Berry: Wikis

  
  

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Berry (disambiguation).
Four fruits that are true berries (size not to scale). Clockwise from right:
Concord grapes, persimmon, red gooseberries, red currants (top)

The botanical definition of a berry is a simple fruit produced from a single ovary, such as a grape. The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire ovary wall ripens into an edible pericarp. The flowers of these plants have a superior ovary formed by the fusion of one or more carpels. The seeds are embedded in the flesh of the ovary.

In everyday English, a berry is a term for any small edible fruit. These 'berries' are usually juicy, round or semi-oblong, brightly coloured, sweet or sour, and don't have a stone or pit, although many seeds may be present.

Many berries, such as the tomato, are edible, but others in the same family, such as the fruits of the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and the fruits of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) are poisonous to humans. A plant that bears berries is said to be bacciferous, and a berry-like fruit is said to be baccate.

Contents

Types of berries

True berries

Several types of common "berries", none of which is a berry by botanical definition:
The blueberry is a false berry, blackberries are aggregate fruit, and strawberries are accessory fruit.

In botanical language, a berry or true berry is a simple fruit having seeds and pulp produced from a single ovary. The true berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire ovary wall ripens into an edible pericarp. The flowers of these plants had a superior ovary and one or more carpels within a thin covering and fleshy interiors. The seeds are embedded in the common flesh of the ovary.

Examples of true berries include

Modified berries, juicy berries

The fruit of citrus, such as the orange, kumquat and lemon, is a modified berry called a hesperidium.

Not a botanical berry

Many fruits commonly referred to as berries are not actual berries by the scientific definition, but fall into one of these categories:

Drupes

Drupes are fleshy fruits produced from a (usually) single-seeded ovary with a hard stony layer called the endocarp surrounding the seed.

Epigynous fruits

Epigynous fruits are berry-like fruits formed from inferior ovaries, in which the receptacle is included. Notable examples are the fruits of the Ericaceae, including blueberry, huckleberry and cranberry.

Compound fruits

Compound fruits are groups or aggregates of multiple individual fruits, and include:

Raspberries are not true berries, but aggregate fruits composed of many drupes

Color and medical benefits

By contrasting in color with their background, berries are more attractive to animals that eat them, aiding in the dispersal of the plant's seeds.

Berry colors are due to natural plant pigments. Many are polyphenols such as the flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins localized mainly in berry skins and seeds. Berry pigments are usually antioxidants and thus have oxygen radical absorbance capacity ("ORAC") that is high among plant foods.[2] Together with good nutrient content, ORAC distinguishes several berries within a new category of functional foods called "superfruits" and is identified by DataMonitor as one of the top 10 food categories for growth in 2008[3].

Botanical parlance
True berry Pepo Hesperidium False berry (Epigynous) Aggregate fruit Multiple fruit Pome Drupe Other accessory fruit
Common parlance Berry Blackcurrant, Redcurrant, Gooseberry Cranberry, Blueberry Blackberry, Raspberry, Boysenberry Mulberry Strawberry
Not a berry Tomato, Eggplant, Guava, Lucuma, Chili pepper, Pomegranate, Kiwifruit, Grape Pumpkin, Gourd, Cucumber, Melon Orange, Lemon, Lime, Grapefruit Banana Hedge apple Pineapple, Fig Apple, Quince, Pear, Rose hip Peach, Cherry, Date, Mango, Nectarine, Plum, Apricot Green bean, Sunflower seed
Alaska wild "berries" from the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge.

See also

Notes

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents

Berry is a town on the New South Wales South Coast.

Eat

Berry has more then it's fair share of eateries and cafes. There are several to choose from on the main streets and around the craft markets.

