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Berlin Tegel Airport
Flughafen Berlin-Tegel
Berlin Airport in Tegel
Berlin Airports Logo.png
Berlin-Tegel from the air.jpg
IATA: TXLICAO: EDDT
Summary
Airport type Public
Operator Berlin Airports
Serves Berlin, Germany
Location Tegel
Hub for
Elevation AMSL 122 ft / 37 m
Coordinates 52°33′35″N 013°17′16″E / 52.55972°N 13.28778°E / 52.55972; 13.28778 (Berlin Tegel Airport)Coordinates: 52°33′35″N 013°17′16″E / 52.55972°N 13.28778°E / 52.55972; 13.28778 (Berlin Tegel Airport)
Website www.berlin-airport.de
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
08L/26R 3,023 9,918 Asphalt
08R/26L 2,428 7,966 Asphalt
Statistics (2008)
Passengers 14,500,000
Source: German AIP at EUROCONTROL[1]

Berlin Tegel "Otto Lilienthal" Airport (IATA: TXLICAO: EDDT) is the main international airport in Berlin, Germany. It lies in Tegel, a section of the northern borough of Reinickendorf, 8 km (5.0 mi) north of the city of Berlin. Tegel Airport is notable for its hexagonal terminal building around an open square, which makes for walking distances as short as 30 m (98 ft) from the aircraft to the terminal exit. In 2008, the airport served over 14,530,000 passengers, making it by far the biggest airport serving Berlin. The airport is scheduled to close in 2012, six months after the completion of the new Berlin-Brandenburg International Airport that is slated to handle all commercial flights to and from Berlin.[2]

Tegel Airport serves as hub for Air Berlin, and as focus city for Lufthansa. Additionally, it is the most important base for the charter business of Germania. The two dominant operators, Air Berlin and Lufthansa, each handle around 30% of the scheduled commercial flights.

Contents

History

1948-1990 (Cold War era)

Tegel Airport was built during the Berlin Airlift in 1948 on a 1930s rocket research site at Tegel in what used to be West Berlin's French sector in the days prior to Germany's reunification. At that time, it boasted the longest runway in Europe (2,428 metres/7,966 feet).[3]

West Berlin's special legal status during the Cold War era (8 May 1945 – 2 October 1990) meant that all air traffic to and from the Western half of Germany's divided former and present capital was restricted to the airlines of the three Western victorious powers of World War II, ie only airlines headquartered in the United States, the United Kingdom and France. In addition, all flightdeck crew, (ie pilots, flight engineers and navigators), flying aircraft into and out of West Berlin through the Allied air corridors were required to hold American, British or French passports.[4]

Air France was the first airline to commence regular commercial operations at Tegel on 2 January 1960. The airline decided to transfer its operations from Tempelhof Airport to Tegel because the former airport's runways were too short to handle first generation jet aircraft such as the Aérospatiale Caravelle, Boeing 707, de Havilland Comet and Douglas DC-8 without payload or range restrictions.[5][6]

Pan Am became the second airline to commence year-round, scheduled operations at Tegel Airport when it launched a thrice-weekly service from New York JFK in May 1964.[7][8][9] This service was operated with Boeing 707s or Douglas DC-8s, which could not operate from Tempelhof—the airline's West Berlin base at the time—with a viable payload.[9] The service routed either through Glasgow Prestwick in Scotland or Shannon, Ireland. It ceased in October 1971.[10]

Overview of Berlin's airports
View on the apron
Remote aircraft stands

From 1966 until 1968, UK independent Lloyd International was contracted by Neckermann und Reisen, the tour operator of West German mail-order concern Neckermann, to launch a series of inclusive tour (IT) flights from Tegel. These flights were operated with Bristol Britannia turboprops.[11] They served principal European holiday resorts in the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands.[12]

