The Full Wiki

More info on Bhopal disaster

Bhopal disaster: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

.The Bhopal disaster was an industrial catastrophe that took place at a pesticide plant owned and operated by Union Carbide (UCIL) in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.^ Union Carbide built the pesticide factory in Bhopal, India in the 1970s.
  • The South Asian: BHOPAL: A Heinous Corporate Crime, A Humanitarian Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.thesouthasian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

^ April 8, 1985 - India files suit against Union Carbide over Bhopal disaster.
  • Disasters & Lawsuits 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Around midnight on December 3-4, 1984, the plant released methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas and other toxins, resulting in the exposure of over 500,000 people.^ Over 500,000 have been affected by inhaling the gas.
  • The Bhopal Disaster (24 Years Later) and World Risk Society | Corrente 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.correntewire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least 500,000 people will be directly exposed to the gas.
  • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around midnight on December 3rd, 1984, a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal leaked 27 tons of the deadly gas methyl isocyanate.
  • Cure This:: Remembering Bhopal: 24 Years ago today 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.curethis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Estimates vary on the death toll.^ The death toll is estimated at around 600.
  • The Lantern - The Lantern List...Top 10 Man-Made Disasters 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.thelantern.com [Source type: General]

^ The lingering effects of the poison raised the death toll to about 15,000 over the next few years, according to government estimates.
  • Bhopal Disaster 25th Anniversary: Victims Of Gas Tragedy Demand Cleanup 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]
  • Bhopal disaster anniversary protest - World, Breaking News - Belfasttelegraph.co.uk 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]
  • India marks Bhopal disaster anniversary - World - Canoe.ca 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC cnews.canoe.ca [Source type: News]
  • CBC News - World - Bhopal gas tragedy victims demand cleanup 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: News]
  • Victims of Bhopal gas tragedy demand cleanup | Deseret News 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.deseretnews.com [Source type: News]
  • Victims of Bhopal gas tragedy demand cleanup - Yahoo! Finance 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC biz.yahoo.com [Source type: News]
  • Victims of Bhopal Gas Tragedy Demand Cleanup - ABC News 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC abcnews.go.com [Source type: News]

^ According to the most conservative estimates the death toll to date is 20,000 and it is still rising.
  • The Bhopal Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.isg-fi.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The official immediate death toll was 2,259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release.^ The first official immediate death toll was 2,259.
  • Bhopal Disaster: action needed twenty five years on - Watson (Graham Watson MEP) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.grahamwatsonmep.org [Source type: News]

^ See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhopal_disaster The official immediate death toll was 2259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3787 deaths related to the gas release.
  • psychiatry-research : Message: RE: [psychiatry-research] News: Behavioral identification can help stop terrorists like Abdul Mutallab, researcher says 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC tech.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See: http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Bhopal_disaster The official immediate death toll was 2259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh...
  • psychiatry-research : Message: RE: [psychiatry-research] News: Behavioral identification can help stop terrorists like Abdul Mutallab, researcher says 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC tech.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Other government agencies estimate 15,000 deaths.^ Other government agencies estimate 15,000 deaths.
  • psychiatry-research : Message: RE: [psychiatry-research] News: Behavioral identification can help stop terrorists like Abdul Mutallab, researcher says 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC tech.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The final death toll was estimated to be between 15,000 and 20,000.
  • Bhopal disaster (industrial accident) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The lingering effects of the poison raised the death toll to about 15,000 over the next few years, according to government estimates.
  • Bhopal disaster anniversary protest - World, Breaking News - Belfasttelegraph.co.uk 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]
  • CBC News - World - Bhopal gas tragedy victims demand cleanup 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: News]
  • Victims of Bhopal gas tragedy demand cleanup | Deseret News 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.deseretnews.com [Source type: News]
  • Victims of Bhopal gas tragedy demand cleanup - Yahoo! Finance 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC biz.yahoo.com [Source type: News]
  • Victims of Bhopal Gas Tragedy Demand Cleanup - ABC News 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC abcnews.go.com [Source type: News]

[2] .Others estimate that 8,000 died within the first weeks and that another 8,000 have since died from gas-related diseases.^ An estimated 25,000 have died since the accident from gas poisoning and water contamination.
  • Bhopal disaster doctor dying from exposure to same pesticides - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Others estimate 8000 to 10,000 died within 72 hours and 25,000 have since died from gas-related diseases.
  • psychiatry-research : Message: RE: [psychiatry-research] News: Behavioral identification can help stop terrorists like Abdul Mutallab, researcher says 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC tech.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another daughter died as a result of the gas.
  • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

[3][4]
.Some 25 years after the gas leak, 390 tonnes of toxic chemicals abandoned at the UCIL plant continue to leak and pollute the groundwater in the region and affect thousands of Bhopal residents who depend on it,[5][6][7] though there is some dispute as to whether the chemicals still stored at the site pose any continuing health hazard.^ Features The Bhopal disaster - 25 years on .
  • The Bhopal disaster - 25 years on / Features / Home - Morning Star 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.morningstaronline.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ World News Indians still dying 25 years after toxic gas leak .
  • Indians still dying 25 years after toxic gas leak 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.finalcall.com [Source type: News]

^ She highlighted that the continuous exposure to the toxic chemicals could have hazardous impact on the health of the people residing in these areas near the UCIL plant.
  • Bhopal continues to suffer from contamination, 25 years after Union Carbide disaster .:. newkerala.com Online News -2214 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.newkerala.com [Source type: News]
  • Bhopal continues to suffer from contamination, 25 years after Union Carbide disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.littleabout.com [Source type: News]

[2] .There are currently civil and criminal cases related to the disaster ongoing in the United States District Court, Manhattan and the District Court of Bhopal, India against Union Carbide,[8] now owned by Dow Chemical Company, with an Indian arrest warrant pending against Warren Anderson, CEO of Union Carbide at the time of the disaster.^ Union Carbide built the pesticide factory in Bhopal, India in the 1970s.
  • The South Asian: BHOPAL: A Heinous Corporate Crime, A Humanitarian Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.thesouthasian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The day after the disaster, Union Carbides CEO Warren Anderson flew to India to assess the damage his company had visited upon its Indian neighbours.
  • 544 Gary Cohen, The chemical industry's Bhopal legacy 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dow Chemical does not own that site.
  • Country Meadow » Blog Archive » Remembering Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.countrymeadowsoaps.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9][10] .No one has yet been prosecuted.^ Yet no one has been legally accountable.
  • Bhopal Gas Disaster | Compensation | 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.theage.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bhopal Gas Disaster | Compensation | 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.brisbanetimes.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply to this Comment No text or picture Add-ons were added yet.
  • Bhopal Accident Video – 5min.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.5min.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Summary of background and causes

.The UCIL factory was established in 1969 near Bhopal.^ I still do not know whether there is an antidote to METHYL ISOCYANATE - the poisonous substance which had annihilated everyone near the Union Carbide Factory in Bhopal.
  • BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.irastimes.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hundreds of people have died from the effects of toxic gases which leaked from a chemical factory near the central Indian city of Bhopal.
  • ProjectDisaster » Blog Archive » 12/3/1984: Bhopal & Death 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC projectdisaster.com [Source type: News]

^ November 27, 2009: Children play in front of their homes near the Union Carbide factory in Bhopal, India.

.50.9 % was owned by Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) and 49.1 % by various Indian investors, including public sector financial institutions.^ Union Carbide Corporation (1985).
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This is exactly what Union Carbide Corporation did.
  • Bhopal Gas Tragedy: An Analysis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.hu.mtu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Union Carbide Corporation maintained that it did not have any hold over its Indian affiliate.
  • Bhopal Gas Tragedy: An Analysis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.hu.mtu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][4] .It produced the pesticide carbaryl (trademark Sevin).^ The plant opened in 1969 and produced the pesticide carbaryl, which was marketed as Sevin.
  • Dec. 3, 1984: Bhopal, 'Worst Industrial Accident in History' 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: News]
  • Dec. 3, 1984: Bhopal, 'Worst Industrial Accident in History' 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: News]

^ The plant was built to manufacture the pesticide carbaryl, under the trademark Sevin, which had been developed in 1957 as a 'safe’ alternative to the controversial dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT).
  • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ During the early hours of the morning a poisonous gas, methyl isocyanate (MIC), used in producing the pesticide, Sevin, leaked from a Union Carbide plant.
  • Bhopal, the world's worst industrial disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unisa.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1979 a methyl isocyanate (MIC) production plant was added to the site.^ The gases that leaked consisted mainly of at least 24 tons of poisonous Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) and other reaction products, possibly including toxins such as hydrogen cyanide, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide.
  • Clouds of Injustice: Bhopal Disaster 20 years on 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.indianet.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GOVERNMENT ASKED TO RESOLVE ROW OVER UNION CARBIDE WASTE DISPOSAL News Wire article from: The Hindustan Times ...wastes lying at the Union Carbide plant are causing...methyl isocyanate ( MIC ) waste in an incinerator...waste lying at the Union Carbide plant.
  • The Union Carbide disaster in Bhopal: a review of health effects.(Bhopal, India, Union Carbide Plant Disaster, 1984) - Archives of Environmental Health | Encyclopedia.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bhopal, the capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, was home to a Union Carbide (UCC) pesticide plant that included a plant producing methyl isocyanate (MIC).
  • On This Day: Thousands Die in Bhopal Gas Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.findingdulcinea.com [Source type: News]

.MIC, an intermediate in carbaryl manufacture, was used instead of less hazardous but more expensive materials.^ Ten years later the plant began manufacturing methyl isocyanate , or MIC, a cheaper but more toxic substance used in the making of pesticides.
  • Dec. 3, 1984: Bhopal, 'Worst Industrial Accident in History' 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: News]
  • Dec. 3, 1984: Bhopal, 'Worst Industrial Accident in History' 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: News]

^ Vorderbrueggen said he looked at promotional materials from the blast mat manufacturer and was convinced from that information it would have protected the MIC tank.
  • Board narrowing scope of Bayer MIC investigation  - News - The Charleston Gazette - West Virginia News and Sports 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC sundaygazettemail.com [Source type: General]

^ Critics say the plant should not have used MIC, which is cheaper than less-hazardous alternatives, and should not have been located in a highly populated area.
  • Bhopal Disaster 25th Anniversary: Victims Of Gas Tragedy Demand Cleanup 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]
  • Victims of Bhopal gas tragedy demand cleanup | Deseret News 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.deseretnews.com [Source type: News]
  • Victims of Bhopal gas tragedy demand cleanup - Yahoo! Finance 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC biz.yahoo.com [Source type: News]

.UCC understood the properties of MIC and its handling requirements.^ UCC insisted on a process design requiring large MIC storage tanks.
  • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11][12][13]
.During the night of December 2–3, 1984, large amounts of water entered tank 610, containing 42 tonnes of methyl isocyanate.^ In Bhopal, investigations into the 1984 disaster revealed that something had gone wrong with a tank that stored MIC. During the night of December 2/3, 1984, large amounts of water entered tank 610, containing the highly toxic chemical.

^ Background to the disaster Late on Sunday evening, 2 December 1984, during routine maintenance of the methyl isocyanate (MIC) tanks, a large quantity of water entered one of the 60 tonne storage tanks.
  • The Bhopal aftermath 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.pan-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tank contained a highly poisonous chemical, methyl isocyanate.
  • InformIT: Minding the Machines: Preventing Technological Disasters 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.informit.com [Source type: Academic]

.The resulting exothermic reaction increased the temperature inside the tank to over 200 °C (392 °F), raising the pressure to a level the tank was not designed to withstand.^ As a result, the safety valve of the tank burst because of the increase in pressure.
  • Bhopal Gas Tragedy: An Analysis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.hu.mtu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pressure and heat from the vigorous exothermic reaction in the tank continued to build.
  • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Environmental Health | Full text | The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.ehjournal.net [Source type: Academic]
  • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Temperature increases/ decreases the rate of reaction.

.This forced the emergency venting of pressure from the MIC holding tank, releasing a large volume of toxic gases into the atmosphere.^ This forced the emergency venting of pressure from the holding tank, releasing a large volume of toxic gases.

^ The venting MIC passed out of the facility and into the atmosphere.
  • CSB - Bhopal Disaster Spurs U.S. Industry, Legislative Action 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC users.khbo.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resulting reaction generated many large surges of toxic gas, forcing the emergency release of pressure.
  • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reaction sped up because of the presence of iron in corroding non-stainless steel pipelines.^ The reaction was sped up by the presence of iron from corroding non-stainless steel pipelines (Design failure).
  • Bhopal disaster could safe by Abid Nadeem khan 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Chloroform decomposed releasing chloride ions which corroded the stainless steel tank.
  • Chemical Hiroshima – 25 years since Union Carbide disaster at Bhopal « Woolly Days 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC woollydays.wordpress.com [Source type: News]

.A mixture of poisonous gases flooded the city of Bhopal, causing great panic as people woke up with a burning sensation in their lungs.^ Massive panic resulted as people woke up in a cloud of gas that burned their lungs.
  • Bhopal disaster could safe by Abid Nadeem khan 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ People in Bhopal have not given up.
  • Bhopal and the Age of Globalization 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.globalpolicy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ November 1999 Fifteen years ago, on December 3, 1984, Union Carbide Corporation's pesticide factory accidentally leaked poisonous gases into the city of Bhopal, India.
  • Bhopal and the Age of Globalization 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.globalpolicy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thousands died immediately from the effects of the gas and many were trampled in the panic.^ The leak of methyl isocyanite (MIC) gas killed more than 3,000 people instantly in Bhopal, many in JP Nagar, and thousands more over the years.
  • Gas-hit Bhopal colony remains a living tomb (25 years after Bhopal gas leak) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC sify.com [Source type: General]

^ It was aired on the 20th anniversary of the disaster, when thousands of people died after a gas leak at a chemical plant in Bhopal, India.
  • CNN.com - Bhopal hoax sends Dow stock down - Dec 3, 2004 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • CNN.com - Bhopal hoax sends Dow stock down - Dec 3, 2004 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ The death toll remains disputed, but certainly thousands died in the ensuing days and thousands more are believed to have succumbed to gas-related diseases since then.
  • Special Reports | English 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www1.voanews.com [Source type: News]

.Theories of how the water entered the tank differ.^ Obviously a high number of factors are involved but all stem around the fact the water entered the tank and Union Carbide is at fault.
  • Essays.cc - The Union Carbide Gas Disaster In Bhopal, India: Can It Happen Here? 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.essays.cc [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Investigations have found that the accident occurred when water entered a sealed tank containing highly reactive MIC, causing pressure in the tank to rise too high.
  • Bhopal Disaster 25th Anniversary: Victims Of Gas Tragedy Demand Cleanup 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]
  • Victims of Bhopal gas tragedy demand cleanup | Deseret News 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.deseretnews.com [Source type: News]
  • Victims of Bhopal gas tragedy demand cleanup - Yahoo! Finance 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC biz.yahoo.com [Source type: News]

^ What Happened During the night of December 3rd 1984, large amounts of water entered tank 610, containing 42 tons of methyl isocyanate.
  • Bhopal disaster could safe by Abid Nadeem khan 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

.At the time, workers were cleaning out pipes with water, and some claim that owing to bad maintenance and leaking valves, it was possible for the water to leak into tank 610.[14] In December 1985 The New York Times reported that according to UCIL plant managers the hypothesis of this route of entry of water was tested in the presence of the Central Bureau Investigators and was found to be negative.^ He would be the worker who fitted a water hose into a pipe that sent or leaked water into Tank 610.

^ Most probably, water got into the tank through a pipe.

^ At around midnight on December 2, shortly after workers had carried out a routine cleaning of pipes, large amounts of water entered tank 610.
  • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

[15] .UCC also maintains that this route was not possible, and that it was an act of sabotage by a "disgruntled worker" who introduced water directly into the tank.^ It hints, moreover, at the possibility of sabotage, a deliberate act in releasing water into Tank 610.

^ The tank exploded when water was somehow introduced into a tank holding 40 tons of the potent chemical methyl isocyanate, setting off a reaction that burst a valve.
  • The GULLY | India | Tragedy in Bhopal Goes On 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.thegully.com [Source type: News]

^ All agree that somehow water was introduced into a tank holding 40 tons of methyl isocyanate setting off an uncontrollable reaction that burst a valve.
  • City of poison / Bhopal residents limp through toxic sludge 20 years after Union Carbide chemical leak - SFGate 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC articles.sfgate.com [Source type: News]

[16] .However, the company's investigation team found no evidence of the necessary connection.^ When the MIC was released, the company insisted there was no leak, despite evidence to prove otherwise and the public alarm was not sounded until hours later.
  • Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal - Online Ethics Home 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Ethics Center: Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC temp.onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OEC - Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry Waxman] yesterday that the company had “no evidence whatsoever that sabotage was behind” the Bhopal incident.” - March 27, 1985, The Washington Post .
  • Company Defends Chief in Bhopal Disaster - DealBook Blog - NYTimes.com 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC dealbook.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ However, during the trial, Hardy's legal team presented seemingly damning evidence against GM, including internal documents in which the company's own engineers conceded that the Blazer's latch was " substandard" and was prone to failure.
  • Disasters & Lawsuits 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.The 1985 reports[17][18][19] give a picture of what led to the disaster and how it developed, although they differ in details.^ The extent to which this was true has rarely ever been mentioned in this countrynot even last week, after Amnesty International released a report detailing the differences between the two UCC plants.
  • Ethel the Blog 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The BEAST: Buffalo's Best Fiend 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC buffalobeast.com [Source type: General]

^ And so, all these deliberate design differences, the cutting down of safety systems, all this led to the disaster, which was very, very clear.
  • 25 Years After Bhopal Disaster, Survivors Still Seeking Justice 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.democracynow.org [Source type: News]
  • 25 Years After Bhopal Disaster, Survivors Still Seeking Justice 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC i1.democracynow.org [Source type: News]

^ Future management of industrial development requires that appropriate resources be devoted to advance planning before any disaster occurs [ 18 ].
  • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Factors leading to this huge gas leak include:
  • The use of hazardous chemicals (MIC) instead of less dangerous ones
  • Storing these chemicals in large tanks instead of over 200 steel drums.
  • Possible corroding material in pipelines
  • Poor maintenance after the plant ceased production in the early 1980s
  • Failure of several safety systems (due to poor maintenance and regulations).
  • Safety systems being switched off to save money - including the MIC tank refrigeration system which alone would have prevented the disaster.
.Plant design modified by Indian engineers to abide by government regulations and economic pressures to reduce expenses contributed most to the actual leak[citation needed].^ In August 2008, the Indian government promised to set up an “empowered commission” to address the range of health, environmental, social and economic issues in Bhopal.
  • Green Left - Bhopal disaster 25 years on — bring corporate killers to justice 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.greenleft.org.au [Source type: News]

^ In an effort to absolve itself of any responsibility for the disaster, the UCC had stated: "The design was by UCIL in consultation with and by employing Indian engineering companies and firms, and the defendant (UCC) only supplied process design packages for certain portions of the plant.

^ But plant owners Union Carbide paid $470m (£282m) in compensation to the Indian government.
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Bhopal: Have we learned the lessons? 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newsforums.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The problem was then made worse by the plant's location near a densely populated area, non-existent catastrophe plans and shortcomings in health care and socio-economic rehabilitation.^ Plant in densely populated area .
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The real problem is locating the plants in populated areas and hopefully this is the lesson which has been learned.
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Bhopal: Have we learned the lessons? 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newsforums.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pesticide plant was located in a poor, densely populated neighborhood.
  • Bhopal’s message: reject bioterror lab — Bridge News Portal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC bridgenews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Analysis shows that the parties responsible for the magnitude of the disaster are the two owners, Union Carbide Corporation and the Government of India, and to some extent, the Government of Madhya Pradesh.^ Water contamination: a legacy of the union carbide disaster in Bhopal, India.
  • Bhopal, India - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Union Carbide factory in Bhopal, India.
  • Bayer Stored Bhopal Disaster Chemical in Faulty Tanks | BNET Pharma Blog | BNET 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC industry.bnet.com [Source type: General]
  • 25th anniversary of the Bhopal disaster [Pics] 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Union Carbide Industrial Disaster, 1984 .
  • Pictures, Photos of Bhopal, India 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.shunya.net [Source type: News]

[3][4][20]

Public information

Much speculation arose in the aftermath. .The closing of the plant to outsiders (including UCC) by the Indian government, and the failure to make data public contributed to the confusion.^ After the incident the plant was closed, and it has now been closed permanently at the insistence of the Indian Government.
  • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bhopal, the capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, was home to a Union Carbide (UCC) pesticide plant that included a plant producing methyl isocyanate (MIC).
  • On This Day: Thousands Die in Bhopal Gas Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.findingdulcinea.com [Source type: News]

^ But plant owners Union Carbide paid $470m (£282m) in compensation to the Indian government.
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Bhopal: Have we learned the lessons? 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newsforums.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The CSIR report[19] was formally released 15 years after the disaster.^ The site of the world's worst industrial disaster has slipped back into the obscurity from which it was wrenched one terrible December night just over 15 years ago.
  • ASIANOW - TIME Asia | Cinema: Nightmare in Bhopal | 1/17/2000 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC cgi.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ These are questions raised in a recently released report by a Fact Finding Mission (FFM) on Bhopal, the site of the world's worst industrial disaster.
  • Bhopal Tragedy without End by Laxmi Murthy 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.boloji.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Teenager one Age 19 years; age at exposure 4 years Menarche at 15 years For the first five to six months my periods were irregular and without much discomfort.
  • The Bhopal aftermath 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.pan-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The authors of the ICMR studies[21] on health effects were forbidden to publish their data until after 1994. UCC has still not released their research about the disaster or the effects of the gas on human health.^ As the founder of the Bhopal Group for Information and Action, Sathyu has been involved with relief, research and publication of studies on the health impacts of the ongoing disaster on the residents of Bhopal.
  • SAJAforum: BHOPAL: Marking the 25th year of a chemical disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sajaforum.org [Source type: General]

^ Photographer Maude Dorr is in Bhopal, India, documenting the still contentious aftermath of the 1984 gas-leak disaster.
  • I.D. Magazine, 1954–2009 — AIGA | the professional association for design 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.aiga.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the words of V.M. Katoch, the Director General of the ICMR, “Dr Sriramachari was a rare type of person who, until his last hour, kept on thinking about newer and unexplored scientific research aspects relating to the Bhopal gas disaster in addition to his keenness for sharing it with us.” .
  • Medical explorer 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.flonnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Soon after the disaster UCC was not allowed to take part in the investigation by the government.^ UCC CEO Warren Anderson and several other executives flew to India soon after the disaster and were arrested.
  • On This Day: Thousands Die in Bhopal Gas Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.findingdulcinea.com [Source type: News]

^ The UCC technical team is prevented from conducting a thorough examination of the site by the CIB. UCC investigators will not be given unrestricted access to the plant records for a year nor will they be allowed to interview staff on duty on the night of the disaster.
  • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Indian government officials also need to investigated for their shocking part in accepting this money on behalf of their citizens.
  • Indian Activists Mark The 25th Anniversary Of The Bhopal Disaster | World News | Sky News 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC news.sky.com [Source type: News]
  • Indian Activists Mark The 25th Anniversary Of The Bhopal Disaster | World News | Sky News 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC news.sky.com [Source type: News]

The initial investigation was conducted entirely by the government agencies - Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) under the directorship of Dr. Varadajan and Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).
.UCC and the Government of India maintained until 1994, when the International Medical Commission on Bhopal met, that MIC had no longterm health effects.^ In August 2008, the Indian government promised to set up an “empowered commission” to address the range of health, environmental, social and economic issues in Bhopal.
  • Green Left - Bhopal disaster 25 years on — bring corporate killers to justice 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.greenleft.org.au [Source type: News]

^ The Bhopal Medical Appeal In another attempt to gain legitimacy in India, Dow are sponsoring the College of Engineering, Guindy's Kurukshetra 'Techfest 2010'.
  • The Bhopal Medical Appeal | Facebook 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bhopal, the capital of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, was home to a Union Carbide (UCC) pesticide plant that included a plant producing methyl isocyanate (MIC).
  • On This Day: Thousands Die in Bhopal Gas Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.findingdulcinea.com [Source type: News]

[4]

Contributing factors

.
  • The deficiencies in the Bhopal plant design can be summarised as: choosing a dangerous method of manufacturing pesticides; large-scale storage of MIC before processing; location close to a densely populated area; under-dimensioning of the safety features; dependence on manual operations.^ The MIC in the storage tank therefore was warmer than allowed by the plant's operating manual.

