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Benjamin

According to the Book of Genesis, Benjamin (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין, Modern Binyamin Tiberian Binyāmîn בִּנְיָמִין) was the last-born of Jacob's twelve sons, and the second (and last) son of Rachel.[1] He was the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Benjamin. In the Biblical account, unlike Rachel's first son, Joseph, Benjamin was born in Canaan. He died in Egypt on the 11th of Cheshvan (which was also his birthday) 1443 BCE at the age of 111.

However, some view these details as postdiction, an eponymous metaphor providing an etiology of the connectedness of the tribe to others in the Israelite confederation.

Contents

Name

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According to the Torah, Benjamin's name arose when Jacob deliberately corrupted the name Benoni, the original name of Benjamin, since Benoni was an allusion to Rachel dying just after she had given birth, as it means son of my pain.[2] Textual scholars regard these two names as fragments of naming narratives coming from different sources - one being the Jahwist and the other being the Elohist.[3]

The etymology of the name Benjamin is a matter of dispute, though most agree that it is composed of two parts - ben and jamin - the former meaning son of. The literal translation of Benjamin is son of right (as opposed to left), generally interpreted as meaning son of my right hand, though sometimes interpreted as son of the right side; being associated with the right hand side was traditionally a reference to strength and virtue (cf sinister, which derives from the latin for left). This is, however, not the only literal translation, as the root for right is identical to that for south, hence Benjamin also literally translates as son of the south; this meaning is advocated by several classical rabbinical sources, which argue that it refers to the birth of Benjamin in Canaan, as compared with the birth of all the other sons of Jacob in Aram.[4] Modern scholars have instead proposed that, with the eponymous Benjamin being just a metaphor, son of the south/son of the right are references to the tribe coming into existence in a geographic situation respect to the more dominant tribe of Ephraim.[5]

In the Samaritan Pentateuch, the name is consistently written as בן ימים, with a terminal mem, making it Benjamim, and would literally translate as son of days. Some classical rabbinical literature argues that this was the original form of the name and was a reference to the old age of Jacob when Benjamin was born.[4]

According to classical rabbinical sources, Benjamin was only born after Rachel had fasted for a long time, as a religious devotion with the hope of a new child as a reward, and by then Jacob had become over 100 years old.[4] Benjamin is treated as a young child in most of the Biblical narrative,[5] but at one point is abruptly described as the father of ten sons.[6] Textual scholars believe that this is the result of by the genealogical passage, in which his children are named, being from a much later source than the Jahwist and Elohist narratives, which make up most of the Joseph narrative, and which consistently describe Benjamin as a child.[4]

Israelites in Egypt

Benjamin (right) embracing his brother, Joseph

The Torah's Joseph narrative, at a stage when Joseph is unrecognised by his brothers, describes Joseph as testing whether his brothers have reformed, by secretly planting a silver cup in Benjamin's bag, then publicly searching the bags for it, and after finding it in Benjamin's possession, demanding that Benjamin become his slave as a punishment.[7] The narrative goes on to state that when Judah (on behalf of the other brothers) begged Joseph not to enslave Benjamin and instead enslave him, since enslavement of Benjamin would break Jacob's heart, this caused Joseph to recant and reveal his identity.[5] The midrashic book of Jasher argues that prior to revealing his identity, Joseph asked Benjamin to find his missing brother (ie. Joseph) via astrology, using an astrolabe-like tool;[4] it continues by stating that Benjamin divined that the man on the throne was Joseph, so Joseph identified himself to Benjamin (but not the other brothers), and revealed his scheme (as in the Torah) to test how fraternal the other brothers were.[5] However, some classical rabbinical sources argue that Joseph identified himself for other reasons.[5] In these sources, Benjamin swore an oath, on the memory of Joseph, that he was innocent of theft, and, when challenged about how believable the oath would be, explained that remembering Joseph was so important to him that he had named his sons in Joseph's honour;[5] these sources go on to state that Benjamin's oath touched Joseph so deeply that Joseph was no longer able to pretend to be a stranger.[5]

In the narrative, just prior to this test, when Joseph had first met all of his brothers (but not identified himself to them), he had held a feast for them;[8] the narrative heavily implies that Benjamin was Joseph's favorite brother, since he is overcome with tears when he first meets Benjamin in particular,[9] and he gives Benjamin five times as much food as he apportions to the others.[10] According to textual scholars, this is really the Jahwist's account of the reunion after Joseph identifies himself, and the account of the threat to enslave Benjamin is just the Elohist's version of the same event, with the Elohist being more terse about Joseph's emotions towards Benjamin, merely mentioning that Benjamin was given five times as many gifts as the others.[4]

A version of the Joseph narrative appears in the Qu'ran, which also mentions Benjamin. It describes him as having been regarded particularly highly by Joseph, and by Jacob.[11] Baidawi, the quintessential mediaeval commentator on the Qu'ran, records that there was a tradition that the brothers had been made to sit in pairs at the feast, so that Benjamin had to sit on his own, which resulted in Benjamin weeping over the loss of Joseph.[4] Not only is Benjamin treated as the favourite brother of Joseph, and a favourite of Jacob, but classical rabbinical sources also stress the fact that Benjamin is referred to as the beloved of Yahweh in Deuteronomy; these rabbinical sources concluded that Benjamin died without ever committing sin - one of only four men to have done so (the other three being Amram, Jesse, and Kileab).[12]

Origin

Exterior view of a Mamluk Caravanserai complex, including the mausoleum of Nabi Yamin, traditionally believed to be the tomb of Benjamin, at present located outside Kfar Sava, Israel.

Biblical scholars regard it as obvious, from their geographic overlap and their treatment in older passages, that originally Ephraim and Manasseh were considered one tribe, that of Joseph.[13] According to several biblical scholars, Benjamin was also originally part of this single tribe, but the biblical account of Joseph as his father became lost.[13][14] The description of Benjamin being born after the arrival in Canaan is thought by some scholars to refer to the tribe of Benjamin coming into existence by branching from the Joseph group after the tribe had settled in Canaan.[14] A number of biblical scholars suspect that the distinction of the Joseph tribes (including Benjamin) is that they were the only Israelites which went to Egypt and returned, while the main Israelite tribes simply emerged as a subculture from the Canaanites and had remained in Canaan throughout.[14][15] According to this view, the story of Jacob's visit to Laban to obtain a wife originated as a metaphor for this migration, with the property and family which were gained from Laban representing the gains of the Joseph tribes by the time they returned from Egypt;[14] according to textual scholars, the Jahwist version of the Laban narrative only mentions the Joseph tribes, and Rachel, and does not mention the other tribal matriarchs whatsoever.[5][16]

Benjamin's sons

According to Genesis 46:21, Benjamin had ten sons: Bela, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rosh, Muppim, Huppim, and Ard. The name of his wife/wives are not given. Classical rabbinical tradition adds that each son's name honors Joseph:[4]

  • Belah (meaning swallow), in reference to Joseph disappearing (being swallowed up)
  • Becher (meaning first born), in reference to Joseph being the first child of Rachel
  • Ashbel (meaning capture), in reference to Joseph having suffered captivity
  • Gera (meaning grain), in reference to Joseph living in a foreign land (Egypt)
  • Naaman (meaning grace), in reference to Joseph having graceful speech
  • Ehi (meaning my brother), in reference to Joseph being Benjamin's only full-brother (as opposed to half-brothers)
  • Rosh (meaning elder), in reference to Joseph being older than Benjamin
  • Muppim (meaning double mouth), in reference to Joseph passing on what he had been taught by Jacob
  • Huppim (meaning marriage canopies), in reference to Joseph being married in Egypt, while Benjamin was not there
  • Ard (meaning wanderer/fugitive), in reference to Joseph being like a rose

See also

Citations

  1. ^ Genesis 35:18
  2. ^ Genesis 35:19
  3. ^ Richard Elliott Friedman, Who wrote the Bible?
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Jewish Encyclopedia
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h ibid
  6. ^ Genesis 46:21
  7. ^ Genesis 44
  8. ^ Genesis 43
  9. ^ Genesis 43:30
  10. ^ Genesis 43:34
  11. ^ Sura Yusuf
  12. ^ Shabbat 55b
  13. ^ a b Jewish Encyclopedia, Ephraim
  14. ^ a b c d Peake's commentary on the Bible
  15. ^ Israel Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed
  16. ^ Richard Elliott Friedman, Who Wrote the Bible?

References

External links

  • The Jewish Encyclopedia, 1908: Benjamin. Material on the tribe, its territory, Rabbinical tradition and Islam, where Benjamin is not specifically mentioned in the Qur'an.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia

See also benjamin, and Benjamín

Contents

English

Etymology

From the Ancient Greek Βενιαμίν (Beniamin), from Old Testament Hebrew בּנימין.

Proper noun

Singular
Benjamin

Plural
Benjamins

Benjamin (plural Benjamins)

  1. A male given name of biblical origin.
  2. (Biblical) The youngest of the sons of Jacob and Rachel.

Quotations

  • 1611, King James Version of the Bible (Authorized Version), Genesis 35:18:
    And it came to pass, as her soul was in departing, (for she died) that she called his name Benoni: but his father called him Benjamin.
  • 1908 George Bernard Shaw: Getting Married:
    What about the youngest child - the Benjamin - the child of its parents' mature strength and charity, always better treated than the unfortunate eldest children of their youthful ignorance and wilfulness?
  • 2007 Mark Schreiber, Starcrossed, Llewellyn Worldwide, ISBN 0738710016, page 53:
    "Well, who the hell ever thinks some boy with a name like Benjamin is going to kill someone?" I said. "It's like someone named Winnie the Pooh taking hostages!"

Translations

External links

Noun

Singular
Benjamin

Plural
Benjamins

Benjamin (plural Benjamins)

  1. (US, slang) A US$100 bill, which bears a portrait of Benjamin Franklin. Often used in the plural form to indicate money:
    • Dean Ornish: "Health Care: It's All About the Benjamins" Newsweek (April 12, 2006) [1]
    • Movie title: "All About the Benjamins" (2002) [2]
    • Martha Baer: "It's Not All About The Benjamins" Tango Magazine (2007) [3]

Synonyms

Related terms


Danish

Proper noun

Benjamin

  1. (Biblical) Benjamin.
  2. A male given name.

Related terms


Finnish

Proper noun

Benjamin

  1. A male given name.
  2. (Biblical) Benjamin.

Declension


French

Proper noun

Benjamin

  1. (Biblical) Benjamin.
  2. A male given name.

German

Proper noun

Benjamin

  1. (Biblical) Benjamin.
  2. A male given name. Diminutive: Ben.

Norwegian

Proper noun

Benjamin

  1. (Biblical) Benjamin.
  2. A male given name

Swedish

Proper noun

Benjamin

  1. (Biblical) Benjamin.
  2. A male given name.

Related terms


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Meaning: son of my right hand.

The younger son of Jacob by Rachel (Gen 35:18). His birth took place at Ephrath, on the road between Bethel and Bethlehem, at a short distance from the latter place. His mother died in giving him birth, and with her last breath named him Ben-oni, son of my pain, a name which was changed by his father into Benjamin. His posterity are called Benjamites (Gen 49:27; Deut 33:12; Josh 18:21).

See also: Tribe of Benjamin, Gate of Benjamin

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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