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Benjamin Franklin

Portrait by Joseph Siffred Duplessis.

In office
October 18, 1785 – December 1, 1788
Preceded by John Dickinson
Succeeded by Thomas Mifflin

In office
1765–1765
Preceded by Isaac Norris
Succeeded by Isaac Norris

In office
1778–1785
Appointed by Congress of the Confederation
Preceded by New office
Succeeded by Thomas Jefferson

In office
1782–1783
Appointed by Congress of the Confederation
Preceded by New office
Succeeded by Jonathan Russell

In office
1775–1776
Appointed by Continental Congress
Preceded by New office
Succeeded by Richard Bache

Born January 17, 1706(1706-01-17)
Boston, Massachusetts
Died April 17, 1790 (aged 84)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Nationality American
Political party None
Spouse(s) Deborah Read
Children William Franklin
Francis Folger Franklin
Sarah Franklin Bache
Profession Scientist
Writer
Politician
Signature
.Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705[1]] – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.^ It was not much later that Franklin found himself one of the committee of five elected by ballot to frame a declaration of independence.
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^ Benjamin Franklin It is not in human nature to be so extravagantly abused in times of intense excitement, and wholly to hold one's peace.
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^ In Giacomo Puccini's Italian opera of 1904, Madam Butterfly , the archetypical American who betrays Madam Butterfly is Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton, Lieutenant in the United States Navy.
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.A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author and printer, satirist, political theorist, politician, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, soldier,[2] and diplomat.^ He was a leading author , political theorist , politician , printer , scientist , inventor , civic activist , and diplomat .
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^ His official influence at an end in London, Franklin spent most of 1771 traveling around the British Isles and enjoying the company of the leading scientists and philosophers.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Benjamin Franklin or Ben Franklin may refer to: People: Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), American politician & polymath Ben Franklin (Canada) (1942-2003), former mayor of Nepean, Ontario .....
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity.^ As a scientist he was a major figure in the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity .
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^ We have thus been taught to regard Franklin's science as a lark, when in fact he largely discovered the nature of electricity and was regarded as one of the greatest scientists of his age.

^ An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations.
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.He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glass 'armonica'.^ There are also a variety of ingenious inventions of Franklin's on display in the original, including bifocal glasses, the first storage battery, a simplified clock, several library devices, the Franklin stove, and so on.

^ There's a replica of an armonica on display in the Franklin Court Museum around 3rd and Chestnut, which we are vigorously assured is not made with leaded crystal glass.

^ Having gone no further than the second grade, he invented bifocal glasses .

.He formed both the first public lending library in America and the first fire department in Pennsylvania.^ He formed both the first public lending library and fire department in America as well as the Junto , a political discussion club.
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^ Pennsylvania Hospital was the first hospital in what was to become the United States of America.
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^ We bow to lending libraries, fire brigades, insurance associations, planned giving, philosophical society, and legislatures .

.He was an early proponent of colonial unity, and as a political writer and activist, he supported the idea of an American nation.^ When Judge Edwin O. Lewis was seized with the idea of making a national monument out of Colonial Philadelphia, he wanted it big.

^ The simplest government seemed to him the best; and he substantially gave in his allegiance to those democratic ideas which afterward constituted the doctrines of the Jeffersonian school in American politics.
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[3] .As a diplomat during the American Revolution, he secured the French alliance that helped to make independence of the United States possible.^ Diplomatic Correspondence of American Revolution, iv.
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^ As a political writer and activist he, more than anyone, invented the idea of an American nation, [1] and as a diplomat during the American Revolution , he secured the French alliance that helped to make independence possible.
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^ He lived in a home in the Parisian suburb of Passy , donated by Jacques-Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont who helped the United States.
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Franklin is credited as being foundational to the roots of American values and character, a marriage of the practical and democratic Puritan values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment.^ Logan, Franklin, Library James Logan and Benjamin Franklin were at the opposite ends of the social scale in Colonial Philadelphia, and were to adopt stongly differing political views.

^ The noise rashly made about this matter” by Jackson naturally injured American credit in Holland, and especially rendered unmarketable his own drafts upon Franklin.
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^ Franklin acknowledged that he was suspect "in England of being too much of an American, and in America of being too much of an Englishman."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

In the words of Henry Steele Commager, "In Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat."[4] To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin, "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."[5]
.Franklin became a newspaper editor, printer, and merchant in Philadelphia, becoming very wealthy writing and publishing Poor Richard's Almanack and The Pennsylvania Gazette.^ By the age of 23, Franklin bought a newspaper, The Pennsylvania Gazette.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Benjamin Franklin , Poor Richard , 1733 .
  • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Born in Boston, Massachusetts , Franklin learned printing from his older brother and became a newspaper editor, printer, and merchant in Philadelphia , becoming very wealthy.
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.Franklin was interested in science and technology, and gained international renown for his famous experiments.^ For sixteen years, the Library Company was the Library of Congress , but it was also a museum of odd artifacts donated by the townsfolk, as well as the workplace where Franklin conducted his famous experiments on electricity.

^ Philosophy Means Science in Philadelphia At least until he met Madame Helvetius, Benjamin Franklin displayed little interest in moral philosophy.

.He played a major role in establishing the University of Pennsylvania and was elected the first president of the American Philosophical Society.^ He was elected the first president of the American Philosophical Society , the oldest learned society in the United States, in 1769.
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^ He also played a major role in establishing the University of Pennsylvania and Franklin and Marshall College .
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^ Special balloting conducted 18 November 1785 unanimously elected Franklin the sixth President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania , replacing John Dickinson .
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Franklin became a national hero in America when he spearheaded the effort to have Parliament repeal the unpopular Stamp Act.^ The repealing act was fully as unpopular in England as the repealed act had been in America.
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^ The immediate forerunner in Parliament of the repeal of the Stamp Act was significant.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin became a national hero in America when he spearheaded the effort to have Parliament repeal the unpopular Stamp Act .
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations.^ The French minister, we are told, “seemed to smile” at this compliment to the unselfishness of his chivalrous nation,[82] and replied that the American States were making no request to England for independence.
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^ As with any developing scientific field, identifying and specifying the concepts that are important for the study, and their relations to one another, can be a major problem.
  • Franklin HTML 16 September 2009 23:19 UTC psyc.queensu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ He developed no other peculiar fitness for his position; he could not even speak French; and it proved an ill hour for himself in which he received this trying and difficult honor.
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.From 1775 to 1776, Franklin was the Postmaster General under the Continental Congress and from 1785 to 1788, the President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania.^ He carried with him a brief but generous letter from Franklin to the president of Congress.
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^ From 1775 to 1776, Franklin was Postmaster General under the Continental Congress and from 1785 to 1788 was President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania.
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^ Pennsylvania nominated Franklin for the presidency of its executive council - essentially the governor of the state.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Toward the end of his life, he became one of the most prominent abolitionists.^ Toward the end of his life, he became one of the most prominent abolitionists .
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^ But when Franklin dined at the Mitre, he did so most often as the guest of Scottish physician John Pringle, who quickly became one of his closest friends.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "In his later life, - - - he became one of America's most active abolitionists, one who denounced slavery on moral grounds and helped advance the rights of blacks."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.His colorful life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, and status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, have seen Franklin honored on coinage and money; warships; the names of many towns, counties, educational institutions, namesakes, and companies; and more than two centuries after his death, countless cultural references.^ Franklin, like Jefferson, had more faith in democracy than most of the other founding fathers.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not much later that Franklin found himself one of the committee of five elected by ballot to frame a declaration of independence.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After two centuries of democracy, most Americans are too far from feudalism to appreciate the legitimacy of military meritocracy.

Contents

Biography

Ancestry

.Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin, was born at Ecton, Northamptonshire, England on December 23, 1657, the son of Thomas Franklin, a blacksmith and farmer, and Jane White.^ For three hundred years, perhaps for many centuries more, his ancestors lived on a small freehold at Ecton in Northamptonshire, and so far back as record or tradition ran the eldest son in each generation had been bred a blacksmith.
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^ He also had an illegitimate son, William Temple Franklin, whom he left in England.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The point of all this is that Josiah Franklin , the father of Benjamin and sixteen other children, was a candle maker and a soap boiler.

.His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on August 15, 1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher and his wife Mary Morrill, a former indentured servant.^ His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket , Massachusetts , on August 15 , 1667 , to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher and his wife Mary Morrill , a former indentured servant .
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^ His father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a maker of candles and soap, whose second wife, Abiah Folger, was Benjamin's mother.
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.A descendant of the Folgers, J.A. Folger, founded Folgers Coffee in the 19th century.^ A descendant of the Folgers, J. A. Folger , founded Folgers Coffee in the 19th century.
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.Josiah Franklin had seventeen children with his two wives.^ Josiah became the father of seventeen children, of whom the famous Dr. Benjamin Franklin was the youngest.

.He married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in Ecton and emigrated with her to Boston in 1683; they had three children before emigrating, and four after.^ Josiah's first wife, Anne, died in Boston on July 9 , 1689 .
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^ Around 1677, Josiah married Anne Child at Ecton, and over the next few years had three children.
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^ They had several more children in Boston, including Josiah Jr. August 23 , 1685 ), Ann ( January 5 , 1687 ), Joseph ( February 5 , 1688 ), and Joseph ( June 30 , 1689 ) (the first Joseph died soon after birth).
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.After her death, Josiah was married to Abiah Folger on July 9, 1689 in the Old South Meeting House by Samuel Willard.^ He was born in a house on Milk Street, opposite the Old South Church, January 6, old style, 17, new style, 1706.
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^ Harriet Tubman House Freedom Trail Granary Burying Ground Brook Farm Historic Site Old State House U.S.S. Constitution Old South Meeting House Paul Revere House Hospitals & Medical Care Facilities .
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^ King's Chapel Church of Christ-Scientist Old South Church Old North Church Park Street Church Convention & Meeting Facilities - Civic Centers .
  • Hotels Near Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology - Boston Massachusetts hotels 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC hotel.uscity.net [Source type: General]

.Benjamin, their eighth child, was Josiah Franklin's fifteenth child and tenth and last son.^ Josiah's marriages produced 17 children; Benjamin was the fifteenth child and youngest son.
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^ His father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a maker of candles and soap, whose second wife, Abiah Folger, was Benjamin's mother.
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin , was born at Ecton , Northamptonshire , England on December 23 , 1657 , the son of Thomas Franklin, a blacksmith and farmer , and Jane White.
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Josiah Franklin converted to Puritanism in the 1670s. Puritanism was a Protestant movement in England to "purify" Anglicanism from elements of the Roman Catholic religion, which they considered superstitious. .Three things were important to the Puritans: that each congregation be self-governing; that ministers give sermons instead of performing rituals such as a Mass; and that each member study the Bible so that each could develop a personal understanding and relationship with God.^ He recognized that the New Testament does not teach that any officer in the kingdom of God has any authority ever the churches or preachers; that the individual congregations are self-governing and self-directing, as the Scriptures teach.

^ Instead of his usual brown suit, Franklin was wearing a faded blue one, and Deane questioned why he wore old clothes to such an important ceremony.

^ True, they spoke English, revered England, but many urgent local issues were difficult to administer at such a distance, encouraging a mentality of self-governance.

.Puritanism appealed to middle-class individuals such as Benjamin Franklin's father, who enjoyed the governance meetings, discussion, study, and personal independence.^ Benjamin Franklin was of Puritan stock.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a maker of candles and soap, whose second wife, Abiah Folger, was Benjamin's mother.
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Giacomo Puccini's Italian opera of 1904, Madam Butterfly , the archetypical American who betrays Madam Butterfly is Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton, Lieutenant in the United States Navy.
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.The roots of American democracy can be seen in these Puritan values of self-government.^ "From these attitudes sprang what may be Franklin's most important vision: an American national identity based on the virtues and values of its middle class.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.These values, which were passed on to Benjamin Franklin and other founding fathers (such as John Adams), included the importance of the individual and active indignation against unjust authority.^ His father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a maker of candles and soap, whose second wife, Abiah Folger, was Benjamin's mother.
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^ He is followed by his political disciple, James Madison; by their secretary of the treasury, Albert Gallatin; and by 4 Benjamin Franklin James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, and John Randolph.
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^ [Note 28: A very interesting statement of these proceedings may be found in Franklin's Works, x.
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.One of Josiah's core Puritan values was that personal worth is earned through hard work, which makes the industrious man the equal of kings (Ben Franklin would etch Proverbs 22:29, "Seest thou a man diligent in his calling, he shall stand before Kings."^ Carved on his father's tombstone were a few words - "Diligent in his calling" - from a sentence in Proverbs 22:29: "Seest thou a man diligent in his calling, he shall stand before Kings."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, the State Chamber, business, health care industry, higher education and policy makers have worked hard for years and thrown a lot of state resources into making this a biotech destination.

^ He was a man of abundant courage, but courage does not make a prison or a gallows an agreeable object in one's horizon.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[7] onto his father's tombstone). .Hard work and equality were two Puritan values that Ben Franklin preached throughout his own life (ibid, p 78) and spread widely through Poor Richard's Almanac and his autobiography.^ So, just as Dr. Bond recognized the problem and went to Ben Franklin to handle the philanthropy, Dr. Evans had the idea and Fred Hill made it work.

^ About Ben Franklin Crafts From the Company website Ben Franklin Crafts stores are part of the nation's largest family of independently owned retail stores.
  • Ben Franklin Crafts Locations - Locate Ben Franklin Crafts Stores Near You with Mapmuse's Ben Franklin Crafts Locator 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: General]

^ The narrow of mind take it all at face value, and thus reveal their own intellectual limitations in their criticism of this as of so much else of Franklin's writings.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ben Franklin's mother, Abiah Folger, was born into a Puritan family that was among the first Pilgrims to flee to Massachusetts for religious freedom, when King Charles I of England began persecuting Protestants.^ His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket , Massachusetts , on August 15 , 1667 , to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher and his wife Mary Morrill , a former indentured servant .
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a maker of candles and soap, whose second wife, Abiah Folger, was Benjamin's mother.
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not satisfied, he took in second nuptials Abiah Folger, “daughter of Peter Folger, one of the first settlers of New England, of whom honorable mention is made by Cotton Mather,” and justly, since in those dark days he was an active philanthropist towards the Indians, and an opponent of religious persecution.
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They sailed for Boston in 1635. Her father was "the sort of rebel destined to transform colonial America."[8] .As clerk of the court, he was jailed for disobeying the local magistrate in defense of middle-class shopkeepers and artisans in conflict with wealthy landowners.^ From his early years as a printer in Philadelphia, the desired image for Franklin was that of "the good shopkeeper," with the middle class virtues of diligence, frugality and honesty.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ben Franklin followed in his grandfather's footsteps in his battles against the wealthy Penn family that owned the Pennsylvania Colony.^ Franklin's famous examination and his other efforts in behalf of the colonies were appreciated by his countrymen outside of Pennsylvania.
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^ The defeated but determined Quaker party sent him to England to lobby against the Penn family and for rule of Pennsylvania by the King.

^ In any event, blinded for once by his own passions, he suggested he might be able to get the Crown to take Pennsylvania away form the Penns and turn it into a Crown colony like most of the other colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

Early life

Franklin's birthplace on Milk Street, Boston, Massachusetts
Franklin's birthplace site directly across from Old South Meeting House on Milk Street is commemorated by a bust above the second floor facade of this building
.Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street, in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 17, 1706[9] and baptized at Old South Meeting House.^ He was born in a house on Milk Street, opposite the Old South Church, January 6, old style, 17, new style, 1706.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ben Franklin was born in Puritan Boston, fled from it as soon as he could, and thereafter seldom regarded Puritans as having two feet on the ground.

^ Benjamin Franklin CHAPTER IV. LIFE IN PHILADELPHIA When Franklin came home he was fifty−six years old.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.He was the son of Josiah Franklin, a tallow chandler and soap- and candle-maker, and his second wife, Abiah Folger.^ His father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a maker of candles and soap, whose second wife, Abiah Folger, was Benjamin's mother.
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket , Massachusetts , on August 15 , 1667 , to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher and his wife Mary Morrill , a former indentured servant .
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin , was born at Ecton , Northamptonshire , England on December 23 , 1657 , the son of Thomas Franklin, a blacksmith and farmer , and Jane White.
  • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Josiah had 17 children; Benjamin was the fifteenth child and youngest son.^ The point of all this is that Josiah Franklin , the father of Benjamin and sixteen other children, was a candle maker and a soap boiler.

^ Josiah became the father of seventeen children, of whom the famous Dr. Benjamin Franklin was the youngest.

^ Among these were Benjamin, Josiah, Daniel and Joseph Franklin, Jr., and John I. Rogers, son of Samuel Rogers.

.Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy but only had enough money to send him to school for two years.^ I believe in only one thing: liberty, but I do not believe in liberty enough to want to force it upon anyone.
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^ At its conclusion he anticipated a speedy return home; but he had to stay yet two years more to attend to sundry matters smaller in importance, but which were advanced almost as slowly.
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^ Later on, the public was allowed to borrow books, but only on deposit of enough money to replace the book if unreturned.

.He attended Boston Latin School but did not graduate; he continued his education through voracious reading.^ Benjamin Franklin read voraciously - as did most of the primary founding fathers.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although "his parents talked of the church as a career" for Franklin, his schooling ended when he was ten.^ His parents were members of the Protestant Methodist Church, and when they moved to Indiana there was no church of that faith near the Franklin home.

^ Franklin's father speedily resolved to devote him, “as the tithe of his sons, to the service of the church,” and so sent him to the grammar school.
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^ Franklin readily surrendered his commission, ending his brief military career and leaving the Proprietors with the responsibility for defense of the colony.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.He then worked for his father for a time and at 12 he became an apprentice to his brother James, a printer, who taught Ben the printing trade.^ However, it was almost "by default" that he ultimately, at age 12, became apprenticed to his brother.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a younger brother, David Franklin, who became a Christian half a dozen years later and gave his life thereafter to the ministry.

.When Ben was 15, James founded The New-England Courant, which was the first truly independent newspaper in the colonies.^ James was soon a newspaper publisher as well as a printer, producing The Courant , the first truly independent newspaper in the colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A new group of colonial leaders, who bristled at being subservient to England, were coming to the fore, especially in Virginia and Massachusetts.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ James published the “New England Courant,” and, inserting in it some objectionable matter, was forbidden to continue it.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

When denied the chance to write a letter to the paper for publication, Franklin adopted the pseudonym of "Mrs. Silence Dogood", a middle-aged widow. "Mrs. Dogood"'s letters were published, and became a subject of conversation around town. .Neither James nor the Courant's readers were aware of the ruse, and James was unhappy with Ben when he discovered the popular correspondent was his younger brother.^ James Franklin seems to have trained his junior with such fraternal cuffs and abuse as the elder brothers of English biography and literature appear usually to have bestowed on the younger.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter and Francis's brother James were both killed in the battle; their deaths are memorialized in a sketch by Benjamin West, "Discovering the bones of Sir Peter Halket."
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Franklin left his apprenticeship without permission, and in so doing became a fugitive.^ If hired, I agree to not release confidential information related to Ben Franklin Transit to anyone without the permission of my department manager.
  • Ben Franklin Transit 3 February 2010 14:38 UTC tbe.taleo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon reflection Franklin was disposed to do without counsel, but Mr. Bollan now became strongly of the contrary opinion.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[10]
.At age 17, Franklin ran away to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, seeking a new start in a new city.^ Cherry Hill, New Jersey is conveniently located just five miles east of the historic city of Philadelphia, in the Delaware River Valley.
  • Reserve Hotels near Benjamin Franklin Statue in Philadelphia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Franklin was one of four Pennsylvania delegates chosen fpr a diplomatic conference in Albany, New York.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A collection of Benjamin Franklin tidbits that relate Philadelphia's revolutionary prelate to his moving around the city, the colonies, and the world.

.When he first arrived he worked in several printer shops around town.^ Arrived in Philadelphia penniless, readily found work as a printer.

^ I saw many of them at various spots around town several weeks ago.

^ Franklin, when he arrived in France, was in his seventy−first year; his health was in the main good, yet his strength had been severely tried by his journey to Canada and by the voyage.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

However, he was not satisfied by the immediate prospects. .After a few months, while working in a printing house, Franklin was convinced by Pennsylvania Governor Sir William Keith to go to London, ostensibly to acquire the equipment necessary for establishing another newspaper in Philadelphia.^ Local uproar in Pennsylvania was apparently orchestrated by William Bradford , who in addition to having been Franklin's former competitor in the printing business, was the owner of the London Coffee House at Front and Market.

^ The gallant governor, however, said: “Since he will not set you up, I will do it myself,” and a plan was soon concocted whereby Franklin was to go to England and purchase a press and types with funds to be advanced by Sir William.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By the age of 23, Franklin bought a newspaper, The Pennsylvania Gazette.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Finding Keith's promises of backing a newspaper to be empty, Franklin worked as a typesetter in a printer's shop in what is now the Church of St Bartholomew-the-Great in the Smithfield area of London.^ Only much later, after he was indeed looked on coldly by great people in London, would Franklin prove a dangerous enemy to the imperial cause."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Letters to the colonies from his Quaker friends in London asserting Franklin's opposition to the Stamp Act tax were reprinted in colonial newspapers to shore up his support at home.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Assembly then voted to petition the Crown for an end to the Proprietors' charter, and sent Franklin back to London to present the petition.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following this, he returned to Philadelphia in 1726 with the help of Thomas Denham, a merchant who employed Franklin as clerk, shopkeeper, and bookkeeper in his business.^ Boston on postal business in September 1754; he returned to Philadelphia in late February 1755.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From his early years as a printer in Philadelphia, the desired image for Franklin was that of "the good shopkeeper," with the middle class virtues of diligence, frugality and honesty.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, Franklin preferred his life in the big cities abroad to life back home in Philadelphia with his plodding wife, Deborah, who died in 1774 while Franklin was in London.
  • Benjamin Franklin: City Slicker by Jerry Weinberger, City Journal Summer 2008 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
In 1727, Benjamin Franklin, then 21, created the Junto, a group of "like minded aspiring artisans and tradesmen who hoped to improve themselves while they improved their community." The Junto was a discussion group for issues of the day; it subsequently gave rise to many organizations in Philadelphia.
.Reading was a great pastime of the Junto, but books were rare and expensive.^ His chief taste seemed to be for reading, and great were the ingenuity and the self−sacrifice whereby he secured books and leisure to read them.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The members created a library, initially assembled from their own books.^ The subscription required of a library member was intended to be forfeited if the borrower failed to return a book.

^ He founded the first hospital in the country , the Pennsylvania Hospital, and he donated the books for it to create the first medical library in the country.

This did not suffice, however. .Franklin then conceived the idea of a subscription library, which would pool the funds of the members to buy books for all to read.^ Subscription library - fire brigade - night watchmen - hospital - militia - and a college - were all formed at various times under Franklin's leadership, starting while he was still in his twenties.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The subscription required of a library member was intended to be forfeited if the borrower failed to return a book.

^ Franklin won the job, but he didn’t like the threat that the member would pose to his pocketbook in the future.
  • Benjamin Franklin: City Slicker by Jerry Weinberger, City Journal Summer 2008 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was the birth of the Library Company of Philadelphia: its charter was composed by Franklin in 1731. In 1732, Franklin hired the first American librarian, Louis Timothee.^ Logan and Franklin together conceived the idea of a subscription library, which in time became the Library Company of Philadelphia in 1732.

^ Logan, Franklin, Library James Logan and Benjamin Franklin were at the opposite ends of the social scale in Colonial Philadelphia, and were to adopt stongly differing political views.

^ The reference in the first sentence—"Mr F."—suggests that the paraphrase was composed by Birch, not Franklin.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Originally, the books were kept in the homes of the first librarians, but in 1739 the collection was moved to the second floor of the State House of Pennsylvania, now known as Independence Hall.^ Moving between the second floor of Carpenters Hall to its own building on 5th Street, it next made an unfortunate move to South Broad Street after James and Phoebe Rush donated the Ridgeway Library .

^ If you are unfamiliar with this approach, we suggest you download the Earth program from the Google site and get acquainted by locating your own house, or Independence Hall, or the Vatican.

^ He founded the first hospital in the country , the Pennsylvania Hospital, and he donated the books for it to create the first medical library in the country.

.In 1791, a new building was built specifically for the library.^ He built two new houses and extended the existing one, including a large room for his large library.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Library Company is now a great scholarly and research library with 500,000 rare books, pamphlets, and broadsides, more than 160,000 manuscripts, and 75,000 graphic items.^ Prior to 1800, only a scattering of pamphlets and books were printed in America or in the world for that matter, compared with the huge flowering of books, libraries, and authorship which were to characterize the 19th Century.

^ More than 10,000 men quickly signed up for more than 100 companies throughout the colony.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than a century later, the Philadelphia Free Library was organized under more trusting rules for borrowing which became possible as books became less expensive.

Benjamin Franklin (center) at work on a printing press, as depicted in a painting by Charles E. Mills
.Upon Denham's death, Franklin returned to his former trade.^ The captains sometimes released their prisoners at sea upon the written parole of each either to secure the return of an American, or to surrender himself to Franklin in France.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.By 1730, Franklin had set up a printing house of his own and had contrived to become the publisher of a newspaper called The Pennsylvania Gazette.^ By the age of 23, Franklin bought a newspaper, The Pennsylvania Gazette.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It probably only seemed natural for the owner of the largest newspaper in the colony to publish a pamphlet called " Plain Truth ," urging the inhabitants to rally to their own defense, and pressure their government to lead them.

^ Germantown's future lay in religious congregation, in paper making, textile manufacture , publishing, printing and newspapers.

.The Gazette gave Franklin a forum for agitation about a variety of local reforms and initiatives through printed essays and observations.^ Collinson collected thirteen of Franklin's letters about his experiments, the earliest dated 1747, and printed them in 1751 as an 86-page book called Experiments and Observations about Electricity .

^ Meanwhile, in November, 1758, after a delay of about a year, the Penns responded through their lawyers directly to the Assembly with a copy to Franklin.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At this very moment (see letter 42, 278–79), Shirley was bringing into print Franklin's demographic treatise, "Observations concerning the Increase of Mankind."
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Over time, his commentary, and his adroit cultivation of a positive image as an industrious and intellectual young man, earned him a great deal of social respect.^ This was pretty sensational at the time, until a young man in an audience suddenly died.

^ There never was a truly great man that was not at the same time truly virtuous.
  • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our virgin is a jolly one; and tho at present not very rich, will in time be a great fortune, and where she has a favorable predisposition, it seems to me well worth cultivating.
  • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

But even after Franklin had achieved fame as a scientist and statesman, he habitually signed his letters with the unpretentious 'B. Franklin, Printer.'[10]
In 1731, Franklin was initiated into the local Masonic Lodge. He became Grand Master in 1734, indicating his rapid rise to prominence in Pennsylvania.[11][12] .That same year, he edited and published the first Masonic book in the Americas, a reprint of James Anderson's Constitutions of the Free-Masons.^ Rise and Fall of Books The The Director of America's first library sees books as mainly a 19th Century phenomenon.

^ James was soon a newspaper publisher as well as a printer, producing The Courant , the first truly independent newspaper in the colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Franklin remained a Freemason for the rest of his life.^ Logan died in 1751, the year Franklin at the age of 42 decided to retire from business -- and devote the remaining 42 years of his life to scholarly and public affairs.

^ Franklin would spend the rest of his life as an active, ardent abolitionist.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Had either of these matrimonial bonds been made fast, it is not improbable that Franklin would have lived out the rest of his life as a friend of the colonies in England.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[13][14]

Common-law marriage to Deborah Read

Deborah Read Franklin
circa 1759
Sarah Franklin Bache (1743–1808)
.At the age of 17, Franklin proposed to 15-year-old Deborah Read while a boarder in the Read home.^ Franklin was now 75 years of age.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin was 69 years of age.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jay was thirty−seven years old, and Franklin was seventy−six, but Jay says: “His mind appears more vigorous than 121 Benjamin Franklin that of any man of his age I have known.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.At that time, the mother was wary of allowing her young daughter to marry Franklin, who was on his way to London at Governor Sir William Keith's request, and also because of his financial instability.^ Perhaps because of resentment towards William, Franklin had been adamantly against any firm commitment for loyalist compensation.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His opportune request was granted very readily, and his place was given to Fitzherbert, who brought personal letters to Franklin, but who was not accredited to treat with the States.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time Sir William Wyndham, ex−chancellor of the exchequer, endeavored to persuade Franklin to open a swimming school in London.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Her own husband had recently died, and Mrs. Read declined Franklin's request to marry her daughter.[10]
.While Franklin was in London, his trip was extended, and there were problems concerning with Sir William's promises of support.^ Franklin describes how Sir William Keith, the colonial governor of Pennsylvania, later tricked him, “a poor ignorant boy,” into believing that letters of credit were forthcoming to him in London for the purchase of printing equipment.
  • Benjamin Franklin: City Slicker by Jerry Weinberger, City Journal Summer 2008 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time Sir William Wyndham, ex−chancellor of the exchequer, endeavored to persuade Franklin to open a swimming school in London.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Letters to the colonies from his Quaker friends in London asserting Franklin's opposition to the Stamp Act tax were reprinted in colonial newspapers to shore up his support at home.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

Perhaps because of the circumstances of this delay, Deborah married a man named John Rodgers. This proved to be a regrettable decision. Rodgers shortly avoided his debts and prosecution by fleeing to Barbados with her dowry, leaving Deborah behind. Rodgers' fate was unknown, and because of bigamy laws, Deborah was not free to remarry.
.Franklin established a common-law marriage with Deborah Read on September 1, 1730, and besides taking in young William, together they had two children.^ Franklin's examiners tried him upon this matter: Can you show that there is any kind of difference between the two taxes, to the colony on which they are laid?
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They have not paid any of the Tavern-keepers much above one half of their bills, altho' no article in them is charged above the rate established by Law.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Together, they got the project financed and started with a seven-bed facility near Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

.The first, Francis Folger Franklin, born October 1732, died of smallpox in 1736. Sarah Franklin, familiarly called Sally, was born in 1743. She eventually married Richard Bache, had seven children, and cared for her father in his old age.^ His first wife bore him seven children, and died.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jay was thirty−seven years old, and Franklin was seventy−six, but Jay says: “His mind appears more vigorous than 121 Benjamin Franklin that of any man of his age I have known.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Birth of son, Walter Scott Franklin, dies some time later of smallpox.

.Deborah's fear of the sea meant that she never accompanied Franklin on any of his extended trips to Europe, despite his repeated requests.^ Franklin's fears were realized, and like the quire book of 1755, the London quire books have never been found.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But Franklin meant what he said, and he repeated it more than once, very earnestly.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But this was not all nor even the worst; for Franklin's repeated efforts to get his own accounts with the government audited and settled never met with any response.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.However, Franklin did not leave London to visit Deborah even after she wrote to him in November 1769 saying her illness was due to “dissatisfied distress” because of his prolonged absence.^ Why did he take it with him to London?
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin did not fail him.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Their society did him no good, and such effervescence was better blown off in London than in Philadelphia.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[15] .Deborah Read Franklin died of a stroke in 1774, while Benjamin was on an extended trip to England.^ Deborah died towards the end of 1774.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Several distinguished biographies of Benjamin Franklin have recently skirted his January 1774 confrontation with the British government in the " Cockpit " of Whitehall.

^ Before going to England he had engaged himself to Miss Deborah Read; but in London he had pretty well forgotten her, and had written to her only a single letter.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Illegitimate son William

William Franklin
(1731–1813)
.In 1730, at the age of 24, Franklin publicly acknowledged an illegitimate son named William, who would eventually become the last Loyalist governor of New Jersey.^ He acknowledged and raised his illegitimate son William (who as royal governor of New Jersey, loyal to the Crown, split with his father) .

^ He also had an illegitimate son, William Temple Franklin, whom he left in England.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also took in young William Temple Franklin, William's illegitimate son who was still in England.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.While the identity of William's mother remains unknown, perhaps the responsibility of an infant child gave Franklin a reason to take up residence with Deborah Read.^ In March 1754, at William Shirley's instigation, Clarke struck up a correspondence with Franklin over the need for colonial union.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That Franklin gave up in despair the task of preventing a war meant that war was certain and imminent.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin felt obliged to step forward and take sole responsibility for publication of the letters.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.William was raised in the Franklin household but eventually broke with his father over opinions regarding the treatment of the colonies by the British government.^ He acknowledged and raised his illegitimate son William (who as royal governor of New Jersey, loyal to the Crown, split with his father) .

^ In March 1754, at William Shirley's instigation, Clarke struck up a correspondence with Franklin over the need for colonial union.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On several occasions he had rallied public opinion, raised troops and even served in the Colonial forces during the French and Indian War .

.The elder Franklin could never accept William's decision to declare his loyalty to the crown.^ Franklin was appointed to a committee of five to draft a declaration explaining the decision to cut all ties to Britain.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like J. Pierpont Morgan , who could thunder "I will never do business with a man I don't trust", Franklin had one set of principles for business, and another for love.

^ It was a mortification which Hillsborough could never forgive, and upon four occasions, when Franklin made the conventional call to pay his respects, he did not find his lordship at home.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Any hope of reconciliation was shattered when William Franklin became leader of the The Board of Associated Loyalists—a quasi-military organization, headquartered in British occupied New York City, which, among other things, launched guerilla forages into New Jersey, southern Connecticut, and New York counties north of the city.^ Perhaps because of resentment towards William, Franklin had been adamantly against any firm commitment for loyalist compensation.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the vessel was subject to the orders of Lord Loudoun, newly appointed governor of the province of New York, and a sort of military over−lord over all the governors, assemblies, and people of the American provinces.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Cherry Hill, New Jersey is conveniently located just five miles east of the historic city of Philadelphia, in the Delaware River Valley.
  • Reserve Hotels near Benjamin Franklin Statue in Philadelphia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

[16] .In the preliminary peace talks in 1782 with Britain "...Franklin insisted that loyalists who had borne arms against the United States would be excluded from this plea (that they be given a general pardon).^ Perhaps because of resentment towards William, Franklin had been adamantly against any firm commitment for loyalist compensation.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This would be tacit recognition of American independence - a question Franklin insisted had been settled by Congress in 1776.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is the only one who signed all the founding documents - the Declaration of Independence, the treaty with France, the peace treaty with Britain, and the Constitution.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

He was undoubtedly thinking of William Franklin."[17] .William left New York along with the British troops.^ The Jews in Colonial Philadelphia Sephardic Jews came to Philadelphia quite early as part of New Amsterdam, with a second influx when the British occupied New York.

^ William Howe, routed Washington out of New York.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the British occupied New York in the early days of the American Revolution, many Sephardim fled to Philadelphia, but many of them returned to New York after the end of the Revolution.

He settled in England, never to return.

Success as an author

.In 1733, Franklin began to publish the famous Poor Richard's Almanack (with content both original and borrowed) under the pseudonym Richard Saunders, on which much of his popular reputation is based.^ Benjamin Franklin , Poor Richard , 1733 .
  • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In December, 1732, he says, “I first published my Almanack, under the name of Richard Saunders,” price five pence, thereby falling in with a common custom among the colonial printers.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Benjamin Franklin, Prophet Ben Franklin was not exactly religious, but for one dominating American theme, Poor Richard is the prophet.

.Franklin frequently wrote under pseudonyms.^ The arch——, Dr. Franklin, has lately eloped under a cloak of plenipotentiary to Versailles,” wrote Sir Grey Cooper.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Although it was no secret that Franklin was the author, his Richard Saunders character repeatedly denied it.^ He liked to be called Doctor Franklin , although he had no medical training.

^ Severely as these restrictions bore upon the colonists, they were of that character, as relating to external trade, which no colonist denied to lie within the jurisdiction of Parliament.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

."Poor Richard's Proverbs," adages from this almanac, such as "A penny saved is twopence dear" (often misquoted as "A penny saved is a penny earned"), "Fish and visitors stink in three days" remain common quotations in the modern world.^ The author of Poor Richard's Almanack , aged 26 at the first edition, was a young man totally consumed with advancing himself in the world; at that stage he defined himself as a businessman.

^ And all this wit and wisdom provided material for Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac, which he began publishing in 1732, at the age of 26.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Poor Richard's Almanac: & .
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wisdom in folk society meant the ability to provide an apt adage for any occasion, and Franklin's readers became well prepared.^ The Stamp Act itself hardly turned out a greater blunder for Grenville than this well−meant suggestion was near turning out for Franklin.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.He sold about ten thousand copies per year (a circulation equivalent to nearly three million today).^ And then, in an era when the largest city in America had a population of twenty five thousand, and the printing presses of the day were able to turn out three or four pages a minute, he sold 150,000 copies of the fifty-page "Common Sense."

^ Franklin boldly asked for 25 million livres - about $130 million in today's dollars - and got $6 million livres - enough to keep America going.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even today, a best-seller is defined as a book that sells 50,000 copies, and it generally takes three years to get it done.

[10]
In 1758, the year in which he ceased writing for the Almanack, he printed Father Abraham's Sermon, also known as The Way to Wealth. .Franklin's autobiography, published after his death, has become one of the classics of the genre.^ And in his Autobiography , Franklin rehearsed in detail his actions in the spring and summer of 1755, referring at one point to a "Quire Book of Letters written during this Transaction."
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Daylight saving time (DST) is often erroneously attributed to a 1784 satire that Franklin published anonymously.^ At times of extreme provocation, Franklin would write very angry caustic letters or essays venting his displeasure - but never send them or publish them.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ B. Franklin and Daylight Savings Daylight savings time was devised by Benjamin Franklin, but recently its value has been challenged.

^ Many years later when he was Ambassador to France, the suggestion of Daylight Savings Time was likely less a demonstration of his ingenuity than a testimony to his powers of observation and reflection.

[18] Modern DST was first proposed by George Vernon Hudson in 1895.[19]

Inventions and scientific inquiries

Franklin was a prodigious inventor. .Among his many creations were the lightning rod, glass armonica (a glass instrument, not to be confused with the metal harmonica), Franklin stove, bifocal glasses and the flexible urinary catheter.^ We nod to bifocals, lightning rod, storage batteries, daylight savings time, less smoky stoves, and a flexible urinary catheter (which he commissioned for his ailing brother from a Philadelphia silversmith).

^ There are also a variety of ingenious inventions of Franklin's on display in the original, including bifocal glasses, the first storage battery, a simplified clock, several library devices, the Franklin stove, and so on.

^ There's a replica of an armonica on display in the Franklin Court Museum around 3rd and Chestnut, which we are vigorously assured is not made with leaded crystal glass.

Franklin never patented his inventions; in his autobiography he wrote, "... as we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we should be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any invention of ours; and this we should do freely and generously."[20]
His inventions also included social innovations, such as paying forward. .Franklin's fascination with innovation could be viewed as altruistic; he wrote that his scientific works were to be used for increasing efficiency and human improvement.^ Franklin's scientific exploits and inventions are covered briefly by Isaacson, with some detail provided for his wood-burning stove and his ground-breaking work on electricity.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin energetically increased the efficiency of the postal service at considerable personal expense.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "In general, she had plain tastes, a willingness to work, and a desire to please her spouse," which could all have been said equally of Franklin at that time.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.One such improvement was his effort to expedite news services through his printing presses.^ Such is the difference between uncorrupted new states, and corrupted old ones.

^ Isaacson finds this effort at "self improvement through diligent resolve, enchantingly American."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]

Atlantic Ocean currents

.As deputy postmaster, Franklin became interested in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation patterns.^ In 1753, Franklin gained a plum appointment as one of the two Deputy Postmasters of the Colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1768 Franklin visited England as postmaster general and there he heard a curious complaint by Colonial Board of Customs: Why did it take British mail ships (which were called packets) a couple of weeks longer to reach New York from England than it took an average merchant ship to reach Newport, Rhode Island.^ Why did he take it with him to London?
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin took his passage in a packet−ship, which was to sail from New York forthwith.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He was joint postmaster general for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.This was despite merchants ships leaving London having to sail down Thames and then the length of the English Channel before they sailed across Atlantic, while the packets left from Falmouth in Cornwall right on the ocean's doorstep?^ But the English vessels hovered thick up and down the coasts, and the Americans, though able to take care of frigates, could not encounter ships of the line.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But it came to nothing; “its fate,” Franklin said, “was singular.” It was closely debated, article by article, and having at length been “pretty unanimously accepted, it came before the colonial assemblies for ratification.” But they condemned it; “there was too much prerogative in it,” they thought.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin took his passage in a packet−ship, which was to sail from New York forthwith.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Intrigued, Franklin invited his cousin Timothy Folger, a Nantucket whaler captain who happened to be in London at that time, for dinner.^ At the same time Sir William Wyndham, ex−chancellor of the exchequer, endeavored to persuade Franklin to open a swimming school in London.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He sailed with Captain, afterward Commodore, Truxton, who found him a 130 Benjamin Franklin most agreeable companion.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Folger told him that merchant ships routinely avoided the then-unnamed Gulf Stream, while the mail packet captains sailed dead into it.^ They arrived as survivors of a horrendous ocean sailing experience, packed in such density that it was not unusual to find dead bodies in the hold, of passengers that had only been supposed to have wandered into a different part of the ship.

^ He sailed with Captain, afterward Commodore, Truxton, who found him a 130 Benjamin Franklin most agreeable companion.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Every government has as much of a duty to avoid war as a ship's captain has to avoid a shipwreck.
  • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.American whalers had been telling them that they were stemming a three-mile-per-hour current.^ They retreated twenty miles in six hours.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus in three hours they increased their score by some two hundred votes.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Franklin worked with Folger and other experienced ship captains, learning enough to chart the Gulf Stream, giving it the name by which it is still known today.^ With the others busy on numerous other more important matters, and Franklin still recuperating from his strenuous travels, young Thomas Jefferson got the job - and the glory.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among other things, he also contributed to the understanding of the Gulf Stream, meteorology, the earth's magnetism, and refrigeration.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, he remained inquisitive and involved in his world, recording the temperature of the waters during the voyage and accurately charting the Gulf Stream.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

Though it was Dr. Franklin and Captain Tim Folger, who first turned the Gulf Stream to nautical account, the discovery that there was a Gulf Stream cannot be said to belong to either of them, for its existence was known to Peter Martyr d'Anghiera, and to Sir Humphrey Gilbert, in the sixteenth century.[22]
.It took many years for British sea captains to follow Franklin's advice on navigating the current; once they did, they were able to gain two weeks in sailing time.^ Franklin was already at sea, sailing for Philadelphia.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A fortnight later the squadron of D'Estaing sailed from Toulon for American waters, and two weeks later the English fleet followed.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The captains sometimes released their prisoners at sea upon the written parole of each either to secure the return of an American, or to surrender himself to Franklin in France.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[23][24] .Franklin's Gulf Stream chart was published in 1770 in England, where it was completely ignored.^ However, he remained inquisitive and involved in his world, recording the temperature of the waters during the voyage and accurately charting the Gulf Stream.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Subsequent versions were printed in France in 1778 and the U.S. in 1786. The British edition of the chart, which was the original, was so thoroughly ignored that everyone assumed it was lost forever until Phil Richardson, a Woods Hole Oceanographer and Gulf Stream expert, discovered it in Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.^ The portion of the wagon advertisement that has survived (see letter 5) is an almost exact copy of the original printed version.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By subsequent reëlections he continued to sit in that body until his departure for France.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However, he remained inquisitive and involved in his world, recording the temperature of the waters during the voyage and accurately charting the Gulf Stream.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

This find received front page coverage in the New York Times.

No longer a printer

.In 1743, Franklin founded the American Philosophical Society to help scientific men discuss their discoveries and theories.^ Roy E. Goodman is presently the Curator of Printed Material (some would say he was chief librarian) at the American Philosophical Society , founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin who was clearly the most eminent scientist of his day, having discovered and explained the nature of electricity.

^ Research for this article was funded in part by sabbatical grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the American Philosophical Society.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But after a little time this worthy scientist became “assur'd that there really existed such a person as Franklin at Philadelphia,” while other distinguished scientific men of Europe united in the adoption of his theories.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.He began the electrical research that, along with other scientific inquiries, would occupy him for the rest of his life, in between bouts of politics and moneymaking.^ But much less would have been heard of these traits if the distinction made between him and his colleagues had been less conspicuous and less constant.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin would spend the rest of his life as an active, ardent abolitionist.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Had either of these matrimonial bonds been made fast, it is not improbable that Franklin would have lived out the rest of his life as a friend of the colonies in England.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[10]
An illustration from Franklin's paper on "Water-spouts and Whirlwinds."
.In 1748, he retired from printing and went into other businesses.^ That Franklin had been prospering in his private business may be judged from the facts that in 1748 he took into partnership David Hall, who had been a fellow journeyman with him in London; and that his purpose was substantially to retire and get some “leisure ...
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1748, at age 42 and possessed of substantial wealth and income from his many business partnerships, Franklin decided to retire.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.He created a partnership with his foreman, David Hall, which provided Franklin with half of the shop's profits for 18 years.^ That Franklin had been prospering in his private business may be judged from the facts that in 1748 he took into partnership David Hall, who had been a fellow journeyman with him in London; and that his purpose was substantially to retire and get some “leisure ...
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.This lucrative business arrangement provided leisure time for study, and in a few years he had made discoveries that gave him a reputation with the educated throughout Europe and especially in France.^ Instead, Congress made him one of the five men commissioned to negotiate peace with Britain, and gave William Temple an official appointment as secretary to the delegation.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a most pleasant time for him, spent with his grandsons, William Temple Franklin, now about 25 years old, and Benny Bache, now about 15 years of age.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other sums due him, representing considerable advances which he had made at the outset in the business, and later for provisions, remained unpaid to the end of his days.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Electricity

His discoveries resulted from his investigations of electricity. .Franklin proposed that "vitreous" and "resinous" electricity were not different types of "electrical fluid" (as electricity was called then), but the same electrical fluid under different pressures.^ Collinson collected thirteen of Franklin's letters about his experiments, the earliest dated 1747, and printed them in 1751 as an 86-page book called Experiments and Observations about Electricity .

^ It's true that 18th Century France was at the peak of scientific achievement, and Franklin the inventor of electricity was quickly taken in by the European scientific community; but that's scarcely the same thing as loving France.

^ Grenville said: “External and internal taxes are the same in effect, and only differ in name;” and the authority of Parliament to lay external taxes had never been called in question.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.He was the first to label them as positive and negative respectively,[25] and he was the first to discover the principle of conservation of charge.^ Franklin recognized that something was moving from here to there, that it had positive and negative charges, and that it was possible to store it up in a storage battery.

[26]
In 1750 he published a proposal for an experiment to prove that lightning is electricity by flying a kite in a storm which appeared capable of becoming a lightning storm. .On May 10, 1752 Thomas-François Dalibard of France conducted Franklin's experiment using a 40-foot (12 m)-tall iron rod instead of a kite, and he extracted electrical sparks from a cloud.^ Collinson collected thirteen of Franklin's letters about his experiments, the earliest dated 1747, and printed them in 1751 as an 86-page book called Experiments and Observations about Electricity .

^ In early 1759 Franklin may also have used the quire book to establish Pennsylvania's claim to compensation from Great Britain for expenses incurred in the war against France.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It's true that 18th Century France was at the peak of scientific achievement, and Franklin the inventor of electricity was quickly taken in by the European scientific community; but that's scarcely the same thing as loving France.

On June 15 Franklin may have possibly conducted his famous kite experiment in Philadelphia; successfully extracted sparks from a cloud, although there are theories that suggest he never performed the experiment. .Franklin's experiment was not written up until Joseph Priestley's 1767 History and Present Status of Electricity; the evidence shows that Franklin was insulated (not in a conducting path, since he would have been in danger of electrocution in the event of a lightning strike).^ Famously, Franklin would sum up his views of Adams in a letter to U.S. foreign secretary Robert Livingston: .
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin spent an anxious two months, since his later reflection was that the loss of 20,000 pounds sterling would surely have ruined him.

^ Only much later, after he was indeed looked on coldly by great people in London, would Franklin prove a dangerous enemy to the imperial cause."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

Others, such as Prof. Georg Wilhelm Richmann of Saint Petersburg, Russia, were electrocuted during the months following Franklin's experiment.
.In his writings, Franklin indicates that he was aware of the dangers and offered alternative ways to demonstrate that lightning was electrical, as shown by his use of the concept of electrical ground.^ Franklin's scientific exploits and inventions are covered briefly by Isaacson, with some detail provided for his wood-burning stove and his ground-breaking work on electricity.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Writing from Lancaster, Franklin offered a detailed narrative of his travels, concluding with the words, "Write to me by every Opportunity.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He changed electricity from a curiosity to a science, distinguishing between insulators and conductors, explaining electrical grounding and the concepts of capacitors and batteries.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.If Franklin did perform this experiment, he may not have done it in the way that is often described, flying the kite and waiting to be struck by lightning, as it could have been dangerous.^ It was very well for Franklin, when told that Howe had taken Philadelphia, to reply: “No, sir: Philadelphia has taken Howe.” The jest may have relieved the stress of his mind, as President Lincoln used often to relieve his own over−taxed endurance in the same way.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But when Franklin dined at the Mitre, he did so most often as the guest of Scottish physician John Pringle, who quickly became one of his closest friends.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The reference to Slidell and Mason, by the way, calls to mind the humorous but accurate manner in which Franklin described the difference between revolution and rebellion.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[27] .The popular television program MythBusters simulated the alleged "key at the end of a string" Franklin experiment and established with a degree of certainty that, if Franklin had indeed proceeded thus, he would undoubtedly have been killed.^ Only much later, after he was indeed looked on coldly by great people in London, would Franklin prove a dangerous enemy to the imperial cause."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The time came when her husband would not have let her speak thus in praise of Benjamin Franklin.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He fancied that he was establishing a dilemma which would impale Franklin.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Instead he used the kite to collect some electric charge from a storm cloud, which implied that lightning was electrical.
On October 19 in a letter to England explaining directions for repeating the experiment, Franklin wrote:
.
When rain has wet the kite twine so that it can conduct the electric fire freely, you will find it streams out plentifully from the key at the approach of your knuckle, and with this key a phial, or Leiden jar, maybe charged: and from electric fire thus obtained spirits may be kindled, and all other electric experiments [may be] performed which are usually done by the help of a rubber glass globe or tube; and therefore the sameness of the electrical matter with that of lightening completely demonstrated.^ At your request he will with great pleasure discharge the Servants belonging to any persons, who have been serviceable to you, that may have inlisted in the Forces under his Command, or any others, for whom you may desire a discharge; and desires, that you would for that purpose send him their Names.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I doubt too whether any other Convention we can obtain may be able to make a better Constitution.

^ It is expected that the Proceedings of the Assembly will be much misrepresented and therefore I am directed by the House, to State Matters clearly in their due light to you that you may be able to justify the Assembly so far as they are fairly and rightly justifiable—— 118 .
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[28]
.Franklin's electrical experiments led to his invention of the lightning rod.^ Collinson collected thirteen of Franklin's letters about his experiments, the earliest dated 1747, and printed them in 1751 as an 86-page book called Experiments and Observations about Electricity .

^ Franklin's scientific exploits and inventions are covered briefly by Isaacson, with some detail provided for his wood-burning stove and his ground-breaking work on electricity.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For sixteen years, the Library Company was the Library of Congress , but it was also a museum of odd artifacts donated by the townsfolk, as well as the workplace where Franklin conducted his famous experiments on electricity.

.He noted that conductors with a sharp rather than a smooth point were capable of discharging silently, and at a far greater distance.^ There is so much to say about APS it might be better to end on a curious note rather than be comprehensive.

^ This exoneration was far from satisfying Temple, who conceived that it rather injured than improved his position.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson distanced himself for political reasons rather than intellectual ones.

.He surmised that this knowledge could be of use in protecting buildings from lightning by attaching "upright Rods of Iron, made sharp as a Needle and gilt to prevent Rusting, and from the Foot of those Rods a Wire down the outside of the Building into the Ground;...Would not these pointed Rods probably draw the Electrical Fire silently out of a Cloud before it came nigh enough to strike, and thereby secure us from that most sudden and terrible Mischief!"^ Without making the point too graphically, an appendix was added describing how lightning had been used to kill some turkeys, so a somewhat increased power would probably be enough to kill a person.

^ His most productive years as a scientist came just before and after he retired, roughly between 1740 and 1752.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We were chatting in the breakfast parlor, when he came running in to us, out of breath, with the paper in his hand.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Following a series of experiments on Franklin's own house, lightning rods were installed on the Academy of Philadelphia (later the University of Pennsylvania) and the Pennsylvania State House (later Independence Hall) in 1752.[29]
.In recognition of his work with electricity, Franklin received the Royal Society's Copley Medal in 1753 and in 1756 he became one of the few 18th- century Americans to be elected as a Fellow of the Society.^ As secretary of the Royal Society, Birch surely participated in Franklin's selection for the Copley Medal in 1753.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin and his fellow Americans were neither submissive nor awed by authority.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This would be tacit recognition of American independence - a question Franklin insisted had been settled by Congress in 1776.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The cgs unit of electric charge has been named after him: one franklin (Fr) is equal to one statcoulomb.^ That one also Franklin let him have.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We have thus been taught to regard Franklin's science as a lark, when in fact he largely discovered the nature of electricity and was regarded as one of the greatest scientists of his age.

^ How blind was the personal prejudice of the critic who saw Franklin in Paris and could yet suggest that the charge of the public treasury should be taken from him!
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Wave theory of light

Franklin was, along with his contemporary Leonard Euler, the only major scientist who supported Christiaan Huygens' wave theory of light, which was basically ignored by the rest of scientific community. .In the 18th century Newton's corpuscular theory was held to be true; only after the famous Young's slit experiment were most of the scientists persuaded to believe Huygens' theory.^ It's true that 18th Century France was at the peak of scientific achievement, and Franklin the inventor of electricity was quickly taken in by the European scientific community; but that's scarcely the same thing as loving France.

^ Inside, it looks like an 18th Century coffee house; most members would be pleased to hear the remark that it looks like Dr. Samuel Johnson's famous conversational club in London.

^ Isaacson correctly agrees with those who view Franklin's work on electricity as the most important scientific groundbreaking development of the 18th century - placing him in the company of 17th century Newton and 20th century Watson and Crick.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[30]

Meteorology

On October 21, 1743, according to popular myth, a storm moving from the southwest denied Franklin the opportunity of witnessing a lunar eclipse. .Franklin was said to have noted that the prevailing winds were actually from the northeast, contrary to what he had expected.^ At first he said that he saw “nothing singular in all this, but on the contrary what might naturally be expected.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Battle of the Clouds: September, Remember Benjamin Franklin, it should be noted, was the first to observe that Atlantic Coast "Nor'easters" actually begin in the South and work North, even though the wind seems to be blowing the other way.

^ Benjamin Franklin, it should be noted, was the first to observe that Atlantic Coast "Nor'easters" actually begin in the South and work North, even though the wind seems to be blowing the other way.

.In correspondence with his brother, Franklin learned that the same storm had not reached Boston until after the eclipse, despite the fact that Boston is to the northeast of Philadelphia.^ At the same time, Franklin could not fail to notice that Philadelphia was prospering much more rapidly than Boston.

^ At age 17, Franklin struck out on his own, sailing away from Puritan Boston and his apprenticeship obligations to his brother, bound for New York.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Franklin (1690–1756), Benjamin's brother, was a Boston chandler and soap maker.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.He deduced that storms do not always travel in the direction of the prevailing wind, a concept which would have great influence in meteorology.^ It was always a great cause of his success and influence that nothing could be alleged against his correct and respectable exterior and prudent, moderate deportment.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[31]

Concept of cooling

.Franklin noted a principle of refrigeration by observing that on a very hot day, he stayed cooler in a wet shirt in a breeze than he did in a dry one.^ [Note 28: A very interesting statement of these proceedings may be found in Franklin's Works, x.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord North did not hesitate to permit him to correspond with Franklin, and he long acted as a medium of communication more serviceable than Lord Stormont had been.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As Franklin carefully noted, the alliance was one between equals, with no lasting entanglements.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.To understand this phenomenon more clearly Franklin conducted experiments.^ For sixteen years, the Library Company was the Library of Congress , but it was also a museum of odd artifacts donated by the townsfolk, as well as the workplace where Franklin conducted his famous experiments on electricity.

^ But Franklin seemed for a while to reap more of hostility than of gratitude for his gallant and honorable conduct in this emergency.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1758 on a warm day in Cambridge, England, Franklin and fellow scientist John Hadley experimented by continually wetting the ball of a mercury thermometer with ether and using bellows to evaporate the ether.^ Franklin's vain wish at this time was to move the peoples of England and America back to the days before the passage of the Stamp Act.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Isaacson also covers Franklin's continuing scientific inquiries and experiments.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In New England a loyalty to those famous New Englanders, John Adams and Samuel Adams, seems to involve in the minds of some persons a depreciation of Franklin.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

With each subsequent evaporation, the thermometer read a lower temperature, eventually reaching 7 °F (−14 °C). Another thermometer showed the room temperature to be constant at 65 °F (18 °C). In his letter Cooling by Evaporation, Franklin noted that "one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer’s day."

Heat conductivity

.According to Michael Faraday, Franklin's experiments on the non-conduction of ice are worth mentioning although the law of the general effect of liquefaction on electrolytes is not attributed to Franklin.^ For sixteen years, the Library Company was the Library of Congress , but it was also a museum of odd artifacts donated by the townsfolk, as well as the workplace where Franklin conducted his famous experiments on electricity.

^ Although publicly asserting that he would act only in concert with France, Franklin skillfully arranged direct negotiations with the British that were private and independent of the negotiations being conducted by France.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[32] However, as reported in 1836 by Prof. A. D. Bache of the University of Pennsylvania, the law of the effect of heat on the conduction of bodies otherwise non-conductors, e.g. glass, could be attributed to Franklin. .Franklin writes, "...A certain quantity of heat will make some bodies good conductors, that will not otherwise conduct..."^ I am furnished with a large quantity of Cash by the General to make good the terms proposed.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One is tempted to make many quotations from Franklin's writings in this connection; but two or three must suffice.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not improbable that Congress lost a good deal of money by undetected rascalities, but if so the fault lay with that body itself, not with Franklin.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

and again, "...And water, though naturally a good conductor, will not conduct well when frozen into ice."[33]

Oceanography findings

.An aging Franklin accumulated all his oceanographic findings in Maritime Observations, published by the Philosophical Society's transactions in 1786.[34] It contained ideas for sea anchors, catamaran hulls, watertight compartments, shipboard lighting rods and a soup bowl designed to stay stable in stormy weather.^ Franklin arrived home in Philadelphia in September, 1785, after a fruitful voyage in which he wrote out in detail his numerous maritime observations and theories.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin had been active in all aspects of the creation of the new nation - from development of its civil society to the slow unification of interests of the separate colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Way to Wealth , a later compilation of its sayings, was published in seven languages, all of which brought Franklin great wealth and renown.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

Musical endeavors

Franklin is known to have played the violin, the harp, and the guitar. .He also composed music, notably a string quartet in early classical style, and invented a much-improved version of the glass harmonica, in which each glass was made to rotate on its own, with the player's fingers held steady, instead of the other way around; this version soon found its way to Europe.^ Plenty of stones were lying around, so stone houses soon replaced the early wooden ones.

^ Evidently, he noticed a musical note emerges if you run your finger around the open mouth of the drinking glass, and systematically studied how the tone can be varied by varying the level of liquid in the glass.

^ Spain now had demands of her own in the way of territory on the American continent, where she had made extensive conquests, and even for the cession of Gibraltar.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[35]

Chess

Franklin was an avid chess player. .He was playing chess by around 1733, making him the first chess player known by name in the American colonies.^ Already the greatest American scientist and writer of his time, he would display a dexterity that would make him the greatest American diplomat of all times.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In July, 1775, Franklin wrote the following letter to Priestly , which makes a trenchant case that the American colonies should, and would, break away from England.

^ "Next to the article he printed the first and most famous editorial cartoon in American history: a snake cut into pieces, labeled with names of the colonies, with the caption: 'Join or Die.'"
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[36] His essay on the "Morals of Chess" in Columbian magazine, in December 1786 is the second known writing on chess in America.[36] This essay in praise of chess and prescribing a code of behavior for it has been widely reprinted and translated.[37][38][39][40] He and a friend also used chess as a means of learning the Italian language, which both were studying; the winner of each game between them had the right to assign a task, such as parts of the Italian grammar to be learned by heart, to be performed by the loser before their next meeting.[41] Franklin was posthumously inducted into the US Chess Hall of Fame in 1999.[36]

Public life

Sketch of the original Tun Tavern
Join, or Die: This political cartoon by Franklin urged the colonies to join together during the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War).
Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Wilson, 1759.
Benjamin Franklin on the first US postage stamp, 1847
.In 1736, Franklin created the Union Fire Company, one of the first volunteer firefighting companies in America.^ Once one of America?s largest and prestigious private estates, Normandy Farm has been transformed into a first ?
  • Reserve Hotels near Benjamin Franklin Statue in Philadelphia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

^ On the one hand, they fought over the Albany Plan of Union, which Franklin wrote and Shirley vigorously opposed.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin understood that this was the one issue that could most threaten the union, and did not personally address it at the Convention.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the same year, he printed a new currency for New Jersey based on innovative anti-counterfeiting techniques which he had devised.^ William, now 32 years of age, had obtained a new wife from the upper classes of English society and a royal appointment as governor of New Jersey.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the following years, in addition to his appointment as agent for Pennsylvania, he was appointed agent for Georgia and New Jersey and ultimately Massachusetts as well - in essence the ambassador for the American colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Throughout his career, Franklin was an advocate for paper money, publishing A Modest Enquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency in 1729, and his printer printed money.^ Only two brief printed letters are in the Papers of Benjamin Franklin , both from Franklin to Birch, dated Feb.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federal Reserve governor, making small talk, observed that Franklin sweet-talked the French into loaning America too much money, eventually leading to their bankrupcy.

^ Germantown's future lay in religious congregation, in paper making, textile manufacture , publishing, printing and newspapers.

.He was influential in the more restrained and thus successful monetary experiments in the Middle Colonies, which stopped deflation without causing excessive inflation.^ The tax thus laid upon him was severe, for he was absolutely without experience in such matters.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He had indeed rendered services not less gallant though less picturesque than those of Washington himself, vastly more disagreeable, and scarcely less essential to the success of the cause.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1766 he made a case for paper money to the British House of Commons.^ It was between February 3 and 13, 1766, that he and others were summoned to give testimony concerning the colonies at the bar of the House of Commons sitting in committee of the whole.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On February 21, 1766, General Conway moved for leave to introduce into the House of Commons a bill to repeal the Stamp Act.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of the ease of counterfeiting with the primitive printing technology of the time, the British had forbidden the use of paper money in the colonies as part of the Townshend Acts .

[42]
.As he matured, Franklin began to concern himself more with public affairs.^ Logan died in 1751, the year Franklin at the age of 42 decided to retire from business -- and devote the remaining 42 years of his life to scholarly and public affairs.

^ But Franklin concerned himself little about this unreasonable reasoning, which indeed soon had an effect eminently disagreeable to the class of men who stupidly uttered it.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Deane himself did not know and could not disclose the details of the relationship between Beaumarchais and the government, which indeed were not explored and 80 Benjamin Franklin made public until more than half a century had elapsed after their occurrence.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

In 1743, he set forth a scheme for The Academy and College of Philadelphia. .He was appointed president of the academy in November 13, 1749, and it opened on August 13, 1751. At its first commencement, on May 17, 1757, seven men graduated; six with a Bachelor of Arts and one as Master of Arts.^ At the August 2 signing of the finished document, John Hancock, the president of the Congress, boldly signed first, remarking: "There must be no pulling different ways.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

It was later merged with the University of the State of Pennsylvania to become the University of Pennsylvania.
.Franklin became involved in Philadelphia politics and rapidly progressed.^ Logan, Franklin, Library James Logan and Benjamin Franklin were at the opposite ends of the social scale in Colonial Philadelphia, and were to adopt stongly differing political views.

^ At the same time, Franklin could not fail to notice that Philadelphia was prospering much more rapidly than Boston.

^ Logan and Franklin together conceived the idea of a subscription library, which in time became the Library Company of Philadelphia in 1732.

.In October 1748, he was selected as a councilman, in June 1749 he became a Justice of the Peace for Philadelphia, and in 1751 he was elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly.^ Support for war, in turn, became one more weapon in the assembly's conflict with Pennsylvania's proprietors for control of the colony.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In October, 1775, he was elected a member of the Assembly of the Province.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Acts of Assembly provided that justices of the peace, in their quarter sessions, should set "reasonable prices" for taverns.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.On August 10, 1753, Franklin was appointed joint deputy postmaster-general of North America.^ Franklin traveled with fellow Deputy Postmaster for North America William Hunter (d.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was joint postmaster general for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the following Monday morning Franklin got a “written notice from the secretary of the general post−office, that his majesty's postmaster−general found it necessary to dismiss me from my office of deputy postmaster−general in North America.” In other ways, too, the mischief done him by this public assault could not be concealed.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.His most notable service in domestic politics was his reform of the postal system, but his fame as a statesman rests chiefly on his subsequent diplomatic services in connection with the relations of the colonies with Great Britain, and later with France.^ His departure marked an era in the relations of Great Britain with her American colonies.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In early 1759 Franklin may also have used the quire book to establish Pennsylvania's claim to compensation from Great Britain for expenses incurred in the war against France.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The treaty became formally binding nine months later when France and Britain signed their peace treaty.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]
In 1751, Franklin and Dr. Thomas Bond obtained a charter from the Pennsylvania legislature to establish a hospital. .Pennsylvania Hospital was the first hospital in what was to become the United States of America.^ Certainly the “fitness of things,” the historical picturesqueness of the event, imperatively demanded Dr. Franklin's venerable figure in the constitutional convention of the United States of America.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin was not at first elected a member of the deputation from Pennsylvania to the convention which framed the Constitution of the United States.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "For the first time since the Albany Conference of 1754, leaders from different parts of America were galvanized into thinking as a collective unit."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1753, both Harvard and Yale awarded him honorary degrees.^ He was given an honorary degree of Master of Arts by Harvard and Yale , and honorary doctorates by St.Andrew and Oxford .

^ In Franklin's day, an honorary degree was awarded for significant achievements.

[43]
.In 1754, he headed the Pennsylvania delegation to the Albany Congress.^ Maryland assemblyman and delegate to the Albany Congress of 1754.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin was one of four Pennsylvania delegates chosen fpr a diplomatic conference in Albany, New York.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the June 1754 Albany Congress, Pownall and Franklin "created an Intimacy" that lasted until Franklin's death.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.This meeting of several colonies had been requested by the Board of Trade in England to improve relations with the Indians and defense against the French.^ Having spent seventy years building up defenses against the French bogeymen, Franklin's about-face had been abrupt.

^ The French minister, we are told, “seemed to smile” at this compliment to the unselfishness of his chivalrous nation,[82] and replied that the American States were making no request to England for independence.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The goal was always to insure protection of the Colonies against the French.

.Franklin proposed a broad Plan of Union for the colonies.^ The committee adopted a plan along the lines Franklin had proposed.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A document which cost Dr. Franklin much more labor than this declaration was a plan for a union of the colonies, which he brought forward July 21, 1775.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In March 1754, at William Shirley's instigation, Clarke struck up a correspondence with Franklin over the need for colonial union.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.While the plan was not adopted, elements of it found their way into the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.^ The Articles of Confederation did not follow Franklin's plan.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The expression of suspicion towards Temple found its way into a newspaper, bolstered with an intimation that the information came from Thomas Whately.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1756, Franklin organized the Pennsylvania Militia (see "Associated Regiment of Philadelphia" under heading of Pennsylvania's 103rd Artillery and 111th Infantry Regiment at Continental Army).^ More than a century later, the Philadelphia Free Library was organized under more trusting rules for borrowing which became possible as books became less expensive.

^ IN January 1755 General Edward Braddock set sail for North America with two regiments of British infantry and a train of artillery.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you want to stay close to Benjamin Franklin Statue in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, here you can compare the distance to each hotel.
  • Reserve Hotels near Benjamin Franklin Statue in Philadelphia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

.He used Tun Tavern as a gathering place to recruit a regiment of soldiers to go into battle against the Native American uprisings that beset the American colonies.^ Colonists were being recruited to fill out regiments intended for service in the campaigns against Crown Point, Fort Niagara, and Nova Scotia.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Reportedly Franklin was elected "Colonel" of the Associated Regiment but declined the honor.^ Ten thousand volunteers promptly signed up, elected Franklin as their Colonel; but he declined, and served as a common soldier.

^ Franklin was soon thereafter elected colonel - which caused Penn and governor Morris much anxiety.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Also in 1756, Franklin became a member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce (now Royal Society of Arts or RSA, which had been founded in 1754), whose early meetings took place in coffee shops in London's Covent Garden district, close to Franklin's main residence in Craven Street (the only one of his residences to survive and which opened to the public as the Benjamin Franklin House museum on January 17, 2006).^ At a time when people had large families, Franklin had only one surviving legitimate child - Sally Franklin.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only two brief printed letters are in the Papers of Benjamin Franklin , both from Franklin to Birch, dated Feb.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Benjamin Franklin It is not in human nature to be so extravagantly abused in times of intense excitement, and wholly to hold one's peace.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.After his return to America, Franklin became the Society's Corresponding Member and remained closely connected with the Society.^ Franklin arrived on July 27 and within a fortnight dined with Birch and three other members of the Royal Society Club at the Mitre Tavern in Fleet Street.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin accordingly remained in Paris, probably with no great reluctance, for he was attached to the place and the people, and his affection was warmly returned.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

The RSA instituted a Benjamin Franklin Medal in 1956 to commemorate the 250th anniversary of Franklin's birth and the 200th anniversary of his membership of the RSA.
.In 1757, he was sent to England by the Pennsylvania Assembly as a colonial agent to protest against the political influence of the Penn family, the proprietors of the colony.^ In 1757, Franklin was sent to London as an agent of the Assembly to resolve the difficulties with the Proprietors.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The defeated but determined Quaker party sent him to England to lobby against the Penn family and for rule of Pennsylvania by the King.

^ Franklin and Birch finally met in the summer of 1757, when Franklin was sent to London to represent the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly in its struggle with the proprietors.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.He remained there for five years, striving to end the proprietors' prerogative to overturn legislation from the elected Assembly, and their exemption from paying taxes on their land.^ On the very day after his return, when he had scarce caught the breath of land, he was unanimously elected by the Assembly a delegate to the Provincial Congress.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Assembly then voted to petition the Crown for an end to the Proprietors' charter, and sent Franklin back to London to present the petition.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin demanded that the Penns grant their governor discretionary authority in dealing with the Assembly, and asserted that the Penns' exemption from the taxes required for defense was "unjust and cruel."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

His lack of influential allies in Whitehall led to the failure of this mission.
.Whilst in London, Franklin became involved in radical politics.^ In spring 2007 I was in London, completing archival research for my most recent book, Benjamin Franklin and the Politics of Improvement .
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.He was a member of the Club of Honest Whigs, alongside thinkers such as Richard Price, the minister of Newington Green Unitarian Church who ignited the Revolution Controversy.^ Priestly was an Anglican clergyman who broke loose and formed the Unitarian Church , and meanwhile his scientific discoveries also entitle him to be called the Father of Chemistry.

^ In his London years every Thursday he attended the Club of Honest Whigs , and every Monday a coffeehouse called the George and Vulture .

.During his stays at Craven Street between 1757 and 1775, Franklin developed a close friendship with his landlady, Margaret Stevenson and her circle of friends and relations, in particular her daughter Mary, who was more often known as Polly.^ Such a loving friendship he also had with Polly Stevenson.

^ A document which cost Dr. Franklin much more labor than this declaration was a plan for a union of the colonies, which he brought forward July 21, 1775.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Meantime another serious difference of opinion was developed between Franklin and Jay.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

In 1759, he visited Edinburgh with his son, and recalled his conversations there as "the densest happiness of my life.".[44] In February 1759, the University of St Andrews awarded him an Honorary Doctor of Laws degree and in October of the same year he was granted Freedom of the Borough of St. Andrews.[45]
.1761. By Memorandum William Ponsonby, 2nd Earl of Bessborough and Robert Hampden-Trevor, 1st Viscount Hampden joint Postmasters General of Britain, a Commission dated 12th August 1761 Benjamin Franklin Esq.^ Robert Feke, Benjamin Franklin , ca.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was joint postmaster general for the colonies with Benjamin Franklin.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only two brief printed letters are in the Papers of Benjamin Franklin , both from Franklin to Birch, dated Feb.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

and William Hunter Esq. are reappointed .Deputy Post Masters General of North America.^ IN January 1755 General Edward Braddock set sail for North America with two regiments of British infantry and a train of artillery.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin traveled with fellow Deputy Postmaster for North America William Hunter (d.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By his Excellency Edward Braddock Esq, General and Commander in Chief of all his Majesty's Forces in North America.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[46]
In 1762, Oxford University awarded Franklin an honorary doctorate for his scientific accomplishments and from then on he went by "Doctor Franklin." He also managed to secure a post for his illegitimate son, William Franklin, as Colonial Governor of New Jersey.[10]
He also joined the influential Birmingham based Lunar Society with whom he regularly corresponded and on occasion, visited in Birmingham in the West Midlands.

Coming of Revolution

.In 1763, soon after Franklin returned to Pennsylvania, the western frontier was engulfed in a bitter war known as Pontiac's Rebellion.^ For at the time it was anticipated that this return would soon occur; but circumstances interfered and prolonged Franklin's usefulness abroad during several years more.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In early 1759 Franklin may also have used the quire book to establish Pennsylvania's claim to compensation from Great Britain for expenses incurred in the war against France.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With the outbreak of war Franklin's feelings towards England had taken on that extreme bitterness which so often succeeds when love and admiration seem to have been misplaced.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Paxton Boys, a group of settlers convinced that the Pennsylvania government was not doing enough to protect them from American Indian raids, murdered a group of peaceful Susquehannock Indians and then marched on Philadelphia.^ The infamous story is familiar in the annals of Pennsylvania as the “Paxton massacre,” because the “Paxton boys,” the perpetrators, came from the Scotch−Irish settlement bearing that name.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As a leader of the Pennsylvania Assembly he had to cope with the activities of the French in western Pennsylvania, stirring up Indian massacres of Pennsylvania settlers.

^ Enough has happened, one would think, to convince your ministers that the Americans will fight, and that this is a harder nut to crack than they imagined.

.Franklin helped to organize the local militia in order to defend the capital against the mob, and then met with the Paxton leaders and persuaded them to disperse.^ His efforts soon gathered, and after a fashion organized, a body of defenders probably somewhat more numerous than the approaching mob.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, Franklin persuaded the Continental Congress they must declare independence from England if they expected help from the French.

^ He was one of the founding Managers of the Pennsylvania Hospital along with Benjamin Franklin and one of his brothers, James Pemberton , and was a generous philanthropist and leader of a number of other civic organizations.

Franklin wrote a scathing attack against the racial prejudice of the Paxton Boys. "If an Indian injures me," he asked, "does it follow that I may revenge that Injury on all Indians?"[47]
.At this time, many members of the Pennsylvania Assembly were feuding with William Penn's heirs, who controlled the colony as proprietors.^ Support for war, in turn, became one more weapon in the assembly's conflict with Pennsylvania's proprietors for control of the colony.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin also in his examination, and at many other times and places, had something to say as to the willingness of the colonies to bear their full share of public burdens.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He consorted not only with friends of the colonies, but was, and for a long time continued to be, on intimate terms of courteous intercourse also with those who were soon to be described as their enemies.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Franklin led the "anti-proprietary party" in the struggle against the Penn family, and was elected Speaker of the Pennsylvania House in May 1764. His call for a change from proprietary to royal government was a rare political miscalculation, however: Pennsylvanians worried that such a move would endanger their political and religious freedoms.^ Pennsylvania was a proprietary colony, governed by the family of William Penn who had been granted a royal charter.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was apparently this strange blunder of the political managers for the “old ticket” party that was fatal to Franklin, for when the votes were all counted he was found to be beaten by a balance against him of twenty−five.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The defeated but determined Quaker party sent him to England to lobby against the Penn family and for rule of Pennsylvania by the King.

.Because of these fears, and because of political attacks on his character, Franklin lost his seat in the October 1764 Assembly elections.^ Franklin had many political enemies, as every character must which, with decision enough to have opinions, has energy and talent to give them effect on the feelings of the adversary opinion.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin was badly beaten in the election, but his faction retained control of the Assembly.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The combination against him, made up of all these various elements, felt itself powerful enough for mischief, and found its opportunity in the election to the Assembly occurring in the autumn of 1764.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The anti-proprietary party dispatched Franklin to England to continue the struggle against the Penn family proprietorship, but during this visit, events would drastically change the nature of his mission.^ The defeated but determined Quaker party sent him to England to lobby against the Penn family and for rule of Pennsylvania by the King.

^ For at the time it was anticipated that this return would soon occur; but circumstances interfered and prolonged Franklin's usefulness abroad during several years more.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In Pennsylvania the proprietary party cherished an animosity which still survives against his memory, but which does not extend far beyond those who take it as an inheritance.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[48]
.In London, Franklin opposed the 1765 Stamp Act, but when he was unable to prevent its passage, he made another political miscalculation and recommended a friend to the post of stamp distributor for Pennsylvania.^ Previous accounts have suggested, for example, that Franklin's campaign to contract for wagons and horses was relatively painless: after posting his advertisements, Pennsylvania farmers volunteered with alacrity.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So soon as their passage was assured, Hartley, “acting on an understanding with Lord North,”[53] dispatched copies to Franklin.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In July Franklin wrote to Charles Thomson:— “Depend upon it, my good neighbor, I took every step in my power to prevent the passing of the Stamp Act.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Pennsylvanians were outraged, believing that he had supported the measure all along, and threatened to destroy his home in Philadelphia.^ Enjoy all the comforts of home in the Residence Inn by Marriott Cherry Hill Philadelphia all suite hotel.
  • Reserve Hotels near Benjamin Franklin Statue in Philadelphia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

.Franklin soon learned of the extent of colonial resistance to the Stamp Act, and his testimony before the House of Commons led to its repeal.^ The colonial opposition to the Stamp Act taxes was badly underestimated by Franklin.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, before a noisy packed house, he was subjected to an hour long tirade by Solicitor General Alexander Wedderburn who accused Franklin of multiple sins in the publishing of the governor's private correspondence and provoking unrest in the colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So soon as their passage was assured, Hartley, “acting on an understanding with Lord North,”[53] dispatched copies to Franklin.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.With this, Franklin suddenly emerged as the leading spokesman for American interests in England.^ Among illustrious Americans Franklin stands preëminent in the interest which is aroused by a study of his character, his mind, and his career.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin acknowledged that he was suspect "in England of being too much of an American, and in America of being too much of an Englishman."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In July, 1775, Franklin wrote the following letter to Priestly , which makes a trenchant case that the American colonies should, and would, break away from England.

.He wrote popular essays on behalf of the colonies, and Georgia, New Jersey, and Massachusetts also appointed him as their agent to the Crown.^ He was soon appointed agent also for New Jersey, Georgia, and Massachusetts.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the following years, in addition to his appointment as agent for Pennsylvania, he was appointed agent for Georgia and New Jersey and ultimately Massachusetts as well - in essence the ambassador for the American colonies.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William, on the other hand, remained steadfastly loyal to the Crown and strove to maintain public calm in New Jersey.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[48]
.
Franklin in London, 1767, wearing a blue suit with elaborate gold braid and buttons, a far cry from the simple dress he affected at the French court in later years.
^ Having spent seventy years building up defenses against the French bogeymen, Franklin's about-face had been abrupt.

