|Classification:||Caste/Kshatriya Dhangar (Shepherds)|
|Significant populations in:||India|
|Language||Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu|
The Dhangar (Sanskrit / Devanāgarī: धनगर ) caste is primarily located in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The literal translation of the name Dhangar is "Wealthy". The Dhangars of the Northern or Southern India are reasonably considered to belong to the same race. The word Dhangar is derived from the Sanskrit word 'Dhenu' i.e. Cow. They are called by different synonyms like Dhangar, Dhangad and Dhanpal. Dhang also means a hill or a mountain. During the times of hardship some Kshatriyas went to the mountains and hills with their sheep and cows and stayed in the forests: these people are called Dhangars.
The “Ain-i-Akbari” describes them as being a proud, refractory and domineering race of Rajputs, living in the Basim Sircar and, with numerous armed forces, occupying the forts and controlling the surrounding districts.
Lord Krishna was Dhangar. Nand Meher, the foster father of Lord Krishna, also belonged to this caste.. Lord Krishna, Prophet Muhammad and Jesus Christ were all Shepherds. Metaphorically, the term Shepherd is used for God.
Initially there were twelve tribes of Dhangar and they had a Division of labour amongst brothers of one family. This latter formed three sub-divisions and one half division (3.5). These three being Hatkar (Shepherds), Ahir (Cowherds) or Mhaskar(Gujar)(Buffaloe keepers), and Khutekar (Wool and Blanket weavers) / Sangar. The half division is called Khateek or Khatik (Butchers). All sub-castes fall in either of these divisions. All sub-divisions emerge from one stock and all sub-divisions claim to be a single group of Dhangars. Studies have revealed that they are genetically the closest. The number three and a half is not a random selection but has a religious and cosmological significance.
Ahir, Pal-Pali, Baghel, Mhaskar / Bargujar / Gurjar, Hatkar (Assal/Assali)/ Bargi / Barahatti / Barhatta / Bargahi / Baragahi / Bande (Revolutionary) / Zende (Brave) / Bhillari / Khillari / Metkari / Dange / Bakarwal / Pohol / Bharwad / Shippi /Banne / Kuruba (meaning trustworthy) / Kanore / Kanade /Katmore/ Kurmar / Kurbar / Kurumbar / Idaiyan / Idaiyar / Idaiga / Konar / Gavali / Golla / Mohaniya, Neekhar/Nikher, Khutekar / Gire / Dewanga / Kshitri / Khatri, Kuktekar, Sagar/,Sengar / Sangar / Shegar, Lad Mendhe / Ladse, Jhade / Jhadi / Zade, Hulwan, Konkani, Mahure / Mahurai, Telange, Tellari, Warhade / Varadi / Barade, Khatik / Rangiya / Chikva / Kasai / Ghodchade / Sonkar / Sunkhar / Birwal Jain / Badgujar / Vihari Vaishya / Meve Farosh / Halal / Kalal / Chakhana Kakal / Bakar Kasab / Purbiya / Kaseruval / Lad / Katik, Oraon, Talwar, Banjara / Vanjara , Kambar, Shirotya, Utekar, Gadge.  Dhangars are also called as Gauli/Govali/Gavali/ in Karnataka and Goa.
The Dhangars ignore the subcastes and project themselves only as Dhangars.
Captain Fitzgerald had observed that ‘the general idea is that originally there were Twelve Tribes of Bargi-Dhangars, who came from Hindustan, and the country about Hingoli was called Bara Hatti (Hatkar)’. The term Bara-Hatti could thus mean a country of the Dhangars of twelve hattis. The term Hatkar is derived from hatti. According to the Dravidian Etymological Dictionary, h(p)atti has the following meanings: pen (Kannada), hamlet (Malayalam), cowstall, sheepfold (Tamil). A hatti would therefore mean a sheep pen or a camp or a settlement of sheep-keepers. In the old Kannada lexicon hattikara occurs as a synonym of govali, or cowherds. These etymological linkages indicate a connection between the sheep and cattle keepers. The term means a camp of sheep-cattle keepers. Bara-hatti means a village consisting of twelve vadis. The vadi constitutes 20-23 Dhangar families.