From April 1968, all non-scheduled services, ie primarily the rapidly growing number of IT holiday flights that several UK independent airlines as well as a number of US supplemental carriers had mainly operated from Tempelhof since the early 1960s under contract to West Berlin's leading package tour operators, were concentrated at Tegel. This traffic redistribution between West Berlin's two commercial airports was intended to alleviate Tempelhof's increasing congestion and to make better use of Tegel, which was underutilised at the time.[13] (During that period, the Allied charter carriers had begun replacing their obsolete propliners with contemporary turboprop and jet aircraft types, which suffered payload and range restrictions on Tempelhof's short runways. The absence of such restrictions at Tegel gave airlines greater operational flexibility regarding aircraft types and destinations. This was the reason charter carriers favoured Tegel despite being less popular than Tempelhof because of its greater distance from West Berlin's city centre and poor public transport links.[14][6]) A new passenger handling facility exclusively dedicated to charter airline passengers was opened to accommodate the additional traffic.[13] Both this facility (a wooden shed) and the original terminal used by Air France's and Pan Am's scheduled passengers (a pre-fabricated shed) were located on the airport's north side.[13] Following the transfer of all charter traffic to Tegel, Channel Airways, Dan-Air Services, Laker Airways and Modern Air Transport began stationing several of their jets at the airport.[13] Channel Airways' collapse in early 1972 provided the impetus for Dan-Air to take over the failed carrier's charter contracts and to expand its own operations at Tegel.[15] (Dan-Air, one of Britain's foremost wholly privately owned, independent airlines during the 1970s and '80s, eventually became the third-biggest operator at Tegel Airport, ahead of Air France. In addition to firmly establishing itself as the airport's and West Berlin's leading charter airline, it also operated scheduled services linking Tegel with Amsterdam Schiphol, Saarbrücken and London Gatwick, its main operating base. By the time that airline was taken over by British Airways at the end of October 1992, it had served Tegel Airport for a quarter of a century.[16][17]) Modern Air's departure in October 1974 coincided with Aeroamerica's arrival.[18][19] That carrier's departure following the end of the 1979 summer season was followed by Air Berlin USA's arrival.[20] Laker Airways' decision to replace its Tegel-based BAC One-Eleven fleet with one of its newly acquired Airbus A300 B4 widebodies from the 1981 summer season resulted in Monarch Airlines taking over that airline's long-standing charter contract with Flug-Union Berlin, one of West Berlin's leading contemporary tour operators.[21][22][23] (Several years later, Monarch Airlines provided the aircraft as well as the flightdeck crew and maintenance support for Euroberlin France, a Tegel-based scheduled airline headquartered in Paris, France. Euroberlin was jointly owned by Air France and Lufthansa, with the former holding a 51% majority stake, thereby making it a French legal entity and enabling it to conduct commercial airline operations in West Berlin.[24][6])

Other airlines operating regular services to/from Tegel Airport during the Cold War era included:

  • Berlin European UK – a Berlin-based UK regional airline founded in 1986 as Berlin Regional UK by a former British Airways general manager for that airline's Berlin operation to begin domestic and international regional scheduled services to destinations not served by any of West Berlin's contemporary scheduled operators from April 1987, utilising British Aerospace Jetstream commuter turboprop planes.[27][28][29]

In addition to the aforementioned airlines, a host of others—mainly British independents and US supplementals—were frequent visitors to Berlin Tegel, especially during the early 1970s. These included Britannia Airways, British Airtours, British United, Caledonian, Caledonian/BUA / British Caledonian, Capitol International Airways, Overseas National Airways, Saturn Airways, Trans International Airlines, Transamerica Airlines and World Airways. Furthermore, during the early '70s, both Pan Am and TWA used to operate regular Advanced Booking Charter (ABC) flights from Tegel to the USA as well. During that period, the airport scene at Berlin Tegel could be very colourful, with Air France Caravelles, the UK independents' BAC One-Elevens, de Havilland Comets and Hawker Siddeley Tridents as well as the US supplementals' Boeing 707s, Convair Coronados and Douglas DC-8s congregating on its ramp. During 1974 alone, 22 airlines were operating at Tegel Airport.[33]

Construction of a new, hexagonally shaped terminal complex on the airport's south side began during the 1960s. This coincided with the lengthening of the runways to permit fully-laden widebodied aircraft to take off and land without restricting their range and construction of a motorway and access road linking the new terminal to the city centre.[34][35] It became operational on 1 November 1974. (A British Airways Lockheed L-1011 Tristar 1[19][36], a Laker Airways McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10[37], a Pan Am Boeing 747-100[38] and an Air France Airbus A300 B2[39] were among the widebodied aircraft specially flown in for a pre-inauguration of the new terminal on 23 October 1974.[33][40][41]) Dan-Air operated the first commercial flight to arrive at the airport's new terminal at 06.00 am local time with a BAC One-Eleven that was in-bound from Tenerife.[33][41]