    ^ UCC insisted on a process design requiring large MIC storage tanks.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This plant was located on the outskirts of Bhopal.
    • A Significant Toxic Event: The Union Carbide Pesticide Plant Disaster in Bhopal, India, 1984 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.tropmed.org [Source type: Academic]

    [4]
  • .
  • Deficiencies in the management of UCIL can be summarised: lack of skilled operators due to the staffing policy; reduction of safety management due to reducing the staff; insufficient maintenance of the plant; lack of emergency response plans.^ It was able to operate in this way partially because the state of Madhya Pradesh and the Indian government's industrial safety and environmental regulations were lacking or not well enforced (1).
    • Toxins at Bhopal Still Kill Indians after One Generation 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Union Carbide asserted that it had provided appropriate training, including bringing some workers to Institute, WV for training, and that the safety procedures were appropriate; however, Union Carbide contended that the UCIL management was generally responsible for safety and maintenance at the plant and that the government of India was the responsible regulator.
    • CSB - Bhopal Disaster Spurs U.S. Industry, Legislative Action 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC users.khbo.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ While comparable factories in Europe were equipped with automatic safety devices and computerised early warning systems, the plant in Bhopal relied on manual detection and had no emergency planning measures in place.
    • Family tree of Bhopal gas disaster- Comments & Analysis-Opinion-The Economic Times 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC economictimes.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]
    • Family tree of Bhopal gas disaster- Comments & Analysis-Opinion-The Economic Times 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC economictimes.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

    [4][22]

Plant production process

.Union Carbide produced the pesticide, Sevin (a trademarked brand name for carbaryl), using MIC as an intermediate.^ The pesticide, Sevin, which Union Carbide made at Bhopal, was distributed in India.
  • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Union Carbide plant in Bhopal produced methyl isocyanate (MIC), an intermediate compound used in the production of the company's pesticide Sevin.
  • From A World to Win News Service: The Bhopal Disaster, Yesterday and Today: A System of Mass Destruction | rwor.org 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eyewitnesses saw a dense cloud of poisonous gas settle on the slum areas that crowded the Union Carbide pesticide plant...
  • Bhopal: An Ongoing Tragedy, 25 years later | culturekitchen 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC culturekitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bhopal: An Ongoing Tragedy, 25 years later | The Daily Gotham 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC dailygotham.com [Source type: News]

.Until 1979, MIC was imported from the USA.[4] Other manufacturers, such as Bayer, made carbaryl without MIC, though at greater manufacturing costs.^ The plant was initially approved only for formulation of pesticides from component chemicals, such as MIC imported from the parent company, in relatively small quantities.
  • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Environmental Health | Full text | The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.ehjournal.net [Source type: Academic]
  • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Such information should be made available without further delay.
  • India: Memorandum on The State of Affairs Twenty-Five Years After The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even without enforcement, international standards could provide norms for measuring performance of individual companies engaged in hazardous activities such as the manufacture of pesticides and other toxic chemicals in India.
  • Bhopal, India - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.The chemical process, or "route", used in the Bhopal plant reacted methylamine with phosgene to form MIC (methyl isocyanate), which was then reacted with 1-naphthol to form the final product, carbaryl.^ "It" was methyl isocyanate (MIC), a toxic chemical used at UCIL's factory in Bhopal to manufacture pesticides.

^ Methyl isocyanate is an organic chemical used in the production of pesticides.
  • Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal - Online Ethics Home 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Online Ethics Center: Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC temp.onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OEC - Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chemical that was released, methyl isocyanate (MIC), is an ester of isocyanic acid (HNCO).
  • Essays.cc - The Union Carbide Gas Disaster In Bhopal, India: Can It Happen Here? 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.essays.cc [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This route differed from MIC-free routes used elsewhere, in which the same raw materials are combined in a different manufacturing order, with phosgene first reacted with the naphthol to form a chloroformate ester, which is then reacted with methyl amine.^ The World War I gas was used in the production of MIC (methyl-isocyanate), a substance 500 times deadlier than hydrogen cyanide, and so volatile that unless kept in spotless conditions, refrigerated to 0°C, it can even react explosively with itself.
  • Bhopal: 25 years of poison - Mail & Guardian Online: The smart news source 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.mg.co.za [Source type: News]

^ Vorderbrueggen said he looked at promotional materials from the blast mat manufacturer and was convinced from that information it would have protected the MIC tank.
  • Board narrowing scope of Bayer MIC investigation  - News - The Charleston Gazette - West Virginia News and Sports 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC sundaygazettemail.com [Source type: General]

^ The biggest differences between the two plants was supposed to be the way in which they stored the key ingredient used in the pesticide Sevin--methyl isocyanate (MIC), derived from the phosgene gas used as a chemical weapon in the First World War.
  • Lee Sustar: Bhopal, the Making of a Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the early 1980s, the demand for pesticides had fallen though production continued, leading to buildup of stores of unused MIC.[4][23]

Work conditions

Attempts to reduce expenses affected the factory's employees and their conditions.
  • Kurzman argues that "cuts ... meant less stringent quality control and thus looser safety rules. A pipe leaked? .Don't replace it, employees said they were told ...^ They said they felt like they were being choked,” Bee later told the online environmental magazine Grist, “and we [adults] felt that way, too.
    • The Biggest Crime You've Never Heard Of 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.evergreenmonthly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "We don't think they will be able to put us off forever," Devi Shukla said.
    • Lee Sustar: Bhopal, the Making of a Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ She could talk to political leaders and corporate chiefs, she said, by remembering the words, "If you don't tell them, how will they know?"

    .MIC workers needed more training?^ It is noted that it was probably this pattern of neglect that failed to bring about the much needed change in the malfunctioning safety equipment and improperly trained workers at the chemical plant.
    • Bhopal Gas Tragedy: An Analysis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.hu.mtu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The period of safety-training to workers in MIC plant was brought down from 6 months to 15 days.

    ^ The period of safety training for workers in the MIC unit is brought down from six months to 15 days.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    They could do with less. .Promotions were halted, seriously affecting employee morale and driving some of the most skilled ...^ Most of the affected were above the age group of 60 years and above (29% of this group were seriously affected).
    • Sunil Choukiker: Major Air Pollution Episodes, Environmental Distortions that Kill, Pollution Episodes, London Pollution Episode, Bhopal Disaster, Donora Fog, Meuse Valley, Mexico-Poza Rica, Aftermath of Disaster, Environment, Disaster Management, Major Air Pollution Episodes, Sunil Choukiker, 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.visionriviewpoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    elsewhere".[24]
  • .
  • Workers were forced to use English manuals, even though only a few had a grasp of the language.^ A few days later, a group of workers at the factory even went on a hunger strike, demanding better security system inside the plant.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hence, it is appropriate that Union Carbide assume responsibility for the Bhopal disaster, even though the Indian managers and workers were primarily responsible.
    • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It did look pretty pathatic, only a few responses over a period of weeks were even posted.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    [14][25]
  • .
  • By 1984, only six of the original twelve operators were still working with MIC and the number of supervisory personnel was also cut in half.^ The work crew for the MIC plant was cut in half from twelve to six workers.

    ^ In February, the chemical manufacturer announced it would cut an undisclosed number of corporate management-level jobs throughout its global operation during the first half of this year.

    ^ The plant’s cooling system had also broken down, and for the sake of cutting costs, the number of people on the MIC section’s night shift had been reduced from six down to two.
    • The difference between Bhopal and New York 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .No maintenance supervisor was placed on the night shift and instrument readings were taken every two hours, rather than the previous and required one-hour readings.^ Two decades on, the pain has not eased for either Ms Sultan or any of the more than half a million people affected by one of the world's worst industrial disasters.
    • Union Carbide disaster haunts Bhopal. 02/12/2004. ABC News Online 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: News]

    ^ In Bhopal no-one uses the term "accident" to describe the calamity that took place here in the early hours of 3 December 1984.
    • Bhopal: An Ongoing Tragedy, 25 years later | culturekitchen 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC culturekitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The plant’s cooling system had also broken down, and for the sake of cutting costs, the number of people on the MIC section’s night shift had been reduced from six down to two.
    • The difference between Bhopal and New York 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [14][24]
  • .
  • Workers made complaints about the cuts through their union but were ignored.^ The Indian Government has made no public announcement of this in India, nor has it identified the aid from a relief fund established by Union Carbide workers throughout the world.
    • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Union Carbide made such a calculation when it decided to cut back on safety personnel and their training period at its Bhopal factory before the accident occurred.
    • Bhopal and the Age of Globalization 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.globalpolicy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is patently dangerous when local people and workers are lied to about the hazards of a chemical that is piped through their lands or is handled by them.
    • The Truth About Dow : Designing Disasters 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.thetruthaboutdow.org [Source type: Original source]

    .One employee was fired after going on a 15-day hunger strike.^ A few days later, a group of workers at the factory even went on a hunger strike, demanding better security system inside the plant.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The campaigners were on the 60th day of their indefinite hunger strike.
    • Bhopal // Current 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .70% of the plant's employees were fined before the disaster for refusing to deviate from the proper safety regulations under pressure from management.^ Union Carbide claimed a disgruntled employee sabotaged the plant.  Activists contend a faulty plant design or lax safety standards caused the toxic leak.
    • Studies Contend Bhopal Still Contaminated, 25 Years After World's Worst Industrial Disaster | News | English 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www1.voanews.com [Source type: News]

    ^ MIC — was an act of sabotage by a disgruntled employee, never identified, and not lax safety standards or faulty plant design, as claimed by some activists.
    • Industrial disaster still haunts India - CNBC 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.cnbc.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Future management of industrial development requires that appropriate resources be devoted to advance planning before any disaster occurs.
    • Bhopal, India - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [14][24]
  • .
  • In addition, some observers, such as those writing in the Trade Environmental Database (TED) Case Studies as part of the Mandala Project from American University, have pointed to "serious communication problems and management gaps between Union Carbide and its Indian operation", characterised by "the parent companies [sic] hands-off approach to its overseas operation" and "cross-cultural barriers".[26]
  • The personnel management policy led to an exodus of skilled personnel to better and safer jobs.^ Union Carbide also remains liable for the environmental devastation its operations have caused.
    • Bhopal: An Ongoing Tragedy, 25 years later | culturekitchen 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC culturekitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ CULTURE: NO There appear to be have been serious communication problems and management gaps between Union Carbide and its Indian operation.
    • Bhopal Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It's all part of American business culture.

    [14][22]

Equipment and safety regulations

.
Union Carbide MIC plant
  • It emerged in 1998, during civil action suits in India, that, unlike Union Carbide plants in the USA, its Indian subsidiary plants were not prepared for problems.^ Union Carbide sold its Indian subsidiary and pulled out of India.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During its initial negotiations on a settlement with Union Carbide, the Indian go .
    • 25 years after world’s worst industrial disaster, Bhopal victims languish in neglect 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Indian subsidiary of the American firm Union Carbide Corporation .
    • Bhopal disaster (industrial accident) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    .No action plans had been established to cope with incidents of this magnitude.^ You are also aware that there are no emergency response plans to cope with community reaction.
    • Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal - Online Ethics Home 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Online Ethics Center: Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC temp.onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • OEC - Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This included not informing local authorities of the quantities or dangers of chemicals used and manufactured at Bhopal.^ Cooling it slows reactions, buys time, but MIC is so dangerous that chemical engineers recommend not storing it at all unless absolutely necessary and then only in the tiniest quantities.
    • Bhopal: 25 years of poison - Mail & Guardian Online: The smart news source 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.mg.co.za [Source type: News]

    ^ Dow, along with Monsanto, was one of the principal manufacturers of Agent Orange, a combination herbicide containing 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D that was used during the US military’s chemical warfare in Vietnam.
    • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Incidently, the most catastrophic industrial accident in history -- the Bhopal disaster -- occurred at a chemical plant using transferred technology in a developing country.
    • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [3][4][14][23]
  • .
  • The MIC tank alarms had not worked for 4 years.^ In particular, the pressure indicator/control, temperature indicator and the level indicator for the MIC storage tanks had been malfunctioning for more than a year" (p.
    • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Moreover, the increase in temperature (of the MIC tank), according to the Union Carbide investigation (1985), was not signaled by the tank high-temperature alarm, since it had not been reset to a temperature above the storage temperature.
    • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [3][4][14][27]
  • .
  • There was only one manual back-up system, not the four-stage system used in the USA.[3][4][14][27]
  • The flare tower and the vent gas scrubber had been out of service for 5 months before the disaster.^ In addition to water entry, there were failures in four safety devices - the vent gas scrubber, the flare tower, the refrigeration system, and the water spray.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "There's one disaster after another.

    ^ The gas flare safety system was out of action and had been for three months.
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .The gas scrubber therefore did not treat escaping gases with sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), which might have brought the concentration down to a safe level.^ Safety systems—such as a flare tower (for the burning of excess gas), a caustic soda scrubber (for neutralization), and a refrigeration unit—did not contain the reaction.
    • Bhopal, India - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The scrubber, filled with a caustic soda solution to detoxify leaks was under repair.
    • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [27] .Even if the scrubber had been working, according to Weir, investigations in the aftermath of the disaster discovered that the maximum pressure it could handle was only one-quarter of that which was present in the accident.^ Even had it been operative, post-disaster inquiries revealed, the maximum pressure it could handle was only one-quarter that which was actually reached in the accident (Weir, pp.41-42).
    • Bhopal Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The scans themselves could only have been improved by breaking the books which wasn't even a consideration: these glorious books are treasured works of art that I'll not be destroying or parting with in this lifetime.

    ^ According to the Amnesty International investigation, since the plant had never showed a profit, the corporate chain of command pressured plant managers to save money any way they could--including cutting staff and reducing maintenance.
    • Lee Sustar: Bhopal, the Making of a Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Furthermore, the flare tower itself was improperly designed and could only hold one-quarter of the volume of gas that was leaked in 1984.[3][4][14][28]
  • To reduce energy costs, the refrigeration system, designed to inhibit the volatilization of MIC, had been left idle — the MIC was kept at 20 degrees Celsius (room temperature), not the 4.5 degrees advised by the manual, and some of the coolant was being used elsewhere.^ The tank holding the MIC was not kept, as the safety manual required, at zero degrees Celsius.
    • The Bhopal disaster is still claiming victims, 18 years on – and, according to Luke David, the Indian Government is still sitting on their compensation. | December 2002 | New Internationalist 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.newint.org [Source type: News]

    ^ But it was left at 20 degree Celsius, at room temperature.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ UCC initially recommended use of sodium thiosulfate but withdrew the statement later prompting suggestions that it attempted to cover up evidence of HCN in the gas leak.
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
    • Environmental Health | Full text | The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.ehjournal.net [Source type: Academic]
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
    • Bhopal, India - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [3][4][14][27]
  • .
  • The steam boiler, intended to clean the pipes, was out of action for unknown reasons.^ The steam boiler, meant to clean pipes, was not used for a long time.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Not if the work agenda said to clean out the particular pipe.

    ^ At around midnight on December 2, shortly after workers had carried out a routine cleaning of pipes, large amounts of water entered tank 610.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    [3][4][14][27]
  • .
  • Slip-blind plates that would have prevented water from pipes being cleaned from leaking into the MIC tanks through faulty valves were not installed.^ It is true that four different safety systems were installed to prevent water from leaking into the plant's MIC tank.
    • From A World to Win News Service: The Bhopal Disaster, Yesterday and Today: A System of Mass Destruction | rwor.org 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He would be the worker who fitted a water hose into a pipe that sent or leaked water into Tank 610.

    ^ Most probably, water got into the tank through a pipe.

    Their installation had been omitted from the cleaning checklist.[3][4][14]
  • .
  • Water sprays designed to “knock down” gas leaks were poorly designed — set to 13 metres and below, they could not spray high enough to reduce the concentration of escaping gas.^ The gas leaked from a 30 m high chimney and this height was not enough to reduce the effects of the discharge.
    • Bhopal Gas Tragedy: An Analysis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.hu.mtu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1986 the company filed a court document in India claiming that the gas leak 'could only have been caused by deliberate sabotage’, by a disgruntled employee.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Most people, when they think of Bhopal, recall only the horrors of 'that night', when gas leaked from the Union Carbide factory and killed thousands.
    • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [3][4][14][27]
  • .
  • The MIC tank had been malfunctioning for roughly a week.^ The positive-pressure systems in the MIC tanks had failed, four to eight weeks before the accident.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The pressure indicator control, temperature indicator and the level indicator for the MIC storage tanks begin to malfunction.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In particular, the pressure indicator/control, temperature indicator and the level indicator for the MIC storage tanks had been malfunctioning for more than a year" (p.
    • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Other tanks had been used for that week, rather than repairing the broken one, which was left to “stew”.^ The facility looked as derelict as one would expect, given it has been left to the elements for more than two decades.
    • Factory Clean Up: Bhopal disaster: still waiting for the clean up Archives 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.bhopal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Not surprisingly, the money ended up spent on other Indian government purposes, and corruption, rather than going in cash to the real victims.
    • the Greenpeace Cyberactivist Community Archives 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC activism.greenpeace.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We were also unsuccessful in stopping Operation Faith, the state government’s plan, less than two weeks after the disaster, to allow Union Carbide to manufacture pesticides from the chemicals left behind in the leaking tank.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The build-up in temperature and pressure is believed to have affected the magnitude of the gas release.^ Currently up to 150,000 people are seriously ill due to the affects of the gas leak and medical facilities for the victims are poor or non-existent.
    • the Greenpeace Cyberactivist Community Archives 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC activism.greenpeace.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This reaction generated a substantial increase in the temperature of liquid inside the tank, building pressure and giving off a large volume of toxic gas.
    • Bhopal, India - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ That water reacted with the 42 tons of methyl isocyanate inside, raising temperature and pressure so high that it began venting massive amounts of gas made up of methyl isocyanate, phosgene, hydro .
    • 25th anniversary of the Bhopal disaster [Pics] 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [3][4][14][27]
  • .
  • Carbon steel valves were used at the factory, even though they corrode when exposed to acid.^ Patients pay nothing for treatment, even though they get far more care than at the crowded public hospitals that India's poor usually visit.
    • Salon.com News | Justice for Bhopal survivors 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Some of the owners of the dam were among the wealthiest steel and railroad men of the 19th century and they weren’t even expected to pay reparations or compensation to the families of the deceased.
    • Top 10 Bizarre Disasters - Listverse 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Patients pay nothing for treatment, even though they get far more care than at the crowded public hospitals India's poor usually visit.
    • Silent Night, Deadly Night | Environment | AlterNet 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: News]

    [23] .On the night of the disaster, a leaking carbon steel valve was found, allowing water to enter the MIC tanks.^ On the night of the disaster, tank 610 will contain 41 tonnes of MIC. .
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In a Union Carbide plant, large amounts of water had leaked into a tank , reacting with 42 tons of methyl isocyanate, a volatile chemical also known as MIC .
    • Bhopal Disaster's 25th Anniversary: Another Act of Corporate Terrorism That Time Forgot | BuzzFlash.org 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC blog.buzzflash.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The cause was the contamination of Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) storage tank with water carrying catalytic material.
    • Sunil Choukiker: Major Air Pollution Episodes, Environmental Distortions that Kill, Pollution Episodes, London Pollution Episode, Bhopal Disaster, Donora Fog, Meuse Valley, Mexico-Poza Rica, Aftermath of Disaster, Environment, Disaster Management, Major Air Pollution Episodes, Sunil Choukiker, 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.visionriviewpoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The pipe was not repaired because it was believed it would take too much time and be too expensive.[3][4][14][27]
  • .
  • UCC admitted in their own investigation report that most of the safety systems were not functioning on the night of December 3, 1984.[18]
  • Themistocles D'Silva asserts in the latest book - The Black Box of Bhopal - that the design of the MIC plant, following government guidelines, was "Indianized" by UCIL engineers to maximize the use of indigenous materials and products.^ SARANGI: It was the night of December 2/3 in 1984.