  • Berry Woodfired Sourdough Bakery, [1].  edit
Routes through Berry
SydneyGerringong  N noframe S  NowraBatemans Bay
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BERRY, or Berri, a former province of France, absorbed in 1790 in the departments of Cher, corresponding roughly with Haut-Berry, and Indre, representing Bas-Berry. George Sand, the most famous of "berrichon" writers, has described the quiet scenery and rural life of the province in the rustic novels of her later life. Berry is the civitas or pagus Bituricensis of Gregory of Tours. The Bituriges were said by Livy (v. 34) to have been the dominating tribe in Gaul in the 7th century, one of their kings, Ambigat, having ruled over all Gaul. In Caesar's time they were dependent on the Aedui. The tribes inhabiting the districts of Berry and Bourbonnais were distinguished as Bituriges Cubi. The numerous menhirs and dolmens to be found in the district, to which local superstitions still cling, are probably monuments of still earlier inhabitants. In 52 B.C. the Bituriges, at the order of Vercingetorix, set fire to their towns, but spared Bourges (Avaricum) their capital, which was taken and sacked by the Romans. The province was amalgamated under Augustus with Aquitaine, and Bourges became the capital of Aquitania Prima. In 475 Berry came into the possession of the west Goths, from whom it was taken (c. 507) by Clovis. The first count of Berry, Chunibert (d. 763), was created by Waifer, duke of Aquitaine, from whom the county was wrested by Pippin the Short, who made it his residence and left it to his son Carloman, on whose death it fell to his brother Charlemagne. The countship of Berry was suppressed (926) by Rudolph, king of the Franks (fl. 923-936). Berry was for some time a group of lordships dependent directly on the crown, but the chief authority eventually passed to the viscounts of Bourges, who, while owning the royal suzerainty, preserved a certain independence until ii, when the viscount Odo Arpin de Dun sold his fief to the crown. Berry was part of the dowry of Eleanor,. wife of Louis VII., and on her divorce and remarriage with. Henry II. of England it passed to the English king. Its possession remained, however, a matter of dispute until 1200, when. Berry reverted by treaty with John of England to Philip Augustus,. and the various fiefs of Berry were given as a dowry to John's niece, Blanche of Castile, on her marriage with Philip's son Louis (afterwards Louis VIII.). Philip Augustus established an effective control over the administration of the province by the appointment of a royal bailli. Berry suffered during the Hundred Years' War, and more severely during the wars of religion in the 16th century. It had been made a duchy in 1360, and its first duke, John [Jean] (1340-1416), son of the French king John II., encouraged the arts and beautified the province with money wrung from his government of Languedoc. Thenceforward it was held as an apanage of the French crown, usually by a member of the royal family closely related to the king. Charles of France (1447-1472), brother of Louis XI., was duke of Berry, but was deprived of this province, as subsequently of the duchies of Normandy and Guienne, for intrigues against his brother. The duchy was also governed by Jeanne de Valois (d. 1505), the repudiated wife of Louis XIL 1; by Marguerite d'Angouleme, afterwards queen of Navarre; by Marguerite de Valois, afterwards duchess of Savoy; and by Louise of Lorraine, widow of Henry III., after whose death (1601) the province was finally reabsorbed in the royal domain. The title of duke of Berry, divested of territorial significance, was held by princes of the royal house. Charles (1686-1714), duke of Berry, grandson of Louis XIV., and third son of the dauphin Louis (d. 1711), married Marie Louise Elisabeth (1686-1714), eldest daughter of the duke of Orleans, whose intrigues made her notorious. The last to bear the title of duke of Berry was the ill-fated Charles Ferdinand, grandson and heir of Charles X.


<< John, Duke Of Berry

Antoine Pierre Berryer >>


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Berry may refer to:


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010
(Redirected to Berry (surname) article)

From Familypedia

View category for people with the Berry surname
Berry
Origin: "Berri" (Norman French)
Meaning: From the province of Berri, in France
Wikipedia: Search Wikipedia

Root

"Berri" (Norman French)

Facts about Berry (surname)RDF feed

This article uses material from the "Berry (surname)" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

File:True.
Four fruits that are true berries, shown larger than they are. Clockwise from right:
grapes, persimmon, red gooseberries, red currants (top)
File:Berries (USDA ARS).jpg
Several types of common "berries". None is a berry by botanical definition:
The blueberry is a false berry, blackberries are aggregate fruit, and strawberries are accessory fruit.

The word berry is used for many different kinds of small fruits that have many seeds and can be used as food. Some examples are strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, and lingonberry. A berry can be either one fruit (like strawberry) or many fruits joined together like raspberry).

When botanists talk about berries, they mean a simple fruit produced from a single ovary. They sometimes call this true berry, to distinguish it from false berries. By that statement of how words are used, grapes or tomatoes are true berries.

The berry is the most common type of soft fruit in which the entire ovary wall gets to the right stage of development of an pericarp which can be taken as food. The flowers of these plants have a upper ovary formed by the fusion of two or more carpels. The seeds are inside the soft body of the ovary.

Berries are small, sweet, liquid, bright colored fruits. Due to this, they are able to bring more animals towards them and spread their seeds.

Some fruits that are called berries in English are not true berries by the use of words above. These include strawberries, blackberries, raspberries and boysenberries. Some true berries do not have berry in their name. These include tomatoes, eggplants, cranberries, guavas, pomegranates and chillies. Pumpkins, cucumbers, melons, oranges and lemons are differently made berries.








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