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Dhangar
Classification: Caste/Kshatriya Dhangar (Shepherds)
Clans: 108
Significant populations in: India
Language Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu
Religion Hinduism

The Dhangar (Sanskrit / Devanāgarī: धनगर ) caste is primarily located in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The literal translation of the name Dhangar is "Wealthy".[1] The Dhangars of the Northern or Southern India are reasonably considered to belong to the same race.[2] The word Dhangar is derived from the Sanskrit word 'Dhenu' i.e. Cow. They are called by different synonyms like Dhangar, Dhangad and Dhanpal.[3] Dhang also means a hill or a mountain. During the times of hardship some Kshatriyas went to the mountains and hills with their sheep and cows and stayed in the forests: these people are called Dhangars.[4]

The “Ain-i-Akbari” describes them as being a proud, refractory and domineering race of Rajputs, living in the Basim Sircar and, with numerous armed forces, occupying the forts and controlling the surrounding districts.[2][5][6]

Their original home is said to be Gokul Vrindavan near Mathura. From Gokul they are said to be moved to Mewar and from Mewar to have spread into Gujrat and Maharashtra.[7][8]

Lord Krishna was Dhangar.[9][10][11] Nand Meher, the foster father of Lord Krishna, also belonged to this caste.[12][13][14]. Lord Krishna, Prophet Muhammad and Jesus Christ were all Shepherds.[15] Metaphorically, the term Shepherd is used for God.

Initially there were twelve tribes of Dhangar and they had a Division of labour amongst brothers of one family. This latter formed three sub-divisions and one half division (3.5). These three being Hatkar (Shepherds), Ahir (Cowherds) or Mhaskar(Gujar)(Buffaloe keepers), and Khutekar (Wool and Blanket weavers) / Sangar. The half division is called Khateek or Khatik (Butchers). All sub-castes fall in either of these divisions. All sub-divisions emerge from one stock and all sub-divisions claim to be a single group of Dhangars. Studies have revealed that they are genetically the closest.[16][17] The number three and a half is not a random selection but has a religious and cosmological significance.[18][19]

Contents

Sub castes

Ahir, Pal-Pali, Baghel, Mhaskar / Bargujar / Gurjar, Hatkar (Assal/Assali)/ Bargi / Barahatti / Barhatta / Bargahi / Baragahi / Bande (Revolutionary) / Zende (Brave) / Bhillari / Khillari / Metkari / Dange / Bakarwal / Pohol / Bharwad / Shippi /Banne / Kuruba (meaning trustworthy) / Kanore / Kanade /Katmore/ Kurmar / Kurbar / Kurumbar / Idaiyan / Idaiyar / Idaiga / Konar / Gavali / Golla / Mohaniya, Neekhar/Nikher, Khutekar / Gire / Dewanga / Kshitri / Khatri, Kuktekar, Sagar/,Sengar / Sangar / Shegar, Lad Mendhe / Ladse, Jhade / Jhadi / Zade, Hulwan, Konkani, Mahure / Mahurai, Telange, Tellari, Warhade / Varadi / Barade[20], Khatik / Rangiya / Chikva / Kasai / Ghodchade / Sonkar / Sunkhar / Birwal Jain / Badgujar / Vihari Vaishya / Meve Farosh / Halal / Kalal / Chakhana Kakal / Bakar Kasab / Purbiya / Kaseruval / Lad / Katik, Oraon, Talwar, Banjara / Vanjara [21], Kambar, Shirotya, Utekar, Gadge. [4][22][23][24] Dhangars are also called as Gauli/Govali/Gavali/ in Karnataka and Goa.

The Dhangars ignore the subcastes and project themselves only as Dhangars.

Origin and History

Captain Fitzgerald had observed that ‘the general idea is that originally there were Twelve Tribes of Bargi-Dhangars, who came from Hindustan, and the country about Hingoli was called Bara Hatti (Hatkar)’. The term Bara-Hatti could thus mean a country of the Dhangars of twelve hattis. The term Hatkar is derived from hatti. According to the Dravidian Etymological Dictionary, h(p)atti has the following meanings: pen (Kannada), hamlet (Malayalam), cowstall, sheepfold (Tamil). A hatti would therefore mean a sheep pen or a camp or a settlement of sheep-keepers. In the old Kannada lexicon hattikara occurs as a synonym of govali, or cowherds. These etymological linkages indicate a connection between the sheep and cattle keepers. The term means a camp of sheep-cattle keepers. Bara-hatti means a village consisting of twelve vadis. The vadi constitutes 20-23 Dhangar families.[25][26][27][28][29]

The word “hat” means obstinacy in Marathi and “hatti” means being obstinate .Therefore "hatkar" means people who are obstinate. Captain Fitz Gerald, once an assistant commissioner in Berar, made the following observation:- “The Hatkars declare that they came prior to the Nizam becoming subhedar of Deccan[30] on behalf of the King of Delhi. The Hatkars are all Bargi Dhangars, or the Shepherds with the Spears. The Hatkars say that they formerly, when going on any expedition, took only a blanket seven hands long and a bear-spear (Barcha/Barchi in Marathi), and that on this account they were called Bargir, or Barga Dhangars. The temper of Hatkars is said to be obstinate and quarrelsome.[31][32] The great National weapon of Maratha country during Shivaji era was the Spear.[33][34] A famous couplet of a Bengali cradle song, created by Oriya and Bengali people to make their babies sleep at night is quoted below.

"Chhele ghumalo para juralo Bargi elo deshe

Bulbulite dhan kheyechhe khajna debo kise?"

Hushed the child sleeps and quiet is the neighborhood now, for the Bargis have descended on our land; the bulbulis have eaten away our crops, how shall we pay our land tax?' Raghuji Karande ( Marathi : रघुजी कारंडे ) was the General of the Army of the Nagpur kingdom of Bhosale's i.e. of Raghoji I Bhonsle and Janoji Bhonsle. He had the entire army of Nagpur Bhosales under his command and was directly responsible only to them. He was considered to be one of the most capable and trustworthy persons of the Bhosales.[35][36]

They are even now noted for their martial qualities and readily become soldiers. The armies of Shivaji were composed of recruits mainly drawn from this caste who were the most trusted by Shivaji. The bravest Maratha leaders, among whom the Holkars are the most distinguished, are of this tribe.[2][5] When tending and driving sheep and goats Dhangars ejaculate 'Har, Har,' which is a name of Mahadeo used by devotees in worshipping him. The Dhangars furnished a valuable contingent to Sivaji's guerilla soldiery. The battle cry of the Marathas, “Har Har Mahadeo”, was used by the Dhangars—showing that Mavalas or the soldiers of Shivaji were Dhangars.[37] These people of Maval or mountain valley above the Ghats were called Mavalas and below the Ghats towards the sea were called Hetkaris. Dhangars were thus the first people who became the soldiers of Shivaji.[38][39]

At the time of his Coronation, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj showed that he belonged to the Gahlot (i.e. Sisodiya / Ranas of Mewar) Clan. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj belonged to this caste.[40][41] The associates of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj were Balwantrao Devkate, Nimbaji Patole, Dadaji Kakade, Venkoji Khandekar, Dhanaji Shingade, Banaji Birje, Yesaji Thorat, Heroji Shelke, Bhavanrao Devkate, Mankoji Dhangar, Amdoji Pandhare, Godaji Pandhare, Indraji Gorad, Naikji Pandhare, Raiji Gadade, Bahirji Bandgar, Hande, Mahanavar.

