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Benazir Bhutto

In office
2 December 1988 - 6 August 1990
President Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Preceded by Muhammad Khan Junejo
Succeeded by Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi (Acting)
In office
19 October 1993 - 5 November 1996
President Wasim Sajjad
Farooq Leghari
Preceded by Moeenuddin Ahmad Qureshi
Succeeded by Malik Meraj Khalid (Acting)

In office
4 December 1988 - 6 December 1990
President Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto
Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi
Preceded by Mahbub ul Haq
Succeeded by Sartaj Aziz
In office
26 January 1994 - 10 October 1996
President Farooq Leghari
Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto
Preceded by Syed Babar Ali
Succeeded by Naveed Qamar

In office
4 December 1988 - 6 August 1990
President Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto
Preceded by Mahmoud Haroon
Succeeded by Ghous Ali Shah

In office
10 January 1984 - 27 December 2007
Preceded by Nusrat Bhutto
Succeeded by Asif Ali Zardari and Bilawal Bhutto Zardari

Born 21 June 1953(1953-06-21)
Karachi, Dominion of Pakistan
Died 27 December 2007 (aged 54)
Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan
Political party Pakistan Peoples Party
Spouse(s) Asif Ali Zardari (1987 - 2007)
Relations Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (father)
Nusrat Bhutto (mother)
Murtaza Bhutto (brother)
Children Bilawal Bhutto Zardari
Bakhtawar Bhutto Zardari
Asifa Bhutto Zardari
Alma mater Radcliffe College, Harvard University
Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford
St Catherine's College, Oxford
Religion Muslim - Shia[1][2]

Benazir Bhutto (Sindhi: بينظير ڀٽو; Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, pronounced [beːnəˈziːr ˈbʱʊʈːoː]; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who chaired the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), a centre-left political party in Pakistan. Bhutto was the first woman elected to lead a Muslim state,[3] having twice been Prime Minister of Pakistan (1988–1990; 1993–1996). She was Pakistan's first and to date only female prime minister. She was the eldest child of former Pakistani prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Nusrat Bhutto, and was the wife of current Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari.

Bhutto was sworn in as Prime Minister for the first time in 1988 at the age of 35, but was removed from office 20 months later under the order of then-president Ghulam Ishaq Khan on grounds of alleged corruption. In 1993 she was re-elected but was again removed in 1996 on similar charges, this time by President Farooq Leghari. She went into self-imposed exile in Dubai in 1998.

Bhutto returned to Pakistan on 18 October 2007, after reaching an understanding with President Pervez Musharraf by which she was granted amnesty and all corruption charges were withdrawn. She was assassinated on 27 December 2007, after departing a PPP rally in the Pakistani city of Rawalpindi, two weeks before the scheduled Pakistani general election of 2008 where she was a leading opposition candidate. The following year she was named one of seven winners of the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights.[4]


Education and personal life

Benazir Bhutto was born at Pinto Hospital[5] in Karachi, Dominion of Pakistan on 21 June 1953. She was the eldest child of former prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, a Pakistani Shia Muslim of Sindhi descent and Begum Nusrat Ispahani, a Shia Muslim Pakistani of Kurdish descent. Her paternal grandfather was Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto.

She attended the Lady Jennings Nursery School and Convent of Jesus and Mary in Karachi.[6] After two years of schooling at the Rawalpindi Presentation Convent, she was sent to the Jesus and Mary Convent at Murree. She passed her O-level examinations at the age of 15.[7] She then went on to complete her A-Levels at the Karachi Grammar School.

After completing her early education in Pakistan, she pursued her higher education in the United States. From 1969 to 1973 she attended Radcliffe College at Harvard University, where she obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree with cum laude honors in comparative government.[8] She was also elected to Phi Beta Kappa.[7] Bhutto would later call her time at Harvard "four of the happiest years of my life" and said it formed "the very basis of her belief in democracy". Later in 1995 as Prime Minister, she would arrange a gift from the Pakistani government to Harvard Law School.[9] On June 2006, she received an Honorary LL.D degree from the University of Toronto.[10]

The next phase of her education took place in the United Kingdom. Between 1973 and 1977 Bhutto studied Philosophy, Politics, and Economics at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, during which time she completed additional courses in International Law and Diplomacy.[11] After LMH she attend St Catherine's College, Oxford[12] and in December 1976 she was elected president of the Oxford Union, becoming the first Asian woman to head the prestigious debating society.[7]

On 18 December 1987, she married Asif Ali Zardari in Karachi. The couple had three children: two daughters, Bakhtawar and Asifa, and a son, Bilawal.


Benazir Bhutto's father, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was removed from office following a military coup in 1977 led by the then chief of army General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, who imposed martial law but promised to hold elections within three months. Nevertheless, instead of fulfilling the promise of holding general elections, General Zia charged Mr. Bhutto with conspiring to murder the father of dissident politician Ahmed Raza Kasuri. Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was sentenced to death by the martial law court.

Despite the accusation being "widely doubted by the public",[13] and many clemency appeals from foreign leaders, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was hanged on 4 April 1979. Appeals for clemency were dismissed by acting President General Zia. Benazir Bhutto and her mother were held in a "police camp" until the end of May, after the execution.[14]

In 1985, Benazir Bhutto's brother Shahnawaz was killed under suspicious circumstances in France. In 1996, the killing of her other brother, Mir Murtaza, contributed to destabilizing her second term as Prime Minister. Murtaza, who had been outspoken in his accusations of corruption by his sister and her husband Zardari, was gunned down just outside of his home by police. This extrajudicial killing was almost certainly approved at the highest levels and it was widely believed to have been instigated directly by Bhutto's husband Zardari.[15]

Struggle against martial law of General Zia-ul-Haq

After the overthrow of her father Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's government in a bloodless coup Benazir Bhutto spent the next eighteen months in and out of house arrest as she struggled to rally political support to force Zia to drop murder charges against her father. The military dictator ignored worldwide appeals for clemency and had Zulfikar Bhutto hanged in April 1979. Following the hanging of her father Bhutto was arrested repeatedly, however, following PPP's victory in the local elections Zia postponed the national elections indefinitely and moved Bhutto and her mother Nusrat Bhutto from Karachi to Larkana. This was seventh time Benazir had been arrested within two years of the military coup. Repeatedly put under house arrest, the regime finally imprisoned her under solitary confinement in a desert cell in Sindhi province during the summer of 1981. She described the conditions in her wall-less cage in her book "Daughter of Destiny":

"The summer heat turned my cell into an oven. My skin split and peeled, coming off my hands in sheets. Boils erupted on my face. My hair, which had always been thick, began to come out by the handful. Insects crept into the cell like invading armies. Grasshoppers, mosquitoes, stinging flies, bees and bugs came up through the cracks in the floor and through the open bars from the courtyard. Big black ants, cockroaches, seething clumps of little red ants and spiders. I tried pulling the sheet over my head at night to hide from their bites, pushing it back when it got too hot to breathe."

After her six month imprisonment in Sukkur jail, she remained hospitalized for months after which she was shifted to Karachi Central Jail, where she remained imprisoned till 11 December 1981. She was then placed under house arrests in Larkana and Karachi eleven and fourteen months respectively.

Movement for Restoration of Democracy

As restrictions on press and media were intensified and persecution of political activist increased Bhutto realized that only way to fight Zia's regime was to unite with a section of the opposition PNA. The talks with PNA were successful and Movement for Restoration of Democracy (MRD) was established. The movement was widely supported by people of Pakistan and brutally repressed by the junta. The MRD included sections of Pakistani society that were outside Zia's preview of Islamization of the country, like Shiites, ethnic minorities such as Balochs, Pathans and Sindhis and Bhutto's own PPP. While Benazir spent most of the time under house arrests and imprisonments the MRD movement continued its protests against the regime. An estimated twenty thousand PPP workers were killed and between 40,000 to 150,000 people made political prisoners in crackdown by Zia.

