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A mountain bike, a popular multi-use bicycle.
A European city bike, an example of a bicycle designed for transportation. Also an example of a motorized bicycle.
.A bicycle, also known as a bike, push bike or cycle, is a pedal-driven, human-powered, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.^ Kevin started with a pretty firm pace, so i just stuck to his wheel...but as we were getting to the top his lack of time on the bike was oozing out, and i found myself powering away...unexpected, but it will likely be one of the few times this occurs!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ One was a climb i hadn't tried yet, and the other two were ones i toyed on (and kicked my butt) on Wed.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Boo Cycles Bamboo CX Frame http://www.cyclingnews.com/features/pro-bike-tyler-wrens-boo-bicycles-boocx Another company doing bamboo bike frames!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

A person who rides a bicycle is called a cyclist or a bicyclist.
Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number about one billion worldwide, twice as many as automobiles.[1] They are the principal means of transportation in many regions. They also provide a popular form of recreation, and have been adapted for such uses as children's toys, adult fitness, military and police applications, courier services and bicycle racing.
The basic shape and configuration of a typical upright bicycle has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885.[2] Many details have been improved, especially since the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design. These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for particular types of cycling.
The invention of the bicycle has had an enormous impact on society, both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that eventually played a key role in the development of the automobile were originally invented for the bicycle – e.g., ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven sprockets, spoke-tensioned wheels, etc.

Contents

History

Wooden draisine (around 1820), the first two-wheeler and as such the archetype of the bicycle
Multiple innovators contributed to the history of the bicycle by developing precursor human-powered vehicles. The documented ancestors of today's modern bicycle were known as draisines, hobby horses, or push bikes (and modern bicycles are sometimes still called push bikes outside of North America). Being the first human means of transport to make use of the two-wheeler principle, the draisine (or Laufmaschine, "running machine"), invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais, is regarded as the forerunner of the modern bicycle. .It was introduced by Drais to the public in Mannheim in summer 1817 and in Paris in 1818.[3] Its rider sat astride a wooden frame supported by two in-line wheels and pushed the vehicle along with his/her feet while steering the front wheel.^ I prolly should have jumped about there and got in front of the group, but i just sat in, and hit the line on the wheels of Craig, Scotty and Daniel.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

Michaux' son on velocipede 1868
Thomas McCall in 1869 on his velocipede
In the early 1860s, Frenchmen Pierre Michaux and Pierre Lallement took bicycle design in a new direction by adding a mechanical crank drive with pedals on an enlarged front wheel (the velocipede). Another French inventor by the name of Douglas Grasso had a failed prototype of Pierre Lallement's bicycle several years earlier. .Several inventions followed using rear wheel drive, the best known being the rod-driven velocipede by Scotsman Thomas McCall in 1869. The French creation, made of iron and wood, developed into the "penny-farthing" (historically known as an "ordinary bicycle", a retronym, since there were then no other kind).^ We hit the corner leading into the first hump, and i look back, and no one's there!!!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

[4] It featured a tubular steel frame on which were mounted wire-spoked wheels with solid rubber tires. These bicycles were difficult to ride due to their very high seat and poor weight distribution.
A penny-farthing or ordinary bicycle photographed in the Škoda Auto museum in the Czech Republic
Bicycle in Plymouth, England at the start of the 20th century
The dwarf ordinary addressed some of these faults by reducing the front wheel diameter and setting the seat further back. This necessitated the addition of gearing, effected in a variety of ways, to attain sufficient speed. Having to both pedal and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. J. K. Starley, J. H. Lawson, and Shergold solved this problem by introducing the chain drive (originated by the unsuccessful "bicyclette" of Englishman Henry Lawson),[5] connecting the frame-mounted pedals to the rear wheel. These models were known as dwarf safeties, or safety bicycles, for their lower seat height and better weight distribution. (Although without pneumatic tires the ride of the smaller wheeled bicycle would be much rougher than that of the larger wheeled variety.) Starley's 1885 Rover is usually described as the first recognizably modern bicycle. Soon, the seat tube was added, creating the double-triangle diamond frame of the modern bike.
Further innovations increased comfort and ushered in a second bicycle craze, the 1890s' Golden Age of Bicycles. In 1888, Scotsman John Boyd Dunlop introduced the first practical pneumatic tire, which soon became universal. Soon after, the rear freewheel was developed, enabling the rider to coast. This refinement led to the 1898 invention of coaster brakes. Derailleur gears and hand-operated cable-pull brakes were also developed during these years, but were only slowly adopted by casual riders. By the turn of the century, cycling clubs flourished on both sides of the Atlantic, and touring and racing became widely popular.
Bicycles and horse buggies were the two mainstays of private transportation just prior to the automobile, and the grading of smooth roads in the late 19th century was stimulated by the widespread advertising, production, and use of these devices.

Uses

Transporting milk churns in Kolkata, India
Bicycles have been and are employed for many uses:
.
Working bicycle in Amsterdam, Netherlands

Technical aspects

A Half Wheeler trailer bike at the Golden Gate Bridge
The bicycle has undergone continual adaptation and improvement since its inception. These innovations have continued with the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design, allowing for a proliferation of specialized bicycle types.