The Shepherds of Maratha country are called Marathe (Marhatta (Singular) / Marhatte (Plural)/ Bar-hatta, i.e. Hatkar) (Hatkars of Western Maharashtra and Konkan are also called Maratha Dhangar).[37] The Prakrit word Marhatta is found in Jain Maharashtri literature.[42][43][44] Shahu Maharaj coined the word Maratha for the peasant section i.e. Kunbi. Historically "Maratha" was a common term used for people of Maharashtra region that speak Marathi.[45] Today, however, the term "Maratha" refers only to those Marathi-speaking people who also belong to certain specific Hindu castes: for one available listing, refer to Maratha clan system. Thus, the terms "Maratha people" and "Maratha-Dhangar" are not interchangeable and should not be confused for each other. All Dhangars of Western Maharashtra and Konkan / Marhatta country, like Holkars, can be termed Marathas, but all Marathas are not Dhangars. For one available listing of Dhangars, refer to List of Dhangar clans in India.

The Dhangar name is exclusively used for the Shepherd Caste of Maharashtra. The Dhangar community is one of the oldest existing communities of India, tracing its history back to Mahabharata times. They have originated several ruling dynasties, most recently the Holkars of Indore. Prominent Dhangars have been Hakkaraya and Bukkaraya, founders of the Vijayanagara Empire. Dhangars have founded the Hoysalas, Holkar, Rashtrakutas, Maurya, Pallav dynasties. In addition the poets Kalidasa and Kanakadasa were also Dhangars.[4] The famous Vithoba temple at Pandharpur was built by Vishnuvardhana, a Dhangar from the Hoysala Dynasty.[46] The famous Meenakshi temple was built by Pallavas who were Dhangars.[4] There is a tradition that Deoghur or Daulatabad was built in 1203 AD by a Dhangar or herdsman who acquiring by some unusual good fortune vast wealth was named by his brother shepherds Rajah Ram and soon after assumed the rank of a Raja.[47] This warrior community, in the districts of Nanded, Parbhani and Berar, across the Painganga River, were in open rebellion from 1798 A. D. till 1820 A. D. under the brave leadership of Novsaji Naik and had taken possession of a number of strongholds.[48]

Traditionally being Warriors, Shepherds, Cowherds, Buffaloe keepers, Blanket & Wool Weavers, Butchers and Farmers, Dhangars were late to take up modern day education. Though it has a notable population not only in Maharashtra but also in India, had a rich history, today it is still politically highly unorganized community and is socially, educationally, economically and politically backward. They lived a socially isolated life due to their occupation, wandering mainly in forests, hills and mountains.[49]

For the affirmative action or the Reservation in India they are distributed into Advanced Class, Other Backward Class, Nomadic Tribe, Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste through out India.

In Maharashtra though they were classified as extremely backward since Independence they got reservation in 1990 after peaceful and non-violent agitation in 1989. The then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi told the State Government to immediately implement the Scheduled Tribe status but the Sharad Pawar led State government depreived the ST status and included them as Nomadic Tribe in 1990. The Creamy layer is excluded from reservations. In 2004, the then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in a rally at Pandharpur declared that if BJP lead NDA comes to power they would immediately confer the ST status. The All India Dhangar Association is still fighting to get the ST status.

see main article Dhangar Scheduled tribe issue

Kuldaivat

Jejuri is one of the famous temples in Maharashtra. The God of Jejuri - Khandoba (Lord Shiva), the husband of Banai (from the Dhangar caste), is popular amongst the Dhangars as it is their Kuladaivat.[50] Dhangars worship various forms of Father Lord Shiva, Lord Vishnu, Mother Parvati and Mother Mahalaxmi as their Kuldaivat, like Khandoba, Biroba, Mhasoba,Dholoba (Dhuleshwar), Vithoba, Janai, Malai, Tulai, Padubai, Ambabai. They generally worship the temple of these Gods that is nearest to their residence which becomes their kuladev and kuladevi.[51] The place of their Kuladev and Kuladevi would mean that their original place of residence was some where in that region.

Dhangari Gaja

This is a dance form performed by Dhangars of Solapur district of Maharashtra. Their poetry is mainly inspired by the evergreen trees all around. The poetry is in a form called 'Ovi' which is made up of couplets. These poems also contain tales of the birth of their God "Biruba" or Birappa or Viroba, in simple and basic lines. The group of dancers surrounds the drum players and move at the drummers' rhythm.[52][53]

Clans in India

See also List of Dhangar clans in India.

Dhangars are Kshatriyas.[54][55][56][57] Dhangars employ Brahmins for religious and ceremonial purposes.[58] Kshatriyas have three major castes (or ethnic groups) -- the Dhangars, the Rajputs and the Marathas. The Rajputs are Indo-Scythians and mainly had their kingdoms in North India. The Rajputs did not originate as a tribe or a single community. They emerge from history as a collection of clans ruling different regions. The term Rajput as it is used today refers to the set of intermarrying royal clans. The Marathas are Indo-Aryans and had an empire which spread all over central and North India. The Dhangars are Proto-Asians, who had their Kingdoms throughout India. Rajputs have 36 Clans, Marathas have 96 Clans and Dhangars have 108 clans in India out of which some are unknown so far. Originally these castes were one and had mutual interactions of dining together and intermarriage amongst them.[4]

The widespread Palaeolithic mtDNA haplogroups and analysis of Y-DNA Haplogroup in Dhangar clans highlight their Proto-Asian genetic ancestries. Dhangar heterogeneity is ascribable to predominantly South-Asian males and West-Eurasian females. Dhangar have a significant Pleistocene gene pool, corroborating their “Proto-Asian” origin.[59] As per J. H. Hutton they are Proto-Australoid. Kashyap (2006) [60] designates 23 out of 54 Indian populations studied as Australoid, of which one speaks an Indo-European language (Dhangar of Maharashtra).

Dhangars are believed to be Indo-Aryans as the Aryans were shepherds. Dhangar follow many rituals which were followed by Aryans.[61][62] Aryans used to pierce the ears of their children, and Dhangars too pierce the ears of their children.[63] Out of the 36 Queens of Kshayapa the 28th Queen, Sundara, was a Dhangar. Out of the Original 36 Rishis Tap Rishi and Manimahant were Dhangar.

The word Gotra is dereived from the word "Go" meaning Cow. In ancient times wealth used to be measured by the number of cows. The cows of one Kula used to be kept together which was termed Gotra this was later termed as Kula Gotra. Marriage in the Kula of one's own Pravaras is prohibited.[64] Ethoven has listed 108 such exogamous groups of Dhangars. However Gautama Sutra has given two remedies for such marriages i.e. "Sutrakali Chandrayan, Kruch Prayaschit".

Allama Prabhu, President of Lingayat Temple at the time of allowing saint Rewad in the temple stated

"Kuruba Hutavamunna Kulavilla Gotra Villam, Kuruban fal kani Basawanna."

meaning

"Before the Dhangars there were no gotras, gotras came with Dhangars, Basawanna, we are the decendants of Dhangars".

