Greek Orthodox, they have many supporters who are also Shi'ite Muslims, Druze, Sunni Muslims, and Maronite Catholics.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Beirut's tent-city activists are doing everything they can to nurture a democratic culture while the Lebanese government shows as much interest in the project as its Baathist police state patron in Syria.
  • Blog: Help the people of Lebanon win their independence 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.spiritofamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

The Latin Vicar-Apostolic of Syria, who is also the Apostolic delegate for Oriental rites, has been stationed since 1890 at Beirut (previously at Aleppo), with about 6,000 under his spiritual rule.
.In Beirut are many Maronite and Greek Catholic monasteries of Baladites, Aleppines, and Salvatorians, who unaided would be unable to compete with the Protestant propaganda which has taken Beirut as a centre, whence it spreads over the whole of Syria.^ On my first day in Beirut, the man who sold me a newspaper told me, “Many things are strange in Lebanon.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They were founded by a Greek Orthodox philosophist named Antun Saadeh, and while many supporters are Greek Orthodox, they have many supporters who are also Shi'ite Muslims, Druze, Sunni Muslims, and Maronite Catholics.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most people who live in West Beirut -- the section of town taken over by the SSNP and Hezbollah -- mostly belong to the Sunni community.
  • Michael J. Totten: Christopher Hitchens and the Battle of Beirut 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

Since 1866 the German mission has had charge of the Hospital of the Knights of St. John, an orphan asylum, and a school for girls conducted by deaconesses. The Jewish mission of the Church of Scotland since 1864 has conducted two schools for boys and girls. Miss Taylor's "St. George's Institute" has charge of Mussulman or Druse girls. Since 1860 the British Syrian Mission has had a parish, 10 schools, and a normal school for women. Since 1825 the Presbyterian Church of New York has maintained at Beirut a church, a printing-house, its Bible agency, and a school for girls. At a later period it built there the American university, which includes an intermediate college, a medical school, and a theological school for the training of native preachers and clergymen. It also publishes a newspaper and a review; and maintains outside of Beirut 130 primary schools with 109 teachers and 8,000 pupils. .In spite of so much effort and expense the Protestant missions have gained in the last 80 years only about 5,000 adherents in all Syria.^ Having heard so much about this protest camp, I wanted to see it for myself.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is so much both countries can gain from each other in a lasting peace.
  • Beirut, one year later: The English version. | Lisa Goldman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC lisagoldman.net [Source type: Original source]

The Catholic opposition to their propaganda is supported chiefly by French missionaries. The Capuchins, Franciscans, and Lazarists each have a monastery and a school; the Christian Brothers, schools and a college; the Sisters of Charity, priory schools, a boarding-school, an orphan asylum, and an industrial school for orphan girls; they also have charge of the hospital at the Catholic University. The Sisters of St. Joseph and the Dames de Nazareth have a boarding-school; the Sisters of the Holy Family, a school; the Mariamets, native nuns, their principal house. The most imposing institutions are those of the Jesuits. They maintain and direct outside of Beirut 192 schools for boys and girls, with 294 teachers and 12,000 pupils. There is in the city a faculty of medicine (120 students) founded in 1881 with the help of the French Government; its examinations are conducted before French and Ottoman physicians, and its diplomas are recognized by both France and Turkey. They conduct, moreover, St. Joseph's Catholic University, the title of which was granted by Leo XIII, 25 February, 1881. This university includes: (1) a seminary (60 students) for natives of all rites, which up to 1902 had sent out 228 students, including 3 patriarchs, 15 bishops, 115 priests, and 83 friars; (2) a faculty of philosophy and theology (30 students), which grants the same degrees as the Gregorian University in Rome; (3) a faculty of Oriental languages and sciences, founded in 1902, which teaches the literary and conversational use of Arabic, Hebrew, Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic; the comparative grammar of Semitic languages, the history and geography of the Orient; Oriental archaeology; Graeco-Roman epigraphy and antiquities; (4) a classical and modern tuition college (400 pupils); (5) 3 primary schools (600 pupils). A printing-house, inaugurated in 1853, is now famous as the foremost Arabic printing-house. Since 1871 the Jesuits have published "Al-Bashir", a weekly Arabic newspaper, and since 1898 a fortnightly Arabic review, "Al-Mashriq", the editors of which took rank at once among the best Orientalists. In 1906 they began a collection of philological papers, "Melanges de la Faculté orientale de l'Université Saint-Joseph". Finally, they contribute to many scientific periodicals and publish, chiefly in Arabic, works of great value. We may mention here another precious collect: "Documents inédits pur servir à l'histoire du christianisme en Orient", the first volume of which appeared at Paris in 1905. These missionaries are the strongest bulwark of Catholicism in Syria.
Portions of this entry are taken from The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907.

Simple English

Beirut is the capital of Lebanon. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world. It is situated on a hilly promontory on the eastern Mediterranean surrounded to the east by the snow-capped mountains of Lebanon. Before the civil war it was a cultural center of the Arab World and a major international financial, banking and media center.

Contents

Gallery

References

  • Linda Jones Hall, Roman Berytus: Beirut in Late Antiquity, 2004.
  • Samir Kassir, Histoire de Beyrouth, Fayard 2003.
  • Richard Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, (ISBN 0-691-03169-X), p. 69.

Other websites

Government

  • Informs.gov.lb, the Lebanese government portal for information and forms

Culture

Education

Media

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Beirut, which are similar to those in the above article.








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