    ^ 'That night' 3 December 1984, just after midnight.
    • Bhopal: 25 years of poison - Mail & Guardian Online: The smart news source 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.mg.co.za [Source type: News]

    ^ Safety audits at the Bhopal plant will also be performed by UCC engineers.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It also dispensed with the use of sophisticated instrumentation as not appropriate for the Indian plant. .Because of the unavailability of electronic parts in India, the Indian engineers preferred pneumatic instrumentation.^ It became contradictory to insist upon tanks and then for a chief engineer and inspector of Union Carbide (USA) to say afterwards that various automated safety devices of the U.S. plant were not used in India because the Indians preferred to employ more people.

    ^ Because Union Carbide, owned 50.9 percent of Union Carbide, India, the Indian Government decided to sue Union Carbide in U.S. courts on behalf of those injured.
    • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the Bhopal incident, the question is doubly complicated because we have two corporations -- Union Carbide, Inc., which is the American parent corporation, and Union Carbide, India, which is a quasi-independent Indian firm.
    • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

    This is supported with original government documents,which are appended. The book also discredits the unproven allegations in the CSIR Report.[29]

Previous warnings and accidents

A series of prior warnings and MIC-related accidents had occurred:
.
  • In 1976, the two trade unions reacted because of pollution within the plant.^ Within a few minutes of the introduction of water, temperatures and pressures in the tanks increased to the point of explosion (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions 1985).
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the summer of 1984, the head of the plant workers' union wrote to management about the problem of pollution, as did a lawyer representing area residents.
    • Lee Sustar: Bhopal, the Making of a Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the Bhopal incident, the question is doubly complicated because we have two corporations -- Union Carbide, Inc., which is the American parent corporation, and Union Carbide, India, which is a quasi-independent Indian firm.
    • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

    [4][22]
  • .
  • In 1981, a worker was splashed with phosgene.^ On December 25, 1981, a leak of phosgene killed one worker, Ashraf Khan, at the plant and severely injured two others.

    ^ For instance, in 1981, a worker died when he inhaled a leaked phosgene gas.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In panic he ripped off his mask, thus inhaling a large amount of phosgene gas; he died 72 hours later.^ For instance, in 1981, a worker died when he inhaled a leaked phosgene gas.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This reaction generated a substantial increase in the temperature of liquid inside the tank, building pressure and giving off a large volume of toxic gas.
    • Bhopal, India - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ READ E-MAILED As fire dies down, environmental crisis looms large Gas leak spurs panic in Jemco Affidavit on behalf of the Bhopal Group for Information and Action, Bhopal Gas Peedit Mahila Stationary Karmachari Sangh & .....

    [4][22]
  • .
  • In January 1982, there was a phosgene leak, when 24 workers were exposed and had to be admitted to hospital.^ In January 24 workers at the plant are overcome by a second phosgene leak.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On January 9, 1982, twenty five workers were hospitalized as a result of another leak at the plant.

    ^ It appears that, following serious phosgene gas leakage accidents in December 1981 and January 1982, an inquiry was ordered.

    .None of the workers had been ordered to wear protective masks.
  • In February 1982, an MIC leak affected 18 workers.^ In February a MIC leak affects 18 people.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In February 1982, MIC gas leaked and affected 18 workers.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A team of Union Carbide safety inspectors from the U.S. noted 10 major hazards in 1982, including the potential for an MIC leak.
    • Lee Sustar: Bhopal, the Making of a Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4][22]
  • .
  • In August 1982, a chemical engineer came into contact with liquid MIC, resulting in burns over 30 percent of his body.^ In August 1982, a chemical engineer contacted liquid MIC, and received burns over 30 percent of his body.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In May 1982, an American safety audit found a total of 61 hazards, 30 of them major and 11 in the dangerous phosgene/MIC units.
    • Faculty for Justice in Bhopal Petition 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.petitiononline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In August a chemical engineer at Bhopal receives burns to over 30% of his body after coming into contact with liquid MIC. In October a combined MIC, hydrochloric acid and chloroform leak injures three workers in the plant and affects a number of residents in the surrounding neighbourhoods.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4][22]
  • .
  • In October 1982, there was a leak of MIC, methylcarbaryl chloride, chloroform and hydrochloric acid.^ In October 1982, there was yet another MIC leak which burnt two engineers.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In August a chemical engineer at Bhopal receives burns to over 30% of his body after coming into contact with liquid MIC. In October a combined MIC, hydrochloric acid and chloroform leak injures three workers in the plant and affects a number of residents in the surrounding neighbourhoods.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When the MIC was released, the company insisted there was no leak, despite evidence to prove otherwise and the public alarm was not sounded until hours later.
    • Online Ethics Center: Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC temp.onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In attempting to stop the leak, the MIC supervisor suffered intensive chemical burns and two other workers were severely exposed to the gases.^ In August a chemical engineer at Bhopal receives burns to over 30% of his body after coming into contact with liquid MIC. In October a combined MIC, hydrochloric acid and chloroform leak injures three workers in the plant and affects a number of residents in the surrounding neighbourhoods.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Instrumentation at the Bhopal plant is so unreliable that it is common for gas leaks of various types to be detected by workers reporting tearing and burning sensations in their eyes.
    • Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal - Online Ethics Home 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Online Ethics Center: Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC temp.onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • OEC - Exportation of Risk: The Case of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.onlineethics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The highly poisonous gases had leaked because of exothermic reactions that took place in an underground storage tank, which contained nearly 41 tonnes of methyl isocyanate (MIC), an extremely volatile and noxious chemical.
    • India: Memorandum on The State of Affairs Twenty-Five Years After The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4][22]
  • .
  • During 1983 and 1984, leaks of the following substances regularly took place in the MIC plant: MIC, chlorine, monomethylamine, phosgene, and carbon tetrachloride, sometimes in combination.^ Similar incidents took place regularly from 1983 to 1984.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After the incident, the BBC took water samples from regularly used hand pumps from the north of the plant, which was found to have 1,000 times the world Health Organization’s recommended maximum amount of carbon tetrachloride, a carcinogenic toxin.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Highly poisonous methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas leaked from the plant, together with even more toxic reaction compounds.
    • Bhopal: A Living Legacy Of Corporate Greed By Justin Huggler 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: Original source]

    [4][22]
  • .
  • Reports issued months before the incident by scientists within the Union Carbide corporation warned of the possibility of an accident almost identical to that which occurred in Bhopal.^ Union Carbide Corporation (1985).
    • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This makes me mad: A series of prior warnings and MIC-related accidents had been ignored: * Reports issued months before the incident by scientists within the Union Carbide corporation warned of the possibility of an accident almost identical to that which occurred in Bhopal.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Union Carbide Corporation et al.
    • India: Memorandum on The State of Affairs Twenty-Five Years After The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The reports were ignored and never reached senior staff.^ The reports were ignored and never reached senior staff.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4][23]
  • .
  • Union Carbide was warned by American experts who visited the plant after 1981 of the potential of a "runaway reaction" in the MIC storage tank; local Indian authorities warned the company of problems on several occasions from 1979 onwards.^ The explosion at the Union Carbide plant on Dec.

    ^ Union Carbide sells its interest in the plant.

    ^ The tanks presented several safety problems.

    .Again, these warnings were not heeded.^ Again, these warnings were not heeded.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4][23]

The leakage

.
  • In November 1984, most of the safety systems were not functioning.^ The process safety system included a design modification installed in May 1984 on the say-so of US engineers.

    ^ The tanks' pressure systems had also been reported defective in October and November 1984.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Their overall objective is to optimize the functions (i.e., safety and efficiency) of the intended technological system.
    • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Many valves and lines were in poor condition. .Tank 610 contained 42 tonnes MIC, much more than safety rules allowed.^ This more often than not is the rule not the exception.
    • Political Affairs Magazine - Workers� Compensation Crisis: Congress and the White House Must Act 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC politicalaffairs.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the night of the disaster, tank 610 will contain 41 tonnes of MIC. .
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The post-accident analysis of the process showed that the accident started when a tank containing methyl isocyanate (MIC) leaked.
    • Welcome to Pushpa Gujral Science City 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.pgsciencecity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4]
  • .
  • During the nights of 2–3 December, a large amount of water entered tank 610. A runaway reaction started, which was accelerated by contaminants, high temperatures and other factors.^ With the scientific evidence of contamination in ground water increasing and spreading with every passing day, the wait for a sequel to the 1984 disaster has started.
    • hell on earth - Sepia Mutiny 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: General]

    ^ And this was a factory owned, designed and operated by Union Carbide Corporation USA. And during routine operations, water entered the tank, and because the safety systems were cut down or were very badly designed, and because the entire plant was under-designed, the water reacted with methyl isocyanate, which was stored in very high quantities, and there was a reaction, which then became a runaway reaction so that there was no control.
    • 25 Years After Bhopal Disaster, Survivors Still Seeking Justice 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.democracynow.org [Source type: News]
    • 25 Years After Bhopal Disaster, Survivors Still Seeking Justice 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC i1.democracynow.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Within a few minutes of the introduction of water, temperatures and pressures in the tanks increased to the point of explosion (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions 1985).
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The reaction generated a major increase in the temperature inside the tank to over 200°C (400°F).^ This reaction generated a substantial increase in the temperature of liquid inside the tank, building pressure and giving off a large volume of toxic gas.
    • Bhopal, India - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Within a few minutes of the introduction of water, temperatures and pressures in the tanks increased to the point of explosion (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions 1985).
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The lack of effective warning systems; the alarm on the storage tank failed to signal the increase in temperature on the night of the disaster (Cassels, p.19).
    • Bhopal Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This forced the emergency venting of pressure from the MIC holding tank, releasing a large volume of toxic gases.^ The resulting reaction generated many large surges of toxic gas, forcing the emergency release of pressure.
    • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ During the early morning hours of December 3, 1984, methyl isocyanate (MIC), a reactive and toxic gas, leaked from a Union Carbide holding tank when water was introduced into the storage tank creating a chemical reaction.
    • Bhopal, India - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This reaction generated a substantial increase in the temperature of liquid inside the tank, building pressure and giving off a large volume of toxic gas.
    • Bhopal, India - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The reaction was sped up by the presence of iron from corroding non-stainless steel pipelines.[4]
  • .
  • It is known that workers cleaned pipelines with water.^ At around midnight on December 2, shortly after workers had carried out a routine cleaning of pipes, large amounts of water entered tank 610.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ However, on this occasion metal barriers known as slip blinds were not inserted and the cleaning water passed directly into the MIC tanks (table 5.1b).
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A worker flushing some pipelines with water failed to insert a metal disk to seal valves in the pipeline leading to a storage tank.
    • InformIT: Minding the Machines: Preventing Technological Disasters 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.informit.com [Source type: Academic]

    .They were not told by the supervisor to add a slip-blind water isolation plate.^ However, on this occasion metal barriers known as slip blinds were not inserted and the cleaning water passed directly into the MIC tanks (table 5.1b).
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Because of this, and of the bad maintenance, the workers consider it possible for water to have accidentally entered the MIC tank.^ The post-accident analysis of the process showed that the accident started when a tank containing methyl isocyanate (MIC) leaked.
    • Welcome to Pushpa Gujral Science City 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.pgsciencecity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ MIC is highly combustible when it reacts with many other substances: water, acids, metals and the small deposits of corrosive materials that accumulate in pipes, tanks and valves.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ The company's legal defence was built around the claim that it was not liable for damages from the accident, because they were the result of "sabotage" by a disgruntled worker.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4][14]
  • .
  • UCC maintains that a "disgruntled worker" deliberately connected a hose to a pressure gauge.^ It should be noted that UCC later commissioned a study by the firm Arthur Little that concluded the accident had been caused by a deliberate act of sabotage by an Indian worker.
    • Ethel the Blog 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The BEAST: Buffalo's Best Fiend 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC buffalobeast.com [Source type: General]

    ^ December the unnamed employee connected a water hose directly to tank 610 through a fitting for the tank's local pressure gauge.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ According to UCC, a disgruntled worker wanted to spoil the MIC in tank 610.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4][16]
  • .
  • UCC's investigation team found no evidence of the suggested connection.^ UCC initially recommended use of sodium thiosulfate but withdrew the statement later prompting suggestions that it attempted to cover up evidence of HCN in the gas leak.
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
    • Environmental Health | Full text | The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.ehjournal.net [Source type: Academic]
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
    • Bhopal, India - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [17]

Timeline, summary

At the plant[4]
.
  • 21.00 Water cleaning of pipes starts.
  • 22.00 Water enters tank 610, reaction starts.
  • 22.30 Gases are emitted from the vent gas scrubber tower.
  • 00.30 The large siren sounds and is turned off.
  • 00.50 The siren is heard within the plant area.^ In October the vent gas scrubber connected to tank 610 at the Bhopal plant begins to malfunction.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The MIC storage tank (Figure 3) and the vent gas scrubber (Figure 4).

    ^ When operative, gases that cannot enter the scrubber or are not dispatched by the scrubber are piped to the tower.

    The workers escape.
Outside[4]
.
  • 22.30 First sensations due to the gases are felt — suffocation, cough, burning eyes and vomiting.
  • 1.00 Police are alerted.^ Victims suffered from breathlessness, cough, nausea, vomiting, chest pains, dry eyes, poor sight, photophobia, and loss of appetite.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Between 11:30 and 12:00 employees in the utility area sensed a gaseous irritation of their eyes.

    ^ By 7 o’clock, we felt a bit easier in breathing, and our eyes had stopped burning.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    Residents of the area evacuate. .Union Carbide director denies any leak.
  • 2.00 The first people reached Hamidia hospital.^ With great difficulty, we reached the Union Carbide.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At 11:00, we heard people screaming again that Union Carbide was still leaking gas.
    • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Union Carbide was itself the first to do this.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    Symptoms include visual impairment and blindness, respiratory difficulties, frothing at the mouth, and vomiting.
  • 2.10 The alarm is heard outside the plant.
  • 4.00 The gases are brought under control.
  • 6.00 A police loudspeaker broadcasts: "Everything is normal".

Health effects

Short term health effects

.
  • Apart from MIC, the gas cloud may have contained phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, oxides of nitrogen, monomethyl amine (MMA) and carbon dioxide, either produced in the storage tank or in the atmosphere.^ The MIC storage tank (Figure 3) and the vent gas scrubber (Figure 4).

    ^ In May 1982, an American safety audit found a total of 61 hazards, 30 of them major and 11 in the dangerous phosgene/MIC units.
    • Faculty for Justice in Bhopal Petition 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.petitiononline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The World War I gas was used in the production of MIC (methyl-isocyanate), a substance 500 times deadlier than hydrogen cyanide, and so volatile that unless kept in spotless conditions, refrigerated to 0°C, it can even react explosively with itself.
    • Bhopal: 25 years of poison - Mail & Guardian Online: The smart news source 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.mg.co.za [Source type: News]

    [4]
  • .
  • The gas cloud composed mainly of materials denser than the surrounding air, stayed close to the ground and spread outwards through the surrounding community.^ ON DECEMBER 2, 1984, a leak of lethal methyl isocyanate gas from a Union Carbide pesticide factory spread silently through the streets of Bhopal, India.
    • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A key element in the production of Sevin is the highly toxic chemical MIC, which is twice as heavy as air, meaning that when it escapes into the atmosphere it remains close to the ground.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ It is a little lighter than water but twice as heavy as air, meaning that when it escapes into the atmosphere it remains close to the ground.
    • Bhopal Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The initial effects of exposure were coughing, vomiting, severe eye irritation and a feeling of suffocation.^ Victims suffered from breathlessness, cough, nausea, vomiting, chest pains, dry eyes, poor sight, photophobia, and loss of appetite.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .People awakened by these symptoms fled away from the plant.^ Bent took away ever meaningful thing these people had for his own purposes.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Forgot the word limit, continued: Bent took away ever meaningful thing these people had for his own purposes.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So people living far away from the plant and unaffected by the gas exposure were equated with the grievously injured in deciding compensation.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Those who ran inhaled more than those who had a vehicle to ride.^ Of those facilities, at least 100 are storing more than 30 million pounds of an extremely hazardous substance, or more than 300 times the amount released at Bhopal.
    • U.S. PIRG 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC uspirg.org [Source type: News]

    ^ More than likely the majority of people who even know about it are laughing.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Locating thousands of people who haveresided 8,000 miles away in Bhopal, India, over a span of more than thirty years would be nigh impossible.
    • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Owing to their height, children and other people of shorter stature inhaled higher concentrations. .Many people were trampled trying to escape.^ There were many people trying to help.

    [4]
  • .
  • Thousands of people had succumbed by the morning hours.^ And it was the next—by the next morning, there were thousands of people dead.
    • 25 Years After Bhopal Disaster, Survivors Still Seeking Justice 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.democracynow.org [Source type: News]
    • 25 Years After Bhopal Disaster, Survivors Still Seeking Justice 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC i1.democracynow.org [Source type: News]

    ^ A bunch of pamphlets scattered around the streets in the wee hours of the morning so people would see them on the sidewalks.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    .There were mass funerals and mass cremations as well as disposal of bodies in the Narmada river.^ Mass funerals were organized while hundreds of bodies were reportedly thrown into the Narbada River.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From there they pass into the wells and bore pipes, gush from taps, enter people’s bodies, flow in their veins.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Funeral pyres kept burning for days, Fatwa for mass graves In hospitals, there was nothing except bodies of men, women and children.
    • An Indian Muslim's Blog: News, Daily Articles, Views on Muslims & Urdu poetry webs: Horrors of Bhopal Gas Tragedy 1984: Biggest industrial disaster in the world--[Part 1] 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.anindianmuslim.com [Source type: General]

    .170,000 people were treated at hospitals and temporary dispensaries.^ In the immediate aftermath of the leak Bhopal hospitals treat at least 130,000 patients exposed to the gas.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ 'You don’t have hospitals where you can immediately bring 10,000 people.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ My team treated 170,000 patients in one day.
    • InfoChange India News & Features development news India - 20 years after: Anger and denial on the streets of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC infochangeindia.org [Source type: Original source]

    .2,000 buffalo, goats, and other animals were collected and buried.^ Over 5,000 dead animals were collected and buried.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Within a few days, leaves on trees yellowed and fell off.^ He is released on bail of US$2,000 the same day and advised by the Indian Government to leave the country within 24 hours.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There were these giant trees outside with beautiful green leaves, but all of the leaves had now fallen off.
    • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Again Dow’s share price fell 4.2% in 23 minutes, wiping $2 billion off its market value before recovering all the days losses hours later.
    • Yes Men Hoax on BBC Reminds World of Dow Chemical's Refusal to Take Responsibility for Bhopal Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC i3.democracynow.org [Source type: News]

    Supplies, including food, became scarce owing to suppliers' safety fears. Fishing was prohibited as well, which caused further supply shortages.[4]
  • .
  • A total of 36 wards were marked by the authorities as being "gas affected", affecting a population of 520,000. Of these, 200,000 were below 15 years of age, and 3,000 were pregnant women.^ Over 500,000 have been affected by inhaling the gas.
    • The Bhopal Disaster (24 Years Later) and World Risk Society | Corrente 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.correntewire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The state government declared a total of 36 wards as affected by the gas leak.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yogi15.htm Bhopal 15 years later "WE ARE NEITHER LIVING NOR DEAD" Yogi Aggarwal travelled to Bhopal again 15 years after the gas tragedy that has killed over 20,000 people so far.
    • Old website pages list 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC bhopal.net [Source type: News]

    In 1991, 3,928 deaths had been certified. .Independent organizations recorded 8,000 dead in the first days.^ About 8,000 people died in the first three days.

    .Other estimations vary between 10,000 and 30,000. Another 100,000 to 200,000 people are estimated to have permanent injuries of different degrees.^ Between 8,000 to 10,000 people lost their lives within days.
    • 25 Years After Bhopal Disaster, Survivors Still Seeking Justice 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.democracynow.org [Source type: News]
    • 25 Years After Bhopal Disaster, Survivors Still Seeking Justice 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC i1.democracynow.org [Source type: News]

    ^ In addition, 30,000 to 40,000 people were maimed and seriously injured, and 200,000 were otherwise affected through minor injury, death of a family member, and economic and social dislocation (Cassels, p.5).
    • Bhopal Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Officials would admit to only 459 deaths, but total fatalities were probably more like 6,000, with another 100,000 suffering such permanent effects as blindness, deafness and brain damage.
    • Top 10 Bizarre Disasters - Listverse 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

    [4]
  • .
  • The acute symptoms were burning in the respiratory tract and eyes, blepharospasm, breathlessness, stomach pains and vomiting.^ Victims suffered from breathlessness, cough, nausea, vomiting, chest pains, dry eyes, poor sight, photophobia, and loss of appetite.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Medical supplies were limited to eye drops and antacids to deal with the burning sensation in the eyes and stomach, and tablets for breathlessness.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The causes of deaths were choking, reflexogenic circulatory collapse and pulmonary oedema.^ The majority of deaths and serious injuries were related to pulmonary oedemas, but the gas caused a wide variety of other ailments.
    • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Findings during autopsies revealed changes not only in the lungs but also cerebral oedema, tubular necrosis of the kidneys, fatty degeneration of the liver and necrotising enteritis.[30] The stillbirth rate increased by up to 300% and neonatal mortality rate by 200 %.[4]

Hydrogen cyanide or not?

.
  • Whether hydrogen cyanide was present in the gas mixture is still a controversy.^ The truth of the matter is that there is no way of knowing scientifically whether people are still suffering the after-effects of the gas.
    • InfoChange India News & Features development news India - 20 years after: Anger and denial on the streets of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC infochangeindia.org [Source type: Original source]

    [30][31]
  • .
  • Exposed at higher temperatures, MIC breaks down to hydrogen cyanide (HCN).^ Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula HCN. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The operator in the MIC control room now reports that the pressure and temperature in Tank 610 has risen much higher.

