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Coordinates: 63°56′04″N 65°02′40″E / 63.93444°N 65.04444°E / 63.93444; 65.04444

Menshikov and his family in Berezov, by Vasily Surikov.
Contemporary Berezov

Beryozovo (Russian: Берёзово; Mansi: Khaaljpus) is an urban-type settlement and the administrative center of Beryozovsky District of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located on the Ob River about 150 miles east of the Ural Mountains. Population: 7,085 (2002 Census);[1] 7,573 (1989 Census).[2]

It is 1,100 km north of the city of Tobolsk, situated on three hills on the left bank of the Northern Sosva River, at its junction with the Ob River. It has more than once suffered from conflagrations for example, in 1719 and 1808. The yearly mean temperature is 4°C, the maximum cold being −44°C.

History

There was some ill-documented Russian trade in the area before the Russian conquest of Siberia. Beryozovo was founded in 1593 on the Northern Sosva route across the Ural Mountains to the the fur-rich Mangazeya region. It was beseiged by the Ostyaks in 1592, 1697, and 1608. It grew into a town of Beryozov (Берёзов) in Tobolsk Governorate. By the late 17th century most trade had shifted south to Verkhoturye.

In the mid-18th century, gold was discovered at Beryozovo — Siberia's first important gold mine. It was worked by serfs and convicts under primitive conditions and produced about 400 ounces a year (by the mid-19th century the gold sands further east were producing 600,000 ounces per year). In the 1960s, gas fields were discovered near its lower course causing a major population growth in the area. Transport is by river boat or ice road.

Prince Menshikov, the favorite of Peter the Great and Catherine I, died here in exile in 1729. In 1730, his enemy and rival, Prince Dolgoruky, was interned here with his family; and in 1742 General Ostermann was sent to Beryozov with his wife and died there in 1747. It has a cathedral, near which lie buried Mary Menshikova (a daughter of Aleksandr Menshikov, who attempted to make her betrothed to tsar Peter II) and some of the Dolgorukovs. In the 19th century, Beryozov was a place of exile for many of the Decembrists. In the 20th century, the Tsarist regime banished a few revolutionaries here as well.

External links

References

  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2008-07-25.  
  2. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg2.php. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  
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