Self-exile in London

In January 1984, after six years of house arrests and imprisonment, Zia succumbed to international pressure and allowed Bhutto to travel abroad for medical reasons. After undergoing a surgery she resumed her political activities and began to raise concerns about the mistreatment of political prisoners in Pakistan at the behest of Zia regime. The intensified pressure forced Zia into holding a referendum to give certain legitimacy to his government. The referendum held on 1 December 1984 proved a farce and due to only ten percent voter turnout despite use of state machinery.

Further pressure from the international community forced Zia into holding elections, for a unicameral legislature on a non-party basis. The PPP thus announced a boycott of the election on the grounds that they were not being held in accordance with the constitution of Pakistan. She continued to raise voice against human rights violations by the regime and addressed the European Parliament in Strasbourg in 1985,

"When the conscience of the world is justly aroused against apartheid and against human rights violations.. then that conscience ought not to close its eyes to the murder by military courts which takes place in a country which receives.. aid from the West itself." The speech was responded by the Zia regime with announcement of death sentences of 54 PPP workers in a military court in Lahore.

Prime minister

First term

At left during Parliamentary session in 1998-1999. From left: Chaudhry Muhammad Barjees Tahir, Ajmal Khattak, Aitzaz Ahsan, Benazir Bhutto.
Benazir Bhutto on a visit to Washington, D.C. in 1989

Bhutto, who had returned to Pakistan after completing her studies, found herself placed under house arrest in the wake of her father's imprisonment and subsequent execution. Having been allowed in 1984 to return to the United Kingdom, she became a leader in exile of the PPP, her father's party, though she was unable to make her political presence felt in Pakistan until after the death of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. She had succeeded her mother as leader of the PPP and the pro-democracy opposition to the Zia-ul-Haq regime.

The seat from which Benazir contested for the post of Prime Minister, was the same one from which her father had previously contested, namely, NA 207. This seat was first contested in 1926 by the late Sardar Wahid Bux Bhutto, in the first ever elections in Sindh. The elections were for the Central Legislative Assembly of India. Sardar Wahid Bux won, and became not only the first elected representative from Sindh to a democratically elected parliament, but also the youngest member of the Central Legislative Assembly, aged 27. Wahid Bux's achievement was monumental as it was he who was the first Bhutto elected to a government, from a seat which would, thereafter always be contested by his family members. Therefore, it was he who provided the breakthrough and a start to this cycle. Sardar Wahid Bux went on to be elected to the Bombay Council as well. After Wahid Bux's untimely and mysterious death at the age of 33, his younger brother Nawab Nabi Bux Bhutto contested from the same seat and remained undefeated until retirement. It was he who then gave this seat to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to contest.

On 16 November 1988, in the first open election in more than a decade, Bhutto's PPP won the largest bloc of seats in the National Assembly. Bhutto was sworn in as Prime Minister of a coalition government on December 2, becoming at age 35 the youngest person—and the first woman—to head the government of a Muslim-majority state in modern times. In 1989, Benazir was awarded the Prize For Freedom by the Liberal International. Bhutto's accomplishments during this time were in initiatives for nationalist reform and modernization, that some conservatives characterized as Westernization.

Bhutto's government was dismissed in 1990 following charges of corruption, for which she was never tried. Zia's protégé Nawaz Sharif came to power after the October 1990 elections. She served as leader of the opposition while Sharif served as Prime Minister for the next three years.

Second term

In October 1993 elections were held again and her PPP coalition was victorious, returning Bhutto to office and allowing her to continue her reform initiatives. According to journalist Shyam Bhatia, Bhutto smuggled CDs containing uranium enrichment data to North Korea on a state visit that same year in return for data on missile technology.[16] In 1996, amidst various corruption scandals Bhutto was dismissed by then-president Farooq Leghari, who used the Eighth Amendment discretionary powers to dissolve the government. The Supreme Court affirmed President Leghari's dismissal in a 6-1 ruling.[17] Criticism against Bhutto came from the Punjabi elites and powerful landlord families who opposed Bhutto. She blamed this opposition for the destabilization of Pakistan. Musharraf characterized Bhutto's terms as an "era of sham democracy" and others characterized her terms a period of corrupt, failed governments.[18]

Policies for women

During the election campaigns the Bhutto government voiced its concern for women's social and health issues, including the issue of discrimination against women. Bhutto announced plans to establish women's police stations, courts, and women's development banks. Despite these plans, Bhutto did not propose any legislation to improve welfare services for women. During her election campaigns, she promised to repeal controversial laws (such as Hudood and Zina ordinances) that curtail the rights of women in Pakistan.[19] Bhutto was pro-life and spoke forcefully against abortion, most notably at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, where she accused the West of "seeking to impose adultery, abortion, intercourse education and other such matters on individuals, societies and religions which have their own social ethos."[20]

The Zina ordinance was finally repealed by a Presidential Ordinance issued by Pervez Musharraf in July 2006.[21]

Bhutto was an active and founding member of the Council of Women World Leaders, a network of current and former prime ministers and presidents.[22]

Policy on Taliban

The Taliban took power in Kabul in September 1996. It was during Bhutto's rule that the Taliban gained prominence in Afghanistan.[23] She, like many leaders at the time, viewed the Taliban as a group that could stabilize Afghanistan and enable trade access to the Central Asian republics, according to author Stephen Coll.[24] He claims that like the United States, her government provided military and financial support for the Taliban, even sending a small unit of the Pakistani army into Afghanistan.

More recently, she took an anti-Taliban stance, and condemned terrorist acts allegedly committed by the Taliban and their supporters.[25]

Charges of corruption

After the dismissal of Bhutto's first government on August 6, 1990 by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan on the grounds of corruption government of Pakistan issued directives to its intelligence agencies to investigate the allegations. After fourth national elections, Nawaz Sharif became the Prime Minister and intensified prosecution proceedings against Bhutto. Pakistani embassies through western Europe, in France, Switzerland, Spain, Poland and Britain were directed to investigate the matter. Bhutto and her husband faced a number of legal proceedings, including a charge of laundering money through Swiss banks. Though never convicted, her husband, Asif Ali Zardari, spent eight years in prison on similar corruption charges. After being released on bail in 2004, Zardari suggested that his time in prison involved torture; human rights groups have supported his claim that his rights were violated.[26]

A 1998 New York Times investigative report[27] claims that Pakistani investigators have documents that uncover a network of bank accounts, all linked to the family's lawyer in Switzerland, with Asif Zardari as the principal shareholder. According to the article, documents released by the French authorities indicated that Zardari offered exclusive rights to Dassault, a French aircraft manufacturer, to replace the air force's fighter jets in exchange for a 5% commission to be paid to a Swiss corporation controlled by Zardari. The article also said a Dubai company received an exclusive license to import gold into Pakistan for which Asif Zardari received payments of more than $10 million into his Dubai-based Citibank accounts. The owner of the company denied that he had made payments to Zardari and claims the documents were forged.

Bhutto maintained that the charges levelled against her and her husband were purely political.[28][29] An Auditor General of Pakistan (AGP) report supports Bhutto's claim. It presents information suggesting that Benazir Bhutto was ousted from power in 1990 as a result of a witch hunt approved by then-president Ghulam Ishaq Khan. The AGP report says Khan illegally paid legal advisers 28 million rupees to file 19 corruption cases against Bhutto and her husband in 1990–92.[30]

Yet the assets held by Bhutto and her husband continue to be scrutinized and speculated about. The prosecutors have alleged that their Swiss bank accounts contain £740 million.[31] Zardari also bought a neo-Tudor mansion and estate worth over £4 million in Surrey, England, UK.[32][33] The Pakistani investigations have tied other overseas properties to Zardari's family. These include a $2.5 million manor in Normandy owned by Zardari's parents, who had modest assets at the time of his marriage.[27] Bhutto denied holding substantive overseas assets.