This shows that many Lingayats were Dhangars previously.[4]

Enthoven in his observations has listed 22 Endogamous groups (Sub-Castes) and 108 Exogamous groups (Clans) of Dhangars (Enthoven 1920:311). It should be recorded that the list of the 22 Endogamous groups and 108 Exogamous groups of Dhangars, as provided by Enthoven, is not exhaustive.[65]

The number 108 is very sacred and has a great significance.[66]

The List of Dhangar clans in India is of surnames of all sub-castes from India[4][67][68][69]

Other Names

Dhangars are identified by different names in different regions of the country.[70] The names vary from area to area and from district to district[71][72][73]

Ahir,Ahir,Aagalave, Ahiyaru, Andar, Appugol,Bargujars, Bagadi, Brijbasi / Ghosh / Bargahi / Baragahi / Bargi (meaning- cattle owners) (UP), Bakarwal (Jammu & Kashmir), Bhadiyar / Gangajali, Bharavadaru, Bhati / Bhatia / Chang / Ghirath (Punj), Charan, Devanga, Dhangad / Dhanwar / Dhanpal / Dhangod, Doddi Gowda, Drokpa, Gaddi / Garri, Gaderia / Gadhariya / Gadaria / Gadariya / Gareri / Gauriya (UP, MP, Bihar), Gadri / Gairi / Gari / Gadade/Gawade/Ghosi / Gurjar / Dewasi / Charvaha (Rajasthan), Gari / Bharud / Ghosi (MP), Gavara (AP), Ghancha / Ghanchi, Golla / Gola / Gond /Gaola / Bagal, Gollavadu / Gowdiga, Gop (Assam), Gopal, Gounder, Gowda, Gwala / Gwal, Gavali (Goa, Karnataka), Gurung, Halumatha, Haridas, Hati (Soldier) (Guj), Heggades, Idaiga / Idyar / Idiyan / Idaiyar / Konar (Tamil Nadu), Kalali / Kalari, Kalavar, Kamaria, Kamli, Kanne, Kantak, Khuruk, Khatri, Kuruba Gowda, Gauliga, Kacha Gauliga, Kuruba (Karnataka, AP), Kuruma, Kurumavaaru, Kuda, Kurkhi, Kurmar / Kurma / Kurumba / Kurumbar / Kurumans / Kurubaru (Tamil Nadu), Kurupu, Mendpal, Magadha / Magadhi / Maghi (Bihar), Maldhari / Bharwad / Rabari / Jagri / Khavas / Gopalak (Gujrath), Meshshawak (Bengal), Mirdha, Muniyani, Naikers, Oraon / Saile / Agrayya (East India), Nayer, Neekhar/ Nikhers (North India), Paalakyatriya, Pal-Pali / Baghel / Rajpal (North India), Palaru, Poduvar, Raika, Yadavalu, Redharu, Rakhal, Bherarokhiya, Meshpalak, Meshpal, Attutidiyan, Attiyan, Bhagat, Bhedwar, Haldhar, Chagal etc.

Dhangar Scheduled tribe issue

Dhangar community in Maharashtra has been agitating for the implementation of Scheduled Tribe status. According to them Dhangar and Dhangad is one and the same and Dhangar community is included in the List of Scheduled Tribes in India#Maharashtra at Sr. no 36 Oraon, Dhangad. The only community present in the state is Dhangar that can be spelt as Dhangad and pronounced as Dhangar. There is no such community called Dhangad present in Maharashtra. The etnological and antropological information of Dhangad and Dhangar given in the reports is same which is of Shepherds. That is both the words mean a same single community which is Shepherds of Maharashtra. State of Maharashtra had twice recommended the Government of India to include the Dhangar community in the list of Scheduled Tribe. Even in 1989, the CAG report recommended the inclusion of Dhangar community in the list of Scheduled Tribe.

However, the State of Maharashtra has not implemented the Scheduled Tribe status as according to them Dhangar and Dhangad are two distinct communities of Maharashtra.

Time line

Year Details
1872 The Government published Colonel Dalton’s, Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal.

The book states that Dhangars are known as Oraon in the Eastern Part of India and that Oraons migrated from western India.

1883 The Hindi book, Bharat Bhraman, Vol IV, Chap 18 & 19 from Pg 291 states the population of Dhangars. It uses different pronunciations and spellings for the same word e.g. The population of Dhangar (Hindi: ) in Dharwad 87568, Dhangad (Hindi: ) in Kolhapur 38326, Dhangar (Hindi: ) in Satara 41547, Dhangar (Hindi: ) in Nashik 14889.
1896 Mr Grieson, incharge of Census, undertook The Linguistic and Ethnographic Survey.
1901 Shahu Maharaj introduces reservations in Maharashtra.
1901 Mr. Grieson wrote a chapter on languages in India in the Census report.
1920 In the linguistic survey of India Vol I Part II Griesen classified Indian

Languages. He stated that ‘R’ is pronounced as ‘D’ and ‘L’. E.g. Orrisa in English and Odissa in Hindi, Beed – Bhir, Chopda – Chopra, Tiwari – Tiwadi, Dhangar - Dhangad etc.

1928 As per a Committee recommendation, depressed classes included other wandering and backward classes.
29-05-1933 As per the recommendations of the committee list of Backward Committee was prescribed under Government Resolution General Department No 9330 of 29 May 1933.
23/4/1942 Communities in the State of Bombay Classified into Advanced, Intermediate and Backward Classes under Govt Resolution Political and Services Department No 1673/34 dated 23/4/1942.
15/08/1947 India gains freedom.
26/1/1950 Constitution of India comes in force.
6/9/50 List of Scheduled Tribes published by the Government of India.
1955 BCC report states that the age-old definition of Tribes should be shed.
1955 Kalelkar Commission report stated that the communities of shepherd class in many states were engaged in rearing large flocks of sheep. Gaddis of Himachal Pradesh, Gadarieas of North Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan, Dhangars in Bombay were mainly engaged in sheep flocks.

Shepherds are known by different names in different parts of country. Their condition is far from satisfactory.(Vol I, pg 77) The Dhangar community was regarded as most backward (* Starred community) and was recommended to be included in Schedule Tribes. It found its place in Sr. No. 36 in the list of Schedule Tribes in Maharashtra. In other states too it was included in the Schedules.

1956 State of Madhya Pradesh came into existence.
1956 Schedued Tribe list amended as per the recommendations of Kalelkar report. The Scheduled Tribes list of the then Madhya Pradesh at Sr. no 26 listed Dhangad without referring to any particular district or tehsil which means that Dhangad from all of the present Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisghar and some part of present Maharashtra were meant to be Scheduled Tribe.

The Scheduled Tribes List of the then Bombay (Now Maharashtra) at Sr. no 27 listed Dhangad, Oraon without referring to any area which means Dhangads of whole of the Bombay State were meant to be Scheduled Tribe.

10/9/1956 The Law minister of India assured the House that the mistakes in the list of SC and ST will be rectified.
1/5/1960 State of Gujrat and Maharashtra came into existence. List of Scheduled Tribes of Maharashtra shows Dhangad at Sr. no 27. At the relevant time the only community present in the new state is Dhangar. There is no other community called Dhangad present in Maharashtra.
1961 Ethnographic study was undertaken by the census department to identify the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes as a frequent problem was faced for identifying the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The Census enumerators required guidance about the acceptance or rejections of their claims. The department of census of India undertook a detailed ethnographic study in respect of Scheduled Tribes in 1961 under the powers delegated by the Parliament for an authentic ethnographic account of Indian communities and to meet the requirements of the Socio-legal issues relating to ethnic identity of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
1961 The Ethnographic report and the Bibliography of Scheduled Tribes published by the Government of India. It mentions Dhangar, Dhangad as the Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. The etnological and antropological information of Dhangad and Dhangar given in the report is same which is of Shepherds. That is both the words mean a same single community which is Shepherds of Maharashtra.
21/11/1961 Unified list of VJNT prepared for the state of Maharashtra as per the Thade Committee Report.
11/1/1964 B G Deshmukh committee submitted its report to the state government and proposed that the backward classes should be grouped into Schedules Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Denotified & Nomadic Tribes and Other Backward Classes.
1965 B. N. Lokur Committee advised the Government of India to delete Oroan from the list of Scheduled Tribe of Maharashtra as it is not found in Maharashtra but it did not suggest the same for Dhangad.
1966 Chanda Committee appointed to remove anomalies in the list.
20/06/1966 State of Maharashtra recommends the Government of India to include Dhangar community in the list of Scheduled Tribe.
1967 Report, bibliography on SC/ST and marginal communities published by census dept which includes Dhangar, Dhangad as a Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra.
13/10/1966 List of OBC prepared by the State of Maharashtra to give scholarships.
20/06/1967 MLA Ganpatrao Deshmukh asks the state in the assembly what steps it was taking regarding the Dhangar communities ST status.
1967 Advisory committee report asks the government to remove anomalies.
1967 Scheduled Tribe amendment bill lapsed.
1968 Bibliography on SC and ST and marginal tribes published by the Government of India in 1968. See pg 294. It states Dhangar as a Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra.
1970 The census report shows the population of Dhangad in Maharashtra as 1 (one).
1976 The Scheduled Tribe list amended. The Scheduled Tribe list of Maharashtra Listed Dhangad at Sr. No 36 by putting a punctuation mark of comma after Oraon without mentioning any particular area.(36. Oraon, Dhangad.)

