The Full Wiki

Bestrophin 1: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bestrophin 1
Symbols BEST1; BMD; BEST; TU15B; VMD2
External IDs OMIM607854 MGI1346332 HomoloGene37895 GeneCards: BEST1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE BEST1 207671 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7439 24115
Ensembl ENSG00000167995 ENSMUSG00000037418
UniProt O76090 O88870
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_004183 XM_980943
RefSeq (protein) NP_004174 XP_986037
Location (UCSC) Chr 11:
61.47 - 61.49 Mb
Chr 19:
10.05 - 10.06 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Bestrophin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BEST1 gene.[1][2][3]



BEST1 belongs to the bestrophin family of anion channels, which includes BEST2, BEST3, and BEST4. Bestrophins are transmembrane (TM) proteins that share a homology region containing a high content of aromatic residues, including an invariant arg-phe-pro (RFP) motif. Bestrophins are believed to function as chloride channels.[4]

Gene structure

The bestrophin genes share a conserved gene structure, with almost identical sizes of the 8 RFP-TM domain-encoding exons and highly conserved exon-intron boundaries. Each of the 4 bestrophin genes has a unique 3-prime end of variable length.[3][5][6]

BEST1 has been shown by two independent studies to be regulated by Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor[7][8].


Bestrophin 1 has been shown to interact with PPP2CA.[9]


  1. ^ Stone EM, Nichols BE, Streb LM, Kimura AE, Sheffield VC (Jun 1993). "Genetic linkage of vitelliform macular degeneration (Best's disease) to chromosome 11q13". Nat Genet 1 (4): 246–50. doi:10.1038/ng0792-246. PMID 1302019.  
  2. ^ Barro Soria R, Spitzner M, Schreiber R, Kunzelmann K (Sep 2006). "Bestrophin 1 enables Ca2+ activated Cl- conductance in epithelia". J Biol Chem. doi:10.1074/jbc.M605716200. PMID 17003041.  
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: BEST1 bestrophin 1".  
  4. ^ Hartzell HC, Qu Z, Yu K, Xiao Q, Chien LT (April 2008). "Molecular physiology of bestrophins: multifunctional membrane proteins linked to best disease and other retinopathies". Physiol. Rev. 88 (2): 639–72. doi:10.1152/physrev.00022.2007. PMID 18391176.  
  5. ^ Stöhr H, Marquardt A, Nanda I, Schmid M, Weber BH (April 2002). "Three novel human VMD2-like genes are members of the evolutionary highly conserved RFP-TM family". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 10 (4): 281–4. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200796. PMID 12032738.  
  6. ^ Tsunenari T, Sun H, Williams J, Cahill H, Smallwood P, Yau KW, Nathans J (October 2003). "Structure-function analysis of the bestrophin family of anion channels". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (42): 41114–25. doi:10.1074/jbc.M306150200. PMID 12907679.  
  7. ^ Esumi N, Kachi S, Campochiaro PA, Zack DJ (2007). "VMD2 promoter requires two proximal E-box sites for its activity in vivo and is regulated by the MITF-TFE family". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (3): 1838–50. doi:10.1074/jbc.M609517200. PMID 17085443.  
  8. ^ Hoek KS, Schlegel NC, Eichhoff OM, Widmer DS, Praetorius C, Einarsson SO, Valgeirsdottir S, Bergsteinsdottir K, Schepsky A, Dummer R, Steingrimsson E (2008). "Novel MITF targets identified using a two-step DNA microarray strategy". Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 21 (6): 665–76. doi:10.1111/j.1755-148X.2008.00505.x.  
  9. ^ Marmorstein, Lihua Y; McLaughlin Precious J, Stanton J Brett, Yan Lin, Crabb John W, Marmorstein Alan D (Aug. 2002). "Bestrophin interacts physically and functionally with protein phosphatase 2A". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (34): 30591–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M204269200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12058047.  

Further reading

  • White K, Marquardt A, Weber BH (2000). "VMD2 mutations in vitelliform macular dystrophy (Best disease) and other maculopathies.". Hum. Mutat. 15 (4): 301–8. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(200004)15:4<301::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-N. PMID 10737974.  
  • Nordström S, Barkman Y (1977). "Hereditary maculardegeneration (HMD) in 246 cases traced to one gene-source in central Sweden.". Hereditas 84 (2): 163–76. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5223.1977.tb01394.x. PMID 838599.  
  • Forsman K, Graff C, Nordström S, et al. (1992). "The gene for Best's macular dystrophy is located at 11q13 in a Swedish family.". Clin. Genet. 42 (3): 156–9. PMID 1395087.  
  • Stöhr H, Marquardt A, Rivera A, et al. (1998). "A gene map of the Best's vitelliform macular dystrophy region in chromosome 11q12-q13.1.". Genome Res. 8 (1): 48–56. PMID 9445487.  
  • Petrukhin K, Koisti MJ, Bakall B, et al. (1998). "Identification of the gene responsible for Best macular dystrophy.". Nat. Genet. 19 (3): 241–7. doi:10.1038/915. PMID 9662395.  
  • Pennisi E (1998). "New gene found for inherited macular degeneration.". Science 281 (5373): 31. doi:10.1126/science.281.5373.31. PMID 9679014.  
  • Marquardt A, Stöhr H, Passmore LA, et al. (1998). "Mutations in a novel gene, VMD2, encoding a protein of unknown properties cause juvenile-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy (Best's disease).". Hum. Mol. Genet. 7 (9): 1517–25. doi:10.1093/hmg/7.9.1517. PMID 9700209.  
  • Caldwell GM, Kakuk LE, Griesinger IB, et al. (1999). "Bestrophin gene mutations in patients with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy.". Genomics 58 (1): 98–101. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5808. PMID 10331951.  
  • Bakall B, Marknell T, Ingvast S, et al. (1999). "The mutation spectrum of the bestrophin protein--functional implications.". Hum. Genet. 104 (5): 383–9. doi:10.1007/s004390050972. PMID 10394929.  
  • Allikmets R, Seddon JM, Bernstein PS, et al. (1999). "Evaluation of the Best disease gene in patients with age-related macular degeneration and other maculopathies.". Hum. Genet. 104 (6): 449–53. doi:10.1007/s004390050986. PMID 10453731.  
  • Palomba G, Rozzo C, Angius A, et al. (2000). "A novel spontaneous missense mutation in VMD2 gene is a cause of a best macular dystrophy sporadic case.". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129 (2): 260–2. doi:10.1016/S0002-9394(99)00327-X. PMID 10682987.  
  • Lotery AJ, Namperumalsamy P, Jacobson SG, et al. (2000). "Mutation analysis of 3 genes in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis.". Arch. Ophthalmol. 118 (4): 538–43. PMID 10766140.  
  • Lotery AJ, Munier FL, Fishman GA, et al. (2000). "Allelic variation in the VMD2 gene in best disease and age-related macular degeneration.". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41 (6): 1291–6. PMID 10798642.  
  • Krämer F, White K, Pauleikhoff D, et al. (2000). "Mutations in the VMD2 gene are associated with juvenile-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy (Best disease) and adult vitelliform macular dystrophy but not age-related macular degeneration.". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 8 (4): 286–92. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200447. PMID 10854112.  
  • Marmorstein AD, Marmorstein LY, Rayborn M, et al. (2001). "Bestrophin, the product of the Best vitelliform macular dystrophy gene (VMD2), localizes to the basolateral plasma membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (23): 12758–63. doi:10.1073/pnas.220402097. PMID 11050159.  
  • Marchant D, Gogat K, Boutboul S, et al. (2001). "Identification of novel VMD2 gene mutations in patients with best vitelliform macular dystrophy.". Hum. Mutat. 17 (3): 235. doi:10.1002/humu.9. PMID 11241846.  
  • Eksandh L, Bakall B, Bauer B, et al. (2001). "Best's vitelliform macular dystrophy caused by a new mutation (Val89Ala) in the VMD2 gene.". Ophthalmic Genet. 22 (2): 107–15. doi:10.1076/opge. PMID 11449320.  
  • Sun H, Tsunenari T, Yau KW, Nathans J (2002). "The vitelliform macular dystrophy protein defines a new family of chloride channels.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (6): 4008–13. doi:10.1073/pnas.052692999. PMID 11904445.  

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address