Despite numerous cases and charges of corruption registered against Bhutto by Nawaz Sharif between 1996–1999 and Pervez Musharraf from 1999 till 2008, she was yet to be convicted in any case after a lapse of twelve years since their commencement. The cases were withdrawn by the government of Pakistan after the return to power of Bhutto's Pakistan Peoples Party in 2008.

Early 2000s in exile

In 2002, Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf amended Pakistan's constitution to ban prime ministers from serving more than two terms. This disqualified Bhutto from ever holding the office again. This move was widely considered to be a direct attack on former prime ministers Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif. On 3 August 2003, Bhutto became a member of Minhaj ul Quran International (an international Muslim educational and welfare organization).[34][35][36]

While living in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, she cared for her three children and her mother Nusrat, who was suffering from Alzheimer's disease, traveling to give lectures and keeping in touch with the PPP's supporters. They were reunited with her husband in December 2004 after more than five years.[37][38][39][40] In 2006, Interpol issued a request for the arrest of Bhutto and her husband on corruption charges, at the request of Pakistan. The Bhuttos questioned the legality of the requests in a letter to Interpol.[41] On 27 January 2007, she was invited by the United States to speak to President George W. Bush and Congressional and State Department officials.[42] Bhutto appeared as a panellist on the BBC TV programme Question Time in the UK in March 2007. She has also appeared on BBC current affairs programme Newsnight on several occasions. She rebuffed comments made by Muhammad Ijaz-ul-Haq in May 2007 regarding the knighthood of Salman Rushdie, citing that he was calling for the assassination of foreign citizens.[43][44][45]

Bhutto had declared her intention to return to Pakistan within 2007, which she did, in spite of Musharraf's statements of May 2007 about not allowing her to return ahead of the country's general election, due late 2007 or early 2008. It was speculated that she may have been offered the office of Prime Minister again.[46][47][48]

Arthur Herman, a U.S. historian, in a controversial letter published in The Wall Street Journal on 14 June 2007, in response to an article by Bhutto highly critical of the president and his policies, described her as "One of the most incompetent leaders in the history of South Asia," and asserted that she and other elites in Pakistan hate Musharraf because he was a muhajir, the son of one of millions of Indian Muslims who fled to Pakistan during independence in 1947. Herman claimed, "Although it was muhajirs who agitated for the creation of Pakistan in the first place, many native Pakistanis view them with contempt and treat them as third-class citizens."[49][50][51]

Nonetheless, by mid-2007, the U.S. appeared to be pushing for a deal in which Musharraf would remain as president but step down as military head, and either Bhutto or one of her nominees would become prime minister.[48]

On 11 July 2007, the Associated Press, in an article about the possible aftermath of the Red Mosque incident, wrote:

Benazir Bhutto, the former prime minister and opposition leader expected by many to return from exile and join Musharraf in a power-sharing deal after year-end general elections, praised him for taking a tough line on the Red Mosque. "I'm glad there was no cease-fire with the militants in the mosque because cease-fires simply embolden the militants," she told Britain's Sky TV on Tuesday. "There will be a backlash, but at some time we have to stop appeasing the militants."[52]

This remark about the Red Mosque was seen with dismay in Pakistan as reportedly hundreds of young students were burned to death and remains are untraceable and cases are being heard in Pakistani supreme court as a missing persons issue. This and subsequent support for Musharraf led Elder Bhutto's comrades like Khar to criticize her publicly.[citation needed]

Bhutto however advised Musharraf in an early phase of the latter's quarrel with the Chief Justice, to restore him. Her PPP did not capitalize on its CEC member, Aitzaz Ahsan, the chief Barrister for the Chief Justice, in successful restoration. Rather he was seen as a rival and was isolated.

2002 election

The Bhutto-led PPP secured the highest number of votes (28.42%) and eighty seats (23.16%) in the national assembly in the October 2002 general elections.[53] Pakistan Muslim League (N) (PML-N) managed to win eighteen seats only. Some of the elected candidates of PPP formed a faction of their own, calling it PPP-Patriots which was being led by Faisal Saleh Hayat, the former leader of Bhutto-led PPP. They later formed a coalition government with Musharraf's party, PML-Q.

Return to Pakistan

Possible deal with the Musharraf Government

Benazir Bhutto's image

In mid-2002 Musharraf implemented a two-term limit on Prime Ministers. Both Bhutto and Musharraf's other chief rival, Nawaz Sharif, have already served two terms as Prime Minister.[54] Musharraf's allies in parliament, especially the PMLQ, are unlikely to reverse the changes to allow Prime Ministers to seek third terms, nor to make particular exceptions for either Bhutto or Sharif.

In July 2007, some of Bhutto's frozen funds were released.[55] Bhutto continued to face significant charges of corruption. In an 8 August 2007 interview with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Bhutto revealed the meeting focused on her desire to return to Pakistan for the 2008 elections, and of Musharraf retaining the Presidency with Bhutto as Prime Minister. On 29 August 2007, Bhutto announced that Musharraf would step down as chief of the army.[56][57] On September 1, 2007, Bhutto vowed to return to Pakistan "very soon", regardless of whether or not she reached a power-sharing deal with Musharraf before then.[58]

On September 17, 2007, Bhutto accused Musharraf's allies of pushing Pakistan into crisis by their refusal to permit democratic reforms and power-sharing. A nine-member panel of Supreme Court judges deliberated on six petitions (including one from Jamaat-e-Islami, Pakistan's largest Islamic group) asserting that Musharraf be disqualified from contending for the presidency of Pakistan. Bhutto stated that her party could join one of the opposition groups, potentially that of Nawaz Sharif. Attorney-general Malik Mohammed Qayyum stated that, pendente lite, the Election Commission was "reluctant" to announce the schedule for the presidential vote. Bhutto's party's Farhatullah Babar stated that the Constitution of Pakistan could bar Musharraf from being elected again because he was already chief of the army: "As Gen. Musharraf was disqualified from contesting for President, he has prevailed upon the Election Commission to arbitrarily and illegally tamper with the Constitution of Pakistan."[59]

Musharraf prepared to switch to a strictly civilian role by resigning from his position as commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He still faced other legal obstacles to running for re-election. On 2 October 2007, Gen. Musharraf named Lt. Gen. Ashfaq Kayani, as vice chief of the army starting October 8 with the intent that if Musharraf won the presidency and resigned his military post, Kayani would become chief of the army. Meanwhile, Minister Sheikh Rashid Ahmed stated that officials agreed to grant Benazir Bhutto amnesty versus pending corruption charges. She has emphasized the smooth transition and return to civilian rule and has asked Pervez Musharraf to shed uniform.[60] On 5 October 2007, Musharraf signed the National Reconciliation Ordinance, giving amnesty to Bhutto and other political leaders—except exiled former premier Nawaz Sharif—in all court cases against them, including all corruption charges. The Ordinance came a day before Musharraf faced the crucial presidential poll. Both Bhutto's opposition party, the PPP, and the ruling PMLQ, were involved in negotiations beforehand about the deal.[61] In return, Bhutto and the PPP agreed not to boycott the Presidential election.[62] On 6 October 2007, Musharraf won a parliamentary election for President. However, the Supreme Court ruled that no winner can be officially proclaimed until it finishes deciding on whether it was legal for Musharraf to run for President while remaining Army General. Bhutto's PPP party did not join the other opposition parties' boycott of the election, but did abstain from voting.[63] Later, Bhutto demanded security coverage on-par with the President's. Bhutto also contracted foreign security firms for her protection.


While under house arrest, Benazir Bhutto speaks to supporters outside her house.