Following Pan Am's and British Airways' move from Tempelhof to Tegel on 1 September 1975, the latter replaced Tempelhof as the main airport of West Berlin.[42]

1990-1995 (early post-reunification era)

Following Germany's reunification on 3 October 1990, all access restrictions to the former West Berlin airports were lifted.[43]

Lufthansa resumed flights to Berlin on 28 October 1990, initially operating twelve daily pairs of flights on a limited number of routes, including Tegel-Cologne, Tegel-Frankfurt and Tegel-London Gatwick.[44] To facilitate the German flag carrier's resumption of services from/to Berlin, it purchased Pan Am's Internal German Services (IGS) division[45] for US$150m. This included Pan Am's internal German traffic rights as well as its gates and slots at Tegel. This agreement, under which Lufthansa contracted up to seven of Pan Am's Tegel-based Boeing 727-200 Advs operated by that airline's flightdeck and cabin crews to ply its scheduled routes to Munich, Nuremberg and Stuttgart until mid-1991, also facilitated Pan Am's orderly exit from the internal German air transport market after 40 years' uninterrupted service as EU legislation prevented it from participating in the EU/EEA's internal air transport market as a non-EU/EEA headquartered carrier.[43][44] However, Pan Am continued operating its daily non-stop Tegel-JFK service until Delta Air Lines assumed most of Pan Am's transatlantic scheduled services during 1991. Pan Am Express, which was not included in Pan Am's IGS sale to Lufthansa, continued operating all of its domestic and international regional scheduled routes from Tegel as an independent legal entity until its acquisition by TWA in 1991. Following TWA's takeover of Pan Am Express, the former Pan Am Express Berlin operations were closed. Until December 1994, Lufthansa also contracted Euroberlin to operate some of its internal German flights from its new Tegel base, making use of that airline's gates and slots at Tegel as well.

As a US-registered airline Air Berlin found itself in the same situation as Pan Am following German reunification. It chose to reconstitute itself as a German company.

These were the days when liberalisation of the EU/EEA internal air transport market was still in progress and when domestic traffic rights were reserved for each member country's own airlines. The German government therefore insisted that all non-German EU/EEA carriers either withdraw their internal German scheduled services from Berlin or transfer them to majority German-owned subsidiaries by the end of 1992.[46] It also wanted the bulk of all charter flights from Berlin to be operated by German airlines. These measures were squarely aimed at UK carriers with a major presence in the internal German air transport market from Berlin as well as the city's charter market, specifically British Airways and Dan-Air. Lufthansa and other German airlines reportedly lobbied their government to curtail BA's and Dan-Air's activities in Berlin, arguing that German airlines enjoyed no equivalent rights in the UK.[46] This resulted in BA taking a 49% stake in Friedrichshafen-based German regional airline Delta Air, renaming it Deutsche BA and transferring its internal German traffic rights to the new airline.[47] BA also replaced the commuter aircraft Deutsche BA had inherited from Delta Air with new Boeing 737-300s.[48] These in turn replaced the Boeing 737-200 Advs and BAe ATP airliners BA had used on its internal German scheduled services from Berlin.[46] At the time of German reunification, Dan-Air had five aircraft permanently stationed at Berlin Tegel, comprising three Boeing 737s (one -400, one -300 and one -200 Adv) and two HS 748s.[49] The former were used to fly Berlin-based holidaymakers to overseas holiday destinations on IT flights under contract to German package tour operators. The latter operated the airline's scheduled routes from Tegel to Amsterdam and Saarbrücken. Dan-Air discontinued its charter operations from Berlin on behalf of German tour operators at the end of the 1990/'91 winter season and replaced the aging 748 turboprop it had used on its Amsterdam schedule since the mid-1980s with larger, more advanced BAe 146 100 series jet equipment. It also introduced new direct scheduled air links from Berlin to Manchester and Newcastle via Amsterdam.[49][50][51] The Saarbrücken route was withdrawn at the end of the 1991 summer season, while the Amsterdam route was gradually taken over by NLM Cityhopper, the contemporary regional arm of Dutch flag carrier KLM.[52][53] This reduced Dan-Air's presence in Berlin to a single daily scheduled service as well as up to four weekly charter flights linking the airline's Gatwick base with its former overseas base at Tegel, which were operated by Gatwick-based aircraft and crews until the firm's takeover by BA at the end of October 1992.[54][55] The restructuring of Dan-Air's long-established Berlin operation was not only the result of political changes. It was also driven by its own corporate restructuring, which aimed to refocus the airline as a Gatwick-based short-haul "mainline" scheduled operator and involved phasing out its smaller aircraft and thinner routes.[56]