There is no community called Dhangad present in the state of Maharashtra and not a single person of this so called community is found. The community present in the State of Maharashtra is Dhangar that is pronounced and spelt as Dhangad in Hindi. There are no two distinct communities called Dhangar and Dhangad present in the state of Maharashtra.

22/03/1977 The Union of India removed the area restriction.
1978 Report of the Commissioner for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes reveals that the state government doesn’t have power to impose area restriction on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in their State.
1978 The Government laid the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes (amendment) Bill 1978 but as the Sixth Loksabha dissolved the bill too lapsed.
26/03/1978 Government of Maharashtra again recommends the Government of India to include the Dhangar community in the list of Scheduled Tribe
1979 Mandal Commission regarded Dhangad and Dhangar one and the same.
1981 L.M. Shrikant report recommends the center to remove the anomalies in the SC and ST list
9/2/1981 The center ask the State whether Dhangar should be included in the list of Scheduled Tribe and to reply before 7/3/1981. It further stated if no reply is received by then it will be deemed that the state has accepted it.

The Government of India has the following criteria for inclusion in the list of Scheduled Tribes i.e. indication of primitive traits, distinct culture, geographical isolation and shyness of contact with the community at large and backwardness. The state does not reply by 7/3/81.

6/11/1981 The State of Maharashtra withdraws the proposal of inclusion of Dhangar Community in the list of Scheduled Tribes.
1982 Bibliography on SC and ST and marginal tribes published by the Government of India that shows Dhangar as a Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra.
8/9/1982 MLA Chimanrao Kadam states in the assembly that the Mandal Commission states that Dhangad and Dhangar are the same.
8/9/82 The Tribal Research and Training Centre Pune issued a circular for the guidance of competent authorities to issue caste certificates.

The circular stated that Dhangads were a Scheduled Tribe only in the eight districts of Vidharbha region.

1983 The circular was challenged in WP 1110/83 on the ground that the state government had no powers to impose area restrictions for issuing Caste Certificates as the Parliament had removed the area restrictions in 1977.

The State Government filed an affidavit and stated that the circular dated 8/9/82 was withdrawn on 24/3/83. The withdrawal order was not circulated by the State Government to the concerned officers who issue caste certificates for three years for reason best known by them.

24/4/85 The state government again issued a similar circular.

The circular stated that people of Dhangar community deceive the government by producing false certificates as Dhangad. The circular further stated that Dhangads are found only in the District of Gadchiroli.

16/12/1986. Assistant Director states that Dhangad and Dhangar may be one and the same.
28/04/1989 CAG report recommends the inclusion of Dhangar community in the list of Scheduled Tribe.
06/09/1989 The Government of India states in a letter that Dhangar is already included in the list of Scheduled Tribe and the census of Oraon, Dhangad and Dhangar is already carried out.
22/12/1989 MP Mrs Suryakanta Patil asks whether Dhangar is included in the list of Scheduled Tribe. The minister replies that Dhangar of Maharashtra is already included in the list of Scheduled Tribe and Dhangar and Dhangad is considered the same.
1989 Dhangars in the state of Maharashtra agitate for the ST status. PM Rajiv Gandhi accepts their demands.
25/5/1990 Sharad Pawar lead State Government included the Nomadic or wandering Shepherd Class i.e. Dhangar Community in the list of Nomadic Tribe with 3.5% reservation by depriving them the ST status. Creamy layer excluded.
23/3/1994 NT List amended.
1994 Kumbi and Kunbi regarded as one and the same.
23/11/95 The then Chief Minister Manohar Joshi declared at Nagpur that the circular dated 24/4/1985 was withdrawn.
19/5/1995 The State Backward Class Commission (Khatri Commission) was formed.
13/06/1995 The State of Maharashtra prepares the list of Special Backward Class.
12/7/96 The Government of Maharashtra (Revenue and Forest Department) publishes a notification under Bombay Court fees Act 1959 in the Gazette in which the list of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe is given. The Marathi version of the Scheduled Tribes uses the word ‘Dhangar’ and the English version ‘Dhangad’. This shows that the letters ‘R’ and ‘D’ are interchangeable and both the words mean the same.
6/11/97 The State of Maharashtra issued notification in leading news papers appealing the public to send information about the communities that were included in the guide lines issued by Tribal development department Bombay dated 24/4/85 by ignoring the Ethnographic reports and Bibliographies published by the Government of India.
12/11/1998 As per the recommendations of Khatri Commission, Mutatkar Commission, Edate Commission list of VJNT and OBC’s was amended.
27/10/1999 The list of OBC of the State of Maharashtra amended.
1/1/2001 The list of OBC of the State of Maharashtra amended.
14/02/2001 The list of VJNT of the State of Maharashtra amended.
19/3/2001 The Government of Maharashtra (Revenue and Forest Department) again publishes a notification under Bombay Court fees Act 1959 in the Gazette in which the list of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe is given. The Marathi version of the Scheduled Tribes uses the word ‘Dhangar’ and the English version ‘Dhangad’. This shows that the letters ‘R’ and ‘D’ are interchangeable and both the words mean the same.
29/05/2001 The Backward Class Commission (Khatri Commission ) formed.
31/03/2002 The Venkatachaliah Commission on the review of the working of the Constitution submits its report. The commission makes recommendations for Nomadic tribes. The report states that the continued plight of the Denotified tribes, semi-nomadic and nomadic tribes who are distributed in the list of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Backward class is an eloquent illustration of the failure of the machinery of planning, financial resources allocating budgeting and administration in the country to seriously follow the mandate of Art. 46. The report further states that the adequate representation of backward classes is, however, still a far cry and special efforts need to be made for effectively enforcing reservation of backward classes to achieve their adequate representation.
2/8/2002 MP Pradeep Rawat tells the house that there is a spelling mistake in the word Dhangad in the list of Scheduled Tribe and the word must be Dhangar. The minister replies that there is no spelling mistake.
/12/2002 The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Orders (Second Amendment) Bill, 2002. Twenty- Seventh Report. Standing Committee on labour and Welfare (2002) (13th Loksabha), Ministry of Tribal Welfares observed in its report that the Ministry should review/revise the criteria for identifying the tribes and the modalities. 2.36 The Committee noted that there are various communities which are synonyms to each other but have not been included in the present Bill. For example in the case of ‘Dhangad’ and ‘Dhangar’ communities of Maharashtra which are similar to each other but the State Government have rejected their claim stating that ‘Dhangad’ and ‘Dhangar’ are two distinct communities having no ethnic affinity. The Committee are of the opinion that if a community have the similar characteristics, their claims should not be rejected on the flimsy grounds like involving correction in the spelling of certain tribes. The Committee, therefore, recommends that the Ministry should take up the matter with the State Government to remove the anomaly in the nomenclature of these communities.