^ Only much later, after he was indeed looked on coldly by great people in London, would Franklin prove a dangerous enemy to the imperial cause."
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore it was not until negotiations actually began that the previous condition of French relationship, as Franklin had well known it for many years, underwent a sudden and complete change.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Painting by David Martin, displayed in the White House.
In September 1767, Franklin visited Paris with his usual traveling partner, Sir John Pringle. News of his electrical discoveries was widespread in France. His reputation meant that he was introduced to many influential scientists and politicians, and also to King Louis XV.[49]
.While living in London in 1768, he developed a phonetic alphabet in A Scheme for a new Alphabet and a Reformed Mode of Spelling.^ Richard Partridge (1681–1759) was a New Hampshire–born merchant who lived in London as agent for colonial governments.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.This reformed alphabet discarded six letters Franklin regarded as redundant (c, j, q, w, x, and y), and substituted six new letters for sounds he felt lacked letters of their own.^ Franklin felt obliged to step forward and take sole responsibility for publication of the letters.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He felt with regret that he could not consult Franklin regarding this proceeding, which he undertook upon his own sole responsibility.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.His new alphabet, however, never caught on and he eventually lost interest.^ However, Deborah would never agree to travel - not to New York, not even much outside Philadelphia, much less across the Atlantic to Europe.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[50]
In 1771, Franklin made short journeys through different parts of England, staying with Joseph Priestley at Leeds, Thomas Percival at Manchester and Dr. Darwin at Litchfield.[51] .Franklin belonged to a gentleman's club (designated "honest Whigs" by Franklin) which held stated meetings, and included members such as Richard Price and Andrew Kippis.^ When Franklin chose to join a club of his own, it was not the Royal Society Club but the politically and religiously more radical Club of Honest Whigs, which included men such as James Burgh, John Canton, Richard Price, Pringle, and Joseph Priestley.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As Franklin happily expressed it: “This seems to me a proposition of selling to us a thing that was already our own, and making France pay the price they [the English] are pleased to ask for it.” But the design of weaning the States from France, in the treating, was obvious.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In previous forays I had uncovered a handful of new Franklin items, including two letters to Richard Partridge.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.He was also a corresponding member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham, which included such other scientific and industrial luminaries as Matthew Boulton, James Watt, Josiah Wedgewood and Erasmus Darwin.^ When Franklin chose to join a club of his own, it was not the Royal Society Club but the politically and religiously more radical Club of Honest Whigs, which included men such as James Burgh, John Canton, Richard Price, Pringle, and Joseph Priestley.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Among members of the nobility, among men high in office, among members of Parliament, among scientific men and literary men, among men of business and affairs, and among men who made a business of society, he was always welcome.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin arrived on July 27 and within a fortnight dined with Birch and three other members of the Royal Society Club at the Mitre Tavern in Fleet Street.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.He had never been to Ireland before, and met and stayed with Lord Hillsborough, whom he believed was especially attentive, but of whom he noted all the plausible behaviour I have described is meant only, by patting and stroking the horse, to make him more patient, while the reins are drawn tighter, and the spurs set deeper into his sides.^ Franklin's own good will to the cause, or his ill luck, led him into an engagement, made just before his 22 Benjamin Franklin departure, whereby he undertook to procure horses and wagons enough for the transportation of the ordnance and all the appurtenances of the camp.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The colonies are not supposed to be within the realm; they have assemblies of their own, which are their parliaments.” This was a favorite theory with him, in expounding which he likened the colonies to Ireland, and to Scotland before the union.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Can anything be more ridiculous than that a man has a right to kill me because he lives on the other side of the water, and because his ruler has quarrel with mine, although I have none with him?
  • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[52] .In Dublin, Franklin was invited to sit with the members of the Irish Parliament rather than in the gallery.^ Yet many a man would far rather have faced Washington's lot than Franklin's.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During Adams's first visit to France the relationship between him and Franklin is described as sufficiently friendly rather than as cordial.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Since Franklin saw it was wrong, it is regrettable that he failed to take the approach of discrediting the theory rather than assailing those who mistakenly believed in it.

He was the first American to be given this honor.[51] While touring Ireland, he was moved by the level of poverty he saw. .Ireland's economy was affected by the same trade regulations and laws of Britain which governed America.^ If he finds no government or laws there, he is subject there to none, till he and his companions, if he has any, make laws for themselves; and this was the case of the first settlers in America.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Franklin feared that America could suffer the same effects should Britain’s "colonial exploitation" continue.^ Franklin continued his propaganda campaign on behalf of the colonial cause.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who but Franklin, in private partnerships with sixty printers, could have possibly authorized, financed, and printed 150,000 copies of a colonial pamphlet?

^ How blind was the personal prejudice of the critic who saw Franklin in Paris and could yet suggest that the charge of the public treasury should be taken from him!
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[53] .In Scotland, he spent five days with Lord Kames near Stirling and stayed for three weeks with David Hume in Edinburgh.^ In the summer of 1759, he traveled to Scotland, where he met Adam Smith, David Hume, and historian Lord Kames.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thence it was easy to penetrate into the neighboring circle of literature, wherein he made warm personal friends, such as Lord Kames, David Hume, Dr. Robertson, and others.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1773, Franklin published two of his most celebrated pro-American satirical essays: Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One, and An Edict by the King of Prussia.^ Whitehead, who is very shrewd, soon after began to smoke it, and looking in my face said, 'I'll be hanged if this is not some of your American jokes upon us.'” Then, amid much laughter, it was admitted to be “a fair hit.” Of a like nature was his paper setting out “Rules for reducing a great Empire to a small one,” which prescribed with admirable satire such a course of procedure as English ministries had pursued towards the American provinces.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ America was too big and too remote to be ruled by a king, particularly one who abused his privileges behind a claim of divine right.

^ At times of extreme provocation, Franklin would write very angry caustic letters or essays venting his displeasure - but never send them or publish them.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

[54] He also published an Abridgment of the Book of Common Prayer, anonymously with Francis Dashwood. Among the unusual features of this work is a funeral service reduced to six minutes in length, "to preserve the health and lives of the living."[49]

Hutchinson letters

.Franklin obtained private letters of Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson and lieutenant governor Andrew Oliver which proved they were encouraging London to crack down on the rights of the Bostonians.^ The petition, forwarded by the House of Representatives of Massachusetts Bay, after they had read the famous letters, recited that the petitioners had “very lately had before them certain papers,” and it was upon the strength of the contents of these papers that they humbly prayed that his majesty would be “pleased to remove from their posts in this government” Governor Hutchinson and Lieutenant−Governor Oliver.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Legislatures had long played a game of withholding payments, sometimes even the salaries of Judges and Royal Governors, when they disapproved of projects devised in London.

^ During the winter of 1772−73, following Lord Dartmouth's appointment, a lively dispute arose in Massachusetts between the Assembly and Governor Hutchinson.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Franklin sent them to America where they escalated the tensions.^ A. Suppose a military force sent into America, they will find nobody in arms.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Franklin now appeared to the British as the fomenter of serious trouble.^ One interesting fact clearly appears from this examination: that Franklin now fully understood the colonial sentiment, and was thoroughly in accord with it.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Hopes for a peaceful solution ended as he was systematically ridiculed and humiliated by the Privy Council. He left London in March, 1775.[49]

Declaration of Independence

About 50 men, most of them seated, are in a large meeting room. <a name=.Most are focused on the five men standing in the center of the room.^ The hotel has an extensive and large scale Fitness Center that includes men and womens sauna and steam rooms, cer Compare Room Rates Radisson Hotel Valley Forge .
  • Reserve Hotels near Benjamin Franklin Statue in Philadelphia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

The tallest of the five is laying a document on a table." src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/02/2/9/5/09847541170248940.jpg" width="300" height="197" class="thumbimage" />
.
John Trumbull depicts the Committee of Five presenting their work to the Congress.
^ After a long debate it was resolved to send a committee of Congress to meet the admiral and the general, and Franklin, John Adams, and Edward Rutledge were deputed.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[55]
.By the time Franklin arrived in Philadelphia on May 5, 1775, the American Revolution had begun with fighting at Lexington and Concord.^ He arrived in Philadelphia May 5, 1775.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time, Franklin could not fail to notice that Philadelphia was prospering much more rapidly than Boston.

^ Franklin was in Philadelphia from May 12 until the middle of the summer.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.The New England militia had trapped the main British army in Boston.^ His blunder with the publication of some letters gave the British Ministry an opportunity to humiliate and disgrace him in public, probably as a warning to the mutinous New England leaders.

.The Pennsylvania Assembly unanimously chose Franklin as their delegate to the Second Continental Congress.^ On the very day after his return, when he had scarce caught the breath of land, he was unanimously elected by the Assembly a delegate to the Provincial Congress.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1782, after signing the preliminary articles, Franklin a second time sent to Congress his resignation.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, Franklin persuaded the Continental Congress they must declare independence from England if they expected help from the French.

.In June, 1776, he was appointed a member of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence.^ It was not much later that Franklin found himself one of the committee of five elected by ballot to frame a declaration of independence.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ July 4, 1776 Independence is declared within days after the arrival of a massive British fleet in New York harbor.

.Although he was temporarily disabled by gout and unable to attend most meetings of the Committee, Franklin made several small changes to the draft sent to him by Thomas Jefferson.^ Franklin sent him.

^ Although some sort of association with liquor had been mentioned as far back as Hippocrates, Franklin's powers of observation and his fame as a scientist placed him in a position to make it irrefutable doctrine that gout was a medical penalty for drinking liquor.

^ Franklin's heroic behavior seemed so threatening to Thomas Penn that he described him as "a dangerous man," acting like "the Tribune of the People."

[49]
At the signing, he is quoted as having replied to a comment by Hancock that they must all hang together: "Yes, we must, indeed, all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately."[56]

Ambassador to France: 1776–1785

.
Franklin, in his fur hat, charmed the French with what they saw as rustic new world genius.
^ Great was the fervor aroused in the breasts of the classic people of France as they proudly saw upon their soil a new “Solon and Sophocles” in embrace.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His reply[3] is interesting: “As to Jesus of Nazareth,” he says, “I think his system of morals and his religion, as he left them to us, the best the world ever saw, or is like to see.” But he thinks they have been corrupted.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, Franklin persuaded the Continental Congress they must declare independence from England if they expected help from the French.

[57]
.In December, 1776, Franklin was dispatched to France as commissioner for the United States.^ Franklin dispatched to France to secure the assistance he was confident he could get.

^ Franklin was not at first elected a member of the deputation from Pennsylvania to the convention which framed the Constitution of the United States.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Early in the negotiations Grenville said to Franklin that the States owed no gratitude to France, since she had in fact only promoted her own interests.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

He lived in a home in the Parisian suburb of Passy, donated by Jacques-Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont who supported the United States. .Franklin remained in France until 1785. He conducted the affairs of his country towards the French nation with great success, which included securing a critical military alliance in 1778 and negotiating the Treaty of Paris (1783).^ But it was not until March, 1785, that Congress at last voted that Franklin might “return to America as soon as convenient,” and that Jefferson should succeed him as minister at the French court.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Logan died in 1751, the year Franklin at the age of 42 decided to retire from business -- and devote the remaining 42 years of his life to scholarly and public affairs.

^ The captains sometimes released their prisoners at sea upon the written parole of each either to secure the return of an American, or to surrender himself to Franklin in France.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.During his stay in France, Benjamin Franklin as a freemason was Grand Master of the Lodge Les Neuf Sœurs from 1779 until 1781. His number was 24 in the Lodge.^ Lodging near Benjamin Franklin Statue .
  • Reserve Hotels near Benjamin Franklin Statue in Philadelphia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Labaree et al., Papers of Benjamin Franklin , 6: 24.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Benjamin Franklin During his discussion with Shirley, Franklin had been upon a visit to Boston.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

He was also a Past Grand Master of Pennsylvania. In 1784, when Franz Mesmer began to publicize his theory of "animal magnetism", which was considered offensive by many, Louis XVI appointed a commission to investigate it. .These included the chemist Antoine Lavoisier, the physician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, the astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly, and Benjamin Franklin.^ If you thread your way through these walkways, you can stroll for miles within the world of William Penn and Benjamin Franklin .

^ Joseph Priestly became a close friend of Benjamin Franklin almost as soon as they met.

^ These considerations, however, did not in the least mitigate the rage of the Lee brethren, who 89 Benjamin Franklin now brought a great variety of charges.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.In Paris, Franklin met the Swedish Ambassador to France, Count Gustaf Philip Creutz.^ In Paris, as Ambassador to France, 1776-85, Franklin found two more mistresses of mind and soul.

^ There is said to be evidence that our ambassador to France, Benjamin Franklin, utilized Salomon to translate the French loans he had negotiated into the munitions which colonials needed.

^ The most familiar American example is Benjamin Franklin, for eight years our ambassador to France .

.So, as fate would have it, Sweden was the first country (after Great Britain) who recognized the young American republic, and Creutz and Franklin drafted the first Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the two nations.^ They explained the desire of the American colonies to enter into a treaty of alliance and of commerce.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ What's more, New England subsequently had to live with a President from Virginia for thirty-two of the first thirty-six years of the new nation.

^ In passing, it is pleasant to preserve this, amid the abundant other testimony to Franklin's humane and advanced ideas as to the conduct of war between civilized nations.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

On August 27 1783 in Paris Franklin witnessed the world's first hydrogen balloon flight.[58] Le Globe, created by professor Jacques Charles and Les Frères Robert, was watched by a vast crowd as it launched from the Champ de Mars (now the site of the Eiffel Tower).[59] .This so enthused Franklin that he subscribed financially to the next project to build a manned hydrogen balloon.^ He said of it that it was only part of “a great and extensive project that required the whole man to execute,” and his countrymen never allowed Franklin such uninterrupted possession of himself.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[60] .On December 1 1783 Franklin was seated in the special enclosure for honoured guests when La Charlière took off from the Jardin des Tuileries, piloted by Jacques Charles and Nicolas-Louis Robert.^ This took place in August, 1773; the duel followed in December, and in the interval Franklin had heard nothing from the petition.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On December 8 a request for an alliance was placed by young Temple Franklin in the hands of de Vergennes.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[58][61]

Constitutional Convention

A 1777 portrait of Franklin by Jean-Baptiste Greuze.
.When he finally returned home in 1785, Franklin occupied a position only second to that of George Washington as the champion of American independence.^ The captains sometimes released their prisoners at sea upon the written parole of each either to secure the return of an American, or to surrender himself to Franklin in France.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Benjamin Franklin The conclusion had come painfully, yet it was not without satisfaction that he saw himself free to return home.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But when in the winter of 1785 he finally departed France, she was there, visiting his home.

.Le Ray honored him with a commissioned portrait painted by Joseph Duplessis that now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. After his return, Franklin became an abolitionist, freeing both of his slaves.^ Benjamin Franklin The conclusion had come painfully, yet it was not without satisfaction that he saw himself free to return home.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Government ownership in the form of a cross now extends five blocks north from Washington Square to Franklin Square , and four blocks East from Sixth to Second Streets.

^ Upon reflection Franklin was disposed to do without counsel, but Mr. Bollan now became strongly of the contrary opinion.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.He eventually became president of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society.^ Returning as a national hero for his final five years of life, Franklin loaned his personal influence to the Constitution convention, became President of Pennsylvania, worked for the abolition of slavery.

[62]
.In 1787, Franklin served as a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention.^ Philadelphia Reflections: Benjamin Franklin PHILADELPHIA REFLECTIONS The musings of a Philadelphia Physician who has served the community for nearly six decades .

He held an honorary position and seldom engaged in debate. .He is the only Founding Father who is a signatory of all four of the major documents of the founding of the United States: the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Paris, the Treaty of Alliance with France, and the United States Constitution.^ Start with the first four Presidents of the United States , add Alexander Hamilton and Lafayette , David Rittenhouse and Francis Hopkinson and you get the idea that Founding Fathers got in early.

^ The American captains, who were cruising on the European side of the Atlantic prior to the treaty of alliance with France, had no place in which to deposit their prisoners.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ With what face could the ministry meet Parliament with a treaty deserting all those who had been faithful to their king?
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1787, a group of prominent ministers in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, proposed the foundation of a new college to be named in Franklin's honor.^ News of what was in preparation in England reached Pennsylvania in the summer of 1764, shortly before Franklin sailed.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These letters also offer a wealth of new details that affect modern understanding of Benjamin Franklin, the wagon affair, and Pennsylvania politics.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So, Franklin gave speeches, also an unfamiliar role for him, and finally brought out a detailed proposal for the creation of a Pennsylvania Militia .

.Franklin donated £200 towards the development of Franklin College, which is now called Franklin & Marshall College.^ He wreaked his revenge upon his colleagues, and towards Franklin he cherished an envious hatred which developed into a monomania.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One such unexpected walkway is now called Franklin Court , which essentially cuts from Market to Chestnut Streets, within the block bounded by 3rd and 4th Streets.

Between 1771 and 1788, he finished his autobiography. While it was at first addressed to his son, it was later completed for the benefit of mankind at the request of a friend.
.In his later years, as Congress was forced to deal with the issue of slavery, Franklin wrote several essays that attempted to convince his readers of the importance of the abolition of slavery and of the integration of blacks into American society.^ It was even so late as March 23, 1790, that he wrote the humorous rejoinder to the pro−slavery speech delivered in Congress by Jackson of Georgia.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For at the time it was anticipated that this return would soon occur; but circumstances interfered and prolonged Franklin's usefulness abroad during several years more.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His provision of wagons is best studied in Whitfield J. Bell Jr. Leonard W. Labaree, "Franklin and the 'Wagon Affair,' 1755," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 101, no.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

These writings included:
In 1790, Quakers from New York and Pennsylvania presented their petition for abolition. .Their argument against slavery was backed by the Pennsylvania Abolitionist Society and its president, Benjamin Franklin.^ "Certificate of Nomination to the Royal Society," in Labaree et al., Papers of Benjamin Franklin , 6: 375–76.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Returning as a national hero for his final five years of life, Franklin loaned his personal influence to the Constitution convention, became President of Pennsylvania, worked for the abolition of slavery.

^ These letters also offer a wealth of new details that affect modern understanding of Benjamin Franklin, the wagon affair, and Pennsylvania politics.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

President of Pennsylvania

.Special balloting conducted October 18, 1785 unanimously elected Franklin the sixth President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, replacing John Dickinson.^ Franklin was chosen unanimously by the first ballot.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not much later that Franklin found himself one of the committee of five elected by ballot to frame a declaration of independence.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When John Penn was offered the patronship of the American Philosophical Society , he declined, just because Franklin was its president.

.The office of President of Pennsylvania was analogous to the modern position of Governor.^ The third year of his incumbency in the office of president of Pennsylvania expired in the autumn of 1788, and his physical condition precluded all idea of further official labors.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.It is not clear why Dickinson needed to be replaced with less than two weeks remaining before the regular election.^ Perfectly located in the heart of the Brandywine Valley, just minutes from Interstate 95, the Econo Lodge Airport is less than two miles from the New Castle Airport.
  • Reserve Hotels near Benjamin Franklin Statue in Philadelphia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

^ He thought America would overtake England in less than a century, but in fact it took two centuries.

.Franklin held that office for slightly over three years, longer than any other, and served the Constitutional limit of three full terms.^ It was plausibly suggested that Franklin already held other agencies, and that policy would advise “to enlarge the number of our friends.” It was meanly added that he held an office under the crown, and that his son was a royal governor.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin had been detained a little more than three years about this business.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, Franklin was conducting an active correspondence with other scientists interested in electricity for many years, in particular one Peter Collinson, F.R.S. in London.

.Shortly after his initial election he was reelected to a full term on October 29, 1785, and again in the fall of 1786 and on October 31, 1787. Officially, his term concluded on November 5, 1788, but there is some question regarding the de facto end of his term, suggesting that the aging Franklin may not have been actively involved in the day-to-day operation of the Council toward the end of his time in office.^ Franklin's vain wish at this time was to move the peoples of England and America back to the days before the passage of the Stamp Act.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We have thus been taught to regard Franklin's science as a lark, when in fact he largely discovered the nature of electricity and was regarded as one of the greatest scientists of his age.

^ He said:— 31 Benjamin Franklin “I shall next consider the other supposition, that their growth may render them dangerous.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Virtue, religion, and personal beliefs

A bust of Franklin by Jean-Antoine Houdon
.Like the other advocates of republicanism, Franklin emphasized that the new republic could survive only if the people were virtuous.^ But the famous almanac was not the only pulpit whence Franklin preached to the people.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus matters stood when Franklin came up to London from a visit in the country, to be astonished by the news of what had occurred, and annoyed at the prospect of what was likely to occur.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The constitution which it presented to the people established a legislature of only one house, a feature which Franklin approved and defended.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.All his life he explored the role of civic and personal virtue, as expressed in Poor Richard's aphorisms.^ Poor Richard” has found eternal life by passing into the daily speech of the people, while the “Spectator” is fast being crowded out of the hands of all save scholars in literature.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Poor Richard Plays Hardball With Finesse While aristocratic England gave him a public drubbing, Franklin stood silently before them and thought it all over.

.Franklin was a non-dogmatic believer, who felt that organized religion was necessary to keep men good to their fellow men, but rarely attended church himself.^ Yet it seems ungracious to recall these concerning one who did for his fellow men so much as Franklin did.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He was utterly unable to keep in subordination his reckless chancellor of the exchequer, betwixt whom and himself no good will had ever existed.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin on British American Relationships Benjamin Franklin was one of the most remarkable men who ever lived.

.His faith in God was an important factor in his support for the American Revolution.^ The American Revolution would not come for another twenty years, but you can be sure the Braddock episode had an important impact on the minds of both Franklin and Washington.

^ Anne-Louise Brillon was a famous harpsichordist and a supporter of the American Revolution.

[63] When Ben Franklin met Voltaire in Paris and asked this great apostle of the Enlightenment to bless his grandson, Voltaire said in English, “God and Liberty,” and added, “this is the only appropriate benediction for the grandson of Monsieur Franklin.”[64]
Franklin’s parents were both pious Puritans.[65] .The family attended the old South Church, the most liberal Puritan congregation in Boston, where Benjamin Franklin was baptized in 1706.[66] The Revolutionary War generation of this historic congregation include Samuel Adams; Samuel Sewall, judge and diarist; Thomas Prince, minister and book collector; William Dawes, Paul Revere’s fellow rider in 1775. Old South Church played a significant role in the revolution through the bold actions of the Sons of Liberty at the Old South Meeting House.^ As a promoter of the Revolution, Samuel Adams has easily the most conspicuous place.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He is followed by his political disciple, James Madison; by their secretary of the treasury, Albert Gallatin; and by 4 Benjamin Franklin James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, and John Randolph.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Stamp Act was hastily repealed, even before Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Penn recognized its unpopularity, and were still to some extent defending it in 1766.

.There, in 1773, Samuel Adams gave the signal for the “war whoops” that started the Boston Tea Party.^ For example, there was Governor Hutchinson, whose life has since been written by the same gentleman who in this series has admirably presented his great antagonist, Samuel Adams.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

As poet John Greenleaf Whittier wrote, “So long as Boston shall Boston be, And her bay tides rise and fall, Shall freedom stand in the Old South Church, And plead for the rights of all.”[67]
.Franklin’s Puritan upbringing was a central factor throughout his life, as a philanthropist, civic leader and activist in the Revolutionary War.^ He was one of the founding Managers of the Pennsylvania Hospital along with Benjamin Franklin and one of his brothers, James Pemberton , and was a generous philanthropist and leader of a number of other civic organizations.

^ Franklin in Paris During the whole Revolutionary War, Franklin was in Paris, quite obviously having a high old time.

[68] .Franklin rejected much of his Puritan upbringing: belief in salvation, hell, Jesus Christ’s divinity, and indeed most religious dogma.^ But if a belief in the divinity of Christ is necessary to make a “Christian,” it does not appear that Franklin ever fully had the qualification.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

He retained a strong faith in God as the wellspring of morality and goodness in man, and as a Providential actor in history responsible for American independence.[69] .He often invoked God as being in support of the American Revolution, as did most of the founding generation.^ He felt sure that this errand was to intimate to Shelburne that France did not incline to support the demands of her American allies.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But when Franklin dined at the Mitre, he did so most often as the guest of Scottish physician John Pringle, who quickly became one of his closest friends.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The unique perception behind the nation's first hospital was that poor people generally did not have home facilities that were adequate to support home care.

[70] Franklin wrote, “Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God.”[71]
.Ben Franklin’s father, a poor chandler, owned a copy of a book, "Bonifacius: Essays to Do Good," by the Puritan preacher and family friend Cotton Mather, which “Franklin often cited as a key influence” on his life.^ Ben Franklin was born in Puritan Boston, fled from it as soon as he could, and thereafter seldom regarded Puritans as having two feet on the ground.

^ In Franklin's own handwriting the purpose of the Pennsylvania Hospital was stated to be "for the sick poor, and if there is room, for those who can pay."

^ Birch undoubtedly found Franklin's quire book captivating, and he appears to have copied anything that remotely interested him.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[72] “”If .I have been,” Franklin wrote to Cotton Mather’s son seventy years later, “a useful citizen, the public owes the advantage of it to that book.” Franklin’s first pen name, Silence Dogood, paid homage both to the book and to a famous sermon by Mather.”[73] The book preached the importance of forming voluntary associations to benefit society.^ Three years later Franklin plaintively wrote his son William that the quire books had not been found.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Junto, a child of his active brain, became a power in local public affairs, though organized and conducted strictly as a “club of mutual improvement.” He formed it among his “ingenious acquaintance” for the discussion of “queries on any point of morals, politics, or natural philosophy.” He found his model, without doubt, in the “neighborhood benefit societies,” established by Cotton Mather, during Franklin's boyhood, among the Boston churches, for mutual improvement among the members.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In this context the quire book was a public record and could be used to document the assembly's case against the proprietors.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Cotton Mather personally founded a neighborhood improvement group, that Franklin’s father joined.^ I believe Benjamin Franklin may be the most under-appreciated of the Founding Fathers.

“Franklin picked up his penchant for forming do-good associations from Cotton Mather and others, but his organizational fervor and galvanizing personality made him the most influential force in instilling this as an enduring part of American life.”[74]
It was Ben Franklin who during a critical impasse during the Constitutional Convention, 28 June 1787, introduced the practice of daily common prayer at the Convention, with these words:
 ... In the beginning of the contest with G. Britain, when we were sensible of danger we had daily prayer in this room for the Divine Protection. -- Our prayers, Sir, were heard, and they were graciously answered. .All of us who were engaged in the struggle must have observed frequent instances of a Superintending providence in our favor. ...^ The spectacle of a young people, with no accumulated capital, engaged in supporting the charge of a mortal struggle against all the vast resources of Britain, has in it something of pathos.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The obstructionists, leaders of the defeated party, who failed to control our national destiny, must find room elsewhere.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And, I am afraid, all for despising and undervaluing our Enemies; what was not thought worth spending a thought about in condescending to advise with those, who could have prevented the mischief.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

And have we now forgotten that powerful friend? or do we imagine that we no longer need His assistance. .I have lived, Sir, a long time and the longer I live, the more convincing proofs I see of this truth -- that God governs in the affairs of men.^ Winter is coming on apace.” January 25, 1779: “I a long time believed that your government were in earnest in agreeing to an exchange of prisoners.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But they suppose his time is employed in more important Affairs; and that he will by degrees receive more favourable sentiments of their Conduct.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Covered by the powerful authority of his influential and patriotic family at home, and screened by the profound ignorance of Congress concerning men and affairs abroad, Lee was able for a long time to run his mischievous career without discovery or interruption.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice, is it probable that an empire can rise without his aid? We have been assured, Sir, in the sacred writings that "except the Lord build they labor in vain that build it." .I firmly believe this; and I also believe that without his concurring aid we shall succeed in this political building no better than the Builders of Babel: ...I therefore beg leave to move -- that henceforth prayers imploring the assistance of Heaven, and its blessings on our deliberations, be held in this Assembly every morning before we proceed to business, and that one or more of the Clergy of this City be requested to officiate in that service.^ We are more thoroughly an enlightened people, with respect to our political interests, than perhaps any other under heaven.
  • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before leaving France Franklin had begged for this act of simple, business−like justice, which it was the duty of Congress to initiate without solicitation; he had the fate of the “poor unhappy Deane” before his eyes, to make him uncomfortable, but in this respect he was treated no better than that misused man.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Then no more came, and this promising resource seems never to have yielded one dollar for Franklin's use.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[75]
Franklin briefly belonged to a Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia. .Shortly thereafter, he became an enthusiastic supporter of one of America’s great evangelical ministers, George Whitefield, “the most popular of the Great Awakening’s roving preachers.”[76] Franklin did not subscribe to Whitefield’s theology, but he admired Whitefield for exhorting people to worship God through good works.^ During the negotiation Franklin wrote to Laurens: “I have never yet known of a peace made that did not occasion a great deal of popular discontent, clamor, and censure on both sides, ...
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The operation uses eighteen volunteers at all times, runs two jitney buses, and is one huge teeming family home for people confronting a common issue, supporting each other through a wrenching emotional experience.