Other airlines that commenced/resumed scheduled operations from Berlin Tegel at the beginning of the post-reunification era included Aero Lloyd, Alitalia, American Airlines, Austrian Airlines, SAS Eurolink, Swissair and TWA.[57][58]

Aero Lloyd, Germania and Condor Berlin began operating charter flights from Berlin Tegel during that period.[57]

1995 onwards

Statistics

Busiest routes from TXL by weekly departures (July 2009) [1]
City Airport Departures
1 Flag of Germany.svg Munich Munich Airport 133
2 Flag of Germany.svg Frankfurt Frankfurt Airport 113
3 Flag of Germany.svg Cologne Cologne Bonn Airport 93
4 Flag of Germany.svg Stuttgart Stuttgart Airport 83
5 Flag of Germany.svg Düsseldorf Düsseldorf International Airport 82
6 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna Vienna International Airport 68
7 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London London Heathrow Airport 63
8 Flag of Switzerland.svg Zürich Zürich Airport 62
9 Flag of France.svg Paris Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport 51
10 Flag of Germany.svg Nuremberg Nuremberg Airport 47
Berlin-Tegel Airport – Traffic Information
Year Passengers Freight [t] Post [t] Traffic
1991 6,715,402 13,585 16,002 120,344
1992 6,641,634 16,493 18,705 96,896
1993 7,000,168 16,060 17,672 90,750
1994 7,234,345 16,625 16,869 93,103
1995 8,186,512 17,131 16,229 112,521
1996 8,298,736 17,836 17,525 117,247
1997 8,622,359 19,043 16,465 117,495
1998 8,810,476 15,183 15,639 115,092
1999 9,543,437 15,349 15,887 118,188
2000 10,268,325 17,096 26,792 127,668
2001 9,863,870 17,578 15,977 125,484
2002 9,055,002 13,787 14,258 111,334
2003 11,055,303 12,800 4,665 134,395
2004 11,014,062 12,009 8,044 131,875
2005 11,500,454 11,246 3,125 137,288
2006 11,787,960 13,490 5,522 134,322
2007 13,510,188 14,830 4,823 145,423
2008 14,486,610 28,427 5,142 161,237

Public transport

The airport is linked by several BVG bus lines, which offer connection to the U-Bahn and S-Bahn, as well as to Regional Express trains and long distance trains: [59]

Note: The Alt-Tegel U-Bahn station and Tegel S-Bahn station do not serve Tegel Airport, but rather the Tegel quarter of Berlin. An underground station directly serving the airport had been planned since 1960s but was never built.

Terminals

Current terminal layout.
Expansion of the airport with two identical hexagonal rings as it was initially planned in the 1960s.

Tegel airport consists of four terminals. As the airport is small compared to other major airports, these terminals might be regarded as "halls" or "boarding areas"; nevertheless, they are officially referred to as "terminals".

  • The main building is the original part of the airport. It consists of two parts:
    • Terminal A is a hexagon-shaped ring concourse with a parking area, taxi stands and bus stops in its middle. It features 14 jetway bridges (all other terminal feature movable stairs for boarding) which correspond to 16 respective check-in counters (A00–A15), with jetways 1 and 14 each serving two check-in counters. There is no transit zone, which means that each gate has its own security clearance checkpoint and exit for arriving passengers. Therefore, direct flight connections are not possible. All major airlines arrive and depart here (especially "prestigious" flights like intercontinental services or flights to the busy European hub airports). The whole rooftop works as a visitor platform [60].
    • Terminal B (also called "Nebel-Hall" after German spaceflight pioneer Rudolf Nebel) is a converted former waiting area in a side wing of the main building (check-in counters B20–B39). There is only one bus-boarding aircraft stand directly serving it.
  • Terminal C was opened in May 2007 as a temporary solution (as the airport is scheduled for closure in 2012) because all other terminals were full to capacity. It is largely used by Air Berlin, which gave it the name Air-Berlin-Terminal. It features 26 check-in counters (C40–C57, C60-C67) and 8 bus-boarding aircraft stands. From 2008 until August 2009, 5 additional aircraft stands were constructed and the building was expanded by approximately 50% of its original size, in order to handle another 1.5 million passengers per year. The extended terminal now houses a transit zone for connecting passengers (which did not exist at any other terminal). Due to noise protection treaties, the overall number of aircraft stands at Tegel airport is restricted, thus aircraft stands on the apron (serving Terminals A and D) had to be removed for compensation.[61]
  • Terminal D, a converted car park, was opened in 2001. It features 22 check-in counters (D70–D91), with one bus-boarding gate and two walk-boarding gates. Most passengers of airlines operating smaller aircraft (especially Lufthansa Regional) are brought to the remote aircraft stands by bus from here. Terminal D is the only part of the airport that remains open all night long. The lower level arrival area is called Terminal E.