The committee observed that as the State of Maharashtra has not made any recommendations of the Dhangar community they are not included in the amended list.

2002 The Scheduled Tribe list amended. Dhangar/Dhangad included in the list of MP at sr.no. 35, Bihar- 26, Odissa – 53, WB – 33, Chatisghar – 33, Jharkhand – 25. Already in Maharashtra at sr.no. 36.
22/1/2004 PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee declares in a rally at Pandharpur that if BJP lead NDA comes to power it would give ST status to Dhangar community as per the National Commission for Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes which was newly set up on 22/11/2003. However, the community expected assurance of ST status implementation.
26/02/2004 Daily Maharashtra Times (Mumbai Mahanagar edition) reports that the State of Maharashtra has recommended the inclusion of De-notified Tribes in the list of SC and Nomadic Tribes in the list of Scheduled Tribe
1/06/2004 The list of OBC and NT amended.
6/9/2004 The State of Maharashtra recommends the inclusion of Dhangar community in the list of "Third Schedule".
12/07/2005
6/2/2006 The National Commission for Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes reconstituted on 14/3/2005 assumed its functioning w.e.f. 6th Feb, 2006. Mr. Balkrishna Renke appointed as the Chairman.
1/3/2006 OBC, SBC, VJNT lists amended. (Total castes and sub-castes OBC- 291, SBC – 41, VJ – 16, NT – 37, SC – 59, ST – 47.)
13/09/2006 Agarwal committee constituted by the State of Maharashtra.
21/11/2006
1/5/2007 All India Dhangar Samaj starts Hunger Strike at Latur. One of them, Mr. Gunaji Mhatre goes missing from the venue of Strike and is not yet found. Complaint filed.
10/6/2007 VJNT and SBC Emp and Officers association formed.
9/8/2007 & 17/09/2007 All India Dhangar Samaj Mahasangh made representations to State Government and Central Government for implementation of Scheduled Tribe status.
13/10/2007 Renke Commission submitted its interim report on the status of some 500 De-notified tribes who make up to 12 crore population scattered across India. Final report likely to be submitted in July 2008.
28/4/2008 Madhya Pradesh sends proposal to the Government of India for inclusion of Dhangar community in the list of Scheduled Tribe.
5/5/2008 All India Dhangar Association finishes the Hunger Strike at Mumbai by taking a rally on Mantralaya on the Birth anniversary of Karl Marx.
14/05/2008 In response to the Strike the Government of Maharashtra replies that the Government of India has included the Dhangar tribe in the List of Scheduled Tribes and that Dhangar Caste is included in the list of Nomadic Tribes by the Government of Maharashtra. That there is no spelling mistake in Dhangad and that Dhangar caste does not fulfill the criteria as laid down by the central government.
27/05/2008 Leaders of Dhangar community across all political parties arrange massive rally at Mumbai for their demands.
12/06/2008 List of OBC, DTNT amended by the Government of Maharashtra.
18/06/2008 Agarwal Commission records evidence of Dhangar community’s delegation.
02/07/2008 Renke Commission submitted its report.
28/08/2008 The CM declares to constitute a new commission headed by a Retd. High Court Judge which would submit its report within a time bond period at the earlist.

See also

Source Prof. Kokane P. N., Socio-Legal Identification of Scheduled Castes/Tribes & Backward Classes, 2007.

Notable Dhangars

Kingdoms

  • Baghel/Vaghela of Rewa (Madhya Pradesh)

Academic / Teachers

  • Dr. Babasaheb P. Bandgar. VC, Solapur University
  • Dr. Arvind Burungale.
  • Prof.Shivajirao Kharat. Retd. Professor of Entomology, Dr.BSKKV, Dapoli.
  • Prof.Dnyanoba Bhaurao Dhaigude.,Professor of Mathematics,Dr.BAM University, Aurangabad(M.S),India.
  • prof. Dattatraya M. Dange., Professor of karmaveer Bhaurao Patil Mahavidyala Pandharpur.
  • Dr.Bajrang Korde.Reader at University of Pune

Scientists

  • Shri. Hake. ISRO
  • Er. Abhishek Pal ISRO

Military

Judiciary

  • Hon'ble Justice D. A. Mane.
  • Hon'ble Justice Kumud Pal UP
  • Adv. Amit A. Karande.
  • Adv. Nanasaheb Mote.
  • Adv. Shivajirao Hake.
  • Adv. Suresh Tekade.
  1. Adv Hanmant Govind Wakshe- High Court Bombay - 702,Vishnupriya Co-op.Hsg. Society Sector 18(A), Nerul Navi Mumbai.

& Adv Abhiman Dnyanoba Patil.

Members of Parliament

  • Bandaru Dattatreya - Former Union Minister.
  • Siddaramaiah - Former Deputy Chief Minister of Karnataka
  • B.K.Parthasarathi- former MP Telugu Desam Party of Hindupur, Andhrapradesh.
  • C.H.Vijayshankar – Mysore
  • Shri. Channaiah Odeyar- Former MP of Davanagere.
  • D.K.Naiker - Former KPCC president.
  • Dr B K Ravi
  • Dr Y.Nagappa - Former Minister
  • H.Vishwanath - Former Minister
  • H. M. Revanna
  • Juel Oraon
  • K.S.Eshwarappa - BJP Leader and Irrigation Minister
  • Kollur Mallappa- Former MP of Raichur.
  • K.R.Subbian - Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
  • K.Virupakshappa
  • Kartik Oraon
  • Late Shri Rakhmaji Gawade EX. MP Beed Maharahtra
  • Rajaram Pal (U.P)
  • Rameshwar Oroan. State Minister GOI
  • Ratan Dewasi
  • Shri Ram Pal M.P. (Rajyasabha)
  • Sagar Raika
  • Sarika Singh Baghel. (M.P)
  • V.L.Patil (Ex-M.P.,Ex-Minister Of Karnataka)
  • Vijay Shankar M.P. (Karnataka)
  • Shri S. Vishwanath

Politics

  • B. K. Kokare. Founder, Yashwant Sena
  • Late Shivajirao Shendge.
  • Late Rakhamaji Gawade (Ex MP & MLA Beed dist (M.S.)
  • Mahadeo Jankar, Founder President, Rashtriya Samaj Paksha
  • Anandrao Devkate Ex-Minister (Maharashtra) (INC)
  • Anil Gote. MLA
  • Anilkumar Patil. Ex-MLA
  • Annasaheb Dange. Ex-Minister (Maharashtra)(NCP)
  • Ayodhya Prasad Pal
  • Babubhai Desai
  • Bhawanbhai Bharwad
  • Dattatraya Pandhare. Ex-Vice President (INC).
  • Ganpatrao Deshmukh M.L.A. (Maharashtra) PWP
  • Ganpatrao Patil Ex-M.L.A. (Maharashtra)
  • Haridas Badhe. MLA.(B.B.M)
  • Hukum Chand Yadav MLA
  • Jethabhai Bharwad
  • Kakasaheb Thorat Ex-MLA
  • Lakhan Singh Baghel
  • Malharrao Mahulkar Ex-MLA
  • Nanasaheb Kokare. Ex-M.L.A. (B.J.P)
  • Pritamsinh Deokate.(India)(NCP)
  • Popatrao Gawade. Ex-M.L.A. (Maharashtra) (NCP)
  • Prakashanna Shendge M.L.A.(Maharashtra) BJP
  • Rajesh Yadav
  • Raju Pal.
  • Ram Shinde. MLA. (BJP)
  • Ramesh Shendge MLC (NCP)
  • Ramkaran Pal. (M.L.C.) (Bihar)
  • Shaitansinh Pal (M.P)
  • Shambhuraje Deokate.(U.N.O. Former Chief President Of Indian Ministry Of Maharashtra)
  • Somnath Waghmode. Vice President, Maha. Youth Cong.
  • Pratap Singh Baghel - MLC (Agra, U.P.)
  • Srimati Pooja Pal MLA
  • Sundersingh Baghel. M.L.A. (U.P.)
  • Vijayrao More. Ex-MLC (INC)