^ Commenting upon this, Mr. Parton well says: “Here perhaps we have one of the reasons why Dr. Franklin, who was universally confessed to be the ablest pen in America, was not always asked to write the great documents of the Revolution.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Franklin printed Whitefield’s sermons on the front page of his Gazette.^ Collinson collected thirteen of Franklin's letters about his experiments, the earliest dated 1747, and printed them in 1751 as an 86-page book called Experiments and Observations about Electricity .

He arranged to publish all of Whitefield’s sermons and journals. .Half of Franklin’s publications in 1739-41 were of Whitefield, and helped the success of the evangelical movement in America.^ Benjamin Franklin: Chronology Franklin retired at age 42, and spent the other half of his life in public service.

Franklin was a lifelong friend and supporter of Whitefield, until his death in 1770.[77]
When he stopped attending church, Franklin wrote in his autobiography:
...Sunday being my studying day, I never was without some religious principles. .I never doubted, for instance, the existence of the Deity; that He made the world, and governed it by His providence; that the most acceptable service of God was the doing good to man; that our souls are immortal; and that all crime will be punished, and virtue rewarded, either here or hereafter.^ God will certainly reward virtue and punish vice, either here or hereafter.
  • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is likewise a young Man here, that proposes to ride, if he knew the Encouragement, either from here to Philadelphia or to Winchester.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Benjamin Franklin , our fabulous man in London, had finally had it "up to here" with the British ministry.

[78][79]
.Franklin retained a lifelong commitment to the Puritan virtues and political values he had grown up with, and through his civic work and publishing, he succeeded in passing these values into the American culture permanently.^ With Franklin every virtue had its market value, and to neglect to get that value out of it was the part of folly.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The unit remained a permanent one, and since then served with distinction in the various conflicts through the Civil War, when it was organized into the National Guard.

^ These proceedings would have been good evidence, had evidence been wanting, that the American commissioners had done a brilliant piece of work.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.He had a “passion for virtue.”[80] These Puritan values included his devotion to egalitarianism, education, industry, thrift, honesty, temperance, charity and community spirit.^ That mercantile community, however, with the thrift of Quakers and the independent temper of Englishmen, had a shrewd appreciation of, and an obstinate respect for, its own interests.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[81]
The classical authors read in the Enlightenment period taught an abstract ideal of republican government based on hierarchical social orders of king, aristrocracy and commoners. It was widely believed that English liberties relied on their balance of power, but also hierarchal deference to the privileged class.[82] “Puritanism ... and the epidemic evangelism of the mid-eighteenth century, had created challenges to the traditional notions of social stratification” by preaching that the .Bible taught all men are equal, that the true value of a man lies in his moral behavior, not his class, and that all men can be saved.^ He was a man not troubled with convictions, and having been obstinate in conducting a war for which he really cared little, he was equally ready to save his party by putting an end to it with the loss of all that had been at stake.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ That there are men in all countries who get their living by war, and by keeping up the quarrels of Nations is as shocking as it is true...
  • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[83] Franklin, steeped in Puritanism and an enthusiastic supporter of the evangelical movement, rejected the salvation dogma, but embraced the radical notion of egalitarian democracy.
.Franklin’s commitment to teach these values was itself something he gained from his Puritan upbringing, with its stress on “inculcating virtue and character in themselves and their communities.”[84] These Puritan values and the desire to pass them on, were one of Franklin’s quintessentially American characteristics, and helped shape the character of the nation.^ As for the colonies themselves, should they win, the character of the Americans gave augury of their wishing a solid government and therefore cultivating peace.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In passing, it is pleasant to preserve this, amid the abundant other testimony to Franklin's humane and advanced ideas as to the conduct of war between civilized nations.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearly all these were addressed to Franklin, because all Europe persisted in regarding him as the one authentic representative of America, and because Englishmen of all parties had long known and respected him far beyond any other American.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Franklin's writings on virtue were derided by some European authors, such as Jackob Fugger in his critical work Portrait of American Culture.^ It appears to me rather the work of some American.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin received heavy criticism for spending American money on social functions in Paris.

^ Nevertheless, historians by the droves have identified a uniquely American culture , apparently based on some fiercely held convictions.

.Max Weber considered Franklin's ethical writings a culmination of the Protestant ethic, which ethic created the social conditions necessary for the birth of capitalism.^ There is one thread which weaves for many decades among Franklin's writings, probably coming close to reflecting a hardened, considered, position.

[85]
.One of Franklin's famous characteristics was his respect, tolerance and promotion of all churches.^ Nearly all these were addressed to Franklin, because all Europe persisted in regarding him as the one authentic representative of America, and because Englishmen of all parties had long known and respected him far beyond any other American.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By one means and another the proprietaries mustered a considerable party in the province, and the hatred of all these men was concentrated upon Franklin with extreme bitterness.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Because, as William Franklin's famous father once said, all progress begins with discontent.

Referring to his experience in Philadelphia, he wrote in his autobiography, "new Places of worship were continually wanted, and generally erected by voluntary Contribution, my Mite for such purpose, whatever might be the Sect, was never refused."[78] “He helped create a new type of nation that would draw strength from its religious pluralism.”[86] The first generation of Puritans had been intolerant of dissent, but by the early 1700’s, when Franklin grew up in the Puritan church, tolerance of different churches was the norm, and Massachusetts was known, in John Adams' words, as “’the most mild and equitable establishment of religion that was known in the world.’”[87] The evangelical revivalists who were active mid-century, such as Franklin’s friend and preacher, George Whitefield, were the greatest advocates of religious freedom, “claiming liberty of conscience to be an ‘inalienable right of every rational creature.’”[88] Whitefield’s supporters in Philadelphia, including Franklin, erected “a large, new hall, that...could provide a pulpit to anyone of any belief.”[89] Franklin’s rejection of dogma and doctrine and his stress on the God of ethics and morality and civic virtue, made him the “prophet of tolerance.”[90]
.Although Franklin's parents had intended for him to have a career in the church, Franklin as a young man adopted the Enlightenment religious belief in Deism, that God’s truths can be found entirely through nature and reason.^ But Franklin answered: "You are too young a man."

^ Franklin's father speedily resolved to devote him, “as the tithe of his sons, to the service of the church,” and so sent him to the grammar school.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He found himself a man of note among scientists there, who gave him a ready welcome and showed a courteous and flattering recognition of his high 29 Benjamin Franklin distinction in their pursuits.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[91] "I soon became a thorough Deist."[92] As a young man he rejected Christian dogma in a 1725 pamphlet A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain,[93] which he later saw as an embarrassment,[94] while simultaneously asserting that God is “all wise, all good, all powerful.”[94] He defended his rejection of religious dogma with these words: "I think opinions should be judged by their influences and effects; and if a man holds none that tend to make him less virtuous or more vicious, it may be concluded that he holds none that are dangerous, which I hope is the case with me." After the disillusioning experience of seeing the decay in his own moral standards, and those of two friends in London whom he had converted to Deism, Franklin turned back to a belief in the importance of organized religion, on the pragmatic grounds that without God and organized churches, man will not be good.[95]
At one point, he wrote to Thomas Paine, criticizing his manuscript, The Age of Reason:
.
For without the Belief of a Providence that takes Cognizance of, guards and guides and may favour particular Persons, there is no Motive to Worship a Deity, to fear its Displeasure, or to pray for its Protection....think how great a Proportion of Mankind consists of weak and ignorant Men and Women, and of inexperienc'd and inconsiderate Youth of both Sexes, who have need of the Motives of Religion to restrain them from Vice, to support their Virtue, and retain them in the Practice of it till it becomes habitual, which is the great Point for its Security; And perhaps you are indebted to her originally that is to your Religious Education, for the Habits of Virtue upon which you now justly value yourself.^ They are what he much wanted when here; and the fruit will, he thinks, be of great use to Mary Land, if propagated there.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pray give the necessary Orders that they may go out of Town and reach the Place of their Habitations before the Message arrives from the Six Nations and Col. Johnson, as mentioned in the Minutes, which the Secretary has my Orders to show you.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At your request he will with great pleasure discharge the Servants belonging to any persons, who have been serviceable to you, that may have inlisted in the Forces under his Command, or any others, for whom you may desire a discharge; and desires, that you would for that purpose send him their Names.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.If men are so wicked with religion, what would they be if without it.^ The worst barbarity of war is that it forces men collectively to commit acts against which individually they would revolt with their whole being.
  • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[96]
According to David Morgan,[97] Franklin was a proponent of religion in general. .He prayed to "Powerful Goodness" and referred to God as "the infinite". John Adams noted that Franklin was a mirror in which people saw their own religion: "The Catholics thought him almost a Catholic.^ He is followed by his political disciple, James Madison; by their secretary of the treasury, Albert Gallatin; and by 4 Benjamin Franklin James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, and John Randolph.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Good leaders serve the interests of their people, while unfit leaders exploit their citizens to serve their own.
  • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In July Franklin wrote to Charles Thomson:— “Depend upon it, my good neighbor, I took every step in my power to prevent the passing of the Stamp Act.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Church of England claimed him as one of them.^ In a word, it was of little consequence that the lord secretary would not acknowledge him as the representative of one province, so long as all England practically treated him as the representative of all America.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Presbyterians thought him half a Presbyterian, and the Friends believed him a wet Quaker."^ On the contrary, it would give a less agreeable idea of him had he been ready to believe so ill of an old and tried friend.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Whatever else Franklin was, concludes Morgan, "he was a true champion of generic religion." .In a letter to Richard Price, Franklin stated that he believed that religion should support itself without help from the government, claiming; "When a Religion is good, I conceive that it will support itself; and, when it cannot support itself, and God does not take care to support, so that its Professors are oblig'd to call for the help of the Civil Power, it is a sign, I apprehend, of its being a bad one."^ In previous forays I had uncovered a handful of new Franklin items, including two letters to Richard Partridge.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No drivers of waggons, or persons taking care of the hired horses, are on any account to be called upon to do the duty of soldiers, or be otherwise employed than in conducting or taking care of their carriages or horses.

^ Collinson collected thirteen of Franklin's letters about his experiments, the earliest dated 1747, and printed them in 1751 as an 86-page book called Experiments and Observations about Electricity .

[98]
In 1790, just about a month before he died, Franklin wrote a letter to Ezra Stiles, president of Yale University, who had asked him his views on religion:
.
As to Jesus of Nazareth, my Opinion of whom you particularly desire, I think the System of Morals and his Religion, as he left them to us, the best the world ever saw or is likely to see; but I apprehend it has received various corrupt changes, and I have, with most of the present Dissenters in England, some Doubts as to his divinity; tho' it is a question I do not dogmatize upon, having never studied it, and I think it needless to busy myself with it now, when I expect soon an Opportunity of knowing the Truth with less Trouble....^ I have, with most of the present dissenters in England, some doubts as to his divinity; though it is a question I do not dogmatize upon, having never studied it, and think it needless to busy myself with it now, when I expect soon an opportunity of knowing the truth with less trouble.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His reply[3] is interesting: “As to Jesus of Nazareth,” he says, “I think his system of morals and his religion, as he left them to us, the best the world ever saw, or is like to see.” But he thinks they have been corrupted.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Do this, and you will have calm and drowsy nights, with all of the good business you have now and none of the bad.
  • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]
.On July 4, 1776, Congress appointed a committee that included Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams to design the Great Seal of the United States.^ He is followed by his political disciple, James Madison; by their secretary of the treasury, Albert Gallatin; and by 4 Benjamin Franklin James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, and John Randolph.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Accordingly the French ambassador at Philadelphia was instructed to use his great influence with Congress to effect some amelioration of the distasteful arrangement, and he soon covertly succeeded in inducing Congress to create a commission by appointing Adams, Jay, Franklin, Jefferson, who never went on the mission, and Laurens, who was a prisoner in England and joined his colleagues only after the business had been substantially concluded.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin Declares Independence a Year Early Franklin made no secret of his goal of national independence, at least a year before the Continental Congress voted and Thomas Jefferson composed his rather rambling declaration.

[99] Franklin's proposal featured a design with the motto: "Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God." His design portrayed a scene from the Book of Exodus, with Moses, the Israelites, the pillar of fire, and George III depicted as Pharaoh.[100]

Thirteen Virtues

.Franklin sought to cultivate his character by a plan of thirteen virtues, which he developed at age 20 (in 1726) and continued to practice in some form for the rest of his life.^ In 1747, Benjamin Franklin had a life-transforming experience, acting quite unlike his character before, or later.

^ Had either of these matrimonial bonds been made fast, it is not improbable that Franklin would have lived out the rest of his life as a friend of the colonies in England.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

His autobiography lists his thirteen virtues as:
  1. "TEMPERANCE. Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation."
  2. "SILENCE. Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation."
  3. "ORDER. Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time."
  4. "RESOLUTION. Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve."
  5. "FRUGALITY. Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e., waste nothing."
  6. "INDUSTRY. Lose no time; be always employ'd in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions."
  7. "SINCERITY. Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly."
  8. "JUSTICE. Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty."
  9. "MODERATION. Avoid extremes; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve."
  10. "CLEANLINESS. Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, cloaths, or habitation."
  11. "TRANQUILLITY. Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable."
  12. "CHASTITY. Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another's peace or reputation."
  13. "HUMILITY. Imitate Jesus and Socrates."
.Franklin didn't try to work on them all at once.^ Mutual confidence produces of course mutual influence, and this was all which subsisted between Dr. Franklin and the government of France.”[93] [Note 93: Jefferson's Works, vii.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Because, as William Franklin's famous father once said, all progress begins with discontent.

.Instead, he would work on one and only one each week "leaving all others to their ordinary chance". While Franklin didn't live completely by his virtues and by his own admission, he fell short of them many times, he believed the attempt made him a better man contributing greatly to his success and happiness, which is why in his autobiography, he devoted more pages to this plan than to any other single point; in his autobiography Franklin wrote, "I hope, therefore, that some of my descendants may follow the example and reap the benefit."^ Success has ruined many a man.
  • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That one also Franklin let him have.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I have always thought that one man of tolerable abilities may work great changes, and accomplish great affairs among mankind, if he first forms a good plan, and, cutting off all amusements or other employments that would divert his attention, make the execution of that same plan his sole study and business.
  • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

[101]

Death and legacy

The grave of Benjamin Franklin, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
.Franklin died on April 17, 1790, at age 84. Approximately 20,000 people attended his funeral.^ Logan died in 1751, the year Franklin at the age of 42 decided to retire from business -- and devote the remaining 42 years of his life to scholarly and public affairs.

^ Franklin spent an anxious two months, since his later reflection was that the loss of 20,000 pounds sterling would surely have ruined him.

^ Soon afterward he sank into a lethargy, and so remained until at eleven o'clock, P. M., on April 17, 1790, he died.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.He was interred in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia.^ On April 21, some 20,000 people, nearly half the city, lined the route of Franklin's funeral procession from the State House to the Christ Church burying ground.

In 1728, aged 22, Franklin wrote what he hoped would be his own epitaph:
.The Body of B. Franklin Printer; Like the Cover of an old Book, Its Contents torn out, And stript of its Lettering and Gilding, Lies here, Food for Worms.^ Franklin clearly liked this phrase; he used it in a letter to Peter Collinson written on June 26 and in a message from the assembly to Robert Hunter Morris on August 19.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of Jay's earliest letters to Franklin said: “I have no reason as yet to think a loan here will be practicable.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ No calendar of the contents of Franklin's quire book has survived.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.But the Work shall not be wholly lost: For it will, as he believ'd, appear once more, In a new & more perfect Edition, Corrected and Amended By the Author.^ Denham died; Franklin narrowly evaded death, and fancied himself somewhat disappointed at his recovery, “regretting in some degree that [he] must now sometime or other have all that disagreeable work to go over again.” He seems to have become sufficiently interested in what was likely to follow his decease, in this world at least, to compose an epitaph which has become world−renowned, and has been often imitated:— THE BODY OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (LIKE THE COVER OF AN OLD BOOK, ITS CONTENTS TORN OUT, AND STRIPT OF ITS LETTERING AND GILDING,) LIES HERE, FOOD FOR WORMS, YET THE WORK ITSELF SHALL NOT BE LOST, FOR IT WILL, AS HE BELIEVED, APPEAR ONCE MORE, IN A NEW AND MORE BEAUTIFUL EDITION, CORRECTED AND AMENDED 9 Benjamin Franklin BY THE AUTHOR. But there was no use for this graveyard literature; Franklin got well, and recurred again to his proper trade.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet for this the English ministry are believed not to have been wholly responsible, since some of these tales are supposed to have been the unworthy work of Arthur Lee of Virginia.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I should have no objection to go over the same life from its beginning to the end: requesting only the advantage authors have, of correcting in a second edition the faults of the first.
  • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

[102]
.Franklin's actual grave, however, as he specified in his final will, simply reads "Benjamin and Deborah Franklin."^ Unfortunately, no study of Benjamin Franklin's relationship to Birch exists; indeed, no mention of it, however fleeting, is made in any existing biography.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward Braddock's commission to Read, dated May 21, is in the Miscellaneous Benjamin Franklin Collections, B F85.x7b, American Philosophical Society.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, Benjamin is faulted for his treatment of Deborah in Gordon S. Wood, The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin (New York, 2004), 83, 89–91, 98, 154.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[103]
In 1773, when Franklin's work had moved from printing to science and politics, he corresponded with a French scientist on the subject of preserving the dead for later revival by more advanced scientific methods, writing:
Franklin bust in the Archives Department of Columbia University in New York City
.I should prefer to an ordinary death, being immersed with a few friends in a cask of Madeira, until that time, then to be recalled to life by the solar warmth of my dear country!^ On April 15 he wrote from Saratoga: “I begin to apprehend that I have undertaken a fatigue that at my time of life may prove too much for me; so I sit down to write to a few friends by way of farewell;” and still the real wilderness with all its hardships lay before him.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The vessel was “several times chas'd” by French cruisers, and later was actually within a few lengths of being wrecked on the Scilly rocks.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When he heard of the death of an old friend at home he wrote sadly: “A few more such deaths will make me a stranger in my own country.” He was not one of those patriots who like to live abroad and protest love for their own country.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.But in all probability, we live in a century too little advanced, and too near the infancy of science, to see such an art brought in our time to its perfection.^ He said: “If our people will, by consuming such commodities, purchase and pay for their fetters, who that sees them so shackled will think they deserve either redress or pity?
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He said: “General Washington is the man whom all our eyes are fixed on for President, and what little influence I may have is devoted to him.” It was about the time of the election that he himself took his farewell of public life.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But as this was not from want of respect for the king, whom we all love and honor, we hope it will be excused, and that the great work which has hitherto been so happily conducted, is so nearly brought to perfection, and is so glorious to his reign, will not be ruined by a single indiscretion of ours.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[104] (Extended excerpt also online.)[105]
His death is described in the book The Life of Benjamin Franklin, quoting from the account of Dr. John Jones:
...when the pain and difficulty of breathing entirely left him, and his family were flattering themselves with the hopes of his recovery, when an imposthume, which had formed itself in his lungs, suddenly burst, and discharged a quantity of matter, which he continued to throw up while he had power; but, as that failed, the organs of respiration became gradually oppressed; a calm, lethargic state succeeded; and on the .17th instant (April, 1790), about eleven o'clock at night, he quietly expired, closing a long and useful life of eighty-four years and three months.^ But after four or five years, it became abundantly clear that it was far too expensive to use hospitals in that way.

^ At three o'clock of the following morning, the voting having continued during the night, the friends of the “new ticket,” that is to say of the new candidate, moved to close the polls.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon afterward he sank into a lethargy, and so remained until at eleven o'clock, P. M., on April 17, 1790, he died.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[106]
Memorial marble statue, Benjamin Franklin National Memorial
.Franklin bequeathed £1,000 (about $4,400 at the time) each to the cities of Boston and Philadelphia, in trust to gather interest for 200 years.^ In March, 1777, Franklin writes to Lee: “We are ordered to borrow £2,000,000 on interest;” also to “build six ships of war,” presumably on credit.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By the end of Charles the Second's time they were non−conformists and attendants on conventicles; and about 1682 Josiah Franklin, seeking the peaceful exercise of his creed, migrated to Boston, Massachusetts.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Having spent seventy years building up defenses against the French bogeymen, Franklin's about-face had been abrupt.

The trust began in 1785 when the French mathematician Charles-Joseph Mathon de la Cour, who admired Franklin greatly, wrote a friendly parody of Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanack" called "Fortunate Richard." The main character leaves a smallish amount of money in his will, five lots of 100 livres, to collect interest over one, two, three, four or five full centuries, with the resulting astronomical sums to be spent on impossibly elaborate utopian projects.[107] .Franklin, who was 79 years old at the time, wrote thanking him for a great idea and telling him that he had decided to leave a bequest of 1,000 pounds each to his native Boston and his adopted Philadelphia.^ Logan, Franklin, Library James Logan and Benjamin Franklin were at the opposite ends of the social scale in Colonial Philadelphia, and were to adopt stongly differing political views.

^ The idea of the Society seems to have come from John Bartram , who suggested it to Franklin because he knew Franklin got things done.

^ Logan died in 1751, the year Franklin at the age of 42 decided to retire from business -- and devote the remaining 42 years of his life to scholarly and public affairs.

.As of 1990, more than $2,000,000 had accumulated in Franklin's Philadelphia trust, which had loaned the money to local residents.^ Lord North did not hesitate to permit him to correspond with Franklin, and he long acted as a medium of communication more serviceable than Lord Stormont had been.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federal Reserve governor, making small talk, observed that Franklin sweet-talked the French into loaning America too much money, eventually leading to their bankrupcy.

^ A document which cost Dr. Franklin much more labor than this declaration was a plan for a union of the colonies, which he brought forward July 21, 1775.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

From 1940 to 1990, the money was used mostly for mortgage loans. When the trust came due, Philadelphia decided to spend it on scholarships for local high school students. .Franklin's Boston trust fund accumulated almost $5,000,000 during that same time; at the end of its first 100 years a portion was allocated to help establish a trade school that became the Franklin Institute of Boston and the whole fund was later dedicated to supporting this institute.^ During the same time 60,000 children have been born in America.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin spent an anxious two months, since his later reflection was that the loss of 20,000 pounds sterling would surely have ruined him.

^ For at the time it was anticipated that this return would soon occur; but circumstances interfered and prolonged Franklin's usefulness abroad during several years more.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[108][109]
Franklin on the hundred dollar bill
A signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, Franklin is considered one of the Founding Fathers of the U.S. His pervasive influence in the early history of the United States has led to his being jocularly called "the only President of the United States who was never President of the United States."[110] Franklin's likeness is ubiquitous. Since 1928, it has adorned American $100 bills, which are sometimes referred to in slang as "Benjamins" or "Franklins." From 1948 to 1964, Franklin's portrait was on the half dollar. .He has appeared on a $50 bill and on several varieties of the $100 bill from 1914 and 1918. Franklin appears on the $1,000 Series EE Savings bond.^ Be pleased to send me a credit for the residue of our salaries.” Five days later: “Bills to the amount of $100,000 have arrived.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The city of Philadelphia contains around 5,000 likenesses of Benjamin Franklin, about half of which are located on the University of Pennsylvania campus.^ A collection of Benjamin Franklin tidbits that relate Philadelphia's revolutionary prelate to his moving around the city, the colonies, and the world.

^ Logan, Franklin, Library James Logan and Benjamin Franklin were at the opposite ends of the social scale in Colonial Philadelphia, and were to adopt stongly differing political views.

^ Had it been, it would have been more likely to jeopardize forever than to precipitate the good fortune 91 Benjamin Franklin which, though still invisible, was close at hand.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Philadelphia's Benjamin Franklin Parkway (a major thoroughfare) and Benjamin Franklin Bridge (the first major bridge to connect Philadelphia with New Jersey) are named in his honor.^ Logan, Franklin, Library James Logan and Benjamin Franklin were at the opposite ends of the social scale in Colonial Philadelphia, and were to adopt stongly differing political views.

^ It probably caused a different sort of pain to Benjamin Franklin , who derived much of his income from printing the currency of New Jersey.

^ These letters also offer a wealth of new details that affect modern understanding of Benjamin Franklin, the wagon affair, and Pennsylvania politics.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

A marble statue of Benjamin Franklin stands in the atrium of Benjamin Franklin High School in New Orleans, Louisiana
.In 1976, as part of a bicentennial celebration, Congress dedicated a 20-foot (6 m) marble statue in Philadelphia's Franklin Institute as the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial.^ Logan, Franklin, Library James Logan and Benjamin Franklin were at the opposite ends of the social scale in Colonial Philadelphia, and were to adopt stongly differing political views.

^ A collection of Benjamin Franklin tidbits that relate Philadelphia's revolutionary prelate to his moving around the city, the colonies, and the world.

^ Benjamin Franklin CHAPTER IV. LIFE IN PHILADELPHIA When Franklin came home he was fifty−six years old.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Many of Franklin's personal possessions are also on display at the Institute, one of the few national memorials located on private property.^ Until you remember that Franklin, more than any one person, also discovered electricity.

^ One is tempted to make many quotations from Franklin's writings in this connection; but two or three must suffice.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One naturally fancies that a nation deals in few and large transactions, that these drafts may have been for inconveniently large sums, but that at least they probably were not numerous.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.In London, his house at 36 Craven Street was first marked with a blue plaque and has since been opened to the public as the Benjamin Franklin House.^ Benjamin Franklin the minister who was charged with its government took the lead in public business.”[16] This minister was at first Charles Townshend, than whom no man in England, it was supposed, knew more of the transatlantic possessions.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time Sir William Wyndham, ex−chancellor of the exchequer, endeavored to persuade Franklin to open a swimming school in London.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So far as Benjamin Franklin was concerned, he was at first much pleased; but his political views and course were not in the slightest degree affected.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[111] In 1998, workmen restoring the building dug up the remains of six children and four adults hidden below the home. The Times reported on February 11, 1998:
.Initial estimates are that the bones are about 200 years old and were buried at the time Franklin was living in the house, which was his home from 1757 to 1762 and from 1764 to 1775. Most of the bones show signs of having been dissected, sawn or cut.^ Having spent seventy years building up defenses against the French bogeymen, Franklin's about-face had been abrupt.

^ In 1782, after signing the preliminary articles, Franklin a second time sent to Congress his resignation.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For at the time it was anticipated that this return would soon occur; but circumstances interfered and prolonged Franklin's usefulness abroad during several years more.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

One skull has been drilled with several holes. Paul Knapman, the Westminster Coroner, said yesterday: "I cannot totally discount the possibility of a crime. .There is still a possibility that I may have to hold an inquest."^ But in May, 1787, he was added in order that, in the possible absence of General Washington, there might be some one whom all could agree in calling to the chair.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Friends of Benjamin Franklin House (the organization responsible for the restoration) note that the bones were likely placed there by William Hewson, who lived in the house for two years and who had built a small anatomy school at the back of the house.^ Only two brief printed letters are in the Papers of Benjamin Franklin , both from Franklin to Birch, dated Feb.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For three hundred years, perhaps for many centuries more, his ancestors lived on a small freehold at Ecton in Northamptonshire, and so far back as record or tradition ran the eldest son in each generation had been bred a blacksmith.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ What's more, New England subsequently had to live with a President from Virginia for thirty-two of the first thirty-six years of the new nation.