Bhutto was well aware of the risk to her own life that might result from her return from exile to campaign for the leadership position. In an interview on September 28, 2007, with reporter Wolf Blitzer of CNN, she readily admitted the possibility of attack on herself.[64]

After eight years in exile in Dubai and London, Bhutto returned to Karachi on 18 October 2007, to prepare for the 2008 national elections.[65][66][67][68]

En route to a rally in Karachi on 18 October 2007, two explosions occurred shortly after Bhutto had landed and left Jinnah International Airport. She was not injured but the explosions, later found to be a suicide-bomb attack, killed 136 people and injured at least 450. The dead included at least 50 of the security guards from her PPP who had formed a human chain around her truck to keep potential bombers away, as well as six police officers. A number of senior officials were injured. Bhutto, after nearly ten hours of the parade through Karachi, ducked back down into the steel command center to remove her sandals from her swollen feet, moments before the bomb went off.[69] She was escorted unharmed from the scene.[70]

Bhutto later claimed that she had warned the Pakistani government that suicide bomb squads would target her upon her return to Pakistan and that the government had failed to act. She was careful not to blame Pervez Musharraf for the attacks, accusing instead "certain individuals within the government who abuse their positions, who abuse their powers" to advance the cause of Islamic militants. Shortly after the attempt on her life, Bhutto wrote a letter to Musharraf naming four persons whom she suspected of carrying out the attack. Those named included Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi, a rival PML-Q politician and chief minister of Pakistan's Punjab province, Hamid Gul, former director of the Inter-Services Intelligence, and Ijaz Shah, the director general of the Intelligence Bureau, another of the country's intelligence agencies. All those named are close associates of General Musharraf. Bhutto has a long history of accusing parts of the government, particularly Pakistan's premier military intelligence agencies, of working against her and her party because they oppose her liberal, secular agenda. Bhutto claimed that the ISI has for decades backed militant Islamic groups in Kashmir and in Afghanistan.[70] She was protected by her vehicle and a "human cordon" of supporters who had anticipated suicide attacks and formed a chain around her to prevent potential bombers from getting near her. The total number of injured, according to PPP sources, stood at 1000, with at least 160 dead (The New York Times claims 134 dead and about 450 injured).

A few days later, Bhutto's lawyer Senator Farooq H. Naik said he received a letter threatening to kill his client.

2007 State of Emergency and response

On 3 November 2007, President Pervez Musharraf declared a state of emergency, citing actions by the Supreme Court of Pakistan and religious extremism in the nation. Bhutto returned to the country, interrupting a visit to family in Dubai. She was greeted by supporters chanting slogans at the airport. After staying in her plane for several hours she was driven to her home in Lahore, accompanied by hundreds of supporters. While acknowledging that Pakistan faced a political crisis, she noted that Musharraf's declaration of emergency, unless lifted, would make it very difficult to have fair elections. She commented that "The extremists need a dictatorship, and dictatorship needs extremists."[71][72][73]

On 8 November 2007, Bhutto was placed under house arrest just a few hours before she was due to lead and address a rally against the state of emergency.

During a telephone interview with National Public Radio in the United States, Ms. Bhutto said "I have freedom of movement within the house. I do not have freedom of movement outside the house. They've got a heavy police force inside the house, and we've got a very heavy police force - 4,000 policemen around the four walls of my house, 1,000 on each. They've even entered the neighbors' house. And I was just telling one of the policemen, I said 'should you be here after us? Should not you be looking for Osama bin Laden?' And he said, 'I'm sorry, ma'am, this is our job. We're just doing what we are told.'"[74]

The following day, the Pakistani government announced that Bhutto's arrest warrant had been withdrawn and that she would be free to travel and to appear at public rallies. However, leaders of other opposition political parties remained prohibited from speaking in public.

Preparation for 2008 elections

On 2 November 2007, Bhutto participated in an interview with David Frost on Al Jazeera where she claimed Osama Bin Laden had been murdered by Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh, who is also one of the men convicted of kidnapping and killing U.S. journalist Daniel Pearl. Frost never asked a follow up question regarding the claim that Bin Laden was dead.[75]

On 24 November 2007, Bhutto filed her nomination papers for January's Parliamentary elections; two days later, she filed papers in the Larkana constituency for two regular seats. She did so as former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, following seven years of exile in Saudi Arabia, made his much-contested return to Pakistan and bid for candidacy.[76]

When sworn in again on 30 November 2007, this time as a civilian president after relinquishing his post as military chief, Musharraf announced his plan to lift the Pakistan's state of emergency rule on December 16. Bhutto welcomed the announcement and launched a manifesto outlining her party's domestic issues. Bhutto told journalists in Islamabad that her party, the PPP, would focus on "the five E's": employment, education, energy, environment, equality.[77][78]

On 4 December 2007, Bhutto met with Nawaz Sharif to publicize their demand that Musharraf fulfill his promise to lift the state of emergency before January's parliamentary elections, threatening to boycott the vote if he failed to comply. They promised to assemble a committee which would present to Musharraf the list of demands upon which their participation in the election was contingent.[79][80]

On 8 December 2007, three unidentified gunmen stormed Bhutto's PPP office in the southern western province of Baluchistan. Three of Bhutto's supporters were killed.[81]


Building destroyed by rioting

On 27 December 2007, Bhutto was killed while leaving a campaign rally for the PPP at Liaquat National Bagh, where she had given a spirited address to party supporters in the run-up to the January 2008 parliamentary elections. After entering her bulletproof vehicle, Bhutto stood up through its sunroof to wave to the crowds. At this point, a gunman fired shots at her and subsequently explosives were detonated near the vehicle killing approximately 20 people.[82] Bhutto was critically wounded and was rushed to Rawalpindi General Hospital. She was taken into surgery at 17:35 local time, and pronounced dead at 18:16.[83][84][85]

Bhutto's body was flown to her hometown of Garhi Khuda Bakhsh in Larkana District, Sindh, and was buried next to her father in the family mausoleum at a ceremony attended by hundreds of thousands of mourners.[86][87][88]

There was some disagreement about the exact cause of death. Bhutto's husband refused to permit an autopsy or post-mortem examination to be carried out.[89] On 28 December 2007, the Interior Ministry of Pakistan stated that "Bhutto was killed when she tried to duck back into the vehicle, and the shock waves from the blast knocked her head into a lever attached to the sunroof, fracturing her skull".[90] However, a hospital spokesman stated earlier that she had suffered shrapnel wounds to the head and that this was the cause of her death.[91][92] Bhutto's aides have also disputed the Interior Ministry's account.[93] On December 31, CNN posted the alleged emergency room admission report as a PDF file. The document appears to have been signed by all the admitting physicians and notes that no object was found inside the wound.[94]

Al-Qaeda commander Mustafa Abu al-Yazid claimed responsibility for the attack, describing Bhutto as "the most precious American asset."[95] The Pakistani government also stated that it had proof that al-Qaeda was behind the assassination. A report for CNN stated: "the Interior Ministry also earlier told Pakistan's Geo TV that the suicide bomber belonged to Lashkar i Jhangvi—an al-Qaeda-linked militant group that the government has blamed for hundreds of killings".[96] The government of Pakistan claimed Baitullah Mehsud was the mastermind behind the assassination.[97] Lashkar i Jhangvi, a Muslim extremist organization affiliated with al-Qaeda that also attempted in 1999 to assassinate former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, is alleged to have been responsible for the killing of the 54-year-old Bhutto along with approximately 20 bystanders, however this is vigorously disputed by the Bhutto family, by the PPP that Bhutto had headed and by Baitullah Mehsud.[98] On 3 January 2008, President Musharraf officially denied participating in the assassination of Benazir Bhutto as well as failing to provide her proper security.[99]

Reaction in Pakistan

After the assassination, there were initially a number of riots resulting in approximately 20 deaths, of which three were of police officers. Around 250 cars were burnt; angry and upset supporters of Bhutto threw rocks outside the hospital where she was being held.[87] Through December 29, 2007, the Pakistani government said rioters had wrecked nine election offices, 176 banks, 34 gas stations, 72 train cars, 18 rail stations, and hundreds of cars and shops.[100] President Musharraf decreed a three-day period of mourning.

On 30 December 2007, at a news conference following a meeting of the PPP leadership, Bhutto's widower Asif Ali Zardari and son Bilawal Bhutto Zardari announced that 19-year-old Bilawal will succeed his mother as titular head of the party, with his father effectively running the party until his son completes his studies at Christ Church, Oxford. "When I return, I promise to lead the party as my mother wanted me to," Bilawal said. The PPP called for parliamentary elections to take place as scheduled on 8 January 2008, and Asif Ali Zardari said that vice-chair Makhdoom Amin Fahim would probably be the party's candidate for prime minister. (Bilawal is not of legal age to stand for parliament.)[101]

On December 30, Bhutto's political party, the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), called for the UK Government and the United Nations to help conduct the investigation of her death.[102] Bilawal Bhutto Zardari has been appointed chairman of his late mother's opposition political party in Pakistan. Bilawal is only 19 years old.[103] On 5 February 2008, the PPP released Mrs. Bhutto's political will which she wrote two weeks before returning to Pakistan and only 12 weeks before she was killed, stating that her husband Asif Ali Zardari would be the leader of the party, until a new leader is elected.

International reaction

The international reaction to Bhutto's assassination was of strong condemnation across the international community. The UN Security Council held an emergency meeting and unanimously condemned the assassination.[104] Arab League Secretary General Amr Moussa stated that, "We condemn this assassination and terrorist act, and pray for God Almighty to bless her soul."[105] India's Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said he was "deeply shocked and horrified to hear of the heinous assassination of Mrs. Benazir Bhutto. ... My heartfelt condolences go to her family and the people of Pakistan who have suffered a grievous blow."[106] British Prime Minister Gordon Brown stated, "Benazir Bhutto may have been killed by terrorists but the terrorists must not be allowed to kill democracy in Pakistan and this atrocity strengthens our resolve that terrorists will not win there, here or anywhere in the world."[107] European Commission President José Manuel Barroso condemned the assassination as "an attack against democracy and against Pakistan," and "hopes that Pakistan will remain firmly on track for return to democratic civilian rule."[107] US President George W. Bush condemned the assassination as a "cowardly act by murderous extremists," and encouraged Pakistan to "honor Benazir Bhutto's memory by continuing with the democratic process for which she so bravely gave her life."[108] Vatican Secretary of State Tarcisio Bertone expressed the sadness of Pope Benedict XVI, saying that "the Holy Father expresses sentiments of deep sympathy and spiritual closeness to the members of her family and to the entire Pakistani nation."[107] Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Qin Gang said that China was "shocked at the killing of Pakistan's opposition leader Benazir Bhutto" and "strongly condemns the terrorist attack."[109][110][111]

Scotland Yard investigation

British detectives were asked by the Pakistan Government to investigate the assassination. Although expressing reservations as to the difficulty in investigating due to the crime scene having been hosed down and Asif Zardari refusing permission for a post mortem, they announced on 8 February 2008 that Benazir Bhutto had been killed by impact with the knob on the sun roof following the bomb explosion.

UN inquiry

A formal investigation by the UN commenced on July 1, 2009.[112]

Allegation of giving nuclear secrets to North Korea

B. Bhutto was one of the key political figures of Pakistan's Nuclear Program. Bhutto maintained close and friendly relationships with many prominent Pakistan's nuclear scientists. Benazir Bhutto also carried messages to Munir Ahmad Khan from her father and back in 1979 as Prime Minister Z.A. Bhutto had instructed her daughter to remain in touch with the Chairman of PAEC.

Shyam Bhatia, an Indian journalist, alleged in his book Goodbye Shahzadi that in 1993, Bhutto had downloaded secretive information on uranium enrichment to give to North Korea in exchange for information on developing ballistic missiles. Bhatia alleges that Bhutto had asked him to not tell the story during her lifetime. Nuclear expert David Albright of the Institute of Science and International Security said the allegations "made sense" given the timeline of North Korea's nuclear development. George Perkovich of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace called Bhatia a "smart and serious guy." Selig Harrison of the Center for International Policy called Bhatia "credible on Bhutto". The Pakistani Embassy in Washington, D.C. denied the claims and an United States official dismissed them, insisting that Abdul Qadeer Khan, who had been accused of proliferating secrets before to North Korea (only to later deny them prior to Bhatia's book), was the source.[113]

Even when Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan's nuclear scandal came into public, Bhutto vowed that if she elected for Prime Minister of Pakistan as a third time she would allowed IAEA inspectors to investigate Dr. Khan. However, when her statement on-aired on Pakistani televisions, Bhutto faced a strong criticism from Pakistani civil society as well as strong response in her own party. A few hours later, she reverted her statement, her spokesperson Nahid Khan said that her statement was misunderstood.


Commenting on her legacy, the acclaimed south Asia expert William Dalrymple commented that "It's wrong for the West simply to mourn Benazir Bhutto as a martyred democrat since her legacy was far murkier and more complex".[114]

The Pakistani government honoured Bhutto on her birth anniversary by renaming the Islamabad International Airport as Benazir Bhutto International Airport after her. Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani, a member of Bhutto's PPP also asked President Pervez Musharraf to pardon convicts on death row on her birthday in honour of Bhutto.[115]

The city of Nawabshah in Sindh was renamed Benazirabad in her honor. A university in the Dir Upper district of NWFP is opened in her name.

Benazir Income Support Program (BISP), a program which provides benefits to the poorest Pakistanis, is named after Bhutto.[116]

Benazir Bhutto's books

  • Benazir Bhutto, (1983), Pakistan: The gathering storm, Vikas Pub. House, ISBN 0706924959
  • Benazir Bhutto (1989). Daughter of the East. Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-12398-4. 

Daughter of the East was also released as:

  • Benazir Bhutto (1989). Daughter of Destiny: An Autobiography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-66983-4. 

At the time of Bhutto's death, the manuscript for her third book, to be called Reconciliation: Islam, Democracy and the West, had been received by HarperCollins. The book, written with Mark Siegel, was published in February 2008.[117]

  • Benazir Bhutto (2008). Reconciliation: Islam, Democracy, and the West. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-156758-2. 