Social Workers / Reformists

  • Shri. Devidas (Bapu) Hatkar
  • Avinash Banne
  • Periyar E. V. Ramasamy Nayakar
  • Adv. Gunderao Bansode. Founder President, All India Dhangar Association.
  • BHAGAPPA GORANAL-Social worker from 1986 in Karnataka has worked hard in reform of Kaginele Kanaka Gurupeetha
  • Captain Shriram Pal Holkar. - Editor of "THE GREAT HOLKAR TIMES" from Delhi
  • Dr. Shyam Singh Shashi (awarded Padma Shri in 1990)
  • Dinesh Mohaniya - Delhi
  • Gunajirao Mhatre
  • Jayantkumar Kathavate.
  • Kancha Ilaiah - Social Activist and Writer
  • Kashinath Deokate
  • Kishanlal Dhangar. Mathura.
  • Kishor Lasure
  • Krantiveer Bapu Biru Wategaonkar
  • Kuruba Bandayya - Co-founder of Peoples War Group
  • Gorakhnath Jadhav - Founder President, Ahilyadevi Holkar Pratishtan,Nashik.
  • Lahuji Shewale
  • Laxmanrao Chingle
  • Lakhmi Chand Pal
  • M. Ramarao Holkar.
  • Madhu Shinde. Rtd. IPS.
  • Prabhuji Kokane
  • Subhash Khemnar
  • Vitthalrao Jankar.
  • Waman Bhur
  • Marotrao Bansode(Pahelwan)
  • Sir Bane Vitthal Dhondiram, Principal
  • Uma Shankar Pal General Secretary Pal Mahasabha Uttar Pradesh
  • Prakash Pal Sr.Vice President Pal Mahasabha, Uttar Pradesh
  • Dr Basant Pal. 33 Appu Enclace, Pallavpuram, Meerut

Civil Servants

  • Shrinivas Karande. Founder President, VJNT & SBC Emp. & Officers Association.
  • Rajendra Madane.
  • Dashrath Pal (I.A.S.) Varansi

Women

  • Anju Singh, President-Ahilya Bai Holkar Foundation, Lucknow.
  • Arunatai Wakse (Mayor, Solapur) (INC)
  • Bachendri Pal - 1st Indian woman (5th in world) to climb Mount Everest.
  • Chhayatai Chigure (President Z.P. Latur)
  • Laxmidevi Ramanna - First woman representative in Mysore Assembly.
  • Ratnatai Choudhary (Social Worker) (INC)
  • Rukhminitai Baburao Pawar(Awarded Padma Shri in 1994)- Former President,Shree Mahila Grih Udyaog Lijjat Papad, Mumbai.
  • Sampat Devi Pal MLA
  • Vaishalitai Satpute (Former President, Solapur Zilla Parishad) (NCP)
  • Vasundhara Shivnekar (Rashtrapati Award Winner)
  • Yogita Kokare (Former President, Pune Zilla Parishad) (NCP)

Industrialists

  • Babasaheb Chaure
  • Bhaurao Rupnar sangola dist. Solapur

Corporate

Media

  • Adv. Dilip Yedatkar, Editor, Social Worker (B.S.P.)
  • Mahendra Pratap Singh, Rashtriya Sahara, Lucknow.
  • Indrajeet Pal. Purvanchal samachar Mumbai.
  • Ramesh Thakur, Bhopal
  • Babu Lal Rajpal Ex. Editor and Manager PK Samchar
  • Ram Sawroop Pal. Editor- PAL Today. Lucknow
  • Pravin Kolapte,Sub editor Raigad Times Ratnagiri.

Writers/Poets

  • N. D. Mahanor awarded Padma Shri
  • S. L. Akkisagar,Mumbai
  • Dr. Dharmaveer Shastri of Aligarh,
  • Dr. Dharmaveer Singh of Bulandshahar,
  • Dr. Shri Ram Pal of Allahabad,
  • Ganesh Matkar.
  • Govind bhai Rabari
  • Homesh Bhujade
  • Karnabhai Maldhari
  • Late Ganpatrao Kolekar
  • Madhusudanrao Holkar
  • Poonabhai Soorabhai Bharwad
  • Ummed singh Rabari
  • Mahendra Pratap Singh,Lucknow.
  • D.M.Dange pandharpur dist solapur. awarded by sahitya kalayatri pune.2004

Film/Television

  • Rajashekar - Kannada Film Director
  • B.V. Radha - Veteran Character Actor in Kannada Movies.
  • Surendrapal - Dronacharya in Mahabharat serial
  • Sharad Yashwant Goekar. - National award: Best Child Artist : Tingya (Marathi Movie)[96]

Sports

Hockey

  • Major Dhyanchand . The great Hockey player of India.
  • Dada Kishan Lal. Former Captain, awarded Padma Shri

Wrestlers

  • Miss Priyanka Burungale. National Champion
  • Aaba Sul - Maharashtra Kusti Mahavir.
  • Bapurao Lokhande - Maharashtra Kesari.
  • Gorakh Sarak - Maharashtra Kesari.
  • Pappu Yadav – Hind Kesari
  • Rajesh Pal bhusawal

Other

  • Pandurang Rachkar. Krishi Ratna.