.They note that while Franklin likely knew what Hewson was doing, he probably did not participate in any dissections because he was much more of a physicist than a medical man.^ A coward is much more exposed to quarrels than a man of spirit.
  • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jay was thirty−seven years old, and Franklin was seventy−six, but Jay says: “His mind appears more vigorous than 121 Benjamin Franklin that of any man of his age I have known.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To whom else would the Frenchmen have unlocked their coffers as they did to him, whom they so warmly liked and admired?
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[112]

Exhibitions

."The Princess and the Patriot: Ekaterina Dashkova, Benjamin Franklin and the Age of Enlightenment" exhibition opened in Philadelphia in February 2006 and ran through December 2006. Benjamin Franklin and Dashkova met only once, in Paris in 1781. Franklin was 75 and Dashkova was 37. Franklin invited Dashkova to become the first woman to join the American Philosophical Society and the only woman to be so honored for another 80 years.^ Edward Braddock's commission to Read, dated May 21, is in the Miscellaneous Benjamin Franklin Collections, B F85.x7b, American Philosophical Society.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Roy E. Goodman is presently the Curator of Printed Material (some would say he was chief librarian) at the American Philosophical Society , founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin who was clearly the most eminent scientist of his day, having discovered and explained the nature of electricity.

^ Jay was thirty−seven years old, and Franklin was seventy−six, but Jay says: “His mind appears more vigorous than 121 Benjamin Franklin that of any man of his age I have known.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Later, Dashkova reciprocated by making him the first American member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Places and things named after Benjamin Franklin

.As a founding father of the United States, Franklin's name has been attached to many things.^ There are many terrorist states in the world, but the United States is unusual in that it is officially committed to international terrorism.
  • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Certainly the “fitness of things,” the historical picturesqueness of the event, imperatively demanded Dr. Franklin's venerable figure in the constitutional convention of the United States of America.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Start with the first four Presidents of the United States , add Alexander Hamilton and Lafayette , David Rittenhouse and Francis Hopkinson and you get the idea that Founding Fathers got in early.

Among these are:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Engber, Daniel (2006).What's Benjamin Franklin's Birthday?. Retrieved on June 17, 2009.
  2. ^ The Life of Ben Franklin, Volume 3: Soldier, Scientist, and Politician University of Pennsylvania, Lemay, J.A. Leo.
  3. ^ Block, Seymour Stanton. Benjamin Franklin: America's Inventor from HistoryNet.com
  4. ^ Isaacson 2003, p. 491
  5. ^ Isaacson 2003, p. 492
  6. ^ Isaacson 2003, p. 8
  7. ^ Isaacson 2003, p. 12
  8. ^ Isaacson 2003, p. 14
  9. ^ The Story of Ben's Birthdate. University of Pennsylvania, alumni.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Van Doren, Carl. Benjamin Franklin. (1938). Penguin reprint 1991.
  11. ^ The History Channel, Mysteries of the Freemasons: America, video documentary, August 1, 2006, written by Noah Nicholas and Molly Bedell
  12. ^ "Freemasonry Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon website". Freemasonry.bcy.ca. http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/biography/franklin_b/franklin_b.html. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  13. ^ Van Horne, John C. "The History and Collections of the Library Company of Philadelphia," The Magazine Antiques, v. 170. no. 2: 58–65 (1971).
  14. ^ Lemay, J. A. Leo. "Franklin, Benjamin (1706–1790)," Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison (Oxford: OUP, 2004).
  15. ^ November 1769 Letter from Deborah Read to Ben Franklin, franklinpapers.org
  16. ^ Fleming, Thomas, "The Perils of Peace: America's Struggle for Survival",(Collins, NY, 2007)p. 30
  17. ^ Ibid. Flemming,p.236
  18. ^ Benjamin Franklin, writing anonymously (1784-04-26). "Aux auteurs du Journal" (in French). Journal de Paris 28 (117): 23. doi:10.2307/2922719.  Revised English version retrieved on 2008-03-11.
  19. ^ G. V. Hudson (1898). "On seasonal time". Trans Proc R Soc N Z 31: 577–88. http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_31/rsnz_31_00_008570.html. 
  20. ^ Benjamin Franklin. "Part three". The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. http://www.ushistory.org/franklin/autobiography/page55.htm. 
  21. ^ Franklin, Benjamin. "The Pennsylvania Gazette". FranklinPapers.org, October 23, 1729
  22. ^ Source: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 1853, p.53, by Matthew Fontaine Maury
  23. ^ 1785: Benjamin Franklin's 'Sundry Maritime Observations', The Academy of Natural Sciences, April, 1939 m
  24. ^ 1785: Benjamin Franklin's 'Sundry Maritime Observations' . NOAA Ocean Explorer.
  25. ^ Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790). Science World, from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography.
  26. ^ Conservation of Charge.
  27. ^ Franklin's Kite. Museum of Science, Boston.
  28. ^ Wolf, A., History of Science, Technology, and Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century. New York, 1939. p.232
  29. ^ Krider, E. Philip. Benjamin Franklin and Lightning Rods. Physics Today. January 2006.
  30. ^ Jogn Gribbin, ""In search of Schroedinger's cat"", Black Swan, p. 12
  31. ^ Heidorn, Keith C. Heidorn, PhD. Eclipsed By Storm. The Weather Doctor. October 1, 2003.
  32. ^ Faraday, Michael (1839). Experimental researches in electricity. 2. R. & J.E. Taylor. p. v. http://books.google.com/books?id=XuITAAAAQAAJ&pg=PR5&dq=non-conduction+of+ice#v=onepage&q=non-conduction%20of%20ice&f=false. "...Franklin's experiments on the non-conduction of ice..." 
  33. ^ Jones, Thomas P. (1836). Journal of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania. pp. 182–183. http://books.google.com/books?id=zV9DAAAAYAAJ&pg=PP7&dq=Thomas+P.+Jones+1836+Journal+of+the+Franklin+Institute+vol.xvii&lr=#v=onepage&q=&f=false. "In the fourth series of his electrical researches, Mr. Faraday..." 
  34. ^ Price, Richard; Thomas, David Oswald; Peach, Bernard (1994). The Correspondence of Richard Price: February 1786-February 1791. Duke University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0822313278. http://books.google.com/books?id=fPQfNx2TQLAC&pg=RA1-PA23&lpg=RA1-PA23&dq=%22Maritime+Observations%22+%22American+Philosophical+Society%22+transactions+1786&source=bl&ots=Z8ATBcyxwt&sig=rPCeHs9lliyhqwl8_2bBj3RquUQ&hl=en&ei=-uTFSseCC8zO8Qb4sME6&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2#v=onepage&q=%22Maritime%20Observations%22%20%22American%20Philosophical%20Society%22%20transactions%201786&f=false. Retrieved 2 October 2009. 
  35. ^ Bloch, Thomas. The Glassharmonica. GFI Scientific.
  36. ^ a b c John McCrary, Chess and Benjamin Franklin-His Pioneering Contributions (PDF). Retrieved on 2009-04-26.
  37. ^ David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld, The Oxford Companion to Chess, Oxford University Press (2nd ed. 1992), p. 145. IBSN 0-19-866164-9.
  38. ^ The essay appears in Marcello Truzzi (ed.), Chess in Literature, Avon Books, 1974, pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-380-00164-0.
  39. ^ The essay appears in a book by the felicitously-named Norman Knight, Chess Pieces, CHESS magazine, Sutton Coldfield, England (2nd ed. 1968), pp. 5–6. ISBN 0-380-00164-0.
  40. ^ Franklin's essay is also reproduced at the U.S. Chess Center Museum and Hall of Fame in Washington, D.C.. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
  41. ^ William Temple Franklin, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Benjamin Franklin, reprinted in Knight, Chess Pieces, pp. 136-37.
  42. ^ John Kenneth Galbraith. (1975). Money: Where It Came, Whence It Went pp. 54–54. Houghton Mifflin Company.
  43. ^ Benjamin Franklin resume. Official Visitor Site for Greater Philadelphia.
  44. ^ Buchan, James. Crowded with Genius: The Scottish Enlightenment: Edinburgh's Moment of the Mind. HarperCollins Publishers. 2003. p.2
  45. ^ "The Kate Kennedy Club". The Kate Kennedy Club. http://www.katekennedyclub.org.uk/news.aspx#19. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  46. ^ British Postal Service Appointment Books
  47. ^ Franklin, Benjamin. "A Narrative of the Late Massacres..." reprinted on The History Carper.
  48. ^ a b J. A. Leo Lemay, "Franklin, Benjamin". American National Biography Online, February 2000.
  49. ^ a b c d Isaacson, Walter. Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. Simon & Schuster. 2003.
  50. ^ Benjamin Franklin's Phonetic Alphabet. Omniglot.com.
  51. ^ a b Sparks, Jared. Life of Benjamin Franklin. US History.org.
  52. ^ "Google Books — Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin By Benjamin Franklin, Nathan Haskell Dole, 2003". Books.google.ie. http://books.google.ie/books?id=BL1VXdTbDucC&pg=PR21. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  53. ^ Benjamin Franklin. PBS.org.
  54. ^ Franklin, Benjamin. "reprinted on The History Carper.". http://www.historycarper.com/resources/twobf3/pa-1773.htm. 
  55. ^ Key to Declaration American Revolution.org.
  56. ^ Sparks, Jared (1856). The Life of Benjamin Franklin: Containing the Autobiography, with Notes and a Continuation. Boston: Whittemore, Niles and Hall. p. 408. http://books.google.com/books?id=MLAEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA408&lpg=PA408&dq=franklin+%22shall+all+hang+separately%22+sparks&source=web&ots=9tZqaocy0E&sig=JjqhJqfqvWnOqZ-FTAxGfdwaKPM. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  57. ^ Such was the number of portraits, busts and medallions of him in circulation before he left Paris that he would have been recognized from them by any adult citizen in any part of the civilized world. Many of these portraits bore inscriptions, the most famous of which was Turgot's line, "Eripuit fulmen coelo sceptrumque tyrannis." — Wikisource-logo.svg "Franklin, Benjamin". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 
  58. ^ a b "Eccentric France: Bradt Guide to mad, magical and marvellous France By Piers Letcher - Jacques Charles". Books.google.co.uk. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=5_7IRHZGyzMC&pg=PA36&lpg=PA36&dq=%22jacques+charles%22+%22Eccentric+France%22&source=bl&ots=nopyc0aUA9&sig=lXxScQFZOHCRxKWxcZVlAkO3IMs&hl=en&ei=34nkSuuNNpK64QbWl_GTAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22jacques%20charles%22%20%22Eccentric%20France%22&f=false. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  59. ^ "Science and Society, Medal commemorating Charles and Robert’s balloon ascent, Paris, 1783". Scienceandsociety.co.uk. http://www.scienceandsociety.co.uk/results.asp?image=10447673. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  60. ^ Fiddlers Green, History of Ballooning, Jacques Charles
  61. ^ "Federation Aeronautique Internationale, Ballooning Commission, Hall of Fame, Robert Brothers". Fai.org. http://www.fai.org/ballooning/newsletter/pr00-02.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  62. ^ Citizen Ben, Abolitionist. PBS.org.
  63. ^ Novak, Michael. On Two Wings. Humble Faith and Common Sense at the American Founding. Encounter Books, 2002.p.12,84 "Nowadays, even secular people interpret history in the light of progess, rights and liberty... (they) received these notions neither from the Greeks and Romans, nor from Enlightened Reason but via...the essential outlook of the Hebrews: that the Creator gave humans a special place among all other creatures, and made them free, and endowed them with incomparable responsibility and dignity. This sequence of related concepts — that time had a beginning and is mesured for progress(or decline) by God's standards; that everything in the world is intelligible, and to inquire, invent, and discover is an impulse of faith as well as reason; that the Creator endowed us with liberty and inviolable dignity, while the Divine Judge shows concern for the weak and the humble; that life is time of duty and trial-- all these are the background that make sense of the Declaration of Independence....Without this metaphysical background, the founding generation of Americans would have had little heart for the War of Independence. ...that their seemingly unlawful rebellion actually fulfilled the will of God."
  64. ^ Isaacson, 2003,p.354
  65. ^ ref name="Isaacson, 2003"/,p.5-18
  66. ^ Old South Church. "Isaacson,2003, p.15". Oldsouth.org. http://www.oldsouth.org/history.html. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  67. ^ Old South Church. "Old South Church: History". Oldsouth.org. http://www.oldsouth.org/history.html. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  68. ^ Novak, 2002,pp. 12,26,42,84,173-5,218n2,242n63; Isaacson, 2003,pp. 10,25,26,31,49,59,92,102,486,489,490
  69. ^ Isaacson, 2003, p.486;Novak,2002, pp 11-12,2,84,173-5,218n2, 242n63
  70. ^ Novak, 2002,pp. 11-12
  71. ^ Novak, 2002, p.12
  72. ^ Isaacson, 2003,p. 26
  73. ^ Isaacson, 2003,p .26
  74. ^ Isaacson, 2003,p.102
  75. ^ Michael E. Eidenmuller. "Online Speech Bank: Benjamin Franklin's Prayer Speech at the Constitutional Convention of 1787". Americanrhetoric.com. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/benfranklin.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  76. ^ Isaacson, 2003,p.110
  77. ^ Isaacson.2003, pp.107,110,112,113
  78. ^ a b Franklin Benjamin "Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography". Section 2 reprinted on UShistory.org.
  79. ^ "Benjamin Franklin". History.hanover.edu. http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111frank2.html. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  80. ^ Isaacson p 485
  81. ^ Isaacson,2003, p.149, 92,486,490
  82. ^ Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Harvard University Press, 1992 p. 273-4, 299-300
  83. ^ Bailyn, 1992 p.303
  84. ^ Isaacson, 2003, p 10,102,489
  85. ^ Weber, Max The Protestant Ethic and the "Spirit of Capitalism", (Penguin Books, 2002), translated by Peter Baehr and Gordon C. Wells, pp. 9–11
  86. ^ Isaacson,2003 p. 93ff
  87. ^ Bailyn,1992,p. 248
  88. ^ Bailyn, 1992, p. 249
  89. ^ Isaacson, 2003, p. 112
  90. ^ Isaacson, 2003, p. 93ff
  91. ^ Isaacson, 2003, p. 46
  92. ^ Franklin, Benjamin. Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography. Chapter IV. reprinted on USGenNet.org.
  93. ^ "A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain". Historycarper.com. http://www.historycarper.com/resources/twobf1/m7.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  94. ^ a b "Isaacson, 2003, p. 45". Books.google.com. 2004-11-30. http://books.google.com/books?id=oIW915dDMBwC&pg=PA45&lpg=PA45&dq=%22A+Dissertation+on+Liberty+and+Necessity,+Pleasure+and+Pain%22+%22Benjamin+Franklin%22+embarrassment&source=bl&ots=6ZvGpRe4Pe&sig=aDgglZ7Z8In3w7BQhgZ0r4fd-j0&hl=en&ei=GgA2SszELJq_twe1r435Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  95. ^ Isaacson, 2003, p 46, 486
  96. ^ "Historical Writings — Benjamin Franklin's letter to Thomas Paine". WallBuilders. 2001-09-11. http://www.wallbuilders.com/LIBissuesArticles.asp?id=58. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  97. ^ Morgan, David T. Benjamin Franklin: Champion of Generic Religion. The Historian. 62#4 2000. pp 722+
  98. ^ Benjamin Franklin to Richard Price, 9 Oct. 1780 Writings 8:153--54
  99. ^ Skousen, W. Cleon. The Five Thousand Year Leap. National Center for Constitutional Studies (1981), pp. 17–18. summarizes how this committee created and approved the first proposed design for the seal (which ultimately was not adopted).
  100. ^ First Great Seal Committee – July/August 1776. Great Seal.com.
  101. ^ Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin page 38 forward by Benjamin Franklin
  102. ^ Benjamin Franklin: In His Own Words. Library of Congress.
  103. ^ The Last Will and Testament of Benjamin Franklin. The Franklin Institute Science Museum.
  104. ^ The Doctor Will Freeze You Now from Wired.com
  105. ^ Engines of Creation E-drexler.com
  106. ^ Sparks, pp 529–530.
  107. ^ Richard Price. Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution, and the Means of Making it a Benefit to the World. To which is added, a Letter from M. Turgot, late Comptroller-General of the Finances of France: with an Appendix, containing a Translation of the Will of M. Fortuné Ricard, lately published in France. London: T. Cadell, 1785.
  108. ^ "Excerpt from Philadelphia Inquirer article by Clark De Leon". Mathsci.appstate.edu. 1993-02-07. http://www.mathsci.appstate.edu/~sjg/class/1010/wc/finance/franklin1.html. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  109. ^ "History of the Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology". Bfit.edu. http://www.bfit.edu/aboutus/history.php. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  110. ^ Firesign Theater quote, meant humorously but poignantly.
  111. ^ "Benjamin Franklin House". Benjamin Franklin House.. http://www.benjaminfranklinhouse.org/site/sections/default.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  112. ^ The Craven Street Gazette (PDF), Newsletter of the Friends of Benjamin Franklin House, Issue 2, Autumn 1998

References

Biographies

  • Carl Becker, "Franklin". Short scholarly biography written in 1931, with links to sources.
  • H. W. Brands. .The First American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin (2000) full-length biography
  • Walter Isaacson.^ Benjamin Franklin It is not in human nature to be so extravagantly abused in times of intense excitement, and wholly to hold one's peace.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ B. Franklin and Daylight Savings Daylight savings time was devised by Benjamin Franklin, but recently its value has been challenged.

    ^ Franklin also in his examination, and at many other times and places, had something to say as to the willingness of the colonies to bear their full share of public burdens.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Benjamin Franklin: An American Life, Simon & Schuster (2003).^ Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin More by user .
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Benjamin Franklin CHAPTER IV. LIFE IN PHILADELPHIA When Franklin came home he was fifty−six years old.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In 1747, Benjamin Franklin had a life-transforming experience, acting quite unlike his character before, or later.

    ISBN 0-684-80761-0 or ISBN 0-7432-5807-X (paperback); full-length biography.
  • Mark Skousen. .The Compleated Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin (2005) told in Franklin's own words.
  • Ralph L. Ketcham, Benjamin Franklin (1966).^ Franklin rose with a Speech in his hand, which he had reduced to writing for his own conveniency, and which Mr. Wilson read in the words following: .

    ^ To persuade them, Franklin made a public pledge to stand behind the debts with his own money, and his word was known to be good.

    ^ Pacifist Pennsylvania, chief among the wavering hold-outs, was mostly won over by its own Benjamin Franklin , who was confident the French could be enlisted to help us.

    Short biography.
  • Edmund S. Morgan. .Benjamin Franklin (2003).^ Walter Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin: An American Life (New York, 2003) .

    Short introduction by leading scholar
  • Carl Van Doren. Benjamin Franklin (1938; reprinted 1991). full-length biography.
  • .
  • Gordon Wood, The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin (2005).^ Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin More by user .
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Benjamin Franklin, Prophet Ben Franklin was not exactly religious, but for one dominating American theme, Poor Richard is the prophet.

    ^ Edward Braddock's commission to Read, dated May 21, is in the Miscellaneous Benjamin Franklin Collections, B F85.x7b, American Philosophical Society.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    Interpretive essay by leading scholar
For Young Readers
  • Fleming, Candace. Ben Franklin's Almanac: Being a True Account of the Good Gentleman's Life. Atheneum/Anne Schwart, 2003, 128 pages, ISBN 978-0-689-83549-0.

Scholarly studies

  • Douglas Anderson. The Radical Enlightenments of Benjamin Franklin (1997). BF in terms of intellectual history
  • Isaac Asimov. .The Kite That Won The Revolution, a biography for children that focuses on Franklin's scientific and diplomatic contributions.
  • M. H. Buxbaum., ed.^ B. Franklin, Scientist Kites are children's toys; going out in a thunderstorm is deliciously dangerous.

    ^ Franklin's contributions to Braddock's campaign are discussed in every recent biography.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    Critical Essays on Benjamin Franklin (1987).
  • I. Bernard Cohen. .Benjamin Franklin's Science (1990).^ Philosophy Means Science in Philadelphia At least until he met Madame Helvetius, Benjamin Franklin displayed little interest in moral philosophy.

    .One of several books by Cohen on Franklin's science.
  • Paul W. Conner.^ We have thus been taught to regard Franklin's science as a lark, when in fact he largely discovered the nature of electricity and was regarded as one of the greatest scientists of his age.

    ^ In conversation one day with an English gentleman, Franklin spoke with resentment of the sending troops to Boston and the other severe measures of the government.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Franklin refers to only one other set of quire books in his correspondence.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    Poor Richard's Politicks (1965). Analyzes BF's ideas in terms of the Enlightenment
  • Dray, Philip. .Stealing God's Thunder: Benjamin Franklin's Lightning Rod and the Invention of America. Random House, 2005. 279 pp.
  • "Franklin as Printer and Publisher" in The Century (April 1899) v.^ Thereupon he canceled the indenture of apprenticeship, and the newspaper was thereafter published by Benjamin Franklin.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See "To the Lords Commissions of the Treasury," April 1759, in Labaree et al., Papers of Benjamin Franklin , 8: 333–38.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At the very moment when he warned America against taking refuge in the arms of France, the colonists were joyously springing into that international 92 Benjamin Franklin embrace.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .57 pp. 803–18. By Paul Leicester Ford.
  • "Franklin as Scientist" in The Century (Sept 1899) v.57 pp. 750–63. By Paul Leicester Ford.
  • "Franklin as Politician and Diplomatist" in The Century (October 1899) v.^ For the larger controversy, see Franklin's letters to William Shirley of May 8 and June 3 (letters 18 and 33, 268, 274); Shirley to Franklin, Sept.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    57 pp. 881–899. By Paul Leicester Ford.
  • Gleason, Philip. "Trouble in the Colonial Melting Pot." Journal of American Ethnic History 2000 20(1): 3–17. ISSN 0278-5927 Fulltext online in Ingenta and Ebsco. .Considers the political consequences of the remarks in a 1751 pamphlet by Franklin on demographic growth and its implications for the colonies.^ He said:— 31 Benjamin Franklin “I shall next consider the other supposition, that their growth may render them dangerous.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Who but Franklin, in private partnerships with sixty printers, could have possibly authorized, financed, and printed 150,000 copies of a colonial pamphlet?

    ^ When finally issued in July, the pamphlet included Franklin's demographic treatise "Observations concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, &c" as an appendix.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .He called the Pennsylvania Germans "Palatine Boors" who could never acquire the "Complexion" of the English settlers and to "Blacks and Tawneys" as weakening the social structure of the colonies.^ Although the British were anxious to attract English-speaking colonists who would defend America for England, it was obvious some of the settlers were becoming very rich.

    ^ Who but Franklin, in private partnerships with sixty printers, could have possibly authorized, financed, and printed 150,000 copies of a colonial pamphlet?

    ^ Like J. Pierpont Morgan , who could thunder "I will never do business with a man I don't trust", Franklin had one set of principles for business, and another for love.

    .Although Franklin apparently reconsidered shortly thereafter, and the phrases were omitted from all later printings of the pamphlet, his views may have played a role in his political defeat in 1764.
  • Monaghan, J. E. (2005).^ It was apparently this strange blunder of the political managers for the “old ticket” party that was fatal to Franklin, for when the votes were all counted he was found to be beaten by a balance against him of twenty−five.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Franklin was little given to political prophecy, but it is interesting to read a passage written shortly after his arrival, May 1, 1777:— “All Europe is on our side of the question, as far as applause and good wishes can carry them.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Who but Franklin, in private partnerships with sixty printers, could have possibly authorized, financed, and printed 150,000 copies of a colonial pamphlet?

    Learning to read and write in colonial America. .Boston, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
  • Olson, Lester C. Benjamin Franklin's Vision of American Community: A Study in Rhetorical Iconology. U. of South Carolina Press, 2004. 323 pp.
  • Skousen, W. Cleon.^ Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin More by user .
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His provision of wagons is best studied in Whitfield J. Bell Jr. Leonard W. Labaree, "Franklin and the 'Wagon Affair,' 1755," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 101, no.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Among illustrious Americans Franklin stands preëminent in the interest which is aroused by a study of his character, his mind, and his career.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    The Five Thousand Year Leap (1981). .Brief summary on 28 ideas implemented into the U.S. Constitution by the American Founding Fathers.
  • Schiff, Stacy.^ The simplest government seemed to him the best; and he substantially gave in his allegiance to those democratic ideas which afterward constituted the doctrines of the Jeffersonian school in American politics.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When I came into the administration of American affairs I found them in great disorder.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .A Great Improvisation: Franklin, France, and the Birth of America (2005) (UK title Dr Franklin Goes to France)
  • Schiffer, Michael Brian.^ I found the ministers of France equally impressed with the talents and integrity of Dr. Franklin.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Certainly the “fitness of things,” the historical picturesqueness of the event, imperatively demanded Dr. Franklin's venerable figure in the constitutional convention of the United States of America.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Mutual confidence produces of course mutual influence, and this was all which subsisted between Dr. Franklin and the government of France.”[93] [Note 93: Jefferson's Works, vii.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Draw the Lightning Down: Benjamin Franklin and Electrical Technology in the Age of Enlightenment. U. of California Press, 2003. 383 pp.
  • Sethi, Arjun The Morality of Values (2006).^ Benjamin Franklin: Chronology Franklin retired at age 42, and spent the other half of his life in public service.

    ^ Walter Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin: An American Life (New York, 2003) .

    ^ Philadelphia's silver decade began with the death of Benjamin Franklin, at the age of eighty-four, in 1790.

    .Online Version
  • Stuart Sherman "Franklin" 1918 article on Franklin's writings.
  • Michael Sletcher, 'Domesticity: The Human Side of Benjamin Franklin', Magazine of History, XXI (2006).
  • Waldstreicher, David.^ As a contribution to the corpus of writings by and to Benjamin Franklin, these letters are intrinsically important.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Benjamin Franklin It is not in human nature to be so extravagantly abused in times of intense excitement, and wholly to hold one's peace.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To write at length concerning Franklin's services during his brief stay at home would involve giving a history of the whole affairs of the colonies at this time.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, Slavery, and the American Revolution. Hill and Wang, 2004. 315 pp.
  • Walters, Kerry S. Benjamin Franklin and His Gods. U. of Illinois Press, 1999. 213 pp.^ Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Benjamin Franklin: An American Lif… Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin More by user .
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At the very moment when he warned America against taking refuge in the arms of France, the colonists were joyously springing into that international 92 Benjamin Franklin embrace.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Benjamin Franklin, Prophet Ben Franklin was not exactly religious, but for one dominating American theme, Poor Richard is the prophet.

    Takes position midway between D. H. Lawrence's brutal 1930 denunciation of Franklin's religion as nothing more than a bourgeois commercialism tricked out in shallow utilitarian moralisms and Owen Aldridge's sympathetic 1967 treatment of the dynamism and protean character of Franklin's "polytheistic" religion.

Primary sources

  • Silence Dogood, The Busy-Body, & Early Writings (J.A. Leo Lemay, ed.) .(Library of America, 1987 one-volume, 2005 two-volume) ISBN 978-1-93108222-8
  • Autobiography, Poor Richard, & Later Writings (J.A. Leo Lemay, ed.^ Alan Houston, ed., Franklin: The Autobiography and Other Writings on Politics, Economics, and Virtue (Cambridge, 2004), 112–13 (quotations).
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Benjamin Franklin, Prophet Ben Franklin was not exactly religious, but for one dominating American theme, Poor Richard is the prophet.

    ^ One is tempted to make many quotations from Franklin's writings in this connection; but two or three must suffice.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ) .(Library of America, 1987 one-volume, 2005 two-volume) ISBN 978-1-88301153-6
  • Benjamin Franklin Reader edited by Walter Isaacson (2003)
  • Houston, Alan, ed.^ Logan, Franklin, Library James Logan and Benjamin Franklin were at the opposite ends of the social scale in Colonial Philadelphia, and were to adopt stongly differing political views.

    ^ Only two brief printed letters are in the Papers of Benjamin Franklin , both from Franklin to Birch, dated Feb.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Benjamin Franklin It is not in human nature to be so extravagantly abused in times of intense excitement, and wholly to hold one's peace.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Franklin: The Autobiography and other Writings on Politics, Economics, and Virtue. Cambridge U. Press, 2004. 371 pp.
  • Ketcham, Ralph, ed.^ See Houston, Autobiography and Other Writings , 112 (quotation).
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Franklin did not hesitate to remind others of the political and military importance of his contributions to Braddock's campaign.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See Houston, Autobiography and Other Writings , 119.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The Political Thought of Benjamin Franklin. (1965, reprinted 2003).^ He is followed by his political disciple, James Madison; by their secretary of the treasury, Albert Gallatin; and by 4 Benjamin Franklin James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, and John Randolph.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As a historian of political thought, I sought to trace Benjamin Franklin's contributions to eighteenth-century Atlantic debates over the rise of the modern commercial republic.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Logan, Franklin, Library James Logan and Benjamin Franklin were at the opposite ends of the social scale in Colonial Philadelphia, and were to adopt stongly differing political views.

    .459 pp.
  • Leonard Labaree, et al., eds., The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, 37 vols.^ See Labaree et al., Papers of Benjamin Franklin , 6: 114–28.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Labaree et al., Papers of Benjamin Franklin , 6: 24.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See Labaree et al., Papers of Benjamin Franklin , 10: 30, 74–75.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    to date (1959–2006), definitive edition, through 1783. This massive collection of BF's writings, and letters to him, is available in large academic libraries. It is most useful for detailed research on specific topics. The complete text of all the documents are online and searchable; The Index is also online.
  • "The Way to Wealth." Applewood Books; November 1986. ISBN 0-918222-88-5
  • "The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin." Dover Pubns; June 7, 1996. ISBN 0-486-29073-5
  • "Poor Richard's Almanack." Peter Pauper Press; November 1983. ISBN 0-88088-918-7
  • Poor Richard Improved by Benjamin Franklin (1751)
  • "Writings (Franklin)|Writings." ISBN 0-940450-29-1
  • "On Marriage."
  • "Satires and Bagatelles."
  • "A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain."
  • "Fart Proudly: Writings of Benjamin Franklin You Never Read in School." Carl Japikse, Ed. Frog Ltd.; Reprint ed. May, 2003. ISBN 1-58394-079-0
  • "Heroes of America Benjamin Franklin"

External links

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

He that would live in peace and at ease, Must not speak all he knows, nor judge all he sees.
I think opinions should be judged by their influences and effects; and if a man holds none that tend to make him less virtuous or more vicious, it may be concluded that he holds none that are dangerous, which I hope is the case with me.
.Benjamin Franklin (17 January 170617 April 1790) was an American inventor, journalist, printer, diplomat, and statesman.^ We know Franklin as a journalist, statesman, inventor and scientist.
  • Edward J. Dodson / Physiocratie -- The Political Economy of Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.cooperativeindividualism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin died April 17, 1790, at age 84.
  • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ben Franklin Day [ January 17 ] .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | January 17| St Saint Anthony pig Benjamin Franklin achievements Poor Richard's Almanac Almanack 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

See also: Poor Richard's Almanack (1733–1758)

Contents

Sourced

Remember that time is money.
Every Body cries, a Union is absolutely necessary, but when they come to the Manner and Form of the Union, their weak Noddles are perfectly distracted.
.
Idleness and pride tax with a heavier hand than kings and parliaments.
^ Idleness and pride tax with a heavier hand than kings and governments.
  • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Idleness and pride tax with a heavier hand than kings and parliaments.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Bailly knew that Necker had a heavy hand in writing the King's June 23 speech.
  • Schiller Institute—Jean-Sylvain Bailly: The French Revolution's Benjamin Franklin 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schillerinstitute.org [Source type: Original source]

If we can get rid of the former, we may easily bear the latter.
Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety.
We hear of the conversion of water into wine at the marriage in Cana as of a miracle. .But this conversion is, through the goodness of God, made every day before our eyes.^ The Londoners had long had the method before their eyes, every evening, at Vauxhall; but had never got at the notion of transferring it to the open streets.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The next morning Mr Secretary came to our Lodging, made his apologies very gentilly and delivered the General's Compliments, inviting us to dinner; and we dined and breakfasted with him every day afterwards that we stayed in town.
  • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Had Otis, Adams, Henry, Gadsden, and the rest seen with their bodily eyes what Franklin was seeing every day, their words might have been more tempered.
  • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Behold the rain which descends from heaven upon our vineyards; there it enters the roots of the vines, to be changed into wine; a constant proof that God loves us, and loves to see us happy.
.
As to Jesus of Nazareth, my Opinion of whom you particularly desire, I think the System of Morals and his Religion, as he left them to us, the best the world ever saw or is likely to see; but I apprehend it has received various corrupt changes, and I have, with most of the present Dissenters in England, some Doubts as to his divinity; tho' it is a question I do not dogmatize upon...
  • Mankind naturally and generally love to be flatter'd: Whatever sooths our Pride, and tends to exalt our Species above the rest of the Creation, we are pleas'd with and easily believe, when ungrateful Truths shall be with the utmost Indignation rejected.^ Changes, and I have, with most of the present dissenters in England, some doubts as to his Divinity; tho' it is a question I do not dogmatize upon, having never studied it, and think it needless to busy myself with it now, when I expect soon an opportunity of knowing the Truth with less trouble.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | January 17| St Saint Anthony pig Benjamin Franklin achievements Poor Richard's Almanac Almanack 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You are the best GD girlfriend in the world.
    • OfficeQuotes.net - The Comprehensive Source for The Office Quotes! 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC officequotes.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Northern Attack | Ben Franklin 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.northernattack.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Deists rejected divine revelation, believing that "reason and study of nature" tell us all that can be known about our Creator.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    "What! bring ourselves down to an Equality with the Beasts of the Field! with the meanest part of the Creation! 'Tis insufferable!" .But, (to use a Piece of common Sense) our Geese are but Geese tho' we may think 'em Swans; and Truth will be Truth tho' it sometimes prove mortifying and distasteful.
  • I believe there is one Supreme most perfect being.^ He printed one hundred copies of his own essay, A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain , giving copies out to those who expressed a willingness to read it and engage him in discussion on the questions raised.
    • Edward J. Dodson / Physiocratie -- The Political Economy of Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.cooperativeindividualism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Whatever the reasons may be, this is certainly the most jarring and notable deficiency from an otherwise detailed record of the life of one of our most important statesmen.
    • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Franklin Benjamin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

    ^ The Worship of God is a Duty, the hearing and reading of Sermons may be useful; but if Men [do also no good deeds], it is as if a Tree should value itself on being water'd and putting forth Leaves, tho' it never produc'd any Fruit."
    • Benjamin Franklin: reading journal 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC home.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ... .I believe He is pleased and delights in the happiness of those He has created; and since without virtue man can have no happiness in this world, I firmly believe He delights to see me virtuous.^ See also "No Taxation Without Representation" in reading notes above.
    • Benjamin Franklin: reading journal 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC home.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In like manner the instruction which he himself inculcated was strictly confined to those virtues which promote the welfare and happiness of the individual and of society.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See also "No Taxation Without Representation" in reading notes above: natural rights of Englishmen.
    • Benjamin Franklin: reading journal 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC home.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • "Articles of Belief and Acts of Religion" (1728)
  • I think opinions should be judged of by their influences and effects, and if a man holds none that tend to make him less virtuous or more vicious, it may be concluded that he holds none that are dangerous; which I hope is the case with me.
    • Letter to his father, 13 April 1738, printed in Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin (Philadelphia, 1834), volume 1, p.^ In a letter to his daughter, Benjamin Franklin wrote: .
      • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Virtue, religion and personal beliefs .
      • Transwiki:Benjamin Franklin - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Benjamin Franklin; letter to Jacques Barbeu Dubourg, April, 1773 .
      • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | January 17| St Saint Anthony pig Benjamin Franklin achievements Poor Richard's Almanac Almanack 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

      .233. Also quoted in Benjamin Franklin: An American Life (2003) by Walter Isaacson
  • Remember that time is money.
    • Advice to a Young Tradesman (1748)
  • Much less is it adviseable for a Person to go thither [to America], who has no other Quality to recommend him but his Birth.^ But Franklin was no less resolute on the other side.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin, page 286.

    ^ It does him no discredit with persons who understand its source.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .In Europe it has indeed its Value; but it is a Commodity that cannot be carried to a worse Market than that of America, where people do not inquire concerning a Stranger, What is he? but, What can he do?
    • Information to Those Who Would Remove to America
  • The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it.^ The show is scripted, after all; the advantage any of us would want in life.

    ^ "Info to those who would remove to Amer."
    • Benjamin Franklin: reading journal 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC home.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those who wanted to work were put to work.
    • How Benjamin Franklin Made New England Prosperous « Friends of the American Revolution 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC 21stcenturycicero.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    .By playing at Chess then, we may learn: 1st, Foresight, which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action ...^ Looking into the future, he also questioned the wisdom of permitting non Anglo-Saxons to settle in British North America.
    • Edward J. Dodson / Physiocratie -- The Political Economy of Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.cooperativeindividualism.org [Source type: Original source]

    .2nd, Circumspection, which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: — the relation of the several Pieces, and their situations; ...^ This meeting of several colonies had been requested by the Board of Trade in England to improve relations with the Indians and defense against the French.
    • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    3rd, Caution, not to make our moves too hastily... .
    • "The Morals of Chess" (article) (1750)
  • Every Body cries, a Union is absolutely necessary, but when they come to the Manner and Form of the Union, their weak Noddles are perfectly distracted.^ Every body cried out against this as unconstitutional.
    • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And I must do this people the justice to say, that they have come into the furnishing of these Necessaries with great readiness and alacrity, many [fol.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But Arthur Lee mischievously and maliciously blocked these perfectly straightforward and absolutely necessary arrangements.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to Peter Collinson (29 December 1754); published in The Writings of Benjamin Franklin (1905), edited by Albert Henry Smyth, Vol.^ In a letter to his daughter, Benjamin Franklin wrote: .
      • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Edited and published by Franklin.
      • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Benjamin Franklin was able to write: .
      • How Benjamin Franklin Made New England Prosperous « Friends of the American Revolution 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC 21stcenturycicero.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

      III, p. 242
  • I have read your Manuscript with some Attention. .By the Arguments it contains against the Doctrine of a particular Providence, tho’ you allow a general Providence, you strike at the Foundation of all Religion: For without the Belief of a Providence that takes Cognizance of, guards and guides and may favour particular Persons, there is no Motive to Worship a Deity, to fear its Displeasure, or to pray for its Protection.^ Virtue, religion and personal beliefs .
    • Transwiki:Benjamin Franklin - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Strike against war, for without you no battles can be fought!
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There can be no doubt that in order to a judicious exercise of the power of taxation, it is necessary that the person in whose hands it is should be acquainted with the general genius, habits, and modes of thinking of the people at large, and with the resources of the country.
    • Edward J. Dodson / Physiocratie -- The Political Economy of Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.cooperativeindividualism.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I will not enter into any Discussion of your Principles, tho’ you seem to desire it; At present I shall only give you my Opinion that tho’ your Reasonings are subtle, and may prevail with some Readers, you will not succeed so as to change the general Sentiments of Mankind on that Subject, and the Consequence of printing this Piece will be a great deal of Odium drawn upon your self, Mischief to you and no Benefit to others.^ Silence-Speak not but what may benefit others or your self.
    • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I shall not enter 55 Benjamin Franklin into a dispute with you, Sir, upon this subject.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I beg you will present my Compliments to your son.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .He that spits against the Wind, spits in his own Face.
    But were you to succeed, do you imagine any Good would be done by it?^ You can schedule your singing cards in advance, and even add your own face to funny animations.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | January 17| St Saint Anthony pig Benjamin Franklin achievements Poor Richard's Almanac Almanack 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    .You yourself may find it easy to live a virtuous Life without the Assistance afforded by Religion; you having a clear Perception of the Advantages of Virtue and the Disadvantages of Vice, and possessing a Strength of Resolution sufficient to enable you to resist common Temptations.^ Gain may be temporary and uncertain; but ever while you live, expense is constant and certain: and it is easier to build two chimneys than to keep one in fuel.
    • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]
    • Benjamin Franklin quotes, quotations, phrases, words 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In fact, if you discount the parts that offended Adams as largely dissembled, the Helvetius episode may have been the most truly significant relationship of Franklin's life.

    ^ I thank you,” he said, “for your kind caution, but having nearly finished a long life, I set but little value on what remains of it.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .But think how great a Proportion of Mankind consists of weak and ignorant Men and Women, and of inexperienc’d and inconsiderate Youth of both Sexes, who have need of the Motives of Religion to restrain them from Vice, to support their Virtue, and retain them in the Practice of it till it becomes habitual, which is the great Point for its Security; And perhaps you are indebted to her originally that is to your Religious Education, for the Habits of Virtue upon which you now justly value yourself.^ "SINCERITY. Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly."
    • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There were then only two printers in that town, ignorant men both, with scant capacity in the technique of their calling.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If they were the effects merely of inadvertence, and you do not, on reflection, approve of them, perhaps you may think it proper to write something for effacing the impressions made by them.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .You might easily display your excellent Talents of reasoning on a less hazardous Subject, and thereby obtain Rank with our most distinguish’d Authors.^ Whatever the reasons may be, this is certainly the most jarring and notable deficiency from an otherwise detailed record of the life of one of our most important statesmen.
    • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Franklin Benjamin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Updated frequently, our hotel directory will provide you with the most accurate information about hotel properties near Benjamin Franklin Statue.
    • Reserve Hotels near Benjamin Franklin Statue in Philadelphia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The messenger was met by Mr. Franklin; and we find from him, that tho' they might easily be procured, it would be impossible to be done in time for our march.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .For among us, it is not necessary, as among the Hottentots that a Youth to be receiv’d into the Company of Men, should prove his Manhood by beating his Mother.^ I hate those men who would send into war youth to fight and die for them; the pride and cowardice of those old men, making their wars that boys must die.
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is not a year since you received from us the sum of 2000 guineas, which you thought necessary on account of your being to set out immediately for Florence.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The continental vessels of war which come to France have likewise required great sums of us to furnish and refit them and supply the men with necessaries.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .I would advise you therefore not to attempt unchaining the Tyger, but to burn this Piece before it is seen by any other Person, whereby you will save yourself a great deal of Mortification from the Enemies it may raise against you, and perhaps a good deal of Regret and Repentance.^ When you’re good to others, you are best to yourself.
    • Benjamin Franklin: The Man Who Invented the American Dream | The Freeman | Ideas On Liberty 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.thefreemanonline.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jim : Have you ever seen a stripper before?

    ^ I wish therefore you would ...
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .If Men are so wicked as we now see them with Religion what would they be if without it?
    • Letter to unknown recipient (13 December 1757) This has sometimes been incorrectly portrayed as having been a letter against The Age of Reason written to Thomas Paine.^ Thus he wrote Thomas Paine , "If men are so wicked with religion, what would they be if without it."
      • Transwiki:Benjamin Franklin - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ (They used that dodge rather than say Thomas Penn had forbidden them to do so, and taken out a bond for five thousand pounds that they would do what he required.
      • How Benjamin Franklin Made New England Prosperous « Friends of the American Revolution 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC 21stcenturycicero.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ I hope....that mankind will at length, as they call themselves responsible creatures, have the reason and sense enough to settle their differences without cutting throats...
      • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

      .The last line has sometimes been paraphrased : If men are so wicked with religion, what would they be if without it.
  • The Way to see by Faith, is to shut the Eye of Reason:
    The Morning Daylight appears plainer when you put out your Candle.
  • That Being, who gave me existence, and through almost threescore years has been continually showering his favors upon me, whose very chastisements have been blessings to me ; can I doubt that he loves me?^ You would think that they got that message last November.
    • Firedoglake » Where’s Ben Franklin? 3 February 2010 14:38 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See you out there?

    ^ The way to see by Faith is to shut the Eye of Reason.
    • Benjamin Franklin quotes, quotations, phrases, words 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]

    .And, if he loves me, can I doubt that he will go on to take care of me, not only here but hereafter?^ Severall, who have horses nearer the Camp than to this place, have promised, that they will go there, and engage, as they cannot possibly bring them here, and then take them to the Camp in time.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .This to some may seem presumption ; to me it appears the best grounded hope ; hope of the future built on experience of the past.^ We are mankind's last best hope: if we fail, "Mankind may hereafter .
    • Benjamin Franklin: reading journal 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC home.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The researchers concluded that episodic-like memories consist of spatio-temporal location of food items based on a single caching experience and that animals may recall the past and plan for the future (Clayton et al., 2003).
    • Franklin HTML 16 September 2009 23:19 UTC psyc.queensu.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Expedition you are now engaged in may in some respects seem but a small one; but in its Consequences it will be of the greatest importance to the British Nation.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to George Whitefield (19 June 1764), published in The Works of Benjamin Franklin (1856).
  • Idleness and pride tax with a heavier hand than kings and parliaments. If we can get rid of the former, we may easily bear the latter.^ In a letter to his daughter, Benjamin Franklin wrote: .
    • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Idleness and pride tax with a heavier hand than kings and governments.
    • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Idleness and pride tax with a heavier hand than kings and parliaments.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter on the Stamp Act (1 July 1765), as quoted in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed.^ In London, Franklin opposed the 1765 Stamp Act , but when he was unable to prevent its passage, he made another political miscalculation and recommended a friend to the post of stamp distributor for Pennsylvania.
      • Transwiki:Benjamin Franklin - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ In July Franklin wrote to Charles Thomson:— “Depend upon it, my good neighbor, I took every step in my power to prevent the passing of the Stamp Act.
      • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letters from the colonies soon made Franklin aware of the public reaction to the Stamp Act taxes.
      • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

      .(1919).
  • I think the best way of doing good to the poor, is not making them easy in poverty, but leading or driving them out of it.^ It's easy to make soap, but hard to make good soap.

    ^ "The best way to do good is not making them [the poor] easy in poverty," observed Franklin, "but leading or driving them out of it."
    • Edward J. Dodson / Physiocratie -- The Political Economy of Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.cooperativeindividualism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think that people want peace so much that one of these days government had better get out of their way and let them have it.
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • On the Price of Corn and Management of the Poor (29 November 1766)
  • They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety, deserve neither liberty nor safety.
    • This was written by Franklin, with quotation marks but almost certainly his original thought, sometime shortly before February 17, 1775 as part of his notes for a proposition at the Pennsylvania Assembly, as published in Memoirs of the life and writings of Benjamin Franklin (1818).^ Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
      • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]
      • Benjamin Franklin quotes, quotations, phrases, words 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
      • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]
      • Benjamin Franklin quotes, quotations, phrases, words 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Those who give up essential liberties for temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
      • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

      .A variant of this was published as:
      • Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety.
        • This was used as a motto on the title page of An Historical Review of the Constitution and Government of Pennsylvania. (1759); the book was published by Franklin; its author was Richard Jackson, but Franklin did claim responsibility for some small excerpts that were used in it.
    • An earlier variant by Franklin in Poor Richard's Almanack (1738): "Sell not virtue to purchase wealth, nor Liberty to purchase power."
    • The saying has also appeared in many paraphrased forms:
      • They that can give up essential liberty to purchase a little temporary safety, deserve neither liberty nor safety.^ Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]
        • Benjamin Franklin quotes, quotations, phrases, words 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]

        ^ They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]
        • Benjamin Franklin quotes, quotations, phrases, words 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]
        • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

        ^ They who give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
        • Benjamin Franklin quotes, quotations, phrases, words 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]


        .They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.^ Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]
        • Benjamin Franklin quotes, quotations, phrases, words 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]

        ^ They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]
        • Benjamin Franklin quotes, quotations, phrases, words 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]
        • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Those who give up essential liberties for temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
        • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]


        .Those Who Sacrifice Liberty For Security Deserve Neither.^ Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]
        • Benjamin Franklin quotes, quotations, phrases, words 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]

        ^ They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]
        • Benjamin Franklin quotes, quotations, phrases, words 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Neither was the notion of a royal government looked upon with liking even by all those who were indignant against the present system.
        • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]


        .He who would trade liberty for some temporary security, deserves neither liberty nor security.^ Those who give up essential liberties for temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
        • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety.
        • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | January 17| St Saint Anthony pig Benjamin Franklin achievements Poor Richard's Almanac Almanack 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

        ^ Thoſe who would give up Essential Liberty for a Little Temporary Safety and Deserve Neither TYR’ANNY, n.
        • How Benjamin Franklin Made New England Prosperous « Friends of the American Revolution 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC 21stcenturycicero.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]


        .He who sacrifices freedom for security deserves neither.^ Anyone who trades liberty for security deserves neither liberty nor security.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety.
        • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | January 17| St Saint Anthony pig Benjamin Franklin achievements Poor Richard's Almanac Almanack 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

        ^ Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]


        .People willing to trade their freedom for temporary security deserve neither and will lose both.^ Anyone who trades liberty for security deserves neither liberty nor security.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety.
        • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | January 17| St Saint Anthony pig Benjamin Franklin achievements Poor Richard's Almanac Almanack 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

        ^ Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]


        .If we restrict liberty to attain security we will lose them both.^ Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]


        .Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.^ Those who would give up essential liberty to purchase a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]

        ^ They who would give up an essential liberty for temporary security, deserve neither liberty or security.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]


        .He who gives up freedom for safety deserves neither.^ Those who give up essential liberties for temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
        • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]

        ^ They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
        • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]


        .Those who would trade in their freedom for their protection deserve neither.^ Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety.
        • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | January 17| St Saint Anthony pig Benjamin Franklin achievements Poor Richard's Almanac Almanack 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

        ^ Neither was the notion of a royal government looked upon with liking even by all those who were indignant against the present system.
        • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

        ^ "Info to those who would remove to Amer."
        • Benjamin Franklin: reading journal 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC home.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]


        .Those who give up their liberty for more security neither deserve liberty nor security.
  • We hear of the conversion of water into wine at the marriage in Cana as of a miracle.^ Those who give up essential liberties for temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | January 17| St Saint Anthony pig Benjamin Franklin achievements Poor Richard's Almanac Almanack 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Those who would give up essential Liberty, to purchase a little temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety.
    • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    .But this conversion is, through the goodness of God, made every day before our eyes.^ The Londoners had long had the method before their eyes, every evening, at Vauxhall; but had never got at the notion of transferring it to the open streets.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The next morning Mr Secretary came to our Lodging, made his apologies very gentilly and delivered the General's Compliments, inviting us to dinner; and we dined and breakfasted with him every day afterwards that we stayed in town.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Had Otis, Adams, Henry, Gadsden, and the rest seen with their bodily eyes what Franklin was seeing every day, their words might have been more tempered.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Behold the rain which descends from heaven upon our vineyards; there it enters the roots of the vines, to be changed into wine; a constant proof that God loves us, and loves to see us happy.
    The miracle in question was only performed to hasten the operation, under circumstances of present necessity, which required it.^ I repeat it, there only existed between us a relationship of position, and no intimate personal relationship.
    • Schiller Institute—Jean-Sylvain Bailly: The French Revolution's Benjamin Franklin 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schillerinstitute.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What a cruel thing is war: to separate and destroy families and friends, and mar the purest joys and happiness god has given us in this world...
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Since everyone believes in God, no special proof is necessary before asking the further questions regarding what God is like: of great wisdom, goodness, and power.
    • Benjamin Franklin: reading journal 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC home.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • All Wars are Follies, very expensive, and very mischievous ones.^ It was deplorable, upon the very verge of war, and incredible too, after all the warnings that had been had, that there should be among Englishmen such an utter absence of any desire to get accurate knowledge.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He has written a number of tracts, all of which have been very popular: and the one entitled "Sincerity Seeking the Way to Heaven," has bhad the largest sale of any tract every published by the Disciples.

    ^ All the officers say, it is an extremely gentile one, and comes very a propos .
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .When will Mankind be convinced of this, and agree to settle their Differences by Arbitration?^ When will mankind be convinced and agree to settle their difficulties by arbitration?
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I hope....that mankind will at length, as they call themselves responsible creatures, have the reason and sense enough to settle their differences without cutting throats...
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Were they to do it, even by the Cast of a Dye, it would be better than by Fighting and destroying each other.^ But I would rather, ten thousand times, be killed for refusing to fight than to fall in battle or to came home victorious with the blood of my brethren on my hands.

    ^ He said that in Europe it seemed “a mystery,” “a wonderful machine;” and there is no reason why he should have understood it better than other people in Europe.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These people are trying to shake the will of the Iraqi citizens, and they want us to leave...I think the world would be better off if we did leave...
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Letter to Mary Hewson[1], Jan. .27. 1783
  • There never was a good war or a bad peace.
    • Letter to Josiah Quincy (11 September 1783)
  • I've lived, Sir, a long time, and the longer I live, the more convincing Proofs I see of this Truth — That God governs in the Affairs of Men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his Notice, is it probable that an Empire can rise without his Aid?^ Remarking on the treaty in a letter, Franklin would famously write: "There never was a good war or a bad peace."
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There never was a good war or a bad peace.
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without His notice, is it probable that an empire can rise without His aid?
    • Transwiki:Benjamin Franklin - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .We have been assured, Sir, in the Sacred Writings, that except the Lord build the House they labor in vain who build it.^ We have been assured, Sir, in the Sacred Writings, that "except the Lord build the House, they labor in vain that build it."
    • Transwiki:Benjamin Franklin - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ No person belonging to the council behaved with decent gravity, except Lord North,” who came late and remained standing behind a chair.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .I firmly believe this, — and I also believe that without his concurring Aid, we shall succeed in this political Building no better than the Builders of Babel: We shall be divided by our little partial local interests; our Projects will be confounded, and we ourselves shall become a Reproach and Bye word down to future Ages.^ Mine is better than ours.
    • Ben Franklin Himself 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cnusd.k12.ca.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Insistence on "our little, partial local interests, our projects," would result in failure that would make them "a reproach and a by-word down to future ages."
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Insistence on "our little, partial local interests, our projects," would result in failure that would make the delegates "a reproach and a by-word down to future ages."
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • In these sentiments, Sir, I agree to this Constitution, with all its faults, — if they are such; because I think a general Government necessary for us, and there is no form of government but what may be a blessing to the people, if well administered; and I believe, farther, that this is likely to be well administered for a course of years, and can only end in despotism, as other forms have done before it, when the people shall become so corrupted as to need despotic government, being incapable of any other.^ And when the people become so corrupt, he said, we will find it is not a republic that they want but rather despotism the only form of government suitable for such a people.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | January 17| St Saint Anthony pig Benjamin Franklin achievements Poor Richard's Almanac Almanack 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If [America] becomes militant, it will be because its people choose to become such; it will be because they think that war and warlikeness are desirable.
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ [Our constitution, said Franklin] will fail, as all such constitutions have in the past, because of the essential corruption of the people.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | January 17| St Saint Anthony pig Benjamin Franklin achievements Poor Richard's Almanac Almanack 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Speech to the Constitutional Convention (28 June 1787)
  • Whilst the last members were signing it Doctor Franklin looking towards the President's Chair, at the back of which a rising sun happened to be painted, observed to a few members near him, that Painters had found it difficult to distinguish in their art a rising from a setting sun.^ When the last members were signing it, Doctor Franklin looking towards the President's Chair , at the back of which a rising sun happened to be painted, observed to a few members near him, that Painters had found it difficult to distinguish in their art a rising from a setting sun.