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ Interview with Vali Nasr
  3. ^ "Benazir Bhutto: Daughter of Tragedy" by Muhammad Najeeb, Hasan Zaidi, Saurabh Shulka and S. Prasannarajan, India Today, January 7, 2008
  4. ^
  5. ^ Benazir Bhutto by Katherine M. Doherty and Craig A. Doherty
  6. ^ "Story of Pakistan — Benazir Bhutto". 2003-06-01. 
  7. ^ a b c "Bookrags Encyclopedia of World Biography entry". 
  8. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica entry via
  9. ^ Classmates at Harvard recall a shy girl, 'Pinkie' December 28, 2007
  10. ^ "honorary degree recipients". 
  11. ^ "WIC Biography - Benazir Bhutto". 
  12. ^ "Note at St. Catherine's web site". 
  13. ^ Pakistan's Premier Bhutto was Put Under House Arrest, New York Times, 5 November 1996, by John F. Burns
  14. ^ Pakistan Frees Widow And Daughter of Bhutto, New York Times, 29 May 1979
  15. ^ Tariq Ali, Daughter of the West, London Review of Books, 13 Dec 2007, p.8.
  16. ^ Kessler, Glenn (2008-06-01). "Bhutto Dealt Nuclear Secrets to N. Korea, Book Says". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  17. ^ "Pakistan Supreme Court Upholds Benazir Bhutto's Dismissal on the basis of Corruption and Extra-Judicial Killings of MQM Workers and Supporters". 
  18. ^ Many Pakistanis See Leader As Having Reigned Too Long January 14, 2008
  19. ^ "Women in Pakistan: Disadvantaged and denied their civil rights". Amnesty International. 1995-12-06. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  20. ^ Turner, Brian S. (2003) Islam: Critical Concepts in Sociology (p. 118) Routledge
  21. ^ "Pakistan ends zina". The Hindu Business Line. 2007-02-23. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  22. ^ "Council Members". Council of Women World Leaders. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  23. ^ "Bhutto's deadly legacy". 
  24. ^ S. Coll, "Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001", Penguin Press HC, US 2004
  25. ^ "Bhutto blames Taliban, al-Qaida for explosions". 2007-10-19. Retrieved 2008-09-13. 
  26. ^ "C'wealth apprised of Asif's 'illegal' detention - Dawn Pakistan". 
  27. ^ a b Bhutto Clan Leaves Trail of Corruption in Pakistan, by John F. Burns, The New York Times, 1998-01-09
  28. ^ Bhutto's Husband Appeals 11 May 1999
  29. ^ World News Briefs; Bhutto's Jailed Husband Sworn In as Senator 30 December 1997
  30. ^ "The Bhutto saga takes a new turn". 
  31. ^ Corruption amnesty may release millions for Bhutto, The Sunday Times, 2007-10-14
  32. ^ Asif Zardari lays claim to 4-mn-pound UK estate, The Times of India, 2004-08-22
  33. ^ £4 m Surrey mansion in Bhutto 'corruption' row, The Sunday Times, 2004-11-21
  34. ^ Minhaj-ul-Quran International, By Mr. Jawed Iqbal
  35. ^ Benazir Bhutto announces she is Kurdish 21 July 2003
  36. ^ profile June 01, 2003
  37. ^ "Asia Times - Bhutto on Al-Qaeda". Asia Times - Bhutto on Al-Qaeda. 
  38. ^ Pakistani police deploy in force, shut Lahore: Thousands arrested ahead of opposition leader's return April 16, 2005
  39. ^ BBC News - Bhutto cleared of corruption charges 30 November 2005
  40. ^ The Bhutto saga takes a new turn July 25, 2006
  41. ^ "Pakistan seeks arrest of Bhutto, BBC News, 26 January 2006". 26 January 2006. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  42. ^ Pakistan Times, Pakistan's ex-PM Benazir Bhutto to meet President Bush, by Khalida Mazhar, January 25, 2007
  43. ^ Bhutto at the Council on Foreign Relations August 15, 2007
  44. ^ A Piece of Political Theatre October 19, 2007
  45. ^ David Frost interview with Bhutto 3 November 2007
  46. ^ Former Leader Talks of Return To Pakistan, and Maybe Power June 4, 2007
  47. ^ Bhutto claims Sharif agreed to power-sharing deal 18 Jun 2007
  48. ^ a b Back to Bhutto? 28 June 2007
  49. ^ Bhutto gets renewed interest in Pakistan, US may accept ex-prime minister -- will her country? 1 July 2007
  50. ^ Why Bhutto and the Elites Hate Musharraf June 14, 2007
  51. ^ Benazir, elites hate Musharraf because of his ethnicity, claims U.S. author June 15, 2007
  52. ^ Mosque Crisis May Boost Musharraf's Hand 11 July 2007
  53. ^ "2002 election results by ECP (Election Commission of Pakistan)". 
  54. ^ "Pakistan Court Bars Former Prime Minister From Election".,%20Nawaz. 
  55. ^ "Bhutto's accounts de-frozen for deal with Musharraf: reports - India News". 
  56. ^ Bhutto: 'Musharraf has agreed to quit as military chief' August 29, 2007
  57. ^ Bhutto Expects Musharraf to Quit as Military Chief August 29, 2007
  58. ^ "BBC NEWS, Bhutto vows early Pakistan return". 1 September 2007. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  59. ^ "AP: Pakistani court hears cases on Musharraf". 
  60. ^ "New York Times, Maneuvering Before Vote in Pakistan". 
  61. ^ "Musharraf signs national reconciliation ordinance". 
  62. ^ "Musharraf wins presidential vote". BBC News. 6 October 2007. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  63. ^ "BBC NEWS, Musharraf 'wins presidency vote'". 6 October 2007. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  64. ^ Wolf Blitzer interview September 28, 2007
  65. ^ "Supporters flock to Karachi for Bhutto's return". CBC News. 2007-10-17. 
  66. ^ "Huge crowds greet Bhutto return". BBC News. 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  67. ^ Opposition walks out: State media accused of maligning Benazir December 15, 2005
  68. ^ "Bhutto returns to Pakistan after 8 years". 2007-10-18. 
  69. ^ A Wrong Must Be Righted An interview from Pakistan by Gail Sheehy, quote: "I Am What the Terrorists Most Fear", published in Parade Magazine, Sunday January 6, 2008:
  70. ^ a b "After Bombing, Bhutto Assails Officials' Ties". New York Times. 2007-10-20. 
  71. ^ Musharraf declares emergency in Pakistan, Matthew Pennington, AP, 3 November 2007
  72. ^ "Pakistani opposition leader Bhutto returns to Karachi". PR Inside. 2007-11-03. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  73. ^ "Benazir returns to Pak, faces no problem". IBN Live. 2007-11-03. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  74. ^ NPR telephone interview with Steve Inskeep November 13, 2007
  75. ^ "So who did kill Benazir Bhutto?". 2009-06-11. 
  76. ^ "Sharif, Bhutto set aside differences". 2007-12-04. 
  77. ^ "Musharraf: State of emergency will end before elections". 2007-11-29. 
  78. ^ "Pakistan's Bhutto launches election manifesto". 2007-11-30. 
  79. ^ "Sharif, Bhutto and the ex-general". 2007-11-29. 
  80. ^ "Ultimatum Delivered: Pakistan's leading opposition leaders have united (sort of) against President Pervez Musharraf. But their impact will probably be minimal". 2007-12-04. 
  81. ^ "Gunmen kill Bhutto's supporters". BBC News. 2007-12-08. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  82. ^ "Scotland Yard: Bomb blast killed Bhutto". 2008-02-08. 
  83. ^ Bhutto photographer: 'Gunshots rang out and she went down' CNN
  84. ^ "Benazir Bhutto 'killed in blast'". BBC News. 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  85. ^ "Benazir Bhutto assassinated". 2007-12-27. 
  86. ^ "Bhutto's body in Larkana for burial". 2007-12-28. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  87. ^ a b "Bhutto's body flown home". CNN Asia. 2007-12-27. 
  88. ^ Pakistanis Bury Bhutto and Brace for More Turmoil 29 December 2007.
  89. ^ Bhutto murder: the key questions 31 December 2007.
  90. ^ "Bhutto Assassination: Bhutto's Last Moments Captured on Tape". Reuters. 2007-12-28. Retrieved 2007-12-29. 
  91. ^ Bhutto died after hitting sun roof 28 December 2007.
  92. ^ Pakistan: Bhutto Died of Skull Fracture By The Associated Press Published: 28 December 2007. Filed by
  93. ^ "Bhutto death explanation 'pack of lies'". Herald Sun.,21985,22983841-5012747,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  94. ^ "Bhutto's murder: Many theories, many questions". CNN. 2007-12-31. Retrieved 2008-01-01. 
  95. ^ "Al-Qaida claims Bhutto assassination". 2007-12-28. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  96. ^ Bhutto died after hitting sun roof 28 December 2007.
  97. ^ "Named: the al-Qaeda chief who 'masterminded murder'". London. 2007-12-29. Retrieved 2007-12-29. 
  98. ^ "Bhutto's Party Rejects Al-Qaeda Claim as Riots Spread (Update5)". 2007-12-29. Retrieved 2007-12-29. 
  99. ^ "Musharraf Denies Allegations Of Involvement in Bhutto Killing". Wall Street Journal. 2008-01-03. Retrieved 2008-01-03. 
  100. ^ "Mourners converge on Benazir's house ahead of meeting on poll plans". Associated Press via The Hindu. 2007-12-30. Retrieved 2007-12-30. 
  101. ^ "Bhutto's son named as successor". BBC News. 2007-12-30. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  102. ^ BBC (2007-12-30). "PPP ask UK and UN for help". BBC. Retrieved 2007-12-30. 
  103. ^ "Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto (shaheed)". 
  104. ^ "Security Council, in presidential statement, condemns 'in strongest terms' suicide attack that killed former prime minister of Pakistan". UN Department of Public Information. 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  105. ^ "Arab League condemns Bhutto's assassination". Kuwait News Agency (KUNA). 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  106. ^ Roy, Nilova (2007-12-27). "India expresses shock, horror at Bhutto's assassination". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  107. ^ a b c "Reactions to Bhutto assassination". BBC. 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  108. ^ "Bhutto's death heightens democracy concerns". CNN. 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  109. ^ "Global outrage over assassination". Al-Jazeera. 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  110. ^ Life in Pictures, BBC, Last updated: Thursday, 27 December 2007, 14:53 GMT
  111. ^ Bhutto's fateful moment, 4 October 1993, Profile in The New Yorker by Mary Anne Weaver
  112. ^
  113. ^ NTI: Global Security Newswire - Monday, June 2, 2008
  114. ^ http:// Pakistan's flawed and feudal prinecss
  115. ^ "Pakistan pays tribute to Bhutto". Reuters. 2008-06-21. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 
  116. ^ APP (2009-05-11), "Benazir Bhutto awarded ‘Best Mother’ by World Population Federation", Associated Press of Pakistan,, retrieved 2009-07-30 
  117. ^ Bhutto's book primed. HarperCollins rushes manuscript into print December 28, 2007