Tegel Airport was originally planned to have a second hexagonal terminal like the main building.[62] The second terminal ring was never built because of Berlin Municipal budgetary constraints and the post-reunification decision to replace the former West Berlin airports with the new Berlin-Brandenburg International Airport.

Airlines and destinations

Air Berlin is the biggest operator at Tegel
Main entrance hall
Tegel Airport is famous for its short walking distances, as seen here in Terminal A: buses, taxis and cars can drop off passengers outside the windows on the right, check-in and direct gate access is on the left
Check-in at Terminal C
Check-in at Terminal D

The following airlines offer scheduled flights to Berlin-Tegel Airport:[63]

Airlines Destinations Terminal
Aegean Airlines Athens A
airBaltic Riga, Vilnius A
Air Berlin Cologne/Bonn, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Munich, Zürich A
Air Berlin Tel Aviv B
Air Berlin Alicante, Antalya [seasonal], Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Barcelona, Bari [begins 1 May, seasonal], Brindisi [begins 1 June, seasonal], Cairo, Calvi [begins 1 May, seasonal], Catania [seasonal], Chania [begins 5 May, seasonal], Copenhagen, Corfu [seasonal], Djerba [seasonal], Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Gdańsk [begins 1 May], Gothenburg-Landvetter, Graz [begins 1 May, seasonal], Helsinki, Heraklion [seasonal], Hurghada, Ibiza [seasonal], Innsbruck [seasonal], Jerez de la Frontera [seasonal], Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden, Klagenfurt, Kos [seasonal], Kraków, Lamezia Terme [seasonal], Lanzarote, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Luxor, Málaga, Memmingen, Milan-Malpensa, Minorca [seasonal], Monastir [seasonal], Moscow-Domodedovo, Münster/Osnabrück, Naples [resumes 31 May], Nuremberg, Oslo-Gardermoen, Palma de Mallorca, Paris-Orly, Phuket [seasonal], Punta Cana, Reykjavik-Keflavik [begins 20 May, seasonal], Rhodes [seasonal], Rome-Fiumicino, Samos [seasonal], Santa Cruz de la Palma, Santorini [seasonal], Saarbrücken, Salzburg, Sharm el-Sheikh, Stockholm-Arlanda, St Petersburg, Stuttgart, Tenerife-South, Thessaloniki [seasonal], Varadero [seasonal], Venice-Marco Polo [begins 28 March, seasonal], Vienna, Visby [begins 19 June, seasonal], Westerland/Sylt [seasonal] C
Air France Paris-Charles de Gaulle A
Air Malta Malta C
Air VIA Burgas [begins 26 May, seasonal] C
Alitalia Turin A
Armavia Yerevan C
Austrian Airlines Vienna [begins 27 March] A
Austrian operated by Tyrolean Airways Vienna D
Blue1 Helsinki D
BMI London-Heathrow [begins 28 March] A
British Airways London-Heathrow A
Brussels Airlines Brussels D
Bulgaria Air Sofia C
Bulgarian Air Charter Burgas [seasonal], Varna [seasonal] C
Cirrus Airlines Mannheim D
Continental Airlines Newark A
Czech Airlines Prague D
Delta Air Lines New York-JFK A
Estonian Air Tallinn [resumes 3 May] D
Finnair Helsinki D
flysmaland operated by Avitrans Nordic Växjö D
Germania Aleppo, Damascus, Palma de Mallorca [begins 3 April, seasonal] C
Hainan Airlines Beijing-Capital A
Hamburg International Dubai [seasonal, ends 26 March], Elazığ [begins 15 June, seasonal] C
Iberia Madrid A
InterSky Friedrichshafen, Graz [ends 26 March] C
Jat Airways Belgrade C
KLM Amsterdam A
KLM operated by KLM Cityhopper Amsterdam A
KTHY Adana [seasonal], Antalya [seasonal] A
Kullaflyg operated by Golden Air Ängelholm [begins 31 March] D
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw D
LOT operated by EuroLOT Warsaw D
Lufthansa Cologne/Bonn, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Moscow-Domodedovo, Munich, Stuttgart A
Lufthansa operated by bmi London-Heathrow A
Lufthansa Regional operated by Contact Air Stuttgart D
Lufthansa Regional operated by Eurowings Düsseldorf [ends 29 March], Nuremberg, Paris-Charles de Gaulle D
Lufthansa Regional operated by Lufthansa CityLine Cologne/Bonn, Düsseldorf, Nuremberg, Vienna [ends 26 March] D
Luxair Luxembourg, Saarbrücken A
Malév Hungarian Airlines Budapest C
MIAT Mongolian Airlines Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Ulan Bator C
Nouvelair Monastir [seasonal] C
Pegasus Airlines Antalya C
Qatar Airways Doha A
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca [begins 21 June] A
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen, Stockholm-Arlanda D
Sky Airlines Antalya C
SunExpress Antalya C
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich A
Transaero Airlines Moscow-Domodedovo A
Transavia.com Amsterdam, Innsbruck [seasonal] D
TUIfly Antalya [begins 3 March, seasonal], Dalaman [begins 3 May, seasonal], Fuerteventura [seasonal, ends 30 April], Heraklion [seasonal], Hurghada [ends 29 April], Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Luxor [ends 29 April], Palma de Mallorca [begins 12 April, seasonal], Rhodes [begins 6 May, seasonal], Tel Aviv [ends 27 March], Tenerife-South [ends 25 April] D
Turkish Airlines Istanbul-Atatürk B
Ukraine International Airlines Kiev-Boryspil C
Wind Jet Forlì D