See also

References

  1. ^ In ancient times wealth used to be measured by the number of cows. Thus Dhenu means Cow and Dhan means wealth and Dhan+agar means one who is having lots of animal wealth which includes Sheeps and Cows. Generally the Dhangars keeps more Sheeps as compared to Cows as the Dhangars consider ’350’ an ideal number of sheep, 60 buffaloes and 20 cows for a unit of five to seven families. They also have Horses to carry their luggage while wandering and Dogs for alerting from wild animals. They carry bear-spear or Barcha which can be used on their Shepherds stick, used to herd sheeps, and used as a weapon when needed. Thus as the number of Sheeps is more they are known as Shepherds.
  2. ^ a b c The The Castes and Tribes of H.E.H. the Nizam's Dominions By Syed Siraj ul Hassan
  3. ^ Prof. Dr. R. N. Sakasena, Dhangars and Gadariyas, The Most Backward Divisions of Indian Tribes and Castes, Research Paper
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dhangar Samaj Prachin Eitihas va Kul Gotra, Ganpatrao Kolekar, 1992.(Marathi)
  5. ^ a b The Tribes and Castes of Bombay By Reginald Edward Enthoven
  6. ^ Rajputs and Dhangars have same or common Gotras
  7. ^ R V Russel, The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India, Vol II, pg 118
  8. ^ Bombay Gazetter, Vol. IX, Part I, pp 267-285
  9. ^ Dr. D. D. Kosambi, Myth and Reality: Studies in the Formation of Indian Culture,pg 28. 1962, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai.
  10. ^ Dr. D. D. Kosambi, Pracheen Bharat Ki Sanskriti Aur Sabhyata, pg 148
  11. ^ Fusion of cult and Icon. 1.5. When does a fusion work? Dr. D. D. Kosambi
  12. ^ R V Russel, The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India, Vol II, pg 118
  13. ^ Bombay Gazetter, Vol. IX, Part I, pp 267-285
  14. ^ Shepherds are known as Bharwad in Gujrat. The Bharwad who are migrated to Goa are Dhangars. Bharwad means Shepherds. They are Dhangars
  15. ^ See Shepherd
  16. ^ For details see K.C. Malhotra et al., ’Gene differentiation among the Dhangar caste cluster of Maharashtra. India’, Human Heredity, Vol. 28, pp. 23-26.
  17. ^ Landscapes in Conflict: Flocks, Hero-stones, and Cult in early medieval Maharashtra. Ajay Dandekar
  18. ^ For instance, the Dhangars consider ’350’ an ideal number of sheep, 60 buffaloes and 20 cows for a unit of five to seven families. There also happen to be three and a half auspicious periods. See G.D. Sontheimer, ’The Dhangars: a nomadic pastoral community in a developing agricultural environment’, G.D. Sontheimer and L.S. Leshnik, eds., Pastoralists and Nomads in South Asia, Wiesbaden, 1975, p. 140.
  19. ^ There also happen to be three and a half Shakti Peethas in Maharashtra, Mother Ambabai of Kolhapur, Mother Renuka of Mahur, Mother Bhavani of Tuljapur and Mother Bhagavati of Saptashrungi.
  20. ^ Dhangars of the Konkan region, Mahur region, Telang region, Varhad region etc are also called Kokani, Mahure, Telange, Tellari, Varhadi respectively like Marathe, Mavale, Hetkari. Jhade are from eastern Vidharbha. They fall in either of the one sub-divisions.
  21. ^ Peter Mundy. Travels. R.C. Temple, ed., Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. II, London, 1914, pp. 95-96. Mundy recorded that a Banjara caravan could have as many as 20,000 bullocks. On an average, the Banjara tanda (camp) would consist of 10-12 thousand bullocks. These bullocks were provided by the Dhangars. The Banjaras were not only salt, grain merchants, but traded in cattle. Sontheimer suggests that the name Banjara could be derived from term Vanchara (Vanjara) meaning ’roaming in the woods (with cattle) ’. There thus exists a symbiotic relationship between the Dhangars and the Banjaras or Vanjaras where the latter provided the Dhangars grain for cattle and the former provided the Banjaras or Vanjaras with bullocks.
  22. ^ Ajay Dandekar, The Warlis and the Dhangars, The Context of the Commons.
  23. ^ Paper by Rai Bahādur Panda Baijnāth, Superintendent, Bastar State.
  24. ^ Paper by Kanhya Lāl, clerk in the Gazetteer office
  25. ^ The Castes and Tribes of H. E. H. The Nizam’s Dominions, Bombay. 1920, pp. 248-66.
  26. ^ S.B. Joshi. ’Etymology of place-names’, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 13, 1952, 5066;
  27. ^ also see Sontheimer. Pastoral Deities of Western India. London, 1989, p. 127.
  28. ^ Landscapes in Conflict: Flocks, Hero-stones, and Cult in early medieval Maharashtra. Ajay Dandekar. Centre For Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University
  29. ^ see modern day Marathwada(country of Dhangars) i.e. area around Hingoli
  30. ^ Deccan means South
  31. ^ The The Castes and Tribes of H.E.H. the Nizam's Dominions, by Syed Siraj ul Hassan
  32. ^ The Tribes and Castes of Bombay by Reginald Edward Enthoven
  33. ^ Satara District Gazetteer
  34. ^ The flag of Holkar's too carried, a spear, cow, horse and sword on it.
  35. ^ Maharashtra State Gazeeteers and District Gazeeters of Maharashtra, 1977
  36. ^ A History of the Mahrattas by James Grant Duff, Vol II, pg. 173. London, 1826.
  37. ^ a b The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India by R. V. Russell
  38. ^ The tribes and castes of the central provinces of India By R.V. Russell, R.B.H. Lai,pg 205
  39. ^ Colonel Meadows Taylor, Tara, pg 404
  40. ^ a b Those Supermen In History,By Ramachandra Guha, A Washington Itinerary (Telegraph, K.P. NAYAR , Jun 16, 2001) retrived on 04/07/2009 from [www.telegraphindia.com/1010616/editoria.htm]
  41. ^ As per R.C. Dhere, Shivaji was Hattikara-Dhangar. Yadav is Kul Gotra of Shepherds. Golla are Shepherds. Dhangars of Karnataka and Goa are also called as Gavali. In old Kannada lexicon Hattikara means Govali or Cowherd. Today Hattikara/Hatkar and Dhangar are exclusively used for Shepherd Caste of Maharashtra. Holkars are also Hatkar-Dhangar. See R. C. Dhere, Shikar Shingnapurcha ShriShambhu Mahadeo, 2001, Pune, (Marathi), Pg. 276, 277, 288, 297, 307, 312, 338, 384, 221, 143, 127, 78, 67, 45, 2
  42. ^ Udyotan Suri's Kuvalayamala of the Eighth century
  43. ^ In tenth century Al-Biruni mentions the Marhatta region with Thane as its capital.
  44. ^ Maratha meant person of Maratha country. Mahratta is a English curruption or misspelling of the word Marhatta. Marhatta later became Maratha.
  45. ^ Mahrattas - LoveToKnow 1911
  46. ^ Bhartiya Sanskruti Kosh Vol 2, p. 128.
  47. ^ The Asiatic journal and monthly register for British and foreign India, pg 355. Published in 1827.
  48. ^ Nanded District Gazeetter.
  49. ^ Kaka Kalelkar Commission Report, B D Deshmukh report, Edate report etc
  50. ^ Mohamed Rahmatulla, Census of India Vol XXI, Hyderabad State, Part I Report, 1921, p. 244
  51. ^ The suffix 'ba' and 'ai' to the kuladaivait means father and mother respectively.
  52. ^ Bharat Samachar
  53. ^ Dances of Maharashtra-Dhangri Gaja-Tamasha
  54. ^ People of India - Page 801 by Kumar Suresh Singh, B. V. Bhanu, Anthropological Survey of India - Maharashtra (India) - 2004
  55. ^ reaffirmed, confirmed and declared in 1933 in the conference of Hindu Mahasabha which was held at Ajmer.
  56. ^ The present day Clan system of Kshatriya, Suryavanshi, Chandravanshi Lineages, have Rajput Gotras showing that Rajputs and Dhangar are same. The people of Rajputana are also called Rajput and historically Rajputs mean intermarrying Royal Clans.
  57. ^ Though the Jativiveka (Examination of Castes), as mentioned by Ethoven as one theory, asserts that they are descended from a Shudra father and Mahisya women, Jati Viveka fails to explain how Shepherds could be born to a Shudra, when they never were considered Shudra. Sheep rearing was never an occupation of Shudras. As per Manu Smrti, Shepherd must be avoided at the sacrifices offered to Gods and Manes, hence it is a despised race.(3.116). But why they should be avoided is not mentioned. However the same Manusmrti at 10.95 states that a Kshatriya who has fallen into distress, may subsist by all means i.e. even by becoming a Shepherd, which is self-contradictory. Dhangars were created by Lord Shiva and that they were never Shudras but are Kshtriyas is the widely accepted theory. It is impossible to go by Jativiveka and Manusmrti, as in reality Shepherds have been Kings throughout history. The author and the period when Manu Smrti was written is unknown. Jativiveka is unknown. Note that Sage Tapa who offered sacrifices to Gods and Manes himself was a Shepherd. Lord Krishna who belonged to this caste is Kshatriya.
  58. ^ The tribes and castes of Bombay By Reginald Edward Enthoven, pg 320.
  59. ^ Molecular insight into the genesis of ranked caste populations of western India by Sonali Gaikwad and VK Kashyap
  60. ^ Kashyap, VK and Guha, S. and Sitalaximi, T. and Bindu, G.H. and Hasnain, S.E. and Trivedi, R. (2006). "Genetic structure of Indian populations based on fifteen autosomal microsatellite loci". BMC Genetics 7: pp. 28. http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2156-7-28.pdf. 
  61. ^ Bhartiya Sanskruti Kosh, Vol 1 page 472
  62. ^ Dhangar Samaj, Prachin Eitihas wa gotra, G B Kolelar, 1992
  63. ^ Rigved M.1 S 89
  64. ^ Dhangar Samaj, Prachin Eitihas wa gotra, G B Kolelar, 1992
  65. ^ Ajay Dandekar, The Warlis and the Dhangars, The Context of the Commons.
  66. ^ see 108 (number)
  67. ^ Dhangar samajachi gotre, Ganpatrao Kolekar, 1981 (Marathi)
  68. ^ Hamara Samaj, Bharat ke Meshpal, 1973 (Hindi)
  69. ^ Holkaron Ka Eithihas, Madhusudanrao Holkar(Hindi), 2000
  70. ^ Holkaron Ka Eithihas, Madhusudanrao Holkar(Hindi), 2000
  71. ^ Prof. Dr. R. N. Sakasena, Dhangars and Gadariyas, The Most Backward Divisions of Indian Tribes and Castes, Research Paper
  72. ^ note: The list of other names or alternate names is confirmed as per the Report of the Backward Classes Commission, Vol. II (Lists) by Kaka Kalelkar, 1955.(Kalelkar Commission)
  73. ^ The Mysore Tribes and Castles By L.K.A Iyer, Vol. III, pg 507-513.
  74. ^ Col.Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol II, pages 359, 893. Published by Rupa & Co.first published 1832,reprint 2002
  75. ^ The meaning of the Sanskrit word Ajapal/Ajpal is Shepherd
  76. ^ Col.Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol I, page 261, 263. Published by Rupa & Co.first published 1832,reprint 2002.
  77. ^ He is called as the Royal Shepherd or the Princely Shepherd.
  78. ^ As per R.C. Dhere, Shivaji was Hattikara-Dhangar. Yadav is Kul Gotra of Shepherds. Golla are Shepherds. Dhangars of Karnataka and Goa are also called as Gavali. In old Kannada lexicon Hattikara means Govali or Cowherd. Today Hattikara/Hatkar and Dhangar are exclusively used for Shepherd Caste of Maharashtra. Holkars are also Hatkar-Dhangar. See R. C. Dhere, Shikar Shingnapurcha ShriShambhu Mahadeo, 2001, Pune, (Marathi), Pg. 276, 277, 288, 297, 307, 312, 338, 384, 221, 143, 127, 78, 67, 45, 2
  79. ^ English writer Laurens compared her with Catherine the Great of Russia, Queen Elizabeth and Queen Margaret of Denmark.
  80. ^ Their Kuladaivat was Birrappa, the God of Dhangars
  81. ^ Bhartiya Sanskruti Kosh Vol 2 and 8
  82. ^ ETHNOGRAHY (castes and tribes) By Baines, Jervoise Athelstane, Sir, Siegling, W. pg. 103.1912. ISBN 1110292333, 9781110292332
  83. ^ A History of the Mahrattas by James Grant Duff, Vol II, pg. 173. London, 1826.
  84. ^ Akola, Nagpur, Bhandara, Wardha, Amravati, Yeotmal District Gazeetters,1977.
  85. ^ Indian Coin Society, Prashant P. Kulkarni, Coinage of the Bhonsla Rajas of Nagpur, 1990. pg 31
  86. ^ Chaanakya Ani Chandragupta Maurya , Adhich Hajaar varsh poorvichaa Itihaas" in Marathi by Shri Hari narayan Apte published in 1902 AD
  87. ^ The first statue installed in parliament house (at its 5th gate) is of the great Indian Emperor Chandragupta Maurya by Shri Hilda Selegman . It is incribed on it that " Shepherd boy Chandragupta Maurya dreaming of the India he was to create ".
  88. ^ Maurya is one of the Clans of Dhangars
  89. ^ called by Veer Savarkar as Sawai Sikander (Alexander)
  90. ^ Nanded District Gazeetter
  91. ^ V. D. Mahajan, Ancient India 1990, Pg 705
  92. ^ ETHNOGRAHY (castes and tribes) By Baines, Jervoise Athelstane, Sir, Siegling, W. pg. 103. 1912. ISBN 1110292333, 9781110292332
  93. ^ Kamath (2001), p 159
  94. ^ Robert Sewell, A Forgotten Empire (Vijaynagar): A Contribution to the History of India, Chapter 2
  95. ^ The Asiatic journal and monthly register for British and foreign India, pg 355. Published in 1827.
  96. ^ National Film Award scripts shepherd boy’s dream journey to Delhi. Daily Indian Express dtd 8/9/2009