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

Books about Benazir Bhutto

  • W.F.Pepper, (1983), Benazir Bhutto, WF Pepper, ISBN 0946781001
  • Rafiq Zakaria (1990). The Trial of Benazir. Sangam Books. ISBN 0-861-32265-7. 
  • Katherine M. Doherty, Caraig A. Doherty , (1990), Benazir Bhutto (Impact Biographies Series), Franklin Watts, ISBN 0531109364
  • Rafiq Zakaria, (1991), The Trial of Benazir Bhutto: An Insight into the Status of Women in Islam, Eureka Pubns, ISBN 9679783200
  • Diane Sansevere-Dreher, (1991), Benazir Bhutto (Changing Our World Series), Bantam Books (Mm), ISBN 0553158570
  • Christina Lamb, (1992), Waiting for Allah, Penguin Books Ltd, ISBN 0140143343
  • M. Fathers, (1992), Biography of Benazir Bhutto, W.H. Allen / Virgin Books, ISBN 024554965X
  • Elizabeth Bouchard, (1994), Benazir Bhutto: Prime Minister (Library of Famous Women), Blackbirch Pr Inc, ISBN 1567110274
  • Iqbal Akhund, (2000), Trial and Error: The Advent and Eclipse of Benazir Bhutto, OUP Pakistan, ISBN 0195791606
  • Libby Hughes, (2000), Benazir Bhutto: From Prison to Prime Minister, Backinprint.Com, ISBN 0595003885
  • Iqbal Akhund, (2002), Benazir Hukoomat: Phela Daur, Kia Khoya, Kia Paya?, OUP Pakistan, ISBN 0195794214
  • Mercedes Anderson, (2004), Benazir Bhutto (Women in Politics), Chelsea House Publishers, ISBN 0791077322
  • Mary Englar, (2007), Benazir Bhutto: Pakistani Prime Minister and Activist, Compass Point Books, ISBN 0756517982
  • Ayesha Siddiqa, (2007), Military Inc.: Inside Pakistan's Military Economy, Pluto Press, ISBN 0745325459
  • Benazir Bhutto Selected Speeches 1989-2007, 600 Pages
  • Articles written to pay tribute to Benazir Bhutto; Sani Panhwar, (2010) 247 Pages

Other related publications

  • Abdullah Malik, (1988), Bhutto se Benazir tak: Siyasi tajziye, Maktabah-yi Fikr o Danish, ASIN B0000CRQJH
  • Bashir Riaz, (2000), Blind justice, Fiction House, ASIN B0000CPHP8
  • Khatm-i Nabuvat, ASIN B0000CRQ4A
  • Mujahid Husain, (1999), Kaun bara bad °unvan: Benazir aur Navaz Sharif ki bad °unvaniyon par tahqiqati dastavez, Print La'in Pablisharz, ASIN B0000CRPC3
  • Ahmad Ejaz, (1993), Benazir Bhutto's foreign policy: A study of Pakistan's relations with major powers, Classic, ASIN B0000CQV0Y
  • Lubna Rafique, (1994), Benazir & British Press, 1986-1990, Gautam, ASIN B0000CP41S
  • Sayyid Afzal Haidar, (1996), Bhutto trial, National Commission on History & Culture, ASIN B0000CPBFX
  • Mumtaz Husain Bazmi, (1996), Zindanon se aivanon tak, al-Hamd Pablikeshanz, ASIN B0000CRPOT
  • Unknown author, (1996), Napak sazish: Tauhin-i risalat ki saza ko khatm karne ka benazir sarkari mansubah, Intarnaishnal Institiyut af Tahaffuz-i

External links

Political offices
Title last held by
Muhammad Khan Junejo
Prime Minister of Pakistan
1988 – 1990
Succeeded by
Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi (Caretaker)
followed by Nawaz Sharif
Preceded by
Mahbub ul Haq
Finance Minister of Pakistan
1988 – 1990
Succeeded by
Sartaj Aziz
Preceded by
Mahmoud Haroon
Defence Minister of Pakistan
1988 – 1990
Succeeded by
Ghous Ali Shah
Preceded by
Moeenuddin Ahmad Qureshi (Caretaker)
Prime Minister of Pakistan
1993 – 1996
Succeeded by
Malik Meraj Khalid (Caretaker)
followed by Nawaz Sharif
Preceded by
Syed Babar Ali
Finance Minister of Pakistan
1994 – 1996
Succeeded by
Naveed Qamar
Party political offices
Preceded by
Nusrat Bhutto
Chairperson of the Pakistan Peoples Party
Acting Chairperson for Nusrat Bhutto from 1982–1984

1982 – 2007
Succeeded by
Bilawal Bhutto Zardari
As co-chairman
Succeeded by
Asif Ali Zardari
As co-chairman


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Ultimately, leadership requires action: daring to take steps that are necessary but unpopular, challenging the status quo in order to reach a brighter future.

Benazir Bhutto (21 June 195327 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician, the first woman elected to lead a Muslim state, twice elected as Prime Minister of Pakistan, first in 1988 and again 1993. She was the eldest child of former premier Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and was assasinated in December of 2007 while campaigning for the Pakistan Peoples Party which he had founded.