    ^ When MIC is exposed to 200° heat, it forms degraded MIC that contains the more deadly hydrogen cyanide (HCN).
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
    • Environmental Health | Full text | The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.ehjournal.net [Source type: Academic]
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .According to Kulling & Lorin, at +200°C, 3 % of the gas is HCN.[32] However, according to another scientific publication,[33] MIC when heated in the gas-phase starts breaks down to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and other products above 400°C. Concentrations of 300 ppm can lead to immediate collapse.
  • Laboratory replication studies by CSIR and UCC scientists failed to detect any HCN or HCN- derived side products.^ When MIC is exposed to 200° heat, it forms degraded MIC that contains the more deadly hydrogen cyanide (HCN).
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
    • Environmental Health | Full text | The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.ehjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The World War I gas was used in the production of MIC (methyl-isocyanate), a substance 500 times deadlier than hydrogen cyanide, and so volatile that unless kept in spotless conditions, refrigerated to 0°C, it can even react explosively with itself.
    • Bhopal: 25 years of poison - Mail & Guardian Online: The smart news source 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.mg.co.za [Source type: News]

    ^ UCC initially recommended use of sodium thiosulfate but withdrew the statement later prompting suggestions that it attempted to cover up evidence of HCN in the gas leak.
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
    • Environmental Health | Full text | The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.ehjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

    .Chemically, HCN is known to be very reactive with MIC.[34] HCN is also known to react with hydrochloric acid, ammonia, and methylamine (also produced in tank 610 during the vigorous reaction with water and choloroform) and also with itself under acidic conditions to form trimers of HCN called triazenes.^ During the early hours of the morning a poisonous gas, methyl isocyanate (MIC), used in producing the pesticide, Sevin, leaked from a Union Carbide plant.
    • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ MIC is highly combustible when it reacts with many other substances: water, acids, metals and the small deposits of corrosive materials that accumulate in pipes, tanks and valves.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ The World War I gas was used in the production of MIC (methyl-isocyanate), a substance 500 times deadlier than hydrogen cyanide, and so volatile that unless kept in spotless conditions, refrigerated to 0°C, it can even react explosively with itself.
    • Bhopal: 25 years of poison - Mail & Guardian Online: The smart news source 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.mg.co.za [Source type: News]

    None of the HCN-derived side products were detected in the tank residue.[35]
  • .
  • The non-toxic antidote sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) in intravenous injections increases the rate of conversion from cyanide to non-toxic thiocyanate.^ Moreover, many responded well to administration of sodium thiosulfate, an effective therapy for cyanide poisoning but not MIC exposure [ 11 ].
    • Environmental Health | Full text | The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.ehjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

    Treatment was suggested early, but because of confusion within the medical establishments, it was not used on larger scale until June 1985.[4]

Long term health effects

.
  • It is estimated that 20,000 have died since the accident from gas-related diseases.^ It is estimated that the death toll has since gone above 20,000.
    • India: Memorandum on The State of Affairs Twenty-Five Years After The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Official figures say 3,897 died as a direct result of the leak, but other estimates put it as high as 10,000.
    • gulfnews : Bhopal disaster: 25 years on 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC gulfnews.com [Source type: News]

    ^ While official estimates put that night's death toll at 3000, Amnesty International reports say between 7000 and 10,000 people died in the immediate aftermath, with a further 15,000 dying from gas related illnesses.
    • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Another 100,000 to 200,000 people are estimated to have permanent injuries.^ In addition, 30,000 to 40,000 people were maimed and seriously injured, and 200,000 were otherwise affected through minor injury, death of a family member, and economic and social dislocation (Cassels, p.5).
    • Bhopal Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Officials would admit to only 459 deaths, but total fatalities were probably more like 6,000, with another 100,000 suffering such permanent effects as blindness, deafness and brain damage.
    • Top 10 Bizarre Disasters - Listverse 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

    ^ (By comparison, Chernobyl is estimated to have caused 57 direct deaths, with some 4,000 additional deaths from cancer among the approximately 600,000 most highly exposed people.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    [4]
  • The quality of the epidemiological and clinical research varies. .Reported and studied symptoms are eye problems, respiratory difficulties, immune and neurological disorders, cardiac failure secondary to lung injury, female reproductive difficulties and birth defects among children born to affected women.^ You have children born with birth defects.
    • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And in 2005 the Madhya Pradesh Government's Centre for Rehabilitation Studies, Bhopal, reported that "water and soil contamination has caused increased morbidity among the population near the UCIL factory," with respiratory disorders four to five times higher in gas affected victims.
    • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Exposure to MIC has resulted in damage to the eyes and lungs and has caused respiratory ailments such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema, gastrointestinal problems like hyperacidity and chronic gastritis, ophthalmic problems like chronic conjunctivitis and early cataracts, vision problems, neurological disorders such as memory and motor skills, psychiatric problems of various types including varying grades of anxiety and depression, musculoskeletal problems and gynecological problems among the victims.
    • Bhopal Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Other symptoms and diseases are often ascribed to the gas exposure, but there is no good research supporting this.^ According to UCC, studies by the National Engineering Environmental Research Institute (NEERI) indicate there is no contamination of groundwater around the plant.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The truth of the matter is that there is no way of knowing scientifically whether people are still suffering the after-effects of the gas.
    • InfoChange India News & Features development news India - 20 years after: Anger and denial on the streets of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC infochangeindia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So far no treatment protocols for symptom complexes associated with toxic exposure have been established and symptomatic treatment remains the mainstay of medical response.

    [4]
  • .
  • There is a clinic established by a group of survivors and activists known as Sambhavna.^ In 1996 the Sambhavna Clinic opened its doors, offering survivors a combination of modern medicine, ayurvedic herbal treatments, yoga and massage.
    • Bhopal: 25 years of poison - Mail & Guardian Online: The smart news source 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.mg.co.za [Source type: News]

    ^ The Sambhavna Trust provides free clinic and community based medical care to Bhopal gas survivors: see www.bhopal.org.
    • Faculty for Justice in Bhopal Petition 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.petitiononline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Sambhavna Trust provides free clinic and community based medical care to Bhopal gas survivors: see www.bhopal.org .

    .Sambhavna is the only clinic that will treat anybody affected by the gas, or the subsequent water poisoning, and treats the condition with a combination of Western and traditional Indian medicines, and has performed extensive research.^ Study of Health Clinics in Gas Affected Bhopal The main objective of this excellent study done by Jonathan Nash was "to find out how private health clinics in gas-affected Bhopal operate on a day-to-day basis".
    • The Bhopal Memory Project | Resources | Master List of Old Resources 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC bhopal.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Satinath Sarangi – or Sathyu as he is known to everybody in Bhopal – is the director of the Sambhavna Clinic, which was founded 15 years ago to treat victims of the accident using a mixture of Western and traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine, and an activist and campaigner who has spent the past 25 years attempting to bring Union Carbide to account for the tragedy.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ The Memorial Hospital has facilities to rival any in India, and treats a volume of patients, and offers treatment at the critical end of the spectrum, that the Sambhavna Clinic could never hope to do.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    [36]
  • .
  • Union Carbide as well as the Indian Government long denied permanent injuries by MIC and the other gases.^ In 1989 Union Carbide, which is now a subsidiary of Dow Chemical, paid the Indian Government £470m in a settlement which many described as woefully inadequate.
    • ProjectDisaster » Blog Archive » 12/3/1984: Bhopal & Death 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC projectdisaster.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Both Anderson and Carbide have repeatedly ignored summons to appear in India for trial, and are officially considered “absconders” (fugitives from justice) by the Indian Government.

    ^ But the Indian government long ago agreed to a settlement that excluded the victims themselves, capping damages at $470 million, shielding Union Carbide from further liability and creating a politicized and corrupt bureaucracy to administer a meager compensation.
    • Lee Sustar: Bhopal, the Making of a Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In January, 1994, the International Medical Commission on Bhopal (IMCB) visited Bhopal to investigate the health status among the survivors as well as the health care system and the socio-economic rehabilitation.
  • The reports from Indian Council of Medical Research[21] were not completely released until around 2003.
  • For a review of the research on the health effects of the Bhopal disaster, see Dhara & Dhara (2002).^ Review The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review .
    • Environmental Health | Full text | The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.ehjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Review Some international law aspects of the Bhopal disaster.
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The report of the International Medical Commission on Bhopal which was convened in 1994.
    • The Bhopal Memory Project | Resources | Master List of Old Resources 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC bhopal.bard.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [37]

Aftermath of the leakage

  • Medical staff were unprepared for the thousands of casualties.[4]
  • .
  • Doctors and hospitals were not informed of proper treatment methods for MIC gas inhalation.^ After the release, the local doctors were not informed of the nature of the gas, thus hampering treatment, and basic disaster management measures (such as blocking all gaps with wet towels) were not planned for.
    • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Doctors, medical students and volunteers worked round the clock but in the absence of any open toxicological information about MIC, only symptomatic treatment could be provided.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Analysis of the mortality and morbidity pattern in Gas affected population from hospital-based database in reference to MIC exposure.
    • India: Memorandum on The State of Affairs Twenty-Five Years After The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They were told to simply give cough medicine and eye drops to their patients.^ The patients were sitting in masses in big halls and in the road, and there would be one doctor just going along the line with a bottle giving people eye-drops.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ I saw doctors administering the patients with eye drops.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    [4]
  • .
  • The gases immediately caused visible damage to the trees.^ Senior corporate officials were busy telling the world’s media that the leaked gases were similar to a potent tear gas, and thus unlikely to cause lasting damage.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Within a few days, all the leaves fell off.^ There were these giant trees outside with beautiful green leaves, but all of the leaves had now fallen off.
    • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He is released on bail of US$2,000 the same day and advised by the Indian Government to leave the country within 24 hours.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As one student succinctly puts it: “I have learnt more about systems of oppression in these few days than I have from all my readings.
    • InfoChange India News & Features development news India - 20 years after: Anger and denial on the streets of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC infochangeindia.org [Source type: Original source]

    [4]
  • 2,000 bloated animal carcasses had to be disposed.[4]
  • .
  • "Operation Faith": On December 16, the tanks 611 and 619 were emptied of the remaining MIC. This led to a second mass evacuation from Bhopal.^ On the night of December 2/3, 1984, almost 40 tonnes of methyl isocyanate (MIC) spewed out of a storage tank at the Union Carbide India Ltd (UCIL) factory in Bhopal .
    • InfoChange India News & Features development news India - 20 years after: Anger and denial on the streets of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC infochangeindia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bhopal, however, lacked sufficient processing capacity, so MIC was stored for weeks--or months--in massive tanks holding 90 tons of gas, guaranteeing that that the large spill of December 1984 would be catastrophic.
    • Lee Sustar: Bhopal, the Making of a Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At 11.00 PM on December 2 1984, while most of the one million residents of Bhopal slept, an operator at the plant noticed a small leak of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas and increasing pressure inside a storage tank.
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [4]
  • Complaints of a lack of information or misinformation were widespread. .The Bhopal plant medical doctor did not have proper information about the properties of the gases.^ And I was confirmed in my intention to become more educated about the history of the Bhopal chemical explosion and the legal, social, and medical aftermath.
    • The WELL: Indra Sinha: Cybergypsies: Lust, War & Betrayal on the Electronic Frontier 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.well.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Of course, Dow contends that, since it did not own UC back then, it is not its job to do anything about Bhopal.
    • The Bhopal Disaster (24 Years Later) and World Risk Society | Corrente 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.correntewire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What was so disgusting about the Bhopal story, and what continues to be disgusting, was not just that it happened, but that the story played out the way it did here in the States.
    • Ethel the Blog 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .An Indian Government spokesman said that "Carbide is more interested in getting information from us than in helping our relief work."^ Our Indian government should force them to tell us what the cure is.
    • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Moreover, Union Carbide has always rejected Indian court summons arguing that, being a US company, India has no jurisdiction (how interesting that transnational corporations play the "national" card when it suits them).
    • The Bhopal Disaster (24 Years Later) and World Risk Society | Corrente 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.correntewire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1989 Union Carbide, which is now a subsidiary of Dow Chemical, paid the Indian Government £470m in a settlement which many described as woefully inadequate.
    • ProjectDisaster » Blog Archive » 12/3/1984: Bhopal & Death 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC projectdisaster.com [Source type: News]

    [4]
  • .
  • As of 2008, UCC had not released information about the possible composition of the cloud.^ UCC has never released the name of the alleged saboteur but says it knows who the person is and has passed the information to the Indian Government.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4]
  • Formal statements were issued that air, water, vegetation and foodstuffs were safe within the city. .At the same time, people were informed that poultry was unaffected, but were warned not to consume fish.^ The siren at the plant used to warn the public of an accident is sounded at about the same time.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4]

Compensation from Union Carbide

.
  • The Government of India passed the Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster Act that gave the government rights to represent all victims in or outside India.^ India: Dodging responsibility: Corporations, governments and the Bhopal disaster .
    • India: Dodging responsibility: Corporations, governments and the Bhopal disaster | Amnesty International 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.amnesty.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Bhopal disaster in India.
    • AK Voices: Geoff Kennedy | adn.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC community.adn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Act made the government the sole representative of the victims in legal proceedings both within and outside India.
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [4]
  • .
  • UCC offered US$ 350 million, the insurance sum.^ On 17 December the Bhopal District Court orders UCC to pay interim compensation of US$270 million.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Union Carbide proposed a settlement figure of $350 million – the insurance cost.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ The Government of India claimed US$3.3 billion, but Union Carbide agreed to pay only US$350 million.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    [4] .The Government of India claimed US$ 3.3 billion from UCC.[4] In 1999, a settlement was reached under which UCC agreed to pay US$470 million (the insurance sum, plus interest) in a full and final settlement of its civil and criminal liability.^ In approving the final settlement, the court upheld the $470 million from Carbide.

    ^ Eventually, a settlement was reached under which Union Carbide agreed to pay US$470 million.
    • MYREPUBLICA.com - News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC myrepublica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Finally, on October 3, 1991, the final settlement was agreed to.

    [4]
  • .
  • When UCC wanted to sell its shares in UCIL, it was directed by the Supreme Court to finance a 500-bed hospital for the medical care of the survivors.^ The Indian Supreme court directed Carbide to build a 500 bed hospital from its own money.

    ^ In 1994 UCC sold its majority share of Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) and became a subsidiary of Dow Chemicals.
    • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Supreme Court upholds settlement amount, but cancels immunity for UCC, opening up old suits .
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre (BMHRC) was inaugurated in 1998. It was obliged to give free care for survivors for eight years.^ As part of this arrangement, Union Carbide was instructed by the Supreme Court of India to finance the building of a hospital, the Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, which opened in 1998 to provide free medical care to all those designated by the government as gas victims.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ That the Monitoring Committee was exempted from monitoring the quality of health care provided to the gas-victims at the Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre (BMHRC), which was set up by a trust appointed by the Supreme Court of India in 1994, was an unfortunate decision.
    • India: Memorandum on The State of Affairs Twenty-Five Years After The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ All research and monitoring of the long-term health effects of Union Carbide's gases were abandoned in 1994; they were only recently restarted in response to years of pressure from Bhopal survivors.

    [4]

Economic rehabilitation

.
  • After the accident, no one under the age of 18 was registered.^ No one intends accidents.
    • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The same unsubscribe process is available to a parent or legal guardian of a minor (a person under the age of 18, or the age of majority in your state).
    • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    .The number of children exposed to the gases was at least 200,000.[4]
  • Immediate relief was decided two days after the tragedy.^ At least 500,000 people will be directly exposed to the gas.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ More than 8,000 people were killed in the immediate aftermath, and at least 500,000 exposed to the poisons.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Because of all of these reasons, the gases leaked, and covered almost all of the city of Bhopal, exposing 500,000 people to this deadly cocktail of gases.

    [4]
  • Relief measures commenced in 1985 when food was distributed for a short period and ration cards were distributed.[4]
  • .
  • Widow pension of the rate of Rs 200/per month (later Rs 750) was provided.^ She received interim relief of Rs 200 per month after the gas leak, but not a paisa after that.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A month later Gaur, by now the Chief Minister, announced an ambitious Rs 600 crore plan to beautify the city with ornamental fountains and badminton courts.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sums of Rs 200 (about $8) per month were paid to all victims who lived in 37 of the city's 54 wards that were officially classified as "gas affected."
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4]
  • .
  • One-time ex-gratia payment of Rs 1,500 to families with monthly income Rs 500 or less was decided.^ If my ex-wife Lillian came out, I would surely announce it, but I cannot speak of the other familys who have loved ones still there.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Really it must have been difficult to have one woman in Oregon, and digging your ex-wife's grave in New Mexico at the same time.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    [4]
  • Each claimant was to be categorised by a doctor. In court, the claimants were expected to prove "beyond reasonable doubt" that death or injury in each case was attributable to exposure. In 1992, 44 percent of the claimants still had to be medically examined.[4]
  • .
  • From 1990 interim relief of Rs 200 was paid to everyone in the family who was born before the disaster.^ So, when the compensation was paid, the interim relief was deducted.

    ^ This included relatives of the dead, who received $3,200 per fatality (more for multiple bereavements in the same family).
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ She received interim relief of Rs 200 per month after the gas leak, but not a paisa after that.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    [4]
  • .
  • The final compensation (including interim relief) for personal injury was for the majority Rs 25,000 (US$ 830).^ So, when the compensation was paid, the interim relief was deducted.

    ^ She received interim relief of Rs 200 per month after the gas leak, but not a paisa after that.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In theory, about Rs.100,000/- was awarded on an average in 5207 death cases and about Rs.25,000/- was awarded in 5,69,160 injury cases (including 10,084 acknowledged death cases where compensation was paid only for injury).
    • India: Memorandum on The State of Affairs Twenty-Five Years After The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For death claim, the average sum paid out was Rs 62,000.[4]
  • Effects of interim relief were more children sent to school, more money spent on treatment, more money spent on food, improvement of housing conditions.^ The average sum paid out for a death claim was 62,000 rupees (£780).
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ So, when the compensation was paid, the interim relief was deducted.

    ^ Officials would admit to only 459 deaths, but total fatalities were probably more like 6,000, with another 100,000 suffering such permanent effects as blindness, deafness and brain damage.
    • Top 10 Bizarre Disasters - Listverse 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

    [4]
  • The management of registration and distribution of relief showed many shortcomings.[38]
  • In 2007, 1,029,517 cases were registered and decided. .Number of awarded cases were 574,304 and number of rejected cases 455,213. Total compensation awarded was Rs.1,546.47 crores.^ In other words, Rs.600 crores was to be disbursed among the assumed number of 105,000 gas-victims as compensation at an average of Rs.57,143/- per victim at the 1989 value of the rupee.
    • India: Memorandum on The State of Affairs Twenty-Five Years After The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Since the actual number of gas-victims was five times more than the assumed number at the time of settlement, justice demands that the total amount of compensation be proportionately enhanced by FIVE times.
    • India: Memorandum on The State of Affairs Twenty-Five Years After The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The victims were awarded an average of $500 in compensation (a total of $470 million), falling far below international compensation standards and the standards set by Indian Railways for accidents.

    [39]
  • .
  • Because of the smallness of the sums paid and the denial of interest to the claimants, a sum as large as Rs 10 billion is expected to be left over after all claims have been settled.^ The fund is believed to amount to $390 million after earning interest “from money remaining after all claims had been paid”.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On 5 September the Indian Government files a US$3.3 billion compensation claim against UCC on behalf of all the Bhopal victims.
    • Bhopal industrial incident killer file 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The average sum paid out for a death claim was 62,000 rupees (£780).
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    [4]

Occupational rehabilitation

  • 33 of the 50 planned worksheds for gas victims started. .All except one was closed down by 1992.[4]
  • 1986, the MP government invested in the Special Industrial Area Bhopal.^ The successor, Eveready Industries, abruptly relinquished the site lease to one department of the State Government while being supervised by another department on an extensive clean up programme.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The "Bhopal Incident" that Professor De George uses as a case study in this writing continues to be recognized as one of the worst industrial disasters in world history.
    • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And then the people from Patancheru came up to Bhopal and we all spoke with one voice: "No more Bhopals!"
    • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    152 of the planned 200 worksheds were built. In 2000, 16 were partially functioning.[4]
  • .
  • It is estimated that 50,000 persons need alternative jobs, and that less than 100 gas victims have found regular employment under the government's scheme.^ More than 100,000 were injured.
    • Ethel the Blog 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The BEAST: Buffalo's Best Fiend 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC buffalobeast.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Court ordered the Indian government “to purchase, out of settlement fund, a group medical insurance policy to cover 100,000 persons who may later develop symptoms” and cover any shortfall in the settlement fund.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A release of poison gas at a Union Carbide pesticide plant killed more than 8,000 people immediately, sent another 15,000 to early graves and left an estimated 100,000 more with chronic and debilitating injuries.
    • Lee Sustar: Bhopal, the Making of a Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4]

Habitation rehabilitation

  • 2,486 flats in two- and four-story buildings were constructed in the "Widows colony" outside Bhopal. The water did not reach the upper floors. It was not possible to keep cattle. Infrastructure like buses, schools, etc. were missing for at least a decade.[4]

Health care

.
  • In the immediate aftermath of the disaster, the health care system became tremendously overloaded.^ Today, the failure of the official system of health care contributes largely to the medical disaster in Bhopal.

    ^ II. Grave Consequences of Hazardous, Large-scale Technological Systems' Accidents The aftermath of most hazardous, large-scale technological systems' accidents have serious and long-lasting health and environmental consequences.
    • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ System in crisis : the case for health care reform / editors, Robert J. Blendon, Jennifer N. Edwards.

    .Within weeks, the State Government established a number of hospitals, clinics and mobile units in the gas-affected area.^ Local governments clearly cannot allow industrial facilities to be situated within urban areas, regardless of the evolution of land use over time.
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Yet another leak on October 5, 1982 affected hundreds of nearby residents requiring hospitalization of large numbers of people residing in the communities surrounding the plant.

    ^ Providing "a $2.2 million grant to Arizona State University to establish a vocational-technical center in Bhopal, which was constructed and opened, but was later closed and leveled by the government”.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4]
  • .
  • Radical health groups set up JSK (the People's Health Centre) that was working a few years from 1985.[4]
  • Since the leak, a very large number of private practitioners have opened in Bhopal.^ In the meantime, Hasira had been given work as a seamstress in a government centre set up for victims of Bhopal.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Yeah, the Twelve Tribes showed up in Tucson AZ a few years ago.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Rashida: In Bhopal, people who used to earn 50 rupees a day can't even manage to work enough to earn 25 rupees a day.
    • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In the severely affected areas, nearly 70 percent do not appear to be professionally qualified.^ Women in the affected area appear to have suffered a variety of medical problems.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4]
  • .
  • The Government of India has focused primarily on increasing the hospital-based services for gas victims.^ In February 1989, the Supreme Court of India ordered the American based Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) to pay $470 million in compensation to the Bhopal gas victims.
    • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ More importantly, the Government of India's Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster Ordinance - a law that appointed the government as sole representative of the victims - was challenged by victim activists.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Indian government passed a law, known as the Bhopal Law, which said that in the litigation, the government of India was the only agency that could speak on behalf of the victims.