External links

Bibliography

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The Bharwad are a Hindu caste found in the state of Gujarat in India. Those of Saurashtra use Ahir as a surname, while those in south Gujarat use Patel as a surname.[1]

Contents

Origin

The term Bharwad is said to be a modified form of the word Badawad, from the Gujarati words bada meaning sheep and wada meaning enclosure. This name was said to be acquired by the Bharwad on the account of their traditional occupation of being shephards. According to their own traditions they are descendents of Anavil Bharwad, who helped a Chavda prince regain his kingdom. There are also traditions that they are members of the Ahir tribe who took up the occupation of shepharding. The Bharwada are found mainly in Kutch and Saurashtra.They are divided into two endogamous sections, the Mota Bhai and Nanabhai.[2]

Present circumstances

The Bharwads are still pastoralists, who are permitted by the state of Gujarat to graze their sheep and cattle in certain demarcated areas. Some Bharwad also possess agricultural land, and some have taking to farming. Many are also employed as agricultural labourers. The Bharwad of the Gir, Alech and Barda forests have scheduled tribe status.[3]

The Bharwad are further divided into a number of clans known as ataks. Some of the motabhai Bharwad clans include the Sindhav, Hadagda, Rathadia, Jadav, Matia, Santia, Bathela, Gomara, Kathodi, Mundhva, Dharangia, Colthar, Pancha, Dabi, Garia, Sasda, Babha, Lambari, Dhangla, Ker and Tota. The fisrt three clans among the motabhai claim equal status, and intermarry. All the Bharwad strictly adhere to the custom of clan exogamy. While among the Bharwad of south Gujarat, their main clans are the Chandulka, Rokadka, Kalwamia, Jodika, Gundarya, Kuhadiya, and Dahika.[4]

The Bharwad are Hindu, and like other Hindu pastoral communities pay special reverence to Lord Krishna. Each clan also has its own deity, while their chief goddess is Masai Mata.

See also

the Nana bhai bharwad also divided in su casts like meer,boriya,algotar,sabhad,jograna,satiya,sindhav,dabhla,parmar etc.

References

  1. ^ People of India Gujarat Volume XXI Part One edited by R.B Lal, P.B.S.V Padmanabham, G Krishnan & M Azeez Mohideen pages 194 to 199
  2. ^ People of India Gujarat Volume XXI Part One edited by R.B Lal, P.B.S.V Padmanabham, G Krishnan & M Azeez Mohideen pages 194 to 199
  3. ^ People of India Gujarat Volume XXI Part One edited by R.B Lal, P.B.S.V Padmanabham, G Krishnan & M Azeez Mohideen pages 194 to 199
  4. ^ People of India Gujarat Volume XXI Part One edited by R.B Lal, P.B.S.V Padmanabham, G Krishnan & M Azeez Mohideen pages 194 to 199

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