    ^ It also nominated him as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Whilst the last members were signing the Constitution, Doctor Franklin, looking towards the Presidents chair, at the back of which a rising sun happened to be painted, observed to a few members near him, that painters had found it difficult to distinguish in their art, a rising, from a setting, sun.
    • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    “I have,” said he, “often and often in the course of the Session, and the vicissitudes of my hopes and fears as to its issue, looked at that behind the President without being able to tell whether it was rising or setting: But now at length I have the happiness to know that it is a rising and not a setting Sun.”
    • At the signing of the United States Constitution, Journal of the Constitutional Convention (17 September 1787)
  • Remember me affectionately to good Dr. Price and to the honest heretic Dr. Priestly. .I do not call him honest by way of distinction; for I think all the heretics I have known have been virtuous men. They have the virtue of fortitude or they would not venture to own their heresy; and they cannot afford to be deficient in any of the other virtues, as that would give advantage to their many enemies; and they have not like orthodox sinners, such a number of friends to excuse or justify them.^ That at the first fire the Regulars fled, and being rallied in confusion fired directly on the Virginians, and killed more of them then the Enemy did; That the General would by no means permit a Man to take shelter and fight the Enemy in their own way, which would in all probability have prevented the sad Consequences: That they fled, or retired, as they call it, in such Confusion, that the wounded General and Colours had nearly fallen into the Enemy's hands: and That a great number of metal buttons have been extracted from our wounded, a convincing proof, that the Enemy had in a manner exhausted their ammunition: That when, in their retreat, they came in sight of Dunbar's detachment, great numbers deserted from him, and he immediately blew up the shells at least, if not the powder, expecting the Enemy to pursue them, and retiring in Confusion.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Otherwise, if they carried the English laws and power of Parliament with them, what advantage could the Puritans propose to themselves by going?” “The colonists carried no law with them; they carried only a power of making laws, or adopting such parts of the English law or of any other law as they should think suitable to their circumstances.”[21] Radical doctrines these, which he could not reasonably expect would find favor under any principles of government then known in the world.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They would also find that Lee's own secretary was a spy.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    Do not, however mistake me. .It is not to my good friend's heresy that I impute his honesty.^ But since it is down, my friend, and it may be long before it rises again, let us make as good a night of it as we can.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .On the contrary, 'tis his honesty that has brought upon him the character of heretic.
  • Our new Constitution is now established, and has an appearance that promises permanency; but in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.
    • Letter to Jean-Baptiste Leroy (13 November 1789)
  • The art of concluding from experience and observation consists in evaluating probabilities, in estimating if they are high or numerous enough to constitute proof.^ Our new Constitution is now established, and has an appearance that promises permanency; but in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.
    • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.
    • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I look upon death to be as necessary to our constitution as sleep.
    • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    .This type of calculation is more complicated and more difficult than one might think.^ It is not possible for any one to be more sensible than I am of what I and every American owe to the king for the many and great benefits and favors he has bestowed upon us....
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Until you remember that Franklin, more than any one person, also discovered electricity.

    ^ Enough has happened, one would think, to convince your ministers that the Americans will fight, and that this is a harder nut to crack than they imagined.

    .It demands a great sagacity generally above the power of common people.^ The people of York County, who have been very hearty in supplying all the Waggons in their power, complain grievously of the inlisting of their Servants, as an unequal Tax on them, and a very great Oppression.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The success of charlatans, sorcerors, and alchemists — and all those who abuse public credulity — is founded on errors in this type of calculation.^ He is the only one who signed all the founding documents - the Declaration of Independence, the treaty with France, the peace treaty with Britain, and the Constitution.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All those who seek to destroy the liberties of a democratic nation ought to know that war is the surest and shortest means to accomplish it.
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They were written by public officers to persons in public stations on public affairs, and intended to procure public measures; they were therefore handed to other public persons, who might be influenced by them to produce those measures.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Benjamin Franklin and Antoine Lavoisier, Rapport des commissaires chargés par le roi de l'examen du magnétisme animal (1784), as translated in "The Chain of Reason versus the Chain of Thumbs", Bully for Brontosaurus (1991) by Stephen Jay Gould, p.^ Benjamin Franklin (1938; reprinted 1991).
      • Transwiki:Benjamin Franklin - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Contributions to liberal theory Liberalism List of places named for Benjamin Franklin Les Neuf Sœurs Social innovation Ben Franklin Effect Sons of Ben References .
      • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ I 134 Benjamin Franklin have not of late much reason to boast of it.
      • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      .195
  • As to Jesus of Nazareth, my Opinion of whom you particularly desire, I think the System of Morals and his Religion, as he left them to us, the best the world ever saw or is likely to see; but I apprehend it has received various corrupt changes, and I have, with most of the present Dissenters in England, some Doubts as to his divinity; tho' it is a question I do not dogmatize upon, having never studied it, and I think it needless to busy myself with it now, when I expect soon an Opportunity of knowing the Truth with less Trouble.^ You are the best GD girlfriend in the world.
    • OfficeQuotes.net - The Comprehensive Source for The Office Quotes! 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC officequotes.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Northern Attack | Ben Franklin 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.northernattack.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As to Jesus of Nazareth , my Opinion of whom you particularly desire, I think the System of Morals and his Religion, as he left them to us, the best the world ever saw or is likely to see; but I apprehend it has received various corrupt changes, and I have, with most of the present Dissenters in England, some Doubts as to his divinity; tho' it is a question I do not dogmatize upon, having never studied it, and I think it needless to busy myself with it now, when I expect soon an Opportunity of knowing the Truth with less Trouble...."
    • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I have, with most of the present dissenters in England, some doubts as to his divinity; though it is a question I do not dogmatize upon, having never studied it, and think it needless to busy myself with it now, when I expect soon an opportunity of knowing the truth with less trouble.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • As quoted in Benjamin Franklin: An Exploration of a Life of Science and Service (1938) by Carl Van Doren, p.^ Short introduction by leading scholar Carl Van Doren.
      • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Editorial Review Book Description In, "The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin," the life story of one of the most important figures in American history is recounted.
      • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Franklin Benjamin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

      ^ (Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin, page 286.

      777

The Autobiography (1817)

Various incomplete editions of this work were published from 1791 onwards; Franklin is known to have worked on it intermittently from 1771 to 1789.
Human felicity is produced not so much by great pieces of good fortune that seldom happen, as by little advantages that occur every day.
.
So convenient a thing it is to be a reasonable creature, since it enables one to find or make a reason for everything one has a mind to do.
  • I scarce ever heard or saw the introductory words, "Without vanity I may say," &c., but some vain thing immediately followed.^ They will not find a rebellion; they may indeed make one.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To the suggestion that military forces should be sent to America, he boldly answered, "They will not find a rebellion; they may indeed make one" ( Papers , vol.
    • Benjamin Franklin - a knol by Admin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nor had those of them who were personally disinterested any great inducement to do so, since, though some of them may have disliked him, none of them had any great liking for his noble opponent.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Most people dislike vanity in others, whatever share they have of it themselves; but I give it fair quarter wherever I meet with it, being persuaded that it is often productive of good to the possessor, and to others that are within his sphere of action; and therefore, in many cases, it would not be altogether absurd if a man were to thank God for his vanity among the other comforts of life.
  • From a child I was fond of reading, and all the little money that came into my hands was ever laid out in books.
  • This library afforded me the means of improvement by constant study, for which I set apart an hour or two each day, and thus repaired in some degree the loss of the learned education my father once intended for me.^ Benjamin Franklin's View about Time: This Library afforded me the Means of Improvement by constant study, for which I set apart an hour or two each day; and thus repaired to some degree the loss of the learned education my Father once intended for me.
    • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thus in three hours they increased their score by some two hundred votes.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General would be in a day or two.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Reading was the only amusement I allowed myself.^ Reading was the only amusement I allowed myself.
    • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

    .I spent no time in taverns, games, or frolics of any kind; and my industry in my business continued as indefatigable as it was necessary.
  • Human felicity is produced not so much by great pieces of good fortune that seldom happen, as by little advantages that occur every day.
  • My parents had early given me religious impressions, and brought me through my childhood piously in the Dissenting way.^ Industry-Lose no Time.
    • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I spent no time in taverns, games, or frolics of any kind.
    • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In addition, my industry in my business continued as indefatigable as it was necessary.
    • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

    .But I was scarce fifteen, when, after doubting by turns of several points, as I found them disputed in the different books I read, I began to doubt of Revelation itself.^ He served society in the various attitudes of farming, teaching, editing several different papers, publishing books, tracts, debates &c., and preaching the Gospel.

    .Some books against Deism fell into my hands; they were said to be the substance of sermons preached at Boyle's Lectures.^ They found it wrong in Bishops, but fell into the practice themselves both here (England) and in New England.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | January 17| St Saint Anthony pig Benjamin Franklin achievements Poor Richard's Almanac Almanack 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Il faut s'embrasser à la Française,” shouted the enthusiastic crowd; so they fell into each other's arms, and kissed, after the continental mode.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ N.B. The above was written to satisfy some of the foolish Germans, who said they would not furnish Waggons on the Governor's order, but would do it, if the Assembly or Committee approved of or desired it.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It happened that they wrought an effect on me quite contrary to what was intended by them; for the arguments of the Deists, which were quoted to be refuted, appeared to me much stronger than the refutations; in short, I soon became a thorough Deist.
  • I believe I have omitted mentioning that, in my first voyage from Boston, being becalm'd off Block Island, our people set about catching cod, and hauled up a great many.^ "I soon became a thorough Deist."
    • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They had several more children in Boston, including Josiah Jr. August 23 , 1685 ), Ann ( January 5 , 1687 ), Joseph ( February 5 , 1688 ), and Joseph ( June 30 , 1689 ) (the first Joseph died soon after birth).
    • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I think the rest of “we” who bitched about these problems as they happened, should remind the MSM/TM whenever this happens.
    • Firedoglake » Where’s Ben Franklin? 3 February 2010 14:38 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Hitherto I had stuck to my resolution of not eating animal food, and on this occasion consider'd, with my master Tryon, the taking every fish as a kind of unprovoked murder, since none of them had, or ever could do us any injury that might justify the slaughter.^ If those Servants could possibly be spared, I should take it as a high favour, that they might be restored to their masters at my request, and think it a sufficient recompense for my trouble.
    • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So, one day when he began a sermon, I got a piece of paper and a pin and every time he said "my dear friends and brethering," I stuck a hole in the paper.

    ^ But since it is down, my friend, and it may be long before it rises again, let us make as good a night of it as we can.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .All this seemed very reasonable.^ He was then asked what was the difference “between a duty on the importation of goods and an excise on their consumption?” He replied that there was a very material one; the excise, for reasons given, seemed unlawful.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .But I had formerly been a great lover of fish, and, when this came hot out of the frying-pan, it smelt admirably well.^ When it came to shaping the machinery of the confederation, the great difficulty, as is well known, lay in establishing a just proportion between the larger and the smaller States.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .I balanced some time between principle and inclination, till I recollected that, when the fish were opened, I saw smaller fish taken out of their stomachs; then thought I, "If you eat one another, I don't see why we mayn't eat you."^ See you out there?

    ^ See you out there.
    • OfficeQuotes.net - The Comprehensive Source for The Office Quotes! 2 February 2010 13:40 UTC officequotes.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A quote of Benjamin Franklin about the virtues: "Would be well not to distract my Attention by attempting the whole at once, but to fix it on one of them at a time, and when I should be Master of that, then to proceed to another, and so on till I should have gone through the thirteen".
    • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

    .So I din'd upon cod very heartily, and continued to eat with other people, returning only now and then occasionally to a vegetable diet.^ Very soon he not only prospers financially, but begins to secure at first that attention and soon afterward that influence which always follow close upon success in practical affairs.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That meddling in other people's affairs...formerly conducted by the most discreet intrigue is now openly advocated under the name of intervention.
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For a long while past the relationship between the Penns, unworthy sons of the great William, and now the proprietaries, on the one side, and their quasi subjects, the people of the province, upon the other, had been steadily becoming more and more strained, until something very like a crisis had been reached.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .So convenient a thing it is to be a reasonable creature, since it enables one to find or make a reason for everything one has a mind to do.
  • As we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we should be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any invention of ours; and this we should do freely and generously.
  • These names of virtues, with their precepts, were:
    • 1. TEMPERANCE. Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation.
    • 2. SILENCE. Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation.
    • 3. ORDER. Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time.
    • 4. RESOLUTION. Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve.
    • 5. FRUGALITY. Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e., waste nothing.
    • 6. INDUSTRY. Lose no time; be always employ'd in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions.
    • 7. SINCERITY. Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly.
    • 8. JUSTICE. Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty.
    • 9. MODERATION. Avoid extreams; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve.
    • 10. CLEANLINESS. Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, cloaths, or habitation.
    • 11. TRANQUILLITY. Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable.
    • 12. CHASTITY. Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dulness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another's peace or reputation.
    • 13. HUMILITY. Imitate Jesus and Socrates.^ Order-Let all your Things have their Places.
      • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Silence-Speak not but what may benefit others or your self.
      • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Leisure is the time for doing something useful.
      • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

      .
      • The last of Franklin's chart of 13 virtues: "My list of virtues contain'd at first but twelve; but a Quaker friend having kindly informed me that I was generally thought proud; [...] I determined endeavouring to cure myself, if I could, of this vice or folly among the rest, and I added Humility to my list."
  • In 1736 I lost one of my sons, a fine boy of four years old, by the small-pox, taken in the common way.^ His father had lost one son to the sea and kept Franklin home.
    • Benjamin Franklin - a knol by Admin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A quote of Benjamin Franklin about the virtues: "Would be well not to distract my Attention by attempting the whole at once, but to fix it on one of them at a time, and when I should be Master of that, then to proceed to another, and so on till I should have gone through the thirteen".
    • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I went directly to a shop where they sold toys for children; and, being charmed with the sound of a whistle, that I met by the way in the hands of another boy, I voluntarily offered and gave all my money for one.
    • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    I long regretted bitterly and still regret that I had not given it to him by inoculation. .This I mention for the sake of parents who omit that operation on the supposition that they should never forgive themselves if a child died under it, by example showing that the regret may be the same either way and that, therefore, the safer should be chosen.^ In this version, a film crew has been there for years now (example: numerous Christmases), and the workers continue to give interviews for a show that apparently never airs.

    ^ To the suggestion that military forces should be sent to America, he boldly answered, "They will not find a rebellion; they may indeed make one" ( Papers , vol.
    • Benjamin Franklin - a knol by Admin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But be this as it may, the way in which he felt and therefore genuinely talked about his nation and his country was not without its moral effect in Europe.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

  • "Gov'r. Thomas was so pleas'd with the construction of this stove...that he offered to give me a patent for the sole vending of them for a term of years; but I declin'd it from a principle which has ever weighed with me on such occasions, viz., That, as we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we should be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any inventions of ours; and this we should do freely and generously."

Attributed

.
We must, indeed, all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.
  • We must, indeed, all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.
    • Statement at the signing of the Declaration of Independence (1776-07-04), quoted as an anecdote in The Works of Benjamin Franklin by Jared Sparks (1840).^ He was also one of the signers of that historic document, addressing the assembly with the characteristic statement: We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.
      • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In 1776, when John Hancock urged the colonies to "hang together," Franklin is said to have commented, "We must indeed all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately."
      • Geometry.Net - Scientists Books: Franklin Benjamin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

      ^ Franklin reputedly replied: "Yes, we must indeed all hang together, or most assuredly we will all hang separately."
      • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

      .However, this had earlier been attributed to Richard Penn in Memoirs of a Life, Chiefly Passed in Pennsylvania, Within the Last Sixty Years (1811, p.^ He wrote some more of his autobiography, which he continued to work on during the last years of his life.
      • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In his duties overseas, Franklin was absent fifteen of the last seventeen years of her life.

      ^ Furthermore, he had spent many years at the British Court on his quest to take Pennsylvania from the Penn family and give it back to the King, therein receiving a full education in the wiles and deceits of diplomatic life.

      116). .In the same year, it appears in the English play Life by Mrs Inchbald [1], and a similar pun on "hang alone ...^ The result was that he soon became convinced that Mr. Rogers was preaching true gospel, and became a member of the new church which was organized that same year.

      ^ The final debate of Mr. Franklin's life was held four years previous to his death in 1878.

      hang together" appears in Dryden's 1717 The Spanish Fryar Google Books.

Misattributed

  • Treason is a charge invented by winners as an excuse for hanging the losers. .
  • [Freedom is] not a gift bestowed upon us by other men, but a right that belongs to us by the laws of God and nature.^ Franklin also in his examination, and at many other times and places, had something to say as to the willingness of the colonies to bear their full share of public burdens.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ History teaches us that men and nations behave wisely once they have exhausted all other alternatives.
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is not possible for any one to be more sensible than I am of what I and every American owe to the king for the many and great benefits and favors he has bestowed upon us....
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    • This is actually from an essay "On Government No. .I" that appeared in Franklin's paper, The Pennsylvania Gazette, on 1 April 1736. The author was John Webbe.^ See "To the Lords Commissions of the Treasury," April 1759, in Labaree et al., Papers of Benjamin Franklin , 8: 333–38.
      • Alan Houston | Benjamin Franklin and the "Wagon Affair" of 1755 | The William and Mary Quarterly, 66.2 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ At Greenvilles request, Franklin nominated his friend John Hughes as Pennsylvania stamp distributor, leading to rumors that Franklin actually supports the Stamp Act.
      • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Another paper by Franklin upon the same subject, and of considerable length, appeared in the shape of a preface to a speech delivered in the Assembly by Joseph Galloway in answer to a speech on the proprietary side by John Dickinson, which speech, also with a long preface, had been printed.
      • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      He wrote about the privileges enjoyed under British rule,
Thank God! we are in the full enjoyment of all these privileges. But can we be taught to prize them too much? or how can we prize them equal to their value, if we do not know their intrinsic worth, and that they are not a gift bestowed upon us by other men, but a right that belongs to us by the laws of God and nature?
.
  • Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch.^ Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch.
    • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    Liberty is a well-armed lamb contesting the vote. .
    • Widely attributed to Franklin on the internet, sometimes without the second sentence.^ Sometime during the second half of 1683, the Franklins left England for Boston, Massachusetts.
      • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .It is not found in any of his known writings, and the word "lunch" is not known to have appeared anywhere in english literature until the 1820s, decades after his death.^ James Franklin seems to have trained his junior with such fraternal cuffs and abuse as the elder brothers of English biography and literature appear usually to have bestowed on the younger.
      • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      .The phrasing itself has a very modern tone and the second sentence especially might not even be as old as the internet.^ It might have been even much more famous, had he been more free to follow his own bent, a pleasure which he could only enjoy in a very limited degree.
      • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ I live in a very old house (my guess is the oldest boodle house) and while we do have some occupants, I don't think it's Benny (even though I am in a county named for the old coot).

      .Some of these observations are made in response to a query at Google Answers.^ Yet for this the English ministry are believed not to have been wholly responsible, since some of these tales are supposed to have been the unworthy work of Arthur Lee of Virginia.
      • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ He knew that unfriendly representations concerning him were often made in America, and that these induced some men to distrust him, and caused others to feel anxious about him.
      • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]


      .A far rarer but somewhat more credible variation also occurs: "Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for dinner."^ After two centuries of democracy, most Americans are too far from feudalism to appreciate the legitimacy of military meritocracy.

      ^ The problem for Franklin was that he was far more comfortable with democracy than the great majority of the delegates.
      • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

      Web searches on these lines uncovers the earliest definite citations for such a statement credit libertarian author James Bovard with a similar one in the Sacramento Bee (1994):
"Democracy must be something more than two wolves and a sheep voting on what to have for dinner."
This statement also definitely occurs in the "Conclusion" (p. 333) of his book Lost Rights: The Destruction of American Liberty (1994) ISBN 0312123337
.
  • God made beer because he loves us and wants us to be happy.^ What a cruel thing is war: to separate and destroy families and friends, and mar the purest joys and happiness god has given us in this world...
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was a US citizen who preached in both the north and south because his allegiance was to the Prince of Peace rather than the gods of war as others were doing.

    • The quote, and its many variants, has been widely attributed to Franklin; however, there has never been an authoritative source for the quote, and research indicates that it is very likely a misquotation of Franklin's words regarding wine: "Behold the rain which descends from heaven upon our vineyards; there it enters the roots of the vines, to be changed into wine; a constant proof that God loves us, and loves to see us happy." (see sourced section above for a more extensive quotation of this passage from a letter to André Morellet), written in 1779.
  • The colonies would gladly have borne the little tax on tea and other matters had it not been that England took away from the colonies their money, which created unemployment and dissatisfaction. .The inability of colonists to get power to issue their own money permanently out of the hands of George the III and the international bankers was the PRIME reason for the Revolutionary War.^ It is in war that the State really comes into its own: swelling in power, in number, in pride, in absolute dominion over the economy and the society.
    • Quotes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You will treat for yourselves; and every one of the powers at war will make its own treaty.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the other hand, this irrepressible Townshend had a far better ally in George III., who sympathized in his purposes, gave him assistance which was none the less powerful for being indirect and occult, and who hated and ingeniously thwarted Shelburne.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Widely quoted statement on the reasons for the American War of Independence sometimes cited as being from Franklin's autobiography, but this statement was never in any edition.
    • Variant: The colonies would gladly have borne the little tax on tea and other matters had it not been that England and the Rothschild's Bank took away from the colonies their money which created unemployment, dissatisfaction and debt.
    • Variants from various small publications from the 1940s:
      • The refusal of King George to allow the colonies to operate an honest money system, which freed the ordinary man from clutches of the money manipulators was probably the prime cause of the revolution.
      • The refusal of King George to allow the Colonies to operate on an honest Colonial system, which freed the ordinary man from the clutches of the money manipulators, was probably the prime cause of the revolution.
      • The refusal of King George to allow the colonies to operate on an honest, colonial money system, which freed the ordinary man from the clutches of the money manipulators, was probably the prime cause of the revolution.
    • Some of the statement might be derived from those made during his examination by the British Parliament in February 1766, published in "The Examination of Benjamin Franklin" in The Parliamentary History of England from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803‎ (1813); when questioned why Parliament had lost respect among the people of the Colonies, he answered: "To a concurrence of causes: the restraints lately laid on their trade, by which the bringing of foreign gold and silver into the Colonies was prevented; the prohibition of making paper money among themselves, and then demanding a new and heavy tax by stamps; taking away, at the same time, trials by juries, and refusing to receive and hear their humble petitions."
  • ...in the Colonies we issue our own money.^ There never was a truly great man that was not at the same time truly virtuous.
    • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Money never made a man happy yet, nor will it.
    • Benjamin Franklin Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Soon after these changes Benjamin Franklin withdrew from the paper, promising not to issue any periodical for two years.

    It is called Colonial Scrip. We issue it in proper proportion to the demands of trade and industry to make the products pass easily from the producers to the consumers. .In this manner, creating for ourselves our own paper money, we control its purchasing power, and we have no interest to pay no one.^ It had an unlimited power for contracting debts: absolutely no power for collecting money.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The manner of doing this was to issue paper money to this amount, to make it legal tender, and then to retire it by the proceeds of the tax levy.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He had but a trifling sum of money, and he knew no one in the strange city.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Quoted in Money and Men by Robert McCann Rice (1941) but no prior source is extant.
  • There is a great danger for the United States of America.^ There is no danger that the larger States will absorb the smaller.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jump to: navigation , search Benjamin Franklin ( Template:OldStyleDateDY – April 17 , 1790 ) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America .
    • Transwiki:Benjamin Franklin - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Franco-American relations refers to interstate relations between the French Republic and the United States of America.
    • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This great danger is the Jew. .
    • Part of a longer quotation attributed to Franklin during the Constitutional Convention, supposedly recorded by Charles Pinckney in a journal that no longer exists.^ Franklin helped draft, and then signed, the Declaration of Independence in 1776, and he was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787.
      • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Franklin held that office for slightly over three years, longer than any other, and served the Constitutional limit of three full terms.
      • Transwiki:Benjamin Franklin - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Never in the history of France, was there ever recorded such a singular moment, in which the "nobility of heart," and the duty to the nation, were evoked with such enthusiasm, as during the constitution of the National Assembly.
      • Schiller Institute—Jean-Sylvain Bailly: The French Revolution's Benjamin Franklin 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.schillerinstitute.org [Source type: Original source]

      .The quotation, first appearing in print in the 1930s, uses English idioms that were unknown in Franklin's time.
  • The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results.^ The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over, and expecting different results.

    ^ At this time John Adams strongly entertained the same sentiments, though he afterward felt very differently about the sincerity of France.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It appears that Franklin had substantially no concern in the quasi commercial transactions pending at the time of his arrival between Deane and Beaumarchais.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    • Misattributed to various people, including Albert Einstein and Mark Twain. .The earliest known occurrence, and probable origin is Rita Mae Brown, Sudden Death (Bantam Books, New York, 1983), p.^ Originally, the books were kept in the homes of the first librarians, but in 1739 the collection was moved to the second floor of the State House of Pennsylvania, now known as Independence Hall .
      • Transwiki:Benjamin Franklin - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • What is Benjamin Franklin? 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The Dutch in New York were well known as rough customers; just to the south in Delaware, the inhabitants were to maintain a whipping post for two hundred more years.

      ^ Wherrett's Best Known Production : The Elocution of Benjamin Franklin opened in Sydney in 1976 and later in London and New York.
      • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN�S ACHIEVEMENTS 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: Original source]

      68.
  • Each man has two countries, I think: His own, and France.
  • Your argument is sound, nothing but sound.^ Nothing,” he said, “had been agreed in the preliminaries contrary to the interests of France; and no peace is to take place between us and England till you have concluded yours.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was succeeded by Thomas Jefferson, who arrived in France in 1784 - a far more suitable envoy to succeed Franklin in France than the rigidly Puritanical John Adams.
    • Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, American Revolution, Declaration of Independence, Constitution of United States 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.futurecasts.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Anonymous quip quoted in an essay in Logic, an Introduction (1950) by Lionel Ruby. .A Benjamin Franklin quote immediately follows, so this statement was misattributed to Franklin.
  • To find out a girl's faults, praise her to her girl friends.^ He is followed by his political disciple, James Madison; by their secretary of the treasury, Albert Gallatin; and by 4 Benjamin Franklin James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, and John Randolph.
    • Benjamin Franklin 10 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]