    Several hospitals have been built after the disaster. .In 1994, there were approximately 1.25 beds per 1,000, compared to the recommendation from the World bank of 1.0 beds per 1,000 in developing countries.^ An estimated 3 million people per year suffer the consequences of pesticide poisoning with most exposure occurring in the agricultural developing world.
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Indian experience is comparable to that of a number of developing countries that are experiencing the environmental impacts of structural adjustment.
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Also, according to a study by the Division of Nuclear Power of the IAEA, developing countries' present share of the world's installed nuclear power plants is 7.1%.
    • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [4]
  • .
  • The Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre (BMHRC) is a 350-bedded super speciality hospital.^ Guide to Bhopal : a research publication with illustrations depicting a socio-cultural scene of Bhopal with special reference to the gas tragedy of Bhopal / by Syed Ashfaq Ali.

    ^ As part of this arrangement, Union Carbide was instructed by the Supreme Court of India to finance the building of a hospital, the Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, which opened in 1998 to provide free medical care to all those designated by the government as gas victims.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Subodh Varshney, who is now a doctor at the Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, was a medical student in the city at the time.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    Heart surgery and hemodialysis are done. Major specialities missing are gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics. Eight mini-units (outreach health centres) were started. .Free health care for gas victims should be offered until 2006.[4] The management has faced problems with strikes, and the quality of the health care is disputed.^ Hospitals won’t treat me for free unless I am a confirmed gas victim.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Review The Bhopal syndrome: persistent questions about acute toxicity and management of gas victims.
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The deadline for this release was extended by the Indian Supreme Court In April 2005, giving the Indian government until 30th April 2006 after a request from the Welfare Commission for Bhopal Gas Victims.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [40][41][42]
  • .
  • Sambhavna Trust is a charitable trust that registered in 1995. The clinic gives modern and Ayurvedic treatments to gas victims, free of charge.^ The clinic provides free treatment to up to 170 patients a day, with a focus on yoga and the traditional herbal medical practice, Ayurveda.
    • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Two hundred children now receive free medical treatment at the trust.
    • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The other is the Samhavna Trust, which runs a free clinic for the survivors.

    [4][43]

Environmental rehabilitation

.
  • When the factory was closed in 1985–1986, pipes, drums and tanks were cleaned and sold.^ At around midnight on December 2, shortly after workers had carried out a routine cleaning of pipes, large amounts of water entered tank 610.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ It was alleged that water could not have entered the MIC tanks during pipe-washing operations: pipes leading to the tanks were simply too long; passages were too complex and blocked with closed valves.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nor is there any indication that either man checked to be sure that the pipe valves that blocked passage to the tanks were all closed.

    .The MIC and the Sevin plants are still there, as are storages of different residues.^ The biggest differences between the two plants was supposed to be the way in which they stored the key ingredient used in the pesticide Sevin--methyl isocyanate (MIC), derived from the phosgene gas used as a chemical weapon in the First World War.
    • Lee Sustar: Bhopal, the Making of a Disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ During the early hours of the morning a poisonous gas, methyl isocyanate (MIC), used in producing the pesticide, Sevin, leaked from a Union Carbide plant.
    • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Let us now put ourselves in the position of those designing a plant to make MIC and to convert it into the powdered pesticide, Sevin.

    Isolation material is falling down and spreading.[4]
  • .
  • The area around the plant was used as a dumping area for hazardous chemicals.^ Statistical surveys of local residents, with a control population in a similarly poor area away from the plant, are reported to reveal higher levels of various diseases around the plant.
    • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ During the manufactureof pesticides, hazardous wastes were generated and dumped within the plant`s premises.
    • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And what Union Carbide did was to take the 5,000 tons or more of the chemicals that we left in the warehouse after the disaster, and it just dumped them into the ground around the factory.
    • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    In 1982 tubewells in the vicinity of the UCC factory had to be abandoned.[4] .UCC's laboratory tests in 1989 revealed that soil and water samples collected from near the factory and inside the plant were toxic to fish.^ If you are scientifically-minded, take samples of soil and water inside the factory.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The company continually denied that the factory was contaminated or was responsible for polluting water, but it is clear from internal Carbide documents obtained via "discovery" in the New York court case (see below) that it had carried out tests and knew as long ago as 1989 that soil and water within its boundaries were lethal.
    • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Or from UCC’s dumping tonnes of toxic waste around its factory from 1969?
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    [44] .Several other studies has shown polluted soil and groundwater in the area.^ Studies have shown that the rates of cancer and other ailments are higher in the region since the event.
    • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [4].
  • .
  • Reported polluting compounds are, among others, naphthol, naphthalene, Sevin, tarry residue, mercury, toxic organochlorines, volatile organochlorine compounds, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, hexachloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene, pesticide HCH and halo-organics.^ Report : Mercury in India - Toxic pathways .
    • Toxics Link : Cloning Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.toxicslink.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lead, nickel, copper, chromium, hexachlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzenes were also found in soil samples.

    ^ The previous day, in the early hours of 3 December 1984, 40 tonnes of toxic methyl isocynate (MIC) and other lethal gases were accidentally released from the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal that manufactured the pesticide Sevin.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    .It is plausible that these chemicals have some negative health effects on those exposed, but there is no scientific evidence.^ These data are likely to under-represent the true extent of adverse health effects because many exposed individuals left Bhopal immediately following the disaster never to return and were therefore lost to follow-up [ 8 ].
    • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ As such, there is no easing off from campaigning for the clean-up of the factory, where sacks of dangerous chemicals continue to be stacked.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bent uses cause and effect to explain away everything (except for his own problems) and because it can sound plausible in some situations people believe it.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    [4]
  • .
  • In order to provide safe drinking water to the population around the UCC factory, there is a scheme for improvement of water supply.^ In the following year, a survey conducted by scientists from Greenpeace revealed 'substantial and in some locations severe’ contamination of land and drinking water supplies of a level 'likely to have serious consequences for the health and survival of the local population’.
    • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ The chemicals that Carbide abandoned in and around their Bhopal factory have contaminated the drinking water of 20,000 people (6) .

    ^ Survivors campaigning for clean water successfully petitioned the Supreme Court of India, which ordered in May 2004 that clean, safe water be piped into the communities.
    • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [39]
  • .
  • In December 2008, the Madhya Pradesh High Court decided that the toxic waste should be incinerated at Ankleshwar in Gujarat.^ Post comment See Also Bhopal gas tragedy: Plight of victims unchanged On the 25th anniversary of the Bhopal Gas Disaster, the Madhya Pradesh high court at Jabalpur dealt another blow when it turned down the plea of the..
    • Bhopal Gas Tragedy: A continuing disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.merinews.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The case is still being fought at the Chief Judicial Magistrate level and after that it may be challenged again in the Madhya Pradesh High Court.
    • Bhopal Gas Tragedy: A continuing disaster 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.merinews.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Charges against Warren Anderson and others The Chairman and CEO of Union Carbide, Warren Anderson, had been arrested and released on bail by the Madhya Pradesh Police in Bhopal on December 7, 1984.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [45]

Union Carbide's defense

.Now owned by Dow Chemical Company, Union Carbide denies allegations against it on its website dedicated to the tragedy.^ Union Carbide and Dow Chemical not been brought to account?
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2001 Union Carbide was taken over by Dow Chemical, then the world’s largest multinational chemical company.
  • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Union Carbide denies these allegations on its website dedicated to the tragedy.
  • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The corporation believes that the accident was the result of sabotage, stating that safety systems were in place and operative.^ The corporation believes that the accident was the result of sabotage, claiming that safety systems were in place and operative.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The company's legal defence was built around the claim that it was not liable for damages from the accident, because they were the result of "sabotage" by a disgruntled worker.
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, process safety systems – in place and operational – would have prevented water from entering the tank by accident”.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also stresses that it did all it could to alleviate human suffering following the disaster.^ It also stresses that it did all it could to alleviate humanitarian suffering following the disaster.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, he did not agree to all of their demands, but survivors were more confident than before that the government could be made to listen to them.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Above all, we have not learnt to be humane towards victims of disasters who are in no way responsible for them.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

[46]

Investigation into possible sabotage

.Theories of how the water entered the tank differ.^ Obviously a high number of factors are involved but all stem around the fact the water entered the tank and Union Carbide is at fault.
  • Essays.cc - The Union Carbide Gas Disaster In Bhopal, India: Can It Happen Here? 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.essays.cc [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Investigations have found that the accident occurred when water entered a sealed tank containing highly reactive MIC, causing pressure in the tank to rise too high.
  • Bhopal Disaster 25th Anniversary: Victims Of Gas Tragedy Demand Cleanup 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]
  • Victims of Bhopal gas tragedy demand cleanup | Deseret News 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.deseretnews.com [Source type: News]
  • Victims of Bhopal gas tragedy demand cleanup - Yahoo! Finance 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC biz.yahoo.com [Source type: News]

^ What Happened During the night of December 3rd 1984, large amounts of water entered tank 610, containing 42 tons of methyl isocyanate.
  • Bhopal disaster could safe by Abid Nadeem khan 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

.At the time, workers were cleaning out pipes with water.^ Survivors campaigning for clean water successfully petitioned the Supreme Court of India, which ordered in May 2004 that clean, safe water be piped into the communities.
  • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He would be the worker who fitted a water hose into a pipe that sent or leaked water into Tank 610.

^ Not if the work agenda said to clean out the particular pipe.

.The workers maintain that entry of water through the plant's piping system during the washing of lines was possible because a slip-bind was not used, the downstream bleeder lines were partially clogged, many valves were leaking, and the tank was not pressurised.^ Most probably, water got into the tank through a pipe.

^ MIC is highly combustible when it reacts with many other substances: water, acids, metals and the small deposits of corrosive materials that accumulate in pipes, tanks and valves.
  • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The metal barrier in a pipe intended to keep water from leaking into the MIC liquid had been removed and had not been replaced the day before the disaster.
  • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The water, which was not draining properly through the bleeder valves, may have built up in the pipe, rising high enough to pour back down through another series of lines in the MIC storage tank.^ Most probably, water got into the tank through a pipe.

^ One action lower management took was to shut down the expensive refrigeration equipment cooling the MIC storage tanks so they could use the freon elsewhere in the plant.
  • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It cites a non-peer-reviewed investigation that concluded that a single employee secretly and deliberately introduced a large amount of water into the MIC tank by removing a meter and connecting a water hose directly to the tank through the metering port.
  • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once water had accumulated to a height of 6 meters (20 feet), it could drain by gravity flow back into the system.^ The hand-pump she used to get water wasapproximately 200 meters (656.17 feet) from the perimeter of the plant.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, the HPI throttle valves were operated from a front panel while the HPI flow indicator was on a back panel and could not be read from the throttle valve operating position.
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbide claims such a large amount of water could not have found its way into the tank by accident, and safety systems were not designed to deal with intentional sabotage.
  • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alternatively, the water may have been routed through another standby "jumper line" that had only recently been connected to the system.^ This ‘jumper line’, a cheap solution to a maintenance problem, connected a relief valve header to a pressure vent header and enabled water from a routine washing operation to pass between the two, on through a pressure valve, and into MIC storage tank 610.

^ Content is available for personal, noncommercial use only and you may download, copy and/or transfer to a Device or through a Device to another Device the RSS Feeds and associated Content for your personal, non-commercial use only.
  • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Bhopal's antiquated and highly unreliable telephone system included only 10,000 lines to serve more than 1 million people.
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Indian scientists suggested that additional water might have been introduced as a "back-flow" from the defectively designed vent-gas scrubber.^ There were five safety devices installed to prevent what happened on December 3, 1984: a vent gas scrubber, a flare tower, a water curtain, a refrigeration system, and a spare tank.
  • Richard De George 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.angelo.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The vent-gas scrubber, a safety device designer to neutralize toxic discharge from the MIC system, had been turned off three weeks prior [ 3 ].
  • The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to water entry, there were failures in four safety devices - the vent gas scrubber, the flare tower, the refrigeration system, and the water spray.
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][14] However, none of these possible routes of entry could be duplicated when tested.
.The company cites an investigation conducted by the engineering consulting firm Arthur D. Little, which concluded that a single employee secretly and deliberately introduced a large amount of water into the MIC tank by removing a meter and connecting a water hose directly to the tank through the metering port.^ Most probably, water got into the tank through a pipe.

^ It cites a non-peer-reviewed investigation that concluded that a single employee secretly and deliberately introduced a large amount of water into the MIC tank by removing a meter and connecting a water hose directly to the tank through the metering port.
  • The Dow Chemical Company - Knowmore.org 22 September 2009 12:31 UTC knowmore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Investigation into possible sabotage The company cites an investigation conducted by the engineering consulting firm Arthur D. Little, which concluded that a single employee secretly and deliberately introduced a large amount of water into the MIC tank by removing a meter and connecting a water hose directly to the tank through the metering port.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .Carbide claims such a large amount of water could not have found its way into the tank by accident, and safety systems were not designed to deal with intentional sabotage.^ Carbide claims such a large amount of water could not have found its way into the tank by accident, and safety systems were not designed to deal with intentional sabotage.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The corporation believes that the accident was the result of sabotage, claiming that safety systems were in place and operative.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Developing the Responsible Care system with other members of the chemical industry as a response to the Bhopal crisis, which is designed “to help prevent such an event in the future by improving community awareness, emergency preparedness and process safety standards”.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Documents cited in the Arthur D. Little Report as well as in the recent book The Black Box of Bhopal state that the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) along with UCIL engineers tried to simulate the water-washing hypothesis as a route of the entry of water into the tank.^ Can someone provide me with the Indian Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) report for this disaster?
  • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Investigation into possible sabotage The company cites an investigation conducted by the engineering consulting firm Arthur D. Little, which concluded that a single employee secretly and deliberately introduced a large amount of water into the MIC tank by removing a meter and connecting a water hose directly to the tank through the metering port.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Safety and equipment issues The corporation denies the claim that the valves on the tank were malfunctioning, claiming that “documented evidence gathered after the incident showed that the valve close to the plant's water-washing operation was closed and leak-tight.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This all-important test failed to support this as a route of water entry.^ Srivastava: I mean almost every environmental group that's tested the ground over there says the ground water, the soil, the buildings are all contaminated.
  • Effects of Bhopal disaster still felt | Marketplace From American Public Media 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC marketplace.publicradio.org [Source type: General]

.UCC claims the plant staff falsified numerous records to distance themselves from the incident, and that the Indian Government impeded its investigation and declined to prosecute the employee responsible, presumably because that would weaken its allegations of negligence by Union Carbide.^ UC says that the rest of the plant staff falsified numerous records to distance themselves from the incident, and that the Indian Government impeded its investigation and declined to prosecute the employee responsible, presumably because that would weaken its allegations of negligence against Union Carbide.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Anderson and Carbide have repeatedly ignored summons to appear in India for trial, and are officially considered “absconders” (fugitives from justice) by the Indian Government.

^ In 1994 UCC sold its majority share of Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) and became a subsidiary of Dow Chemicals.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Safety and equipment issues

.The corporation denies the claim that the valves on the tank were malfunctioning, claiming that "documented evidence gathered after the incident showed that the valve close to the plant's water-washing operation was closed and leak-tight.^ Safety and equipment issues The corporation denies the claim that the valves on the tank were malfunctioning, claiming that “documented evidence gathered after the incident showed that the valve close to the plant's water-washing operation was closed and leak-tight.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1986 the company filed a court document in India claiming that the gas leak 'could only have been caused by deliberate sabotage’, by a disgruntled employee.
  • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ MIC is highly combustible when it reacts with many other substances: water, acids, metals and the small deposits of corrosive materials that accumulate in pipes, tanks and valves.
  • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

Furthermore, process safety systems — in place and operational — would have prevented water from entering the tank by accident". Carbide states that the safety concerns identified in 1982 were all allayed before 1984 and "none of them had anything to do with the incident".[47]
The company admits that "the safety systems in place could not have prevented a chemical reaction of this magnitude from causing a leak". According to Carbide, "in designing the plant's safety systems, a chemical reaction of this magnitude was not factored in" because "the tank's gas storage system was designed to automatically prevent such a large amount of water from being inadvertently introduced into the system" and "process safety systems — in place and operational — would have prevented water from entering the tank by accident". Instead, they claim that "employee sabotage — not faulty design or operation — was the cause of the tragedy".[47]

Response

.The company stresses the "immediate action" taken after the disaster and their continued commitment to helping the victims.^ Response The company stresses the “immediate action” taken after the disaster and their continued commitment to helping the victims.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This unintentional disempowerment of victims seems to occur in other disasters, too, especially where victims are poor and cannot afford independent legal help (Reich 1991).
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Legal action against Union Carbide Legal issues began affecting Union Carbide, the US and Indian governments, the local authorities in Bhopal and the victims of the disaster immediately after the catastrophe.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On December 4, the day following the leak, Union Carbide sent material aid and several international medical experts to assist the medical facilities in Bhopal.^ On December 4th, the day following the leak, Union Carbide sent material aid and several international medical experts to assist the medical facilities in Bhopal.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WHAT HAPPENED in Bhopal in the days after the leak?
  • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Union Carbide also undertook several steps to provide continuing aid to the victims of the Bhopal disaster after the court ruling, including: * The sale of its 50.9 percent interest in UCIL in April 1992 and establishment of a charitable trust to contribute to the building of a local hospital.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]
.Carbide put $2 million into the Indian Prime Minister's immediate disaster relief fund on 11 December 1984.[47] The corporation established the Employees' Bhopal Relief Fund in February 1985, which raised more than $5 million for immediate relief.^ Bhopal is not only a disaster, but a corporate crime.

^ December 1984 to March 1985 .
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carbide put $2 million into the Indian Prime Minister’s immediate disaster relief fund on 11th December 1984.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.In August 1987, Carbide made an additional $4.6 million in humanitarian interim relief available.^ In August 1987, Carbide made an additional $4.6 million in humanitarian interim relief available.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Court orders UCC to pay $5 million for interim relief .
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beginning in March 1991, new interim relief payments were made to victims.
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
Union Carbide also undertook several steps to provide continuing aid to the victims of the Bhopal disaster after the court ruling, including:
.
  • The sale of its 50.9 percent interest in UCIL in April 1992 and establishment of a charitable trust to contribute to the building of a local hospital.^ Union Carbide also undertook several steps to provide continuing aid to the victims of the Bhopal disaster after the court ruling, including: * The sale of its 50.9 percent interest in UCIL in April 1992 and establishment of a charitable trust to contribute to the building of a local hospital.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The sale was finalized in November 1994. The hospital was begun in October 1995 and was opened in 2001. The company provided a fund with around $90 million from sale of its UCIL stock.^ The sale was finalized in November 1994.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The hospital was begun in October 1995 and was opened in 2001.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The company provided to fund with around $90 million from sale of its UCIL stock.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In 1991, the trust had amounted approximately $100 million.^ In 1991, the trust had amounted approximately $100 million.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The hospital caters for the treatment of heart, lung and eye problems.^ The hospital caters for the treatment of heart, lung and eye problems.
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [46]
  • .
  • Providing "a $2.2 million grant to Arizona State University to establish a vocational-technical center in Bhopal, which was constructed and opened, but was later closed and leveled by the government".[49]
  • Donating $5 million to the Indian Red Cross.^ Voluntary organizations set up makeshift clinics in the affected neighbourhoods to supplement the government's efforts: these included the Indian Red Cross, Voluntary Health Association of India, Medico Friends Circle, and several religious charitable organizations.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A few months later the Union Carbide Research and Development Center, located in another part of Bhopal, was also cut back to a skeleton staff.
    • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Immediately after the Disaster, the UCIL plant was closed by order ofthe Indian government and placed under the control of the Indian Central Bureau of Investigation ("CBI").
    • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [49]
  • Developing the Responsible Care system with other members of the chemical industry as a response to the Bhopal crisis, which is designed "to help prevent such an event in the future by improving community awareness, emergency preparedness and process safety standards".[48]

Long-term fallout

.Legal action against Union Carbide has dominated the aftermath of the disaster.^ Long-term fallout Legal action against Union Carbide has dominated the aftermath of the disaster.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

^ Charges against Warren Anderson and others The Chairman and CEO of Union Carbide, Warren Anderson, had been arrested and released on bail by the Madhya Pradesh Police in Bhopal on December 7, 1984.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, other issues have also continued to develop.^ However, other issues have also continued to develop.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These include the problems of ongoing contamination, criticisms of the clean-up operation undertaken by Union Carbide, and a 2004 hoax.^ Union Carbide left without cleaning it up.

^ These include the problems of ongoing contamination, criticisms of the clean-up operation undertaken by Union Carbide, and a 2004 hoax.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Union Carbide has met its obligations to clean up the contamination in and near the Bhopal plant.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Time-line 1984–2004: See "Bhopal Gas Tragedy: Fact Sheet", Hindustan Times, Dec 3, 2004[50]

Legal action against Union Carbide

.Legal issues began affecting Union Carbide, the US and Indian governments, the local authorities in Bhopal and the victims of the disaster immediately after the catastrophe.^ Legal action against Union Carbide Legal issues began affecting Union Carbide, the US and Indian governments, the local authorities in Bhopal and the victims of the disaster immediately after the catastrophe.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Union Carbide, the legal battle with the Government of India was a major long-term effect of the Bhopal disaster.
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Union Carbide disaster in Bhopal: A review of health effects (reprint).
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Legal proceedings leading to the settlement

.On 14 December 1984, the Chairman and CEO of Union Carbide, Warren Anderson, addressed the US Congress, stressing the company's "commitment to safety" and promising to ensure that a similar accident "cannot happen again". However, the Indian Government passed the Bhopal Gas Leak Act in March 1985, allowing the Government of India to act as the legal representative for victims of the disaster,[48] leading to the beginning of legal wrangling.^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

^ Charges against Warren Anderson and others The Chairman and CEO of Union Carbide, Warren Anderson, had been arrested and released on bail by the Madhya Pradesh Police in Bhopal on December 7, 1984.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That was the first time that we had heard that this happened because of a gas leak at Union Carbide.
  • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

.March 1986 saw Union Carbide propose a settlement figure, endorsed by plaintiffs' US attorneys, of $350 million that would, according to the company, "generate a fund for Bhopal victims of between $500–600 million over 20 years". In May, litigation was transferred from the US to Indian courts by US District Court Judge.^ In May, litigiation was transferred from the US to Indian courts by US District Court Judge.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By March of that year, 700 victims had received $2 million.
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In respect of Carbide's $20 million investment in Bhopal, this amounts to $3-6 million.