The word “hat” means obstinacy in Marathi and “hatti” means being obstinate .Therefore "hatkar" means people who are obstinate. Captain Fitz Gerald, once an assistant commissioner in Berar, made the following observation:- “The Hatkars declare that they came prior to the Nizam becoming subhedar of Deccan on behalf of the King of Delhi. The Hatkars are all Bargi Dhangars, or the Shepherds with the Spears. The Hatkars say that they formerly, when going on any expedition, took only a blanket seven hands long and a bear-spear (Barcha/Barchi in Marathi), and that on this account they were called Bargir, or Barga Dhangars. The temper of Hatkars is said to be obstinate and quarrelsome. The great National weapon of Maratha country during Shivaji era was the Spear. A famous couplet of a Bengali cradle song, created by Oriya and Bengali people to make their babies sleep at night is quoted below.
"Chhele ghumalo para juralo Bargi elo deshe
Bulbulite dhan kheyechhe khajna debo kise?"
Hushed the child sleeps and quiet is the neighborhood now, for the Bargis have descended on our land; the bulbulis have eaten away our crops, how shall we pay our land tax?' Raghuji Karande ( Marathi : रघुजी कारंडे ) was the General of the Army of the Nagpur kingdom of Bhosale's i.e. of Raghoji I Bhonsle and Janoji Bhonsle. He had the entire army of Nagpur Bhosales under his command and was directly responsible only to them. He was considered to be one of the most capable and trustworthy persons of the Bhosales.
They are even now noted for their martial qualities and readily become soldiers. The armies of Shivaji were composed of recruits mainly drawn from this caste who were the most trusted by Shivaji. The bravest Maratha leaders, among whom the Holkars are the most distinguished, are of this tribe. When tending and driving sheep and goats Dhangars ejaculate 'Har, Har,' which is a name of Mahadeo used by devotees in worshipping him. The Dhangars furnished a valuable contingent to Sivaji's guerilla soldiery. The battle cry of the Marathas, “Har Har Mahadeo”, was used by the Dhangars—showing that Mavalas or the soldiers of Shivaji were Dhangars. These people of Maval or mountain valley above the Ghats were called Mavalas and below the Ghats towards the sea were called Hetkaris. Dhangars were thus the first people who became the soldiers of Shivaji.
At the time of his Coronation, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj showed that he belonged to the Gahlot (i.e. Sisodiya / Ranas of Mewar) Clan. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj belonged to this caste. The associates of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj were Balwantrao Devkate, Nimbaji Patole, Dadaji Kakade, Venkoji Khandekar, Dhanaji Shingade, Banaji Birje, Yesaji Thorat, Heroji Shelke, Bhavanrao Devkate, Mankoji Dhangar, Amdoji Pandhare, Godaji Pandhare, Indraji Gorad, Naikji Pandhare, Raiji Gadade, Bahirji Bandgar, Hande, Mahanavar.
The Shepherds of Maratha country are called Marathe (Marhatta (Singular) / Marhatte (Plural)/ Bar-hatta, i.e. Hatkar) (Hatkars of Western Maharashtra and Konkan are also called Maratha Dhangar). The Prakrit word Marhatta is found in Jain Maharashtri literature. Shahu Maharaj coined the word Maratha for the peasant section i.e. Kunbi. Historically "Maratha" was a common term used for people of Maharashtra region that speak Marathi. Today, however, the term "Maratha" refers only to those Marathi-speaking people who also belong to certain specific Hindu castes: for one available listing, refer to Maratha clan system. Thus, the terms "Maratha people" and "Maratha-Dhangar" are not interchangeable and should not be confused for each other. All Dhangars of Western Maharashtra and Konkan / Marhatta country, like Holkars, can be termed Marathas, but all Marathas are not Dhangars. For one available listing of Dhangars, refer to List of Dhangar clans in India.
The Dhangar name is exclusively used for the Shepherd Caste of Maharashtra. The Dhangar community is one of the oldest existing communities of India, tracing its history back to Mahabharata times. They have originated several ruling dynasties, most recently the Holkars of Indore. Prominent Dhangars have been Hakkaraya and Bukkaraya, founders of the Vijayanagara Empire. Dhangars have founded the Hoysalas, Holkar, Rashtrakutas, Maurya, Pallav dynasties. In addition the poets Kalidasa and Kanakadasa were also Dhangars. The famous Vithoba temple at Pandharpur was built by Vishnuvardhana, a Dhangar from the Hoysala Dynasty. The famous Meenakshi temple was built by Pallavas who were Dhangars. There is a tradition that Deoghur or Daulatabad was built in 1203 AD by a Dhangar or herdsman who acquiring by some unusual good fortune vast wealth was named by his brother shepherds Rajah Ram and soon after assumed the rank of a Raja. This warrior community, in the districts of Nanded, Parbhani and Berar, across the Painganga River, were in open rebellion from 1798 A. D. till 1820 A. D. under the brave leadership of Novsaji Naik and had taken possession of a number of strongholds.