Cargo airlines

Airlines Destinations
TNT Airways Gdańsk, Katowice, Liège

Accidents and incidents

There are no recorded accidents or incidents involving commercial airline operations at Berlin Tegel itself. However, two commercial flights, one of which was due to arrive at Tegel Airport and the other which had departed the airport, were involved in fatal accidents. These accidents are listed below:

  • On 15 November 1966, a Pan Am Boeing 727-21 (registration N317PA) operating the return leg of the airline's daily cargo flight from Berlin to Frankfurt Rhein-Main Airport (flight number PA 708) was due to land that night at Tegel Airport, rather than Tempelhof, due to runway resurfacing work taking place at that time at the latter. Berlin Control had cleared flight 708 for an ILS approach to Tegel Airport's runway 08, soon after the crew had begun its descent from FL090 to FL030 before entering the southwest air corridor over East Germany on the last stretch of its journey to Berlin. The aircraft impacted the ground near Dallgow, East Germany, almost immediately after the crew had acknowledged further instructions received from Berlin Control, just ten miles from Tegel Airport. All three crew members lost their lives in this accident. Visibility was poor, and it was snowing at the time of the accident. Following the accident, the Soviet military authorities in East Germany returned only half of the aircraft's wreckage to their US counterparts in West Berlin. This excluded vital parts, such as the FDR, the CVR as well as the plane's flight control systems, its navigation and communication equipment. The subsequent NTSB investigation report concluded that the aircraft's descent below its altitude clearance limit was the accident's probable cause. However, the NTSB was unable to establish the factors that had caused the crew to descend below its cleared minimum altitude.[64][65][66]
  • Between 1969 and 1982, Berlin Tegel was the destination of several aircraft hijackings involving LOT Polish Airlines domestic flights within Poland. The hijackings were a means of forcing the authorities in communist Poland to let the hijackers emigrate from the Eastern Bloc. Once the aircraft had landed at Tegel, the French military authorities in charge of the airport during the Cold War era let the hijackers and anyone else who did not wish to return to Poland disembark and claim political asylum in West Berlin. The aircraft, its crew and those passengers who did not want to disembark were subsequently returned to Poland.[67][68]
  • On 7 January 1997, Austrian Airlines flight 104, a McDonnell Douglas MD-87 enroute to Vienna International Airport, was hijacked shortly after take-off from Tegel Airport by a Bosnian male carrying a knife (which was small enough to be allowed on board under then valid safety regulations). The pilots were forced to return to Berlin, where the perpetrator was overpowered by German police forces.[69]