.Following an appeal of this decision, the US Court of Appeals affirmed the transfer, judging, in January 1987, that UCIL was a "separate entity, owned, managed and operated exclusively by Indian citizens in India".[48] The judge in the US granted Carbide's forum request, thus moving the case to India.^ In May, litigiation was transferred from the US to Indian courts by US District Court Judge.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The judge in the US, Judge Keenan, granted Carbide’s forum request, thus moving the case to India.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following an appeal of this decision, the US Court of Appeals affirmed the transfer, judging, in January 1987, that UCIL was a “separate entity, owned, managed and operated exclusively by Indian citizens in India”.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This meant that, under US federal law, the company had to submit to Indian jurisdiction.^ This meant that, under US federal law, the company had to submit to Indian jurisdiction.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To simplify matters, it was decided that all claims should be consolidated under Indian jurisdiction, with the Indian government acting as legal representative for all the victims.
  • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ It then filed a $3 billion compensation suit on behalf of the victims in US federal court, but the case was sent to Indian courts in May 1986 on grounds of forum non-convenience , under the condition that Union Carbide would submit to the jurisdiction of Indian courts.

.Litigation continued in India during 1988. The Government of India claimed US$ 350 billion from UCC.[4] The Indian Supreme Court told both sides to come to an agreement and "start with a clean slate" in November 1988.[48] Eventually, in an out-of-court settlement reached in 1989, Union Carbide agreed to pay US$ 470 million for damages caused in the Bhopal disaster, 15% of the original $3 billion claimed in the lawsuit.^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 .

^ Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- Public opinion .

^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- Drama .

[4] .By the end of October 2003, according to the Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Department, compensation had been awarded to 554,895 people for injuries received and 15,310 survivors of those killed.^ As the Minister of Gas Relief and Rehabilitation in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, he is responsible for the welfare of the more than half a million survivors of the 1984 Bhopal Gas tragedy.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus began my long involvement with the survivors of the Bhopal gas leak.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ People have been murdered en masse by those supposing they were merely killing those whom "God had condemned."
  • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

The average amount to families of the dead was $2,200.[51]
.Throughout 1990, the Indian Supreme Court heard appeals against the settlement from "activist petitions". Nonetheless, in October 1991, the Supreme Court upheld the original $470 million, dismissing any other outstanding petitions that challenged the original decision.^ Victims and activists challenged the settlement in the Supreme Court.
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout 1990, the Indian Supreme Court heard appeals against the settlement from “activist petitions”.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, in October 1991, the Supreme Court upheld the original $470 million, dismissing any other outstanding petitions that challenged the original decision.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The decision set aside a "portion of settlement that quashed criminal prosecutions that were pending at the time of settlement". The Court ordered the Indian government "to purchase, out of settlement fund, a group medical insurance policy to cover 100,000 persons who may later develop symptoms" and cover any shortfall in the settlement fund.^ The Court ordered the Indian government “to purchase, out of settlement fund, a group medical insurance policy to cover 100,000 persons who may later develop symptoms” and cover any shortfall in the settlement fund.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In July 2004, the Indian Supreme Court ordered the Indian government to release any remaining settlement funds to victims.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All it was interested in was an out-of-court settlement, to which it drove an all-too-willing government.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

.It also "requests" that Carbide and its subsidiary "voluntarily" fund a hospital in Bhopal, at an estimated $17 million, to specifically treat victims of the Bhopal disaster.^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

^ An American Union Carbide inspector, who visited Bhopal in 1982, recently commented on inadequacies there of training in disaster scenarios -- "what if..."

^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 .

The company agreed to this.[48] .However, the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal notes that the Court also reinstated criminal charges.^ Today, the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal is stronger than ever before.

^ For more information about the campaign, or for problems regarding this website, contact Shana Ortman , the US Coordinator for the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal.

^ Meanwhile, the union became deeply involved in the broader campaign for justice in Bhopal, becoming one of four key survivors organizations to spearhead the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal .

Charges against Warren Anderson and others

.The Chairman and CEO of Union Carbide, Warren Anderson, had been arrested and released on bail by the Madhya Pradesh Police in Bhopal on December 7, 1984. This caused controversy as his trip to Bhopal was conditional on an initial promise by Indian authorities not to arrest him.^ Aadil lives in Bhopal, the capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warren Anderson: Wanted in Indian courts .
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Both Anderson and Carbide have repeatedly ignored summons to appear in India for trial, and are officially considered “absconders” (fugitives from justice) by the Indian Government.

Anderson has since refused to return to India.
.In 1987, the Indian government summoned Warren Anderson, eight other executives and two company affiliates with homicide charges to appear in Indian court.^ Warren Anderson: Wanted in Indian courts .
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Both Anderson and Carbide have repeatedly ignored summons to appear in India for trial, and are officially considered “absconders” (fugitives from justice) by the Indian Government.

^ It threatened to summon every individual survivor and appeal all Indian decisions in US courts.

[52] .Union Carbide balked, saying the company is not under Indian jurisdiction.^ The work recommended by the report was undertaken byUCIL and later completed by the renamed company under new ownership following the sale of Union Carbide`s shares in UCIL.Id.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Union Carbide says it is no longer responsible for the factory and pointed out it has already made a settlement of $470m (£284m).
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

[52]
.Beginning in 1991, the local authorities from Bhopal charged Warren Anderson, who had retired in 1986, with manslaughter, a crime that carries a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison.^ The offense carries a 16 year maximum prison sentence.
  • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For 25 years demands to hang warren anderson have decorated the factory walls, and his effigy has been regularly burnt in demonstrations.
  • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ But the release on bail of Warren Anderson, then the chairman of Union Carbide, who visited Bhopal four days after the disaster, followed by his being escorted out of Bhopal under tight security the same day, was confirmation that the government was colluding with the corporation.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

.Anderson has so far avoided an international arrest warrant and a US court summons.^ Criminal Cases Pending in lower courts; non-bailable warrant against Carbide chairman Anderson since 1992.
  • BanAsbestosIndia: Disasters of Bhopal, Asbestos & Compensation 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC banasbestosindia.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It threatened to summon every individual survivor and appeal all Indian decisions in US courts.

^ Warren Anderson, the Union Carbide chief executive at the time of the gas leak, lives in luxurious exile in the Hamptons, even though there’s an international arrest warrant out for him for culpable homicide.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

.He was declared a fugitive from justice by the Chief Judicial Magistrate of Bhopal on February 1, 1992 for failing to appear at the court hearings in a culpable homicide case in which he was named the chief defendant.^ Both Anderson and Carbide have repeatedly ignored summons to appear in India for trial, and are officially considered “absconders” (fugitives from justice) by the Indian Government.

^ Criminal Cases Pending in lower courts; non-bailable warrant against Carbide chairman Anderson since 1992.
  • BanAsbestosIndia: Disasters of Bhopal, Asbestos & Compensation 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC banasbestosindia.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here is the actual quote from the sentencing hearing which is where the statement was made by the DA. "I will ask the court to take note of A.S.s particular role in this case.
  • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Orders were passed to the Government of India to press for an extradition from the United States, with whom India had an extradition treaty in place.^ Immediately after the Disaster, the UCIL plant was closed by order ofthe Indian government and placed under the control of the Indian Central Bureau of Investigation ("CBI").
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plant site is an 88 acre tract of land located over 8,000 miles from the United States in Bhopal,India.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In May of that year India’s Supreme Court ordered the state to supply clean water to the poisoned communities.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Bhopal Medical Appeal believe that "neither the American nor the Indian government seem interested in disturbing him with an extradition". A seemingly apathetic attitude from the US government, which has failed to pursue the case, has also led to strong protests in the past, most notably by Greenpeace.^ The Indian government has yet to pursue an extradition request.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Attempts by the Indian government over the years since then to extradite him have failed.
  • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In 1987 they formed the Bhopal Gas-Affected Women's Stationery Trade Union and began staging overseas protests, writing to US Senators and lobbying the Indian Government.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A plea by India's Central Bureau of Investigation to dilute the charges from culpable homicide to criminal negligence has since been dismissed by the Indian courts.^ Criminal Cases Pending in lower courts; non-bailable warrant against Carbide chairman Anderson since 1992.
  • BanAsbestosIndia: Disasters of Bhopal, Asbestos & Compensation 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC banasbestosindia.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Immediately after the Disaster, the UCIL plant was closed by order ofthe Indian government and placed under the control of the Indian Central Bureau of Investigation ("CBI").
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Warren Anderson, the former CEO of Union Carbide, and the Union Carbide Corporation itself face criminal charges in India of “culpable homicide” (or manslaughter).

.The U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal of the decision of the lower federal courts in October 1993, meaning that victims of the Bhopal disaster could not seek damages in a US court.^ In February 1989, the Supreme Court of India ordered the American based Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) to pay $470 million in compensation to the Bhopal gas victims.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It appealed court orders for humanitarian relief, while professing its concern for the victims.

^ More importantly, the Government of India's Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster Ordinance - a law that appointed the government as sole representative of the victims - was challenged by victim activists.
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] .The Rajiv Gandhi government reached an out of court settlement for compensation for the victims which was too meagre and considered a sellout of their interests.^ Apex Court allocates meagre compensation for asbetsos victims .
  • BanAsbestosIndia: Disasters of Bhopal, Asbestos & Compensation 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC banasbestosindia.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All it was interested in was an out-of-court settlement, to which it drove an all-too-willing government.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The government admitted that 4,69,367 victims were kept out of the settlement.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, very little of the money from the settlement reached with Union Carbide went to the survivors, and people in the area feel betrayed not only by Union Carbide (and chairman Warren Anderson), but also by their own politicians.^ That's what we want Warren Anderson to feel.
  • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Survivors of the disaster, along with environmentalists and social justice groups around the world, have been fighting for the last 20 years to force Union Carbide--now owned by Dow Chemical--to take responsibility for the horror in Bhopal.
  • "We want real justice for Bhopal" 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Union Carbide says it is no longer responsible for the factory and pointed out it has already made a settlement of $470m (£284m).
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

[4] .On the anniversary of the tragedy, effigies of Anderson and politicians are burnt.^ For 25 years demands to hang warren anderson have decorated the factory walls, and his effigy has been regularly burnt in demonstrations.
  • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

.In July 2004, the Indian Supreme Court ordered the Indian government to release any remaining settlement funds to victims.^ Victims and activists challenged the settlement in the Supreme Court.
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February 1989, the Supreme Court of India ordered the American based Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) to pay $470 million in compensation to the Bhopal gas victims.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It appealed court orders for humanitarian relief, while professing its concern for the victims.

.The deadline for this release was extended by the Indian Supreme Court In April 2005, giving the Indian government until 30 April 2006 after a request from the Welfare Commission for Bhopal Gas Victims.^ He is also an active campaigner for Bhopal gas victims .
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1987 they formed the Bhopal Gas-Affected Women's Stationery Trade Union and began staging overseas protests, writing to US Senators and lobbying the Indian Government.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And in 2005 the Madhya Pradesh Government's Centre for Rehabilitation Studies, Bhopal, reported that "water and soil contamination has caused increased morbidity among the population near the UCIL factory," with respiratory disorders four to five times higher in gas affected victims.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The fund is believed to amount to $500 million after earning interest "from money remaining after all claims had been paid".[48]
.August 2006 saw the Second Circuit Court of Appeals in New York City uphold the dismissal of remaining claims in the case of Bano v.^ Therefore, New York law is the appropriate law fordetermining the timeliness of plaintiff`s claims.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York courts dismiss toxic exposure claims where the pleadings or record demonstrate that plaintiffdiscovered or should have discovered her injury more than three years prior to the filing of the complaint.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A year has passed and he's still alive in prison; his case not yet been heard by the Appeals Court (although it's close); and neither himself nor any of his followers have translated.
  • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Union Carbide Corporation
.^ The Centre got into a settlement with the Union Carbide Corporation, USA, without the victims’ consent,’’ said Hamida Bi, a gas victim and activist.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Bhopal), Union Carbide Corporation, and the Government of India.
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, in 1990, Union Carbide bought Vitaphore Corporation, a maker of medical devices.
  • 5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This move blocked plaintiffs' motions for class certification and claims for property damages and remediation.^ This move blocked plaintiffs’ motions for class certification and claims for property damages and remediation.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is nonsensical to assert that Bi`s personalinjuries which manifested themselves in 1990 and to which she attributes the cause to be the well water should be viewedseparately from her property damage claims.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accordingly, plaintiff organizations` money damage claims are dismissed.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the view of Carbide, "the ruling reaffirms UCC's long-held positions and finally puts to rest — both procedurally and substantively — the issues raised in the class action complaint first filed against Union Carbide in 1999 by Haseena Bi and several organizations representing the residents of Bhopal". In September 2006, the Welfare Commission for Bhopal Gas Victims announced that all original compensation claims and revised petitions had been "cleared".[48]
.Criminal charges are proceeding against former Union Carbide India Limited employees including: Former UCIL Chairman Keshub Mahindra; presently Chairman-cum-managing Director Vijay Gokhale; former Vice-President Functioning In charge, Kishor Kamdar; former works manager J. Mukund; and former Production manager A.P. Division, S.P. Choudhury.^ Criminal charges are proceeding against former Union Carbide India Limited employees including: Former UCIL Chairman Shri Keshub Mahindra; presently Chairman-cum managing Director Shri Vijay Gokhale; former Vice-President Functioning In charge, Shri Kishor Kamdar; former works manager Shri J. Mukund; and former Production manager A.P. Division, Shri S.P. Choudhury.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1994 UCC sold its majority share of Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) and became a subsidiary of Dow Chemicals.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The work recommended by the report was undertaken byUCIL and later completed by the renamed company under new ownership following the sale of Union Carbide`s shares in UCIL.Id.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Federal class action litigation, Sahu v. .Union Carbide et al.^ Union Carbide, et al., 273 F.3d 120, 122 (2d Cir.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

is presently pending on appeal before the .Second Circuit Court of Appeals in New York.^ Union Carbide , has survived four motions to dismiss, and has been reinstated twice by the 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals.

^ UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK .
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] .The litigation seeks damages for personal injury, medical monitoring[54] and injunctive relief in the form of cleanup[55] of the drinking water supplies[56] for residential areas near the Bhopal plant[57] A related complaint seeking similar relief for property damage claimants is stayed pending the outcome of the Sahu appeal before the federal district court in the Southern District of New York.^ Despite the settlement, two court cases remain pending: one civil , heard in the Southern District federal court in New York; the other criminal , heard before the Chief Judicial Magistrate’s court in Bhopal.

^ The chemicals that Carbide abandoned in and around their Bhopal factory have contaminated the drinking water of 20,000 people (6) .

^ A medical facility stood near the northwest boundary of the plant side but went unmanned and unused.

Changes in corporate identity

Sale of Union Carbide India Limited

Union Carbide sold its Indian subsidiary, which had operated the Bhopal plant, to Eveready Industries India Limited, in 1994.

Acquisition of Union Carbide by Dow Chemical Company

.The Dow Chemical Company purchased Union Carbide in 2001 for $10.3 billion in stock and debt.^ In 2001, Union Carbide became a 100 percent subsidiary of Dow Chemical.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Union Carbide and Dow Chemical not been brought to account?
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Survivors of the disaster, along with environmentalists and social justice groups around the world, have been fighting for the last 20 years to force Union Carbide--now owned by Dow Chemical--to take responsibility for the horror in Bhopal.
  • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dow has publicly stated several times that the Union Carbide settlement payments have already fulfilled Dow's financial responsibility for the disaster.^ But, he is actively working to let Union Carbide and Dow get away without fulfilling their responsibilities.” .
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Dow has yet to take responsibility for the disaster.
  • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Posing as a Dow spokesman, Yes Man "Jude Finisterra" claimed that Dow was taking responsibility for the disaster and had begun a $12 billion rehabilitation effort.
  • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Dow did not purchase, however, the Indian Union Carbide.^ In 1994 UCC sold its majority share of Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) and became a subsidiary of Dow Chemicals.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The filmmakers look into how then-CEO Warren Anderson and Dow (which acquired Union Carbide in the '90s) have evaded the justice India has demanded.
  • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ In 2001 Union Carbide was taken over by Dow Chemical, then the world’s largest multinational chemical company.
  • Bhopal gas disaster's legacy lives on 25 years later - Telegraph 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

.That was split up, renamed, and bought by the Indian government after the tragedy took place.^ Immediately after the Disaster, the UCIL plant was closed by order ofthe Indian government and placed under the control of the Indian Central Bureau of Investigation ("CBI").
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Indian Government initially set up lessons for survivors to learn trades, but did not provide decent jobs.

.Some Dow stockholders filed suits to stop the acquisition, noting the outstanding liabilities for the Bhopal disaster.^ Some Dow stockholders filed suits to stop the merger, noting the outstanding liabilities for the Bhopal disaster.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

^ As we enter the 20th year of the unfolding Bhopal disaster, we can, with your support, convey to Dow Chemical that the fight for justice in Bhopal is getting stronger and will continue till justice is done.

[58] .The acquisition has gained criticism from the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal, as it is apparently "contrary to established merger law" in that "Dow denies any responsibility for Carbide's Bhopal liabilities". According to the Bhopal Medical Appeal, Carbide "remains liable for the environmental devastation" as environmental damage was not included in the 1989 settlement, despite ongoing contamination issues.^ The International Medical Commission on Bhopal was established in 1993 to organise medical responses to the 1984 Bhopal disaster.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Bhopal Medical Appeal, Carbide “remains liable for the environmental devastation” as environmental damage was not included in the 1989 settlement, despite ongoing contamination issues.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These claims are countered by the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal and others.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58]

Ongoing contamination

.The contamination in the site itself and the surrounding areas did not arise directly from the Bhopal disaster, but rather from the materials processed at the plant and the conditions under which those materials were processed.^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 .

^ Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- Public opinion .

.The area around the plant was used as a dumping ground area for hazardous chemicals.^ During the manufactureof pesticides, hazardous wastes were generated and dumped within the plant`s premises.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And what Union Carbide did was to take the 5,000 tons or more of the chemicals that we left in the warehouse after the disaster, and it just dumped them into the ground around the factory.
  • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The housekeeping in and around the entire area (of the Sevin drums, old pipe, pools of oil on ground, etc.

Between 1969 and 1977, all effluents were dumped in an open pit. From then on, neutralisation with hydrochloric acid was undertaken. The effluents went to two evaporation ponds. In the rainy seasons, the effluents used to overflow. It is also said that lots of chemicals are buried in the ground.[4]
By 1982 tubewells in the vicinity of the UCC factory had to be abandoned. .In 1991 the municipal authorities declared water from over 100 tubewells to be unfit for drinking.^ Even the government’s public health survey has declared the water there unfit for drinking.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.Carbide's laboratory tests in 1989 revealed that soil and water samples collected from near the factory were toxic to fish.^ Shortly after midnight on 3 December 1984 toxic gas leaked from the city's Union Carbide pesticide factory and swept across the capital.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Twenty-one areas inside the plant were reported to be highly polluted.^ Statistical surveys of local residents, with a control population in a similarly poor area away from the plant, are reported to reveal higher levels of various diseases around the plant.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1994 it was reported that 21% of the factory premises were seriously contaminated with chemicals.[44][59][60]
.Studies made by Greenpeace and others from soil, groundwater, wellwater and vegetables from the residential areas around UCIL and from the UCIL factory area show contamination with a range of toxic heavy metals and chemical compounds.^ According to Satinath, routine dumping of toxic waste in and around the factory has caused high levels of mercury, lead and the pesticide HCH in groundwater, soil and mothers' breast milk.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And in 2005 the Madhya Pradesh Government's Centre for Rehabilitation Studies, Bhopal, reported that "water and soil contamination has caused increased morbidity among the population near the UCIL factory," with respiratory disorders four to five times higher in gas affected victims.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several public interest groups, including Greenpeace, have collected samples from the soil, groundwater, fruits and vegetables, and found in them unacceptable levels of toxic materials that were used at the factory.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

[59][60][61][62][63]
.Substances found, according to the reports, are naphthol, naphthalene, Sevin, tarry residues, alpha napthol, mercury, organochlorines, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, hexachlorethane, hexachlorobuta-diene, pesticide HCH (BHC), volatile organic compounds and halo-organics.^ According to Satinath, routine dumping of toxic waste in and around the factory has caused high levels of mercury, lead and the pesticide HCH in groundwater, soil and mothers' breast milk.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of these contaminants were also found in breast milk.^ They even found poison in breast milk--mercury and other poisons.
  • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 2002, an inquiry found a number of toxins, including mercury, lead, 1,3,5 trichlorobenzene, dichloromethane and chloroform, in nursing women's breast milk.^ They even found poison in breast milk--mercury and other poisons.
  • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Satinath, routine dumping of toxic waste in and around the factory has caused high levels of mercury, lead and the pesticide HCH in groundwater, soil and mothers' breast milk.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Well water and groundwater tests conducted in the surrounding areas in 1999 showed mercury levels to be at "20,000 and 6 million times" higher than expected levels; heavy metals and organochlorines were present in the soil.^ According to Satinath, routine dumping of toxic waste in and around the factory has caused high levels of mercury, lead and the pesticide HCH in groundwater, soil and mothers' breast milk.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the fall of 2001, steel from the ruins of the World Trade Center was exported to India apparently without first being tested for contamination from asbestos and heavy metals present in the twin tower debris.
  • BanAsbestosIndia: Disasters of Bhopal, Asbestos & Compensation 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC banasbestosindia.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Was there anything (bonuses, thanks, compensation) to show when (as often) the Indian operation was producing higher than U.S. or average quotas of profits?

.Chemicals that have been linked to various forms of cancer were also discovered, as well as trichloroethene, known to impair fetal development, at 50 times above safety limits specified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).^ You’ll discover carbon-tetrachloride at 4,880 times the EPA safety limit.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ten years ago Greenpeace tested this same well and carbon-tetrachloride was then at 682 times higher than EPA limits.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The need for extra attention to the safety-related issues of the hazardous technological systems for developing countries is also raised by Peter Thacher, the former deputy executive director of the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP).
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[58]
.In an investigation broadcast on BBC Radio 5 on November 14, 2004,[64] it was reported that the site is still contaminated with 'thousands' of metric tons of toxic chemicals, including benzene hexachloride and mercury, held in open containers or loose on the ground.^ On November 29, 1999, Greenpeace issued a report stating that "massive environmental contamination, including contaminationof the drinking water of residents in the nearby communities, entirely unrelated to the Bhopal Disaster, has taken place at the UCILsite where large amounts of toxic chemicals and by-products from the factory`s original manufacturing processes continue topollute the land and water."
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But amazingly, the site still has not been cleaned up, because Dow Chemical, which since acquired Union Carbide, refuses to accept any responsibility.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And it abandoned the plant, leaving behind tons of toxic chemicals and contaminated groundwater.
  • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

.A sample of drinking water from a well near the site had levels of contamination 500 times higher than the maximum limits recommended by the World Health Organization.^ Five years ago, in a report to commemorate 20 years of the tragedy, the BBC showed how they took a sample of drinking water from a well and found its level of contamination to be 500 times higher than World Health Organisation limits.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And in 2005 the Madhya Pradesh Government's Centre for Rehabilitation Studies, Bhopal, reported that "water and soil contamination has caused increased morbidity among the population near the UCIL factory," with respiratory disorders four to five times higher in gas affected victims.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report concluded that: thesoil within 2.5km of the solar evaporation ponds was not contaminated by the ponds; the water in the test wells outside thearea of the ponds was within drinking water standards; the water quality of water tested within a 10km radius of the plantindicated no contamination from the ponds.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65]
.In 2009, a day before the 25th anniversary of the disaster, Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a Delhi based pollution monitoring lab, released latest tests from a study showing that groundwater in areas even three km from the factory up to 38.6 times more pesticides than Indian standards.^ According to a new study by the Centre for Science and Environment, the groundwater in areas even 3 km from the factory contains almost 40 times more pesticides than is permissible by Indian standards.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Delhi’s Centre for Science and the Environment said that water found two miles from the factory contained pesticides at levels 40 times higher than the Indian safety standard.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Two explosive reports released on December 1 by the London-based Bhopal Medical Appeal, and the New Delhi-based Center for Science and Environment (CSE) confirm local parents’ worst fears: Groundwater and soil inside and outside the factory hold dangerous levels of chlorinated solvents, pesticides and heavy metals.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

[66]
.The BBC took a water sample from a frequently used hand pump, located just north of the plant.^ Bi and her family used water from a hand-pump and well in the area.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hand-pump she used to get water wasapproximately 200 meters (656.17 feet) from the perimeter of the plant.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report also indicated that "by approximately 1998, the Indian government haddetected offsite contaminants and posted warning signs reading "water unfit for consumption" and "do not use for drinking"at wells north of the plant."
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sample, tested in UK, was found to contain 1000 times the World Health Organization's recommended maximum amount of carbon tetrachloride, a carcinogenic toxin.^ In a second study, the UK-based Bhopal Medical Appeal (BMA) found a chemical cocktail in the local drinking water – with one carcinogen, carbon tetrafluoride, present at 2,400 times the World Health Organisation’s guidelines.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Times of India on that date which claimed that samples fromthe Bhopal plant evaporation ponds were found to be contaminated).
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You’ll discover carbon-tetrachloride at 4,880 times the EPA safety limit.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

[67] .This shows that the ground water has been contaminated due to toxins leaking from the factory site.^ Thirty-five thousand people living near the factory have to use contaminated water.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On a day-to-day basis, contaminated water and toxins are being leached into the soil from the abandoned factory, and thus are a continuing nightmare for survivors.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, the ground water around the factory--and this is the primary source of water--is so poisonous that even today it makes the 20,000 inhabitants of the area sick.
  • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

Criticisms of clean-up operations

.Lack of political willpower has led to a stalemate on the issue of cleaning up the plant and its environs of hundreds of tonnes of toxic waste, which has been left untouched.^ Why, Minister of State for Environment Jairam Ramesh even turned up at the plant in September and jeered at the victims.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Or from UCC’s dumping tonnes of toxic waste around its factory from 1969?
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In return, say campaigners, the government plans to let Dow evade its responsibility to clean up the Bhopal plant site.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

.Environmentalists have warned that the waste is a potential minefield in the heart of the city, and the resulting contamination may lead to decades of slow poisoning, and diseases affecting the nervous system, liver and kidneys in humans.^ III.4 Major Causes of `Human Error' and the Resulting Accidents in Complex, Large-Scale Technological Systems Performance, as well as the inherent accident potential of complex technological systems is a function of the interactions of their engineered and human (i.e., workstation, personnel and organizational) subsystems.
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But it failed to produce a simple treatment protocol that would tell a general medical practitioner what medicines to administer for lung injuries, eye damage, nervous system disorders or the poisoning of the kidneys or liver, and what physiotherapy exercises would help the victims’ recovery.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

.According to activists, there are studies showing that the rates of cancer and other ailments are high in the region.^ Studies have shown that the rates of cancer and other ailments are higher in the region since the event.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A study in a peer-reviewed journal had earlier estimated that there could be more than 6,000 workers affected by asbestosis (an untreatable lung ailment) and another 600 suffering at the minimum from asbestosis-related lung cancer in India at present.
  • BanAsbestosIndia: Disasters of Bhopal, Asbestos & Compensation 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC banasbestosindia.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study is believed to be the first Canadian research to look at asbestos-related cancer in a specific region, examining the risk of disease in and around Thetford Mines, Que.
  • BanAsbestosIndia: Disasters of Bhopal, Asbestos & Compensation 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC banasbestosindia.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68] .Activists have demanded that Dow clean up this toxic waste, and have pressed the government of India to demand more money from Dow.^ Activists have demanded that Dow clean up this toxic waste, and have pressed the government of India to demand more money from Dow.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ongoing contamination Lack of political willpower has led to a stalemate on the issue of cleaning up the plant and its environs of hundreds of tonnes of toxic waste, which has been left untouched.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The successor, Eveready Industries, abruptly relinquished the site lease to one department of the State Government while being supervised by another department on an extensive clean up programme.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Carbide states that "after the incident, UCIL began clean-up work at the site under the direction of Indian central and state government authorities", which was continued after 1994 by the successor to UCIL, Eveready Industries, until 1998, when it was placed under the authority of the Madhya Pradesh Government.^ The successor, Eveready Industries India, Limited (EIIL), ended its 99 year lease in 1998 and turned over control of the site to the state government of the Madhya Pradesh.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aadil lives in Bhopal, the capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then, in 1998 the Madhya Pradesh Government took control of the factory land.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] .Critics of the clean-up undertaken by Carbide, such as the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal, claim that "several internal studies" by the corporation, which evidenced "severe contamination", were not made public; the Indian authorities were also refused access.^ These claims are countered by the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal and others.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critics of the clean-up undertaken by Carbide, such as the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal, claim that “several internal studies” by the corporation, which evidenced “severe contamination”, were not made public; the Indian authorities were also refused access.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Union Carbide has met its obligations to clean up the contamination in and near the Bhopal plant.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They believe that Union Carbide "continued directing operations" in Bhopal until "at least 1995" through Hayaran, the U.S.-trained site manager, even after the sale of its UCIL stock.^ They believe that Union Carbide “continued directing operations” in Bhopal until “at least 1995” through Hayaran, the US trained site manager, even after the sale of its UNCIL stock.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Union Carbide also undertook several steps to provide continuing aid to the victims of the Bhopal disaster after the court ruling, including: * The sale of its 50.9 percent interest in UCIL in April 1992 and establishment of a charitable trust to contribute to the building of a local hospital.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Years ago I met an engineer who was at the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India.
  • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

.The successor, Eveready Industries, abruptly relinquished the site lease to one department of the State Government while being supervised by another department on an extensive clean up programme.^ The successor, Eveready Industries, abruptly relinquished the site lease to one department of the State Government while being supervised by another department on an extensive clean up programme.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 7, 1998 the plant site was turned overby EIIL to the State of Madhya Pradesh at the request of the state government, which terminated the leases originallygranted to UCIL because the land was no longer being used to operate a factory, an express condition of the leases.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The successor, Eveready Industries India, Limited (EIIL), ended its 99 year lease in 1998 and turned over control of the site to the state government of the Madhya Pradesh.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Madhya Pradesh authorities have announced that they will "pursue both Dow and Eveready" to conduct the clean-up as joint tortfeasors.^ The Madhya Pradesh authorities have announced that they will “pursue both Dow and Eveready” to conduct the clean-up as joint tortfeasors.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The successor, Eveready Industries, abruptly relinquished the site lease to one department of the State Government while being supervised by another department on an extensive clean up programme.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Criticisms of Clean-up Operations Carbide states that “after the incident, UCIL began clean-up work at the site under the direction of Indian central and state government authorities”, which was continued after 1994 by the successor to UCIL, Eveready Industries, until 1998, when it was placed under the authority of the Madhya Pradesh Government.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.The International Campaign view Carbide's sale of UCIL in 1994 as a strategy "to escape the Indian courts, who threatened Carbide's assets due to their non-appearance in the criminal case". The successor, Eveready Industries India, Limited (EIIL), ended its 99-year lease in 1998 and turned over control of the site to the state government of Madhya Pradesh.^ The successor, Eveready Industries India, Limited (EIIL), ended its 99 year lease in 1998 and turned over control of the site to the state government of the Madhya Pradesh.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Campaign view Carbide’s sale of UCIL in 1994 as a strategy “to escape the Indian courts, who threatened Carbide’s assets due to their non-appearance in the criminal case”.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aadil lives in Bhopal, the capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .Currently, the Madhya Pradesh Government is trying to legally force Dow and EIIL to finance clean-up operations.^ Currently, the Madhya Pradesh Government is trying to legally force Dow and EIIL to finance clean-up operations.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 7, 1998 the plant site was turned overby EIIL to the State of Madhya Pradesh at the request of the state government, which terminated the leases originallygranted to UCIL because the land was no longer being used to operate a factory, an express condition of the leases.
  • U.S. -- Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.(2003.03.18)(Bhopal Gas Leak) | Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.elaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The successor, Eveready Industries, abruptly relinquished the site lease to one department of the State Government while being supervised by another department on an extensive clean up programme.
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • World's Worst Industrial Disaster Occurs in India (1984) - This Day in History - English - The Free Dictionary Language Forums 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC forum.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 7 March 2009, Indian scientists of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) have decided to investigate the longterm health effects of the disaster.^ Health care issues : physician and public attitudes / compiled from studies conducted by the Gallup Organization, Inc., Market Opinion Research, American Medical Association.

^ The Indian Council of Medical Research set up countless research projects on the toxicity of methyl isocyanate (MIC) and its products and the injuries they cause.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In view of the hazardous effect of asbestos mining on health, the Government has decided not to grant any new lease for mining of asbestos and minerals found alongwith asbestos.
  • BanAsbestosIndia: Disasters of Bhopal, Asbestos & Compensation 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC banasbestosindia.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Studies will also be conducted to see if the toxic gases caused genetic disorders, low birth weight, growth and development disorders, congenital malformation and biological markers of MIC/toxic gas exposure.^ Senior corporate officials were busy telling the world’s media that the leaked gases were similar to a potent tear gas, and thus unlikely to cause lasting damage.
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Bhopal water still toxic 25 years after deadly gas leak, study finds .
  • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, most of the injuries inflicted on the people in such accidents, such as exposure to radiation and toxic gases, are very difficult and sometimes even impossible to cure.
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[69]

Settlement fund hoax

Bichlbaum as Finisterra on BBC World News
.On December 3, 2004, the twentieth anniversary of the disaster, a man claiming to be a Dow representative named Jude Finisterra was interviewed on BBC World News.^ Posing as a Dow spokesman, Yes Man "Jude Finisterra" claimed that Dow was taking responsibility for the disaster and had begun a $12 billion rehabilitation effort.
  • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ The BBC interview was shown on TV twice before Finisterra was discovered to be a fraud and the BBC issued a retraction.
  • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

He claimed that the company had agreed to clean up the site and compensate those harmed in the incident, by liquidating Union Carbide for $12 billion USD.[70]
Immediately afterward, Dow's share price fell 4.2% in 23 minutes, for a loss of $2 billion in market value. .Dow quickly issued a statement saying that they had no employee by that name — that he was an impostor, not affiliated with Dow, and that his claims were a hoax.^ In its official statement , UCC says it now has "no interest in or liability for the Bhopal site" and that all claims were settled 18 years ago.
  • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The BBC broadcast a correction and an apology. The statement was widely carried.[71]
."Jude Finisterra" was actually Andy Bichlbaum, a member of the activist prankster group The Yes Men.^ Posing as a Dow spokesman, Yes Man "Jude Finisterra" claimed that Dow was taking responsibility for the disaster and had begun a $12 billion rehabilitation effort.
  • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.In 2002, The Yes Men issued a fake press release explaining why Dow refused to take responsibility for the disaster and started up a website, at "DowEthics.com", designed to look like the real Dow website but with what they felt was a more accurate cast on the events.^ Dow has yet to take responsibility for the disaster.
  • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Posing as a Dow spokesman, Yes Man "Jude Finisterra" claimed that Dow was taking responsibility for the disaster and had begun a $12 billion rehabilitation effort.
  • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Survivors of the disaster, along with environmentalists and social justice groups around the world, have been fighting for the last 20 years to force Union Carbide--now owned by Dow Chemical--to take responsibility for the horror in Bhopal.
  • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

In 2004, a producer for the BBC emailed them through the website requesting an interview, which they gladly obliged.[72]
Taking credit for the prank in an interview on Democracy Now!, Bichlbaum explains how his fake name was derived: "Jude is the patron saint of impossible causes and Finisterra means the end of the Earth". He explained that he settled on this approach (taking responsibility) because it would show people precisely how Dow could help the situation as well as likely garnering major media attention in the US, which had largely ignored the disaster's anniversaries, when Dow attempted to correct the statement.[73]
After the original interview was revealed as a hoax, Bichlbaum appeared in a follow-up interview on the United Kingdom's Channel 4 News.[74] During the interview he was repeatedly asked if he had considered the emotions and reaction of the people of Bhopal when producing the hoax. .According to the interviewer, "there were many people in tears" upon having learned of the hoax.^ Finally, according to many case studies, a good portion of errors in complex human-machine systems, so called design-induced errors, are forced upon the human operators.
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Each time, Bichlbaum said that, in comparison, what distress he had caused the people was minimal to that for which Dow was responsible.^ Dow Chemical would have to take responsibility for this tragedy and give justice to the people of Bhopal.
  • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Three, the economic rehabilitation programs have ended, so Dow Chemical should be responsible for the job training of the people of Bhopal who are exposed and sick.
  • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 2009 film The Yes Men Fix the World, the Yes Men travel to Bhopal to assess public opinion on their prank, and are surprised to find that the residents laud their efforts to bring responsibility to the corporate world.^ Posing as a Dow spokesman, Yes Man "Jude Finisterra" claimed that Dow was taking responsibility for the disaster and had begun a $12 billion rehabilitation effort.
  • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ On the rise, progress, and present state of public opinion in Great Britain, and other parts of the world.

^ Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- Public opinion .

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.mp.gov.in/bgtrrdmp/relief.htm
  2. ^ a b "Industrial Disaster Still Haunts India - South and Central Asia - msnbc.com". http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34247132/ns/world_news-south_and_central_asia/page/2/. Retrieved December 3, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Eckerman (2001).
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce Eckerman (2004).
  5. ^ "No takers for Bhopal toxic waste". BBC. 2008-09-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7569891.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  6. ^ Broughton, Edward (2005). "The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review". Environmental Health 4 (6): 6. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-4-6. http://www.ehjournal.net/content/4/1/6. 
  7. ^ Chander, J. (2001). "Water contamination: a legacy of the union carbide disaster in Bhopal, India". Int J Occup Environ Health 7 (1): 72–3. PMID 11210017. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11210017. 
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ "Company Defends Chief in Bhopal Disaster". New York Times. http://dealbook.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/08/03/company-defends-chief-in-bhopal-disaster/. 
  10. ^ "U.S. Exec Arrest Sought in Bhopal Disaster". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/31/world/main5201155.shtml. 
  11. ^ UCC manual (1976).
  12. ^ UCC manual (1978).
  13. ^ UCC manual (1979).
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Chouhan et al. (2004).
  15. ^ Steven R. Weisman. "Bhopal a Year Later: An Eerie Silence". The New York Times. p. 5. 
  16. ^ a b c Kalelkar (1988).
  17. ^ a b c Trade Union Report (1985).
  18. ^ a b UCC Investigation Report (1985).
  19. ^ a b Varadarajan (1985).
  20. ^ Eckerman (2005).
  21. ^ a b Bhopal Gas Disaster Research Centre (2003?).
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Eckerman (2006).
  23. ^ a b c d e f Kovel (2002).
  24. ^ a b c Kurzman (1987).
  25. ^ Cassels (1983).
  26. ^ TED case 233 (1997).
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h Lepowski (1994).
  28. ^ Weir (1987).
  29. ^ D'Silva (2006).
  30. ^ a b Sriramachari (2004).
  31. ^ Gassert TH, Dhara VR, (2005).
  32. ^ Kulling & Lorin (1987).
  33. ^ P.G. Blake and S. Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Kinetics and Mechanism of Thermal Decomposition of Methyl Isocyanate, International Journal of Chemical Kinetics, vol.14, (1982), pp. 945–952.
  34. ^ K.H. Slotta, R. Tschesche, Berichte, vol.60, 1927, p.1031.
  35. ^ Christoph Grundmann, Alfred Kreutzberger, J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 76, 1954, pp. 5646-5650.
  36. ^ Bhopal.org
  37. ^ Dhara & Dhara (2002).
  38. ^ Singh (2008).
  39. ^ a b "Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Department". 2008-12-05. http://www.mp.gov.in/bgtrrdmp/. 
  40. ^ Bhopal Memorial Hospital closed indefinitely The Hindu 4.7.2005.
  41. ^ Bhopal Memorial Hospital Trust(2001).
  42. ^ Sick Berth Down to Earth (26.10.2008).
  43. ^ "The Bhopal Medical appeal". Sambhavna Trust. http://www.bhopal.org.htm. 
  44. ^ a b UCC (1989).
  45. ^ "Carbide waste to go: HC". 16 December 2008. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Carbide_waste_to_go_HC/articleshow/3847412.cms. Retrieved 2009-01-07. 
  46. ^ a b c "Statement of Union Carbide Corporation Regarding the Bhopal Tragedy". Bhopal Information Center, UCC. http://www.bhopal.com/ucs.htm. 
  47. ^ a b c d "Frequently Asked Questions". Bhopal Information Center, UCC. http://www.bhopal.com/faq.htm. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Chronology". Bhopal Information Center, UCC. November 2006. http://www.bhopal.com/chrono.htm. 
  49. ^ a b "Incident Response and Settlement". Bhopal Information Center,UCC. http://www.bhopal.com/irs.htm. 
  50. ^ "Bhopal Gas Tragedy: Fact Sheet". Hindustan Times. Dec 3, 2004. 
  51. ^ Broughton (2005).
  52. ^ a b "India Acts in Carbide Case". The New York Times. May 17, 1988. p. D15. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE0D71F3CF934A25756C0A96E948260. 
  53. ^ http://www.bhopal.net/pdfs/Sahu%20Opinion%2011.3.08.pdf
  54. ^ The Truth About Dow : Govt handling of Bhopal: Blot on Indian Democracy, 224 Indian groups tell PM.
  55. ^ The Truth About Dow : 25 years on, Govt wakes up to Bhopal waste but can't find any one to clean it up.
  56. ^ The Truth About Dow : Decades Later, Toxic Sludge Torments Bhopal.
  57. ^ Oops! You have reached Bhopal.con.
  58. ^ a b c "What Happened in Bhopal?". The Bhopal Medical Appeal. http://www.bhopal.org/whathappened.html. 
  59. ^ a b Labunska et al. (2003).
  60. ^ a b Down to Earth (2003).
  61. ^ Stringer et al. (2002).
  62. ^ Srishti (2002).
  63. ^ Peoples' Science Institute (2001).
  64. ^ "Bhopal faces risk of 'poisoning'". BBC Radio 5. 2004-11-14. http://search.bbc.co.uk/cgi-bin/search/results.pl?scope=all&tab=av&recipe=all&q=bhopal+faces+risk+of+%27poisoning%27&x=0&y=0. 
  65. ^ "Bhopal 'faces risk of poisoning'". BBC Radio 5 website. 2004-11-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4010511.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  66. ^ "Bhopal gas leak survivors still being poisoned: Study". Bhopal. 1 December 2009. http://www.cseindia.org/AboutUs/press_releases/press-20091201.htm. 
  67. ^ "Bhopal marks 25 years since gas leak devastation". BBC News. December 3, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8392206.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  68. ^ India's betrayal of Bhopal - PAMELA TIMMS AND PRABAL KR DAS, The Scotsman, November 22, 2007.
  69. ^ 25 years on, study on Bhopal gas leak effects.
  70. ^ video.
  71. ^ Z-net
  72. ^ The Yes Men
  73. ^ Democracy Now!
  74. ^ video

References

Books and reports

  • Preview of several more books at Google books. .http://books.google.com/books?q=bhopal&btnG=Search+Books. 
  • [2]Alfred de Grazia: A Cloud over Bhopal, Popular Prakashan, Bombay (1985)
  • Browning, Jackson (1993).^ Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal home / subscribe / donate / about us / books / archives / search / links / feedback / events .
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As this book was in press, the Union Carbide "Bhopal Methyl Isocyanate Incident Investigation Team Report" of March 20, 1985 was issued.

    ^ Cloud over Bhopal : causes, consequences, and constructive solutions / Alfred de Grazia.