Democracy needs support and the best support for democracy comes from other democracies.
Leadership is to do what is right by educating and inspiring an electorate, empathizing with the moods, needs, wants, and aspirations of humanity.
I have found that those who do achieve peace never acquiesce to obstacles, especially those constructed of bigotry, intolerance, and inflexible tradition.
  • To make peace, one must be an uncompromising leader. To make peace, one must also embody compromise.
    Throughout the ages, leadership and courage have often been synonymous. Ultimately, leadership requires action: daring to take steps that are necessary but unpopular, challenging the status quo in order to reach a brighter future.
    And to push for peace is ultimately personal sacrifice, for leadership is not easy. It is born of a passion, and it is a commitment. Leadership is a commitment to an idea, to a dream, and to a vision of what can be. And my dream is for my land and my people to cease fighting and allow our children to reach their full potential regardless of sex, status, or belief.
  • Leadership is to do what is right by educating and inspiring an electorate, empathizing with the moods, needs, wants, and aspirations of humanity.
    Making peace is about bringing the teeming conflicts of society to a minimal point of consensus. It is about painting a new vision on the canvas of a nation's political history. Ultimately, leadership is about the strength of one's convictions, the ability to endure the punches, and the energy to promote an idea.
    And I have found that those who do achieve peace never acquiesce to obstacles, especially those constructed of bigotry, intolerance, and inflexible tradition.
    • "Reflections on Working Towards Peace" in Architects of Peace: Visions of Hope in Words and Images (2000) edited by Michael Collopy
  • It is one thing being able to contest an election and to give the people hope that I can be the next prime minister. It is a totally different situation where the people of Pakistan are told that the results are already taken and the leader of your choice is banned.
  • I find that whenever I am in power, or my father was in power, somehow good things happen. The economy picks up, we have good rains, water comes, people have crops. I think the reason this happens is that we want to give love and we receive love.
    • As quoted in "I never asked for power" in The Guardian (15 August 2002)
  • Whatever my aims and agendas were, I never asked for power. I think they need me. I don't think it's addictive. I think, if anything, it's the opposite of addictive. You want to run away from it, but it doesn't let you go. It's doing it again.
    • As quoted in "I never asked for power" in The Guardian (15 August 2002)
If they only showed this much spunk when it came to containing the terrorists I don't think we would have such a problem.
  • I fully understand the men behind Al Qaeda. They have tried to assassinate me twice before. The Pakistan Peoples Party and I represent everything they fear the most — moderation, democracy, equality for women, information, and technology. We represent the future of a modern Pakistan, a future that has no place in it for ignorance, intolerance, and terrorism.
    The forces of moderation and democracy must, and will, prevail against extremism and dictatorship. I will not be intimidated. I will step out on the tarmac in Karachi not to complete a journey, but to begin one. Despite threats of death, I will not acquiesce to tyranny, but rather lead the fight against it.
I put my life in danger and came here because I feel this country is in danger.
  • If they only showed this much spunk when it came to containing the terrorists I don't think we would have such a problem.
  • I put my life in danger and came here because I feel this country is in danger. People are worried. We will bring the country out of this crisis.
    • At the rally in Rawalpindi after which she was assassinated. (27 December 2007)

Destiny’s daughter (2007)

Interview with Ginny Dougary , "Destiny’s daughter" in The Times [UK] (28 April 2007)
  • It’s premature to talk about working alongside General Musharraf at this stage, although in the past we have worked jointly on certain issues such as the Women’s Bill.
    At the same time, I want you to know that we are also partners with Mr Nawaz Sharif in something called the charter for the restoration of democracy, so we are talking about a new democratic process in which the people of Pakistan are allowed to choose their leader and put together a coalition. And for that we are calling for a robust international monitoring team to ensure that these elections are fair and free because obviously if they’re not, the ruling party will still be in the driver’s seat and the creeping Talebanisation of Pakistan will continue.
  • If the people vote for my party and parliament elects me as prime minister, it would be an honour for me to take up that role and General Musharraf would be there as president, so I think that a good working relationship between him and me would be a necessity for Pakistan. ... I would have the choice of either respecting the will of the people and making it a success or being short-sighted and putting my personal feelings about past events ahead of the national interest, and what I want more than anything is for Pakistan to prosper as we make a transition to democracy
  • My party would not have allowed the Taleban to become such a huge force that they would need to sign a peace treaty.
  • My father always would say, "My daughter will go into politics? My daughter will become prime minister", but it’s not what I wanted to do. I would say, "No, Papa, I will never go into politics." As I’ve said before, this is not the life I chose; it chose me ... But I accepted the responsibility and I’ve never wavered in my commitment.
  • I don’t fear death. I remember my last meeting with my father when he told me, "You know, tonight when I will be killed, my mother and my father will be waiting for me." It makes me weepy ... but I don’t think it can happen unless God wants it to happen because so many people have tried to kill me.
  • I really do think that there is at least some degree of causality that most major terrorist attacks took place when the extremists did not have to deal with a democratic Pakistani government, when they operated without check and oversight. I believe that if my government had not been destabilised in Pakistan in 1996, the Taleban could not have allowed Osama bin Laden to set up base in Afghanistan, openly recruit and train young men from all over the Muslim world and declare war on America in 1998.
  • I know death comes. I’ve seen too much death, young death.
  • It would be so nice to have the luxury just to laze. So nice not to have to always get up and get dressed for some occasion. Always having to move from here to there, where everything is scheduled and even having lunch with my kids on their Easter break has to be slotted in. Maybe one day...
  • I was brought up to believe that human beings are good, which is why it shocks me to the core when I see human beings behaving badly.

Quotes about Bhutto

  • Benazir Bhutto was a woman of immense personal courage and bravery. Knowing, as she did, the threats to her life, the previous attempt at assassination, she risked everything in her attempt to win democracy in Pakistan, and she has been assassinated by cowards afraid of democracy. Benazir Bhutto may have been killed by terrorists, but the terrorists must not be allowed to kill democracy in Pakistan. And this atrocity strengthens our resolve that terrorists will not win there, here or anywhere in the world.
  • Mrs. Bhutto served her nation twice as Prime Minister and she knew that her return to Pakistan earlier this year put her life at risk. Yet she refused to allow assassins to dictate the course of her country.
    We stand with the people of Pakistan in their struggle against the forces of terror and extremism. We urge them to honor Benazir Bhutto's memory by continuing with the democratic process for which she so bravely gave her life.
  • Bhutto represents everything the fundamentalists hate — a powerful, highly-educated woman operating in a man’s world, seemingly unafraid to voice her independent views and, indeed, seemingly unafraid of anything, including the very real possibility that one day someone might succeed in killing her because of who she is.
  • It was her father who chose to call his first-born daughter Benazir, which means “without comparison”. I think he would feel that she is living up to his name.
    • Ginny Dougary in "Destiny’s daughter" in The Times (28 April 2007)
  • Bhutto is a survivor and has an infinite belief in herself and her abilities. Rarely does she reveal even glimpses of her true character or her real thoughts. She may have genuinely not yet decided whether to return. Or she may have accepted that she can never return, but intends to leave the military on tenterhooks for as long as possible. Despite Musharraf's hostility, Bhutto's party is still the strongest political force in Pakistan and she is the only Pakistani politician with any natural charisma.
  • In her death the subcontinent has lost an outstanding leader who worked for democracy and reconciliation in her country. The manner of her going is a reminder of the common dangers that our region faces from cowardly acts of terrorism and of the need to eradicate this dangerous threat.

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Simple English

Benazir Bhutto (21 June 1953 - 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician. Bhutto was the first woman elected to lead a Muslim state. She was elected Prime Minister of Pakistan two times. She was sworn in for the first time in 1988 but removed from office 20 months later under orders of then-president Ghulam Ishaq Khan on a belief that she was corrupt. In 1993 Bhutto was re-elected but was again removed in 1996 on similar charges, this time by President Farooq Leghari.

Bhutto killed

On December 27, 2007, Benazir Bhutto was killed while getting into a vehicle to leave a political meeting for the Pakistan Peoples Party in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. [1] An assassin shot her in the neck and chest before detonating an explosive vest. This killed about 30 people and wounded many others. She is called Shaheed-e-Jamhuriat (Martyr of Democracy) by her fans.


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