Notes

  1. ^ EAD Basic
  2. ^ Bloomberg.com (Donahue, P., Berlin Court Says Tempelhof Airport Must Be Closed Next Year, 12 February 2007)
  3. ^ Berlin Tegel Airport History, Berlin Tegel, AIRwise
  4. ^ Berlin Airport Company, Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, various editions April 1968 — October 1990
  5. ^ Berlin Airport Company — Special Report on Air France's 25th Anniversary at Berlin Tegel, March 1985 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1985
  6. ^ a b c The airline from Berlin, Flight International, 5 August 1989, p. 29
  7. ^ Aeroplane — World Transport Affairs, Pan American to operate direct N.Y.—Berlin services, Vol. 107, No. 2728, p. 8, Temple Press, London, 30 January 1964
  8. ^ Hot route in the Cold War, Friday, July 3, 1964
  9. ^ a b Pan American and its 727s, Air Transport …, Flight International, 1 April 1965, p. 482
  10. ^ Berlin Airport Company, June 1964 and October 1971 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1964 and 1971
  11. ^ Lloyd International Bristol 175 Britannia 312F coming in to land at Tegel (photo)
  12. ^ Lloyd's West German IT deal, Flight International, 3 March 1966, p. 339
  13. ^ a b c d Berlin Airport Company, April and August 1968 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1968
  14. ^ Aeroplane — Pan Am and the IGS, Vol. 116, No. 2972, p. 5, Temple Press, London, 2 October 1968
  15. ^ Berlin Airport Company, April 1972 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1972
  16. ^ Berlin Airport Company, April 1981, January 1984, April 1990 and November 1992 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1981, 1984, 1990, 1992
  17. ^ Kompass — various editions, Dan Air Services Ltd., West Berlin, 1976-1986
  18. ^ Berlin Airport Company, October 1974 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1974
  19. ^ a b Air Transport, Flight International, 7 November 1974, p. 628
  20. ^ Berlin Airport Company, April 1980 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1980
  21. ^ Sir Freddie on brink of European legal action, Air Transport, Flight International, 7 March 1981, p. 612
  22. ^ New operators for Boeing 737, Flight International, 18 October 1980, p. 1493
  23. ^ Berlin Airport Company, April 1981 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1981
  24. ^ Berlin Airport Company, October 1987 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1987
  25. ^ Berlin Airport Company, April 1974 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1974
  26. ^ Berlin Airport Company, November 1978 and January 1984 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1978 and 1984
  27. ^ Berlin Regional service to start, Flight International, 14 June 1986, p. 6
  28. ^ Berlin Airport Company, April 1987 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1987
  29. ^ a b Berlin's commuter market grows, Flight International, 2 April 1988, pp. 6, 8
  30. ^ Berlin Airport Company, July 1987 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1987
  31. ^ The battle for Berlin, Flight International, 23 April 1988, pp. 19-21
  32. ^ Berlin Airport Company, April 1989 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1989
  33. ^ a b c Berlin Airport Company — Summary of 1974 Annual Report, February 1975 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1975
  34. ^ Aeroplane — Pan Am and the IGS, Vol. 116, No. 2972, p. 8, Temple Press, London, 2 October 1968
  35. ^ Hansa Jet for Berlin flights, Air Transport ... Light Commercial & Business, Flight International, 29 January 1970, p. 149
  36. ^ British Airways L-1011 Tristar 1 taxiing towards the new terminal on Berlin Tegel's south side (photo)
  37. ^ Laker Airways McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-10 taxiing in the background towards the new terminal on Berlin Tegel's south side, following the Air France Airbus A300B2 in the foreground (photo)
  38. ^ Pan Am Boeing 747-121 taxiing towards the new terminal on Berlin Tegel's south side (photo)
  39. ^ Air France Airbus A300B2 taxiing towards the new terminal on Berlin Tegel's south side, followed by a Laker Airways McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-10 in the background (photo)
  40. ^ Berlin Airport Company, November 1974 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1974
  41. ^ a b Berlin Airport Company — News, December 1974 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1974
  42. ^ Berlin Airport Company, September and October 1975 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1975
  43. ^ a b East is West and West is ...?, Comment, Flight International, 26 September-2 October 1990, p. 3
  44. ^ a b Berlin Return boosts Lufthansa’s bid for Interflug, Operations: Air Transport, Flight International, 7-13 November 1990, p. 10
  45. ^ Aeroplane — Pan Am and the IGS, Vol. 116, No. 2972, pp. 4-8, Temple Press, London, 2 October 1968
  46. ^ a b c BA stays in Germany by buying into Delta Air, Headlines, Flight International, 25-31 March 1992, p. 4
  47. ^ Challenging Germany's Goliath, Flight International, 24-30 March 1995, p.42
  48. ^ Challenging Germany's Goliath, Fleet Strategy, Flight International, 24-30 March 1995, p.43
  49. ^ a b Chairman's progress report on implementation of Dan-Air's scheduled service strategy, James, D.N., 1991 EGM, Gatwick Hilton Hotel, October 1991
  50. ^ Dan-Air 1990/'91 Winter Timetable, Dan Air Services Ltd., October 1990
  51. ^ Berlin Airport Company, November 1990 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, Berlin, 1990
  52. ^ Dan-Air 1991/'92 Winter Timetable, Dan Air Services Ltd., October 1991
  53. ^ Berlin Airport Company, October 1991 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, Berlin, 1991
  54. ^ Dan-Air 1992 Summer Timetable, Dan Air Services Ltd., March 1992
  55. ^ Berlin Airport Company, April and October 1992 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, Berlin, 1992
  56. ^ Scheduled Transition, Flight International, 6-12 June 1990, p. 34
  57. ^ a b Berlin Airport Company, October 1990 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1990
  58. ^ Berlin Airport Company, March 1991 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, Berlin, 1991
  59. ^ Berlin public transport. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
  60. ^ Tegel Airport visitor platform
  61. ^ Tegel Airport to be expanded before BBI inauguration (translated article title), Town Planning (translated section title), Berliner Morgenpost (German newspaper), 3 December 2008 (German language only)
  62. ^ Original designs for the airport by Gerkan, Marg und Partner: documentation of the 1st location conference on the future of TXL. Text in German, the designs are shown on page 21.
  63. ^ Berlin Tegel flight schedule. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
  64. ^ ASN Aircraft accident description Boeing 727-21 N317PA - near Dallgow, Germany
  65. ^ Aeroplane, Safety — Berlin crash mystery, Vol. 116, No. 2968, p. 11, Temple Press, London, 4 September 1968
  66. ^ 727 crash cause uncertain, Air Transport ..., Flight International, 18 July 1968, p. 92
  67. ^ ASN database listing accidents/incidents involving LOT Polish Airlines
  68. ^ To extradite or not?, Air Transport ..., Flight International, 30 October 1969, p. 654
  69. ^ Austrian Airlines highjacking at the Aircraft Accident Database. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
  70. ^ ASN Aircraft accident description ASN Aircraft accident description Avro RJ100 HB-IXM - near Zürich Kloten, Switzerland

References

  • Berlin Airport Company (Berliner Flughafen Gesellschaft [BFG]) — Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, several issues (German language edition only), 1964-1992. West Berlin, Germany: Berlin Airport Company. 
  • Flight International. Sutton, UK: Reed Business Information. ISSN 0015-3710.  (various backdated issues relating to commercial air transport at Berlin Tegel during the Allied period from 2 January 1960 until 2 October 1990)
  • OAG Flight Guide Worldwide. Dunstable, UK: OAG Worldwide Ltd. ISSN 1466-8718.  (October 1990 until December 1994)
  • In Flight — Dan-Air's English language in-flight magazine (Special Silver Jubilee Edition), 1978. London, UK: Dan Air Services Ltd. 
  • Kompass — Dan-Air's German language in-flight magazine, various copies 1975-1990. West Berlin, Germany: Dan Air Services Ltd. 
  • Simons, Graham M. (1993). The Spirit of Dan-Air. Peterborough, UK: GMS Enterprises. ISBN 1-8703-8420-2. 
  • Eglin, Roger, and Ritchie, Berry (1980). Fly me, I'm Freddie. London, UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-2977-7746-7. 

External links








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