    Jack A. Gottschalk. ed (PDF). .Union Carbide: Disaster at Bhopal.^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

    ^ An American Union Carbide inspector, who visited Bhopal in 1982, recently commented on inadequacies there of training in disaster scenarios -- "what if..."

    ^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 .

    Crisis Response: Inside Stories on Managing Image Under Siege. Detroit. http://www.bhopal.com/pdfs/browning.pdf. ."Union Carbide's former vice-president of health, safety and environmental programs tells how he dealt with the catastrophe from a PR point of view." 
  • Cassels, J. (1993).^ Union Carbide says it is no longer responsible for the factory and pointed out it has already made a settlement of $470m (£284m).
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is ironic that within the U.S. Union Carbide has been described by an officer of the Natural Resources Defence Council as having a high reputation for safety.

    ^ But, if not, how can Union Carbide (USA) be questioned, in this regard or any other regard?

    .The Uncertain Promise Of Law: Lessons From Bhopal. University Of Toronto Press.
  • ChouhanTR and others (1994, 2004).^ Uncertain promise of law : lessons from Bhopal / Jamie Cassels.

    .Bhopal: the Inside Story — Carbide Workers Speak Out on the World's Worst Industrial Disaster.^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

    ^ An American Union Carbide inspector, who visited Bhopal in 1982, recently commented on inadequacies there of training in disaster scenarios -- "what if..."

    ^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 .

    USA: The Apex Press. .ISBN 1-891843-30-3.  India: Other India Press ISBN 81-85569-65-7 Main author Chouhan was an operator at the plant.^ Having broken gauges "(was) not unusual at the factory," according to the Bhopal plant operators (New York Times , January 30, 1985).
    • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The case would have to be heard in India without the authors of this and other critical documentation being questioned.

    Contains many technical details.
  • Dhara VR (2000). .The Bhopal Gas Leak: Lessons from studying the impact of a disaster in a developing nation..^ Dateline Bhopal : a newsman's diary of the gas disaster / Anees Chishti.

    ^ O n December 2, 1984, a leak of lethal methyl isocyanate gas from a Union Carbide pesticide factory spread silently through the streets of Bhopal, India.
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    USA: Univ. of Massachusetts Lowell. http://webdrive.service.emory.edu/users/vdhara/www.BhopalPublications/Health%20Effects%20&%20Epidemiology/Dhara%20Disseration%20Bhopal%20Disaster.pdf.
      Doctoral thesis.
  • Doyle, Jack (2004). Trespass Against Us. Dow Chemical & The Toxic Century. USA: Common Courage Press. ISBN 1-56751-268-2. .http://www.trespassagainstus.com/index.php.  A story of how one company's chemical prducts and byproducts have damaged public health and the environment.^ The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research failed to inform the public of the long-lasting toxic effects of MIC on human health and the environment and to produce an index of severity of injuries correlated to distance, wind direction, and so on.
    • The Bhopal Disaster, 25 years on - A Dossier - South Asia Citizens Web 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

    466 pages.
  • D'Silva, Themistocles (2006). .The Black Box of Bhopal: A Closer Look at the World's Deadliest Industrial Disaster.^ Bhopal reader : remembering twenty years of the world's worst industrial disaster / Bridget Hanna, Ward Morehouse, Satinath Sarangi.

    ^ Bhopal, the inside story : Carbide workers speak out on the world's worst industrial disaster / T.R. Chouhan and others ; with an afterword, Bhopal ten years after / by Claude Alvares and Indira Jaising.

    Victoria, B.C.: Trafford. .ISBN 1-4120-8412-1.  Review Written by a retired former employee of UCC who was a member of the investigation committee that reproduced the tank residue and determined the true cause of the incident.
    ^ I know that this is often the experience of former cult members who translate their extreme and isolated experience into an indictment of all religion, or all Christianity.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those who really follow this story and have a vested interest in it are the former cult members, particularly ones who still have friends and family caught in the web.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    Includes several original documents including correspondence between UCIL and the Ministries of the Government of India.
  • Eckerman, Ingrid (2001) (PDF). .Chemical Industry and Public Health — Bhopal as an example.^ Dow Chemical should have to be responsible for the health of two generations of victims in Bhopal.
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    http://www.dnsy.se/_upload/lfm/2006/bhopal%20gas%20disaster.pdf
    .
      Essay for MPH. A short overview, 57 pages, 82 references.
  • Eckerman, Ingrid (2004). .The Bhopal Saga — Causes and Consequences of the World's Largest Industrial Disaster.^ Reviewing the causes of the Bhopal disaster once more, one perceives in it the failures and weaknesses equally of Indian and American culture.

    ^ Cloud over Bhopal : causes, consequences, and constructive solutions / Alfred de Grazia.

    ^ If after seeing the consequences of Bhopal we learn nothing--if we set these companies loose on the world and do not affix any legal responsibility to them--then anything can happen.
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    India: Universities Press. ISBN 81-7371-515-7. http://www.eckerman.nu/default.cfm?page=The%20Bhopal%20Saga.
      Preview Google books All known facts 1960s – 2003, systematized and analysed. 283 pages, over 200 references.
  • Fortun, Kim (2001). Advocacy after Bhopal. .Environmentalism, Disaster, New Global Orders.^ Advocacy after Bhopal : environmentalism, disaster, new global orders / Kim Fortun.

    University of Chicago Press. .ISBN 0-226-25720-7.  Preview Google books
  • de Grazia, Alfred (1985).^ Cloud over Bhopal : causes, consequences, and constructive solutions / Alfred de Grazia.

    ^ De Grazia, Alfred.

    .A Cloud over Bhopal — Causes, Consequences and Constructive Solutions.^ Cloud over Bhopal : causes, consequences, and constructive solutions / Alfred de Grazia.

    ISBN 0-940268-09-9. http://www.grazian-archive.com/governing/bhopal/Publishers%20Note.html. ."The first book on the Bhopal disaster, written on-site a few weeks after the accident." 
  • Hanna B, Morehouse W, Sarangi S (2005).^ It is the only public action of Union Carbide since the first week of the Disaster.

    ^ Bhopal reader : remembering twenty years of the world's worst industrial disaster / Bridget Hanna, Ward Morehouse, Satinath Sarangi.

    The Bhopal Reader. .Remembering Twenty Years of the World's Worst Industrial Disaster.^ Locals joke that Bhopal is famous for three things: dust, male impotence, and being the home of the world's worst industrial disaster.
    • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The world's worst industrial disaster hasn't been cleaned up and today, 25 years on, the people of Bhopal are still feeling its toxic effects, writes Lauren Farrow .
    • Why Are Bhopal's Victims Still Waiting For Justice? | newmatilda.com 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bhopal is the worst industrial disaster in history, and the blame for it lies squarely at the door of Union Carbide.
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    USA: The Apex Press. ISBN 1-891843-32-X USA, 81-85569-70-3 India.  Reprinting and annotating landmark writing from across the years.
  • Jasanoff, Sheila ed. (1994). Learning from Disaster. .Risk Management After Bhopal.^ Learning from disaster : risk management after Bhopal / edited by Sheila Jasanoff.

    University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 081221532X, 9780812215328.  291 pages. Preview Google books
  • Johnson S, Sahu R, Jadon N, Duca C (2009). .Contamination of soil and water inside and outside the Union Carbide India Limited, Bhopal.^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

    ^ An American Union Carbide inspector, who visited Bhopal in 1982, recently commented on inadequacies there of training in disaster scenarios -- "what if..."

    ^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 .

    New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment.
      In Down to Earth
  • Kalelkar AS, Little AD. (1998) (PDF). .Investigation of Large-magnitude incidents: Bhopal as a Case Study..^ Investigation of large-magnitude incidents : Bhopal as a case study / Ashok S. Kalelkar.

    .http://bhopal.bard.edu/resources/documents/1988ArthurD.Littlereport.pdf.
      London: The Institution of Chemical Engineers Conference on Preventing Major Chemical Accidents
  • Kulling P, Lorin H (1987).^ Ever since we began our campaign against Dow Chemical, our Jhadoo Maro campaign, we have been speaking all over the world to try to prevent other Bhopals from happening and to get justice for Bhopal.
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Toxic Gas Disaster in Bhopal December 2–3, 1984.^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

    ^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 .

    ^ Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- Public opinion .

    Stockholm: National Defence Research Institute.  [In Swedish]
  • Kurzman, D. (1987). .A Killing Wind: Inside Union Carbide and the Bhopal Catastrophe.^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

    ^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 .

    ^ Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- Public opinion .

    New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Kovel, J (2002). The Enemy of Nature: The End of Capitalism or the End of the World?. London: Zed Books. 
  • Labunska I, Stephenson A, Brigden K, Stringer R, Santillo D, Johnston P.A. (1999) (PDF). The Bhopal Legacy. .Toxic contaminants at the former Union Carbide factory site,Bhopal, India: 15 years after the Bhopal accident.^ Years ago I met an engineer who was at the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Survivors of the disaster, along with environmentalists and social justice groups around the world, have been fighting for the last 20 years to force Union Carbide--now owned by Dow Chemical--to take responsibility for the horror in Bhopal.
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

    http://webdrive.service.emory.edu/users/vdhara/www.BhopalPublications/Environmental%20Health/Greenpeace%20Bhopal%20Report.pdf
    . Greenpeace Research Laboratories, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter UK
  • Lapierre, Dominique; Moro, Javier (2001). .Five Minutes Past Midnight in Bhopal.^ Five past midnight in Bhopal / Dominique Lapierre, Javier Moro ; translated form the French by Kathryn Spink.

    New York, NY: Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-53088-3.
      A novel, based on facts, that describes the development from the 1960s to the disaster itself. Very thrilling.
  • Mitchel, James (1996). The long road to recovery: Community responses to industrial disaster. Tokyo and New York: United Nations University Press. ISBN 92-808-0926-1. http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le00.htm#Contents. 
  • Singh, Moti (2008). .Unfolding the Betrayal of Bhopal Gas Tragedy.^ Bhopal gas tragedy : Delhi Science Forum report.

    ^ Guide to Bhopal : a research publication with illustrations depicting a socio-cultural scene of Bhopal with special reference to the gas tragedy of Bhopal / by Syed Ashfaq Ali.

    ^ Bhopal : a people's view of death, their right to know and live : a reconstruction of the gas tragedy, its background, and aftermath, from press reports and local information.

    Delhi, India: B.R. Publishing Corporation. ISBN 8176466220.
      The chief coordinator of rescue operations at the district level writes rather critically on how the administration and bureaucracy functioned after the disaster.
  • Shrishti (2002). Toxic present — toxic future. .A report on Human and Environmental Chemical Contamination around the Bhopal disaster site.^ Survivors of the disaster, along with environmentalists and social justice groups around the world, have been fighting for the last 20 years to force Union Carbide--now owned by Dow Chemical--to take responsibility for the horror in Bhopal.
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And what Union Carbide did was to take the 5,000 tons or more of the chemicals that we left in the warehouse after the disaster, and it just dumped them into the ground around the factory.
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice .
    • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    Delhi: The Other Media. 
  • Stringer R, Labunska I, Brigden K, Santillo D. (2002) (PDF). .Chemical Stockpiles at Union Carbide India Limited in Bhopal: An investigation.^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 -- History -- Sources .

    ^ Filed under: Bhopal Union Carbide Plant Disaster, Bhopal, India, 1984 .

    ^ One, bring Warren Anderson and Union Carbide to India to face the ongoing criminal case in India.
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    Greenpeace Research Laboratories. .http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/chemical-stockpiles-at-union-c.pdf. 
  • The Trade Union Report on Bhopal.^ I don't think he'll mind a bit: http://www.psalm150fellowship.org/ My history among the hippie musicians was unusual.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ WWW http://www.counterpunch.org .
    • Snehal Shingavi: an Interview with Two Survivors of Bhopal 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.counterpunch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bhopal : a people's view of death, their right to know and live : a reconstruction of the gas tragedy, its background, and aftermath, from press reports and local information.

    Geneva, Switzerland: ICFTU-ICEF. 1985. .http://www.bhopal.net/oldsite/documentlibrary/unionreport1985.html. 
  • Varadarajan S et al.^ Visit www.bhopal.net for more information.
    • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    (1985). .Report on Scientific Studies on the Factors Related to Bhopal Toxic Gas Leakage.^ Bhopal gas tragedy : Delhi Science Forum report.

    ^ Bhopal : a people's view of death, their right to know and live : a reconstruction of the gas tragedy, its background, and aftermath, from press reports and local information.

    New Delhi: Indian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. 
  • Weir D (1987). .The Bhopal Syndrome: Pesticides, Environment and Health.^ Bhopal syndrome : pesticides, environment, and health / David Weir.

    San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.
     

Articles and papers

Reports from governmental institutions, UCC and DOW

Governmental institutions

.
  • Health Effects of the Toxic Gas Leak from the Union Carbide Methyl Isocyanate Plant in Bhopal.^ Assistant Editor: Vera Ventura Director: Sanford Lewis Editor: Sanford Lewis ( less ) Tags: bhopal • corporate negligence • documentary • dow • dow chemical • gas exposure • india • short films • the bhopal chemical disaster • union carbide Extras .
    • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Years ago I met an engineer who was at the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Technical report on Population Based Long Term, Epidemiological Studies (1985–1994)
    .  Bhopal Gas Disaster Research Centre, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal (2003?) Contains the studies performed by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)
  • An Epidemiological Study of Symptomatic Morbidities in Communities Living Around Solar Evaporation Ponds And Behind Union Carbide Factory, Bhopal.  Department of Community Medicine, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal (2009)
  • At A Glance.^ Assistant Editor: Vera Ventura Director: Sanford Lewis Editor: Sanford Lewis ( less ) Tags: bhopal • corporate negligence • documentary • dow • dow chemical • gas exposure • india • short films • the bhopal chemical disaster • union carbide Extras .
    • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Years ago I met an engineer who was at the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief & Rehabilitation 1985 – 2009
    .  Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief & Rehabilitation Department, Bhopal (2009)

Union Carbide Corporation

  • Methyl Isocyanate. Union Carbide F-41443A - 7/76.  Union Carbide Corporation, New York (1976)
  • Carbon monoxide, Phosgene and Methyl isocyanate. .Unit Safety Procedures Manual.  Union Carbide India Limited, Agricultural Products Division: Bhopal (1978)
  • Operating Manual Part II. Methyl Isocyanate Unit.^ Assistant Editor: Vera Ventura Director: Sanford Lewis Editor: Sanford Lewis ( less ) Tags: bhopal • corporate negligence • documentary • dow • dow chemical • gas exposure • india • short films • the bhopal chemical disaster • union carbide Extras .
    • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Description: On December 2, 1984, Union Carbide's negligence caused the overnight deaths of approximately 8,000 people in Bhopal, India, the eventual deaths of 20,000, and the untold misery of hundreds of thousands more.
    • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The filmmakers look into how then-CEO Warren Anderson and Dow (which acquired Union Carbide in the '90s) have evaded the justice India has demanded.
    • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    .Union Carbide India Limited, Agricultural Products Division (1979). 
  • Bhopal Methyl Isocyanate Incident.^ Assistant Editor: Vera Ventura Director: Sanford Lewis Editor: Sanford Lewis ( less ) Tags: bhopal • corporate negligence • documentary • dow • dow chemical • gas exposure • india • short films • the bhopal chemical disaster • union carbide Extras .
    • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Description: On December 2, 1984, Union Carbide's negligence caused the overnight deaths of approximately 8,000 people in Bhopal, India, the eventual deaths of 20,000, and the untold misery of hundreds of thousands more.
    • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The filmmakers look into how then-CEO Warren Anderson and Dow (which acquired Union Carbide in the '90s) have evaded the justice India has demanded.
    • The Bhopal Chemical Disaster: 20 Years Without Justice | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    Investigation Team Report
    . Union Carbide Corporation, Danbury, CT (1985). 
  • Presence of Toxic Ingredients in Soil/Water Samples Inside Plant Premises.  Union Carbide Corporation, USA (1989)

Dow Chemicals publications

Mixed

Contamination of site

.
  • A Report on Mercury Contamination of Groundwater near the Union Carbide Factory at Bhopal.  Peoples' Science Institute, Dehra Doon (2001)
  • Foul Debris.^ Years ago I met an engineer who was at the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India.
    • HaloScan.com - Comments 10 February 2010 12:12 UTC www.haloscan.com [Source type: Original source]

    The UCIL plant is still a health hazard
    .  Down to Earth, Dec 15 (2003).

Presentations

Further reading

Websites

News

Films

Photos

Texts

  • Animal's People A fictionalized story of a Bhopal survivors that recreates present day Bhopal for the reader
  • Bhopal Gas Tragedy A railway officer describes how he received victims coming by train, 2002

Music

  • The Bhopal disaster is referenced in the song R.S.V.P. by B Dolan in which he decries Warren Anderson's involvement and gives out his home address.

Simple English

File:Bhopal-Union Carbide
The Union Carbide Factory, where the disaster happened

The Bhopal disaster or Bhopal gas tragedy was a disaster that resulted from an accident. It happened at a Union Carbide subsidiary pesticide plant in the city of Bhopal, India. On 3 December 1984, the plant released 42 tonnes of toxic methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas, exposing more than 500,000 people to toxic gases. The first official immediate death toll was 2,259. A more probable figure is that 8,000 died within two weeks, and it is estimated that an additional 8,000 have since died from gas-related diseases.[1][2]

The Bhopal disaster is frequently cited as the world's worst industrial disaster.[1][2][3][4][5]. The International Medical Commission on Bhopal was established in 1993 to respond to the long term health effects of the disaster.

Contents

What happened

The plant in Bhopal where the disaster happened started to produce Carbaryl in 1977. Carbaryl is mainly used as an insecticide. At first, the production was at 2.500 tonnes a year. This was no problem, as the plant had been designed for an output of 5.000 tonnes, that is to say, double that amount. At the beginning of the 1980s, insecticide, and Carbaryl did not sell very well. For this reason, the owners of the plant started to cut costs. This included employing less people, doing maintenance less frequently and using parts that were made of lower-grade steel. Closing the plant was being considered as well. When the disaster happened, there was no production at the plant because there was a surplus on the market.

The disaster happened because water could get into a tank containing Methyl isocyanate. This caused a chemical reaction which resulted in the buildup of much Carbon dioxide, amongst other things. The resulting reaction increased the temperature inside the tank to reach over Template:Convert/°C. The pressure was more than the tank was built to withstand. The tank had valves to control the pressure. These were triggered in an emergency, which reduced the pressure. As a result, a large amount of toxic gases was released into the environment. The pipes were rusty. The iron in the rust made the reaction faster.

All the contents of the tank were released over a period of about two hours. The water had entered the tank because of a sequence of events. The tank had been maintained badly. When cleaning work was done, water could enter the tank. A mixture of poisonous gases flooded the city of Bhopal, causing great panic as people woke up with a burning sensation in their lungs. Thousands died immediately from the effects of the gas, many were trampled in the panic that followed.

Theories

There are different theories how water could enter the tank. At the time, workers were cleaning pipes with water. Some claim that because of bad maintenance and leaking valves, it was possible for the water to leak into tank 610.[3] In December 1985 the New York Times reported that according to the plant managers the hypothesis of this route of entry of water was tested in the presence of the Central Bureau Investigators and was found to be negative.[6] UCC also maintains that this route was not possible, and that it was an act of sabotage by a "disgruntled worker" who introduced water directly into the tank.[7] However, the company's investigation team found no evidence of the necessary connection.[8]

The 1985 reports[8][9][10] give a picture of what led to the disaster and how it developed. The reports differ in details, however.

Factors leading to this huge gas leak include:

  • The use of hazardous chemicals (MIC) instead of less dangerous ones
  • Storing these chemicals in large tanks instead of over 200 steel drums.
  • Possible corroding material in pipelines
  • Poor maintenance after the plant ceased production in the early 1980s
  • Failure of several safety systems (due to poor maintenance and regulations).
  • Safety systems shut down to save money - including the MIC tank refrigeration system which alone would have prevented the disaster.

Plant design modified by Indian engineers to abide by government regulations and economic pressures to reduce expenses contributed most to the actual leak[citation needed]. The problem was then made worse by the plant's location near a densely populated area, non-existent catastrophe plans and shortcomings in health care and socio-economic rehabilitation. Analysis shows that the parties responsible for the magnitude of the disaster are the two owners, Union Carbide Corporation and the Government of India, and to some extent, the Government of Madhya Pradesh.[1][2][11]

Casualties

Between 3.500 and 25.000 people died as a result of contact with the cloud of toxic gas. Up to 500.000 people were injured. Many of the injuries are permanent. Some of the chemicals lead to birth defects. The numbers vary so vastly because there are no exact figures about how many people lived in the neighbourhood of the plant. About 100.000 people were living in a radius of 1 km around the plant where the disaster happened. Union Carbide had used India, because security standards and wages were low.

Aftermath

In 1998, the Supreme Court of India reached a settlement with Union Carbide: They had to pay 470 million US dollars to the Indian state.[12] At that time Union Carbide made a turnover of about 9.5 billion dollars, 20 times that amount. In return, there would be no further prosecution. Only very little money actually reached the victims. One of the reasons why many people are still suffering is that the terrain where the plant stands is still contaminated with mercury and other carcinogenic substances. Dow Chemical who owns Union Carbide refuses to decontaminate the soil. Greenpeace has estimated that decontamtion would only cost around 30 million USD.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Eckerman (2001).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Eckerman (2004).
  3. 3.0 3.1 Chouhan et al. (1994, 2005).
  4. "Bhopal - The world's worst industrial disaster". Greenpeace. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/photosvideos/slideshows/bhopal-the-world-s-worst-ind. 
  5. Simi Chakrabarti. "20th anniversary of world's worst industrial disaster". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2004/s1257352.htm. 
  6. Steven R. Weisman. "Bhopal a Year Later: An Eerie Silence". The New York Times. p. 5. 
  7. Kalelkar (1988).
  8. 8.0 8.1 Trade Union Report (1985).
  9. UCC Investigation Report (1985).
  10. Varadarajan (1985).
  11. Eckerman (2005).
  12. Bhopal-Net: Fumigating Bhopal, The Hindustan Times 28 September 2006

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 16, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bhopal disaster, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message