Traditionally being Warriors, Shepherds, Cowherds, Buffaloe keepers, Blanket & Wool Weavers, Butchers and Farmers, Dhangars were late to take up modern day education. Though it has a notable population not only in Maharashtra but also in India, had a rich history, today it is still politically highly unorganized community and is socially, educationally, economically and politically backward. They lived a socially isolated life due to their occupation, wandering mainly in forests, hills and mountains.
For the affirmative action or the Reservation in India they are distributed into Advanced Class, Other Backward Class, Nomadic Tribe, Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste through out India.
In Maharashtra though they were classified as extremely backward since Independence they got reservation in 1990 after peaceful and non-violent agitation in 1989. The then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi told the State Government to immediately implement the Scheduled Tribe status but the Sharad Pawar led State government depreived the ST status and included them as Nomadic Tribe in 1990. The Creamy layer is excluded from reservations. In 2004, the then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in a rally at Pandharpur declared that if BJP lead NDA comes to power they would immediately confer the ST status. The All India Dhangar Association is still fighting to get the ST status.
Jejuri is one of the famous temples in Maharashtra. The God of Jejuri - Khandoba (Lord Shiva), the husband of Banai (from the Dhangar caste), is popular amongst the Dhangars as it is their Kuladaivat. Dhangars worship various forms of Father Lord Shiva, Lord Vishnu, Mother Parvati and Mother Mahalaxmi as their Kuldaivat, like Khandoba, Biroba, Mhasoba,Dholoba (Dhuleshwar), Vithoba, Janai, Malai, Tulai, Padubai, Ambabai. They generally worship the temple of these Gods that is nearest to their residence which becomes their kuladev and kuladevi. The place of their Kuladev and Kuladevi would mean that their original place of residence was some where in that region.
This is a dance form performed by Dhangars of Solapur district of Maharashtra. Their poetry is mainly inspired by the evergreen trees all around. The poetry is in a form called 'Ovi' which is made up of couplets. These poems also contain tales of the birth of their God "Biruba" or Birappa or Viroba, in simple and basic lines. The group of dancers surrounds the drum players and move at the drummers' rhythm.
See also List of Dhangar clans in India.
Dhangars are Kshatriyas. Dhangars employ Brahmins for religious and ceremonial purposes. Kshatriyas have three major castes (or ethnic groups) -- the Dhangars, the Rajputs and the Marathas. The Rajputs are Indo-Scythians and mainly had their kingdoms in North India. The Rajputs did not originate as a tribe or a single community. They emerge from history as a collection of clans ruling different regions. The term Rajput as it is used today refers to the set of intermarrying royal clans. The Marathas are Indo-Aryans and had an empire which spread all over central and North India. The Dhangars are Proto-Asians, who had their Kingdoms throughout India. Rajputs have 36 Clans, Marathas have 96 Clans and Dhangars have 108 clans in India out of which some are unknown so far. Originally these castes were one and had mutual interactions of dining together and intermarriage amongst them.
The widespread Palaeolithic mtDNA haplogroups and analysis of Y-DNA Haplogroup in Dhangar clans highlight their Proto-Asian genetic ancestries. Dhangar heterogeneity is ascribable to predominantly South-Asian males and West-Eurasian females. Dhangar have a significant Pleistocene gene pool, corroborating their “Proto-Asian” origin. As per J. H. Hutton they are Proto-Australoid. Kashyap (2006)  designates 23 out of 54 Indian populations studied as Australoid, of which one speaks an Indo-European language (Dhangar of Maharashtra).
Dhangars are believed to be Indo-Aryans as the Aryans were shepherds. Dhangar follow many rituals which were followed by Aryans. Aryans used to pierce the ears of their children, and Dhangars too pierce the ears of their children. Out of the 36 Queens of Kshayapa the 28th Queen, Sundara, was a Dhangar. Out of the Original 36 Rishis Tap Rishi and Manimahant were Dhangar.
The word Gotra is dereived from the word "Go" meaning Cow. In ancient times wealth used to be measured by the number of cows. The cows of one Kula used to be kept together which was termed Gotra this was later termed as Kula Gotra. Marriage in the Kula of one's own Pravaras is prohibited. Ethoven has listed 108 such exogamous groups of Dhangars. However Gautama Sutra has given two remedies for such marriages i.e. "Sutrakali Chandrayan, Kruch Prayaschit".
"Kuruba Hutavamunna Kulavilla Gotra Villam, Kuruban fal kani Basawanna."
"Before the Dhangars there were no gotras, gotras came with Dhangars, Basawanna, we are the decendants of Dhangars".
This shows that many Lingayats were Dhangars previously.
Enthoven in his observations has listed 22 Endogamous groups (Sub-Castes) and 108 Exogamous groups (Clans) of Dhangars (Enthoven 1920:311). It should be recorded that the list of the 22 Endogamous groups and 108 Exogamous groups of Dhangars, as provided by Enthoven, is not exhaustive.
Ahir,Ahir,Aagalave, Ahiyaru, Andar, Appugol,Bargujars, Bagadi, Brijbasi / Ghosh / Bargahi / Baragahi / Bargi (meaning- cattle owners) (UP), Bakarwal (Jammu & Kashmir), Bhadiyar / Gangajali, Bharavadaru, Bhati / Bhatia / Chang / Ghirath (Punj), Charan, Devanga, Dhangad / Dhanwar / Dhanpal / Dhangod, Doddi Gowda, Drokpa, Gaddi / Garri, Gaderia / Gadhariya / Gadaria / Gadariya / Gareri / Gauriya (UP, MP, Bihar), Gadri / Gairi / Gari / Gadade/Gawade/Ghosi / Gurjar / Dewasi / Charvaha (Rajasthan), Gari / Bharud / Ghosi (MP), Gavara (AP), Ghancha / Ghanchi, Golla / Gola / Gond /Gaola / Bagal, Gollavadu / Gowdiga, Gop (Assam), Gopal, Gounder, Gowda, Gwala / Gwal, Gavali (Goa, Karnataka), Gurung, Halumatha, Haridas, Hati (Soldier) (Guj), Heggades, Idaiga / Idyar / Idiyan / Idaiyar / Konar (Tamil Nadu), Kalali / Kalari, Kalavar, Kamaria, Kamli, Kanne, Kantak, Khuruk, Khatri, Kuruba Gowda, Gauliga, Kacha Gauliga, Kuruba (Karnataka, AP), Kuruma, Kurumavaaru, Kuda, Kurkhi, Kurmar / Kurma / Kurumba / Kurumbar / Kurumans / Kurubaru (Tamil Nadu), Kurupu, Mendpal, Magadha / Magadhi / Maghi (Bihar), Maldhari / Bharwad / Rabari / Jagri / Khavas / Gopalak (Gujrath), Meshshawak (Bengal), Mirdha, Muniyani, Naikers, Oraon / Saile / Agrayya (East India), Nayer, Neekhar/ Nikhers (North India), Paalakyatriya, Pal-Pali / Baghel / Rajpal (North India), Palaru, Poduvar, Raika, Yadavalu, Redharu, Rakhal, Bherarokhiya, Meshpalak, Meshpal, Attutidiyan, Attiyan, Bhagat, Bhedwar, Haldhar, Chagal etc.
Dhangar community in Maharashtra has been agitating for the implementation of Scheduled Tribe status. According to them Dhangar and Dhangad is one and the same and Dhangar community is included in the List of Scheduled Tribes in India#Maharashtra at Sr. no 36 Oraon, Dhangad. The only community present in the state is Dhangar that can be spelt as Dhangad and pronounced as Dhangar. There is no such community called Dhangad present in Maharashtra. The etnological and antropological information of Dhangad and Dhangar given in the reports is same which is of Shepherds. That is both the words mean a same single community which is Shepherds of Maharashtra. State of Maharashtra had twice recommended the Government of India to include the Dhangar community in the list of Scheduled Tribe. Even in 1989, the CAG report recommended the inclusion of Dhangar community in the list of Scheduled Tribe.
However, the State of Maharashtra has not implemented the Scheduled Tribe status as according to them Dhangar and Dhangad are two distinct communities of Maharashtra.
|1872||The Government published Colonel Dalton’s, Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal.
The book states that Dhangars are known as Oraon in the Eastern Part of India and that Oraons migrated from western India.
|1883||The Hindi book, Bharat Bhraman, Vol IV, Chap 18 & 19 from Pg 291 states the population of Dhangars. It uses different pronunciations and spellings for the same word e.g. The population of Dhangar (Hindi: ) in Dharwad 87568, Dhangad (Hindi: ) in Kolhapur 38326, Dhangar (Hindi: ) in Satara 41547, Dhangar (Hindi: ) in Nashik 14889.|
|1896||Mr Grieson, incharge of Census, undertook The Linguistic and Ethnographic Survey.|
|1901||Shahu Maharaj introduces reservations in Maharashtra.|
|1901||Mr. Grieson wrote a chapter on languages in India in the Census report.|
|1920||In the linguistic survey of India Vol I Part II Griesen classified Indian
Languages. He stated that ‘R’ is pronounced as ‘D’ and ‘L’. E.g. Orrisa in English and Odissa in Hindi, Beed – Bhir, Chopda – Chopra, Tiwari – Tiwadi, Dhangar - Dhangad etc.
|1928||As per a Committee recommendation, depressed classes included other wandering and backward classes.|
|29-05-1933||As per the recommendations of the committee list of Backward Committee was prescribed under Government Resolution General Department No 9330 of 29 May 1933.|
|23/4/1942||Communities in the State of Bombay Classified into Advanced, Intermediate and Backward Classes under Govt Resolution Political and Services Department No 1673/34 dated 23/4/1942.|
|15/08/1947||India gains freedom.|
|26/1/1950||Constitution of India comes in force.|
|6/9/50||List of Scheduled Tribes published by the Government of India.|
|1955||BCC report states that the age-old definition of Tribes should be shed.|
|1955||Kalelkar Commission report stated that the communities of shepherd class in many states were engaged in rearing large flocks of sheep. Gaddis of Himachal Pradesh, Gadarieas of North Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan, Dhangars in Bombay were mainly engaged in sheep flocks.
Shepherds are known by different names in different parts of country. Their condition is far from satisfactory.(Vol I, pg 77) The Dhangar community was regarded as most backward (* Starred community) and was recommended to be included in Schedule Tribes. It found its place in Sr. No. 36 in the list of Schedule Tribes in Maharashtra. In other states too it was included in the Schedules.
|1956||State of Madhya Pradesh came into existence.|
|1956||Schedued Tribe list amended as per the recommendations of Kalelkar report. The Scheduled Tribes list of the then Madhya Pradesh at Sr. no 26 listed Dhangad without referring to any particular district or tehsil which means that Dhangad from all of the present Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisghar and some part of present Maharashtra were meant to be Scheduled Tribe.
The Scheduled Tribes List of the then Bombay (Now Maharashtra) at Sr. no 27 listed Dhangad, Oraon without referring to any area which means Dhangads of whole of the Bombay State were meant to be Scheduled Tribe.
|10/9/1956||The Law minister of India assured the House that the mistakes in the list of SC and ST will be rectified.|
|1/5/1960||State of Gujrat and Maharashtra came into existence. List of Scheduled Tribes of Maharashtra shows Dhangad at Sr. no 27. At the relevant time the only community present in the new state is Dhangar. There is no other community called Dhangad present in Maharashtra.|
|1961||Ethnographic study was undertaken by the census department to identify the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes as a frequent problem was faced for identifying the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The Census enumerators required guidance about the acceptance or rejections of their claims. The department of census of India undertook a detailed ethnographic study in respect of Scheduled Tribes in 1961 under the powers delegated by the Parliament for an authentic ethnographic account of Indian communities and to meet the requirements of the Socio-legal issues relating to ethnic identity of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.|
|1961||The Ethnographic report and the Bibliography of Scheduled Tribes published by the Government of India. It mentions Dhangar, Dhangad as the Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. The etnological and antropological information of Dhangad and Dhangar given in the report is same which is of Shepherds. That is both the words mean a same single community which is Shepherds of Maharashtra.|
|21/11/1961||Unified list of VJNT prepared for the state of Maharashtra as per the Thade Committee Report.|
|11/1/1964||B G Deshmukh committee submitted its report to the state government and proposed that the backward classes should be grouped into Schedules Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Denotified & Nomadic Tribes and Other Backward Classes.|
|1965||B. N. Lokur Committee advised the Government of India to delete Oroan from the list of Scheduled Tribe of Maharashtra as it is not found in Maharashtra but it did not suggest the same for Dhangad.|
|1966||Chanda Committee appointed to remove anomalies in the list.|
|20/06/1966||State of Maharashtra recommends the Government of India to include Dhangar community in the list of Scheduled Tribe.|
|1967||Report, bibliography on SC/ST and marginal communities published by census dept which includes Dhangar, Dhangad as a Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra.|
|13/10/1966||List of OBC prepared by the State of Maharashtra to give scholarships.|
|20/06/1967||MLA Ganpatrao Deshmukh asks the state in the assembly what steps it was taking regarding the Dhangar communities ST status.|
|1967||Advisory committee report asks the government to remove anomalies.|
|1967||Scheduled Tribe amendment bill lapsed.|
|1968||Bibliography on SC and ST and marginal tribes published by the Government of India in 1968. See pg 294. It states Dhangar as a Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra.|
|1970||The census report shows the population of Dhangad in Maharashtra as 1 (one).|
|1976||The Scheduled Tribe list amended. The Scheduled Tribe list of Maharashtra Listed Dhangad at Sr. No 36 by putting a punctuation mark of comma after Oraon without mentioning any particular area.(36. Oraon, Dhangad.)
There is no community called Dhangad present in the state of Maharashtra and not a single person of this so called community is found. The community present in the State of Maharashtra is Dhangar that is pronounced and spelt as Dhangad in Hindi. There are no two distinct communities called Dhangar and Dhangad present in the state of Maharashtra.
|22/03/1977||The Union of India removed the area restriction.|
|1978||Report of the Commissioner for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes reveals that the state government doesn’t have power to impose area restriction on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in their State.|
|1978||The Government laid the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes (amendment) Bill 1978 but as the Sixth Loksabha dissolved the bill too lapsed.|
|26/03/1978||Government of Maharashtra again recommends the Government of India to include the Dhangar community in the list of Scheduled Tribe|
|1979||Mandal Commission regarded Dhangad and Dhangar one and the same.|
|1981||L.M. Shrikant report recommends the center to remove the anomalies in the SC and ST list|
|9/2/1981||The center ask the State whether Dhangar should be included in the list of Scheduled Tribe and to reply before 7/3/1981. It further stated if no reply is received by then it will be deemed that the state has accepted it.
The Government of India has the following criteria for inclusion in the list of Scheduled Tribes i.e. indication of primitive traits, distinct culture, geographical isolation and shyness of contact with the community at large and backwardness. The state does not reply by 7/3/81.
|6/11/1981||The State of Maharashtra withdraws the proposal of inclusion of Dhangar Community in the list of Scheduled Tribes.|
|1982||Bibliography on SC and ST and marginal tribes published by the Government of India that shows Dhangar as a Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra.|
|8/9/1982||MLA Chimanrao Kadam states in the assembly that the Mandal Commission states that Dhangad and Dhangar are the same.|
|8/9/82||The Tribal Research and Training Centre Pune issued a circular for the guidance of competent authorities to issue caste certificates.
The circular stated that Dhangads were a Scheduled Tribe only in the eight districts of Vidharbha region.
|1983||The circular was challenged in WP 1110/83 on the ground that the state government had no powers to impose area restrictions for issuing Caste Certificates as the Parliament had removed the area restrictions in 1977.
The State Government filed an affidavit and stated that the circular dated 8/9/82 was withdrawn on 24/3/83. The withdrawal order was not circulated by the State Government to the concerned officers who issue caste certificates for three years for reason best known by them.
|24/4/85||The state government again issued a similar circular.
The circular stated that people of Dhangar community deceive the government by producing false certificates as Dhangad. The circular further stated that Dhangads are found only in the District of Gadchiroli.
|16/12/1986.||Assistant Director states that Dhangad and Dhangar may be one and the same.|
|28/04/1989||CAG report recommends the inclusion of Dhangar community in the list of Scheduled Tribe.|
|06/09/1989||The Government of India states in a letter that Dhangar is already included in the list of Scheduled Tribe and the census of Oraon, Dhangad and Dhangar is already carried out.|
|22/12/1989||MP Mrs Suryakanta Patil asks whether Dhangar is included in the list of Scheduled Tribe. The minister replies that Dhangar of Maharashtra is already included in the list of Scheduled Tribe and Dhangar and Dhangad is considered the same.|
|1989||Dhangars in the state of Maharashtra agitate for the ST status. PM Rajiv Gandhi accepts their demands.|
|25/5/1990||Sharad Pawar lead State Government included the Nomadic or wandering Shepherd Class i.e. Dhangar Community in the list of Nomadic Tribe with 3.5% reservation by depriving them the ST status. Creamy layer excluded.|
|23/3/1994||NT List amended.|
|1994||Kumbi and Kunbi regarded as one and the same.|
|23/11/95||The then Chief Minister Manohar Joshi declared at Nagpur that the circular dated 24/4/1985 was withdrawn.|
|19/5/1995||The State Backward Class Commission (Khatri Commission) was formed.|
|13/06/1995||The State of Maharashtra prepares the list of Special Backward Class.|
|12/7/96||The Government of Maharashtra (Revenue and Forest Department) publishes a notification under Bombay Court fees Act 1959 in the Gazette in which the list of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe is given. The Marathi version of the Scheduled Tribes uses the word ‘Dhangar’ and the English version ‘Dhangad’. This shows that the letters ‘R’ and ‘D’ are interchangeable and both the words mean the same.|
|6/11/97||The State of Maharashtra issued notification in leading news papers appealing the public to send information about the communities that were included in the guide lines issued by Tribal development department Bombay dated 24/4/85 by ignoring the Ethnographic reports and Bibliographies published by the Government of India.|
|12/11/1998||As per the recommendations of Khatri Commission, Mutatkar Commission, Edate Commission list of VJNT and OBC’s was amended.|
|27/10/1999||The list of OBC of the State of Maharashtra amended.|
|1/1/2001||The list of OBC of the State of Maharashtra amended.|
|14/02/2001||The list of VJNT of the State of Maharashtra amended.|
|19/3/2001||The Government of Maharashtra (Revenue and Forest Department) again publishes a notification under Bombay Court fees Act 1959 in the Gazette in which the list of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe is given. The Marathi version of the Scheduled Tribes uses the word ‘Dhangar’ and the English version ‘Dhangad’. This shows that the letters ‘R’ and ‘D’ are interchangeable and both the words mean the same.|
|29/05/2001||The Backward Class Commission (Khatri Commission ) formed.|
|31/03/2002||The Venkatachaliah Commission on the review of the working of the Constitution submits its report. The commission makes recommendations for Nomadic tribes. The report states that the continued plight of the Denotified tribes, semi-nomadic and nomadic tribes who are distributed in the list of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Backward class is an eloquent illustration of the failure of the machinery of planning, financial resources allocating budgeting and administration in the country to seriously follow the mandate of Art. 46. The report further states that the adequate representation of backward classes is, however, still a far cry and special efforts need to be made for effectively enforcing reservation of backward classes to achieve their adequate representation.|
|2/8/2002||MP Pradeep Rawat tells the house that there is a spelling mistake in the word Dhangad in the list of Scheduled Tribe and the word must be Dhangar. The minister replies that there is no spelling mistake.|
|/12/2002||The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Orders (Second Amendment) Bill, 2002. Twenty- Seventh Report. Standing Committee on labour and Welfare (2002) (13th Loksabha), Ministry of Tribal Welfares observed in its report that the Ministry should review/revise the criteria for identifying the tribes and the modalities. 2.36 The Committee noted that there are various communities which are synonyms to each other but have not been included in the present Bill. For example in the case of ‘Dhangad’ and ‘Dhangar’ communities of Maharashtra which are similar to each other but the State Government have rejected their claim stating that ‘Dhangad’ and ‘Dhangar’ are two distinct communities having no ethnic affinity. The Committee are of the opinion that if a community have the similar characteristics, their claims should not be rejected on the flimsy grounds like involving correction in the spelling of certain tribes. The Committee, therefore, recommends that the Ministry should take up the matter with the State Government to remove the anomaly in the nomenclature of these communities.
The committee observed that as the State of Maharashtra has not made any recommendations of the Dhangar community they are not included in the amended list.
|2002||The Scheduled Tribe list amended. Dhangar/Dhangad included in the list of MP at sr.no. 35, Bihar- 26, Odissa – 53, WB – 33, Chatisghar – 33, Jharkhand – 25. Already in Maharashtra at sr.no. 36.|
|22/1/2004||PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee declares in a rally at Pandharpur that if BJP lead NDA comes to power it would give ST status to Dhangar community as per the National Commission for Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes which was newly set up on 22/11/2003. However, the community expected assurance of ST status implementation.|
|26/02/2004||Daily Maharashtra Times (Mumbai Mahanagar edition) reports that the State of Maharashtra has recommended the inclusion of De-notified Tribes in the list of SC and Nomadic Tribes in the list of Scheduled Tribe|
|1/06/2004||The list of OBC and NT amended.|
|6/9/2004||The State of Maharashtra recommends the inclusion of Dhangar community in the list of "Third Schedule".|
|6/2/2006||The National Commission for Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes reconstituted on 14/3/2005 assumed its functioning w.e.f. 6th Feb, 2006. Mr. Balkrishna Renke appointed as the Chairman.|
|1/3/2006||OBC, SBC, VJNT lists amended. (Total castes and sub-castes OBC- 291, SBC – 41, VJ – 16, NT – 37, SC – 59, ST – 47.)|
|13/09/2006||Agarwal committee constituted by the State of Maharashtra.|
|1/5/2007||All India Dhangar Samaj starts Hunger Strike at Latur. One of them, Mr. Gunaji Mhatre goes missing from the venue of Strike and is not yet found. Complaint filed.|
|10/6/2007||VJNT and SBC Emp and Officers association formed.|
|9/8/2007 & 17/09/2007||All India Dhangar Samaj Mahasangh made representations to State Government and Central Government for implementation of Scheduled Tribe status.|
|13/10/2007||Renke Commission submitted its interim report on the status of some 500 De-notified tribes who make up to 12 crore population scattered across India. Final report likely to be submitted in July 2008.|
|28/4/2008||Madhya Pradesh sends proposal to the Government of India for inclusion of Dhangar community in the list of Scheduled Tribe.|
|5/5/2008||All India Dhangar Association finishes the Hunger Strike at Mumbai by taking a rally on Mantralaya on the Birth anniversary of Karl Marx.|
|14/05/2008||In response to the Strike the Government of Maharashtra replies that the Government of India has included the Dhangar tribe in the List of Scheduled Tribes and that Dhangar Caste is included in the list of Nomadic Tribes by the Government of Maharashtra. That there is no spelling mistake in Dhangad and that Dhangar caste does not fulfill the criteria as laid down by the central government.|
|27/05/2008||Leaders of Dhangar community across all political parties arrange massive rally at Mumbai for their demands.|
|12/06/2008||List of OBC, DTNT amended by the Government of Maharashtra.|
|18/06/2008||Agarwal Commission records evidence of Dhangar community’s delegation.|
|02/07/2008||Renke Commission submitted its report.|
|28/08/2008||The CM declares to constitute a new commission headed by a Retd. High Court Judge which would submit its report within a time bond period at the earlist.|
Source Prof. Kokane P. N., Socio-Legal Identification of Scheduled Castes/Tribes & Backward Classes, 2007.
& Adv Abhiman Dnyanoba Patil.
The term Bharwad is said to be a modified form of the word Badawad, from the Gujarati words bada meaning sheep and wada meaning enclosure. This name was said to be acquired by the Bharwad on the account of their traditional occupation of being shephards. According to their own traditions they are descendents of Anavil Bharwad, who helped a Chavda prince regain his kingdom. There are also traditions that they are members of the Ahir tribe who took up the occupation of shepharding. The Bharwada are found mainly in Kutch and Saurashtra.They are divided into two endogamous sections, the Mota Bhai and Nanabhai.
The Bharwads are still pastoralists, who are permitted by the state of Gujarat to graze their sheep and cattle in certain demarcated areas. Some Bharwad also possess agricultural land, and some have taking to farming. Many are also employed as agricultural labourers. The Bharwad of the Gir, Alech and Barda forests have scheduled tribe status.
The Bharwad are further divided into a number of clans known as ataks. Some of the motabhai Bharwad clans include the Sindhav, Hadagda, Rathadia, Jadav, Matia, Santia, Bathela, Gomara, Kathodi, Mundhva, Dharangia, Colthar, Pancha, Dabi, Garia, Sasda, Babha, Lambari, Dhangla, Ker and Tota. The fisrt three clans among the motabhai claim equal status, and intermarry. All the Bharwad strictly adhere to the custom of clan exogamy. While among the Bharwad of south Gujarat, their main clans are the Chandulka, Rokadka, Kalwamia, Jodika, Gundarya, Kuhadiya, and Dahika.
the Nana bhai bharwad also divided in su casts like meer,boriya,algotar,sabhad,jograna,satiya,sindhav,dabhla,parmar etc.