The Full Wiki

Berm (Western Sahara): Wikis

Advertisements
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Wall (Western Sahara) article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

System of the Moroccan Walls in Western Sahara (territory outside them in yellow)

The Berm of Western Sahara (also known as the Moroccan Wall or Wall of Shame) is an approximately 2,700 km-long defensive structure, mostly a sand wall (or "berm"), running through Western Sahara and the southeastern portion of Morocco. It acts as a separation barrier between the Moroccan-controlled areas and the Polisario-controlled section of the territory that lies along its eastern and southern border.

Contents

Terminology

This article is part of the series:
History of Western Sahara
Wi-map.png
Western Sahara

Historical background

Western Sahara War · History of Morocco · Spanish Sahara · Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic · Spanish Morocco · Colonial wars in Morocco · Moroccan Army of Liberation · Ifni War · ICJ Advisory Opinion · UN in Spanish Sahara · Madrid Accords · Green March · Berm (Western Sahara) · Human rights in Western Sahara

Disputed regions

Saguia el-Hamra · Río de Oro · Southern Provinces · Free Zone

Politics

Legal status of Western Sahara · Politics of Morocco · Politics of the SADR · Polisario Front · Former members of the Polisario Front · CORCAS · Moroccan Initiative for Western Sahara

Rebellions

Moroccan Army of Liberation · Harakat Tahrir · Polisario Front · Zemla Intifada · Independence Intifada

UN involvement

Resolution 1495 · Resolution 1754 · UN visiting mission · MINURSO · Settlement Plan · Houston Agreement · Baker Plan · Manhasset negotiations

  

The structure goes by a variety of names, with Moroccan Wall and The Berm being some of those often used. Moroccan authorities prefer the latter. Parties sympathetic to Western Sahara's independence and the Polisario often use the Polisario's term, the "Wall of Shame".

Physical structure

The fortifications lie in uninhabited or very sparsely inhabited territory. They consist of sand and stone walls or berms about three meters in height, with bunkers, fences and landmines throughout. Military bases, artillery posts and airfields dot the interior behind the wall at regular intervals, and radar masts and other electronic surveillance equipment scan the areas in front of it.

The following is one observer's description of the Berm:

Physically, the berm is a two meter high wall (with a backing trench), which rides along a topographical high point/ridge/hill throughout the territory. Spaced out over every five kilometers are a big, small and medium base, with approximately 35-40 troops at each observation post and groups of 10 soldiers spaced out over the distance as well. About four km behind each major post there is a rapid reaction post, which includes backing mobile forces (tanks, etc). A series of overlapping fixed and mobile radars are also positioned throughout the berm. The radars are estimated to have a range of between 60 and 80 km into the Polisario controlled territory, and are generally utilized to locate artillery fire onto detected Polisario forces. Information from the radar is processed by a forward-based commander, who contacts a rear-based artillery unit.[1]

In all, six lines of berms have been constructed[2]. The main ("external") line of fortifications extends for about 2,500 km. It runs east from Guerguerat on the coast in the extreme south of Western Sahara near the Mauritanian town of Nouadhibou, closely parallelling the Mauritanian border for about 200 km, before turning northwards beyond Techla. It then runs generally north-eastward, leaving Guelta Zemmur, Smara, and Hamza in Moroccan-held territory, before turning east and again closely following the Algerian border as it approaches Morocco. A section extends about 200 km into south-eastern Morocco[3][4]

Significant lines of fortifications also lie deep within the Moroccan-controlled area[5]. Their exact number and location are a source of some confusion for overseas commentaries[6][7].

All major settlements, the capital El Aaiún, and the phosphate mine at Bou Craa lie far on the Moroccan held side.

The fortifications were progressively built by Moroccan forces starting in 1981, and formally ending on 16 April 1987[2]. Its main function was to exclude the guerrilla fighters of the Polisario Front, who have sought Western Saharan independence since before Spain ended its colonial occupation in 1975, from the Moroccan-controlled part of the territory.

Consequence

Effectively, after the completion of the wall, Morocco has controlled the bulk of Western Sahara territory that lies to the north and west of it, calling these the kingdom's "Southern Provinces". The Polisario-founded Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic controls the mostly uninhabited "Free Zone", which comprises all areas to the east of the barrier. Units from the United Nations mission MINURSO separate the two sides, and enforce cease-fire regulations on their troops.

Many of Western Sahara's native Sahrawi people live as refugees in camps in the Tindouf Province of Algeria, where the Polisario is based.

International reaction

Women protest against the Wall

Western attention to the border wall, and to the Moroccan annexation of the Western Sahara in general, has been minimal, apart from in Spain. Once a year, a small demonstration is held against the barrier by a few human rights activists, many of them Italian.

In Africa, the annexation of Western Sahara by Morocco has attracted somewhat more attention: Algeria supports the Polisario "in its long-running desert war to oppose Moroccan control of the disputed area;"[8][9] the Organization of African Unity/African Union and United Nations have proposed negotiated solutions, though the African Union's stance on Western Sahara led to Morocco's exit from the organisation.

Construction of the wall

The wall was built in six stages, and the area behind the wall was expanded from a small area near Morocco in the north, to most of the western and central part of the country gradually. The walls built were:

  • 1st wall (Aug 1980 – Jun 1982) surrounding the "useful triangle" of El Aaiún, Smara and the phosphate mines at Bu Craa.
  • 2nd wall (Dec 1983 – Jan 1984)
  • 3rd wall (Apr 1984 – May 1984)
  • 4th wall (Dec 1984 – Jan 1985)
  • 5th wall (May–Sep 1985)
  • 6th wall (Feb–Apr 1987)
Advertisements

Satellite views

(Google Maps)

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ ARSO Website
  2. ^ a b Milestones of the conflict, page 2. Website of the United Nations MINURSO mission.
  3. ^ United Nations Map No. 3691 Rev. 53 United Nations, October 2006 (Colour), Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Cartographic Section. Depicts the deployment of the MINURSO mission, as well as the Wall location.
  4. ^ See also e.g. this satellite montage at Google Maps for a section of the wall in Moroccan territory. The northernmost fort that is clearly distinguishable can be seen here. (Google Maps, as of 30 November 2006)
  5. ^ For example, a sand berm with fortifications much like on the main external line can be seen here, reaching the coast near Imlili, over 200 km north of the main external berm along the southern border. (Google Maps, as of 30 November 2006)
  6. ^ Western Sahara Online website, Moroccan Wall of Shame (author and date unknown)
  7. ^ (in Dutch) Marokkaanse veiligheidsmuur al twee decennia onomstreden, CIDI Israel website, Nieuwsbrief (2004)
  8. ^ "Security Problems with Neighboring States", Country Studies/Area Handbook Series, Library of Congress Federal Research Division (retrieved May 1, 2006).
  9. ^ Williams, Ian and Zunes, Stephen, "Self Determination Struggle in the Western Sahara Continues to Challenge the UN", Foreign Policy in Focus Policy Report, September 2003 (retrieved May 1, 2006).

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message