Types

A BMX bike, an example of a bicycle designed for sport
Bicycles can be categorized in different ways: e.g. by function, by number of riders, by general construction, by gearing or by means of propulsion. .The more common types include utility bicycles, mountain bicycles, racing bicycles, touring bicycles, hybrid bicycles, cruiser bicycles, and BMX Bikes.^ Halldor Gunnarrson http://onbiking.blogspot.com/ We've mountain biked, raced, and sprinted - let's get you out on the trails more this winter!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

Less common are tandems, lowriders, tall bikes, fixed gear, folding models and recumbents (one of which was used to set the IHPVA Hour record).
Unicycles, tricycles and quadracycles are not strictly bicycles, as they have respectively one, three and four wheels, but are often referred to informally as "bikes".
Bicycles leaning in a turn

Dynamics

A bicycle stays upright while moving forward by being steered so as to keep its center of gravity over the wheels.[6] This steering is usually provided by the rider, but under certain conditions may be provided by the bicycle itself.[7]
The combined center of mass of a bicycle and its rider must lean into a turn to successfully navigate it. This lean is induced by a method known as countersteering, which can be performed by the rider turning the handlebars directly with the hands[8] or indirectly by leaning the bicycle.[9]
Short-wheelbase or tall bicycles, when braking, can generate enough stopping force at the front wheel to flip longitudinally.[10] The act of purposefully using this force to lift the rear wheel and balance on the front without tipping over is a trick known as a stoppie, endo or front wheelie.

Performance

The bicycle is extraordinarily efficient in both biological and mechanical terms. The bicycle is the most efficient self-powered means of transportation in terms of energy a person must expend to travel a given distance.[11] .From a mechanical viewpoint, up to 99% of the energy delivered by the rider into the pedals is transmitted to the wheels, although the use of gearing mechanisms may reduce this by 10–15%.^ Final 'a-ha' moment was riding up Ash Hill, i kept seated, and amazingly i could feel each pedal stroke going straight to the wheel.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

[12][13] In terms of the ratio of cargo weight a bicycle can carry to total weight, it is also an efficient means of cargo transportation.
A human traveling on a bicycle at low to medium speeds of around 10–15 mph (15–25 km/h) uses only the energy required to walk. Air drag, which is proportional to the square of speed, requires dramatically higher power outputs as speeds increase. If the rider is sitting upright, the rider's body creates about 75% of the total drag of the bicycle/rider combination. Drag can be reduced by seating the rider in a supine position or a prone position, thus creating a recumbent bicycle or human powered vehicle. Drag can also be reduced by covering the bicycle with an aerodynamic fairing.
.In addition, the carbon dioxide generated in the production and transportation of the food required by the bicyclist, per mile traveled, is less than 1/10th that generated by energy efficient cars.^ (From the numbers in the report, as a comparison, all transportation in the world would be less than 6% of all global emissions..
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

[14]

Construction and parts

In its early years, bicycle construction drew on pre-existing technologies. More recently, bicycle technology has in turn contributed ideas in both old and new areas.

Frame

Diagram of a bicycle.
The great majority of today's bicycles have a frame with upright seating which looks much like the first chain-driven bike.[2] Such upright bicycles almost always feature the diamond frame, a truss consisting of two triangles: the front triangle and the rear triangle. .The front triangle consists of the head tube, top tube, down tube and seat tube.^ Craig Richey had been in front of me (and behind Dave) and he stood up as i was passing him, he started to crank it and WHAM! I looked back and he was sitting on his top tube!!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

The head tube contains the headset, the set of bearings that allows the fork to turn smoothly for steering and balance. The top tube connects the head tube to the seat tube at the top, and the down tube connects the head tube to the bottom bracket. The rear triangle consists of the seat tube and paired chain stays and seat stays. The chain stays run parallel to the chain, connecting the bottom bracket to the rear dropouts. The seat stays connect the top of the seat tube (at or near the same point as the top tube) to the rear dropouts.
Historically, women's bicycle frames had a top tube that connected in the middle of the seat tube instead of the top, resulting in a lower standover height at the expense of compromised structural integrity, since this places a strong bending load in the seat tube, and bicycle frame members are typically weak in bending. This design, referred to as a step-through frame, allows the rider to mount and dismount in a dignified way while wearing a skirt or dress. .While some women's bicycles continue to use this frame style, there is also a variation, the mixte, which splits the top tube laterally into two thinner top tubes that bypass the seat tube on each side and connect to the rear dropouts.^ I went into it with two goals: Top 20 finish, and not-last.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ So we split into two group, i much prefer a smaller pack of ~12 riders.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

The ease of stepping through is also appreciated by those with limited flexibility or other joint problems. Because of its persistent image as a "women's" bicycle, step-through frames are not common for larger frames.
Another style is the recumbent bicycle. .These are inherently more aerodynamic than upright versions, as the rider may lean back onto a support and operate pedals that are on about the same level as the seat.^ All this lead to a paved straight of about 250m, and back onto grass with another hairpin.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Near the top, i looked back, and i was in a lead group of about 6 riders, and ~20m behind was another smaller pack, an no sign of anyone else..
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ After that, were a couple more twists, and then onto the grass and back to the climb.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

The world's fastest bicycle is a recumbent bicycle but this type was banned from competition in 1934 by the Union Cycliste Internationale.[15]
Historically, materials used in bicycles have followed a similar pattern as in aircraft, the goal being high strength and low weight. Since the late 1930s alloy steels have been used for frame and fork tubes in higher quality machines. Celluloid found application in mudguards, and aluminum alloys are increasingly used in components such as handlebars, seat post, and brake levers. In the 1980s aluminum alloy frames became popular for their lightness, and their affordability now makes them common. More expensive carbon fiber and titanium frames are now also available, as well as advanced steel alloys and even bamboo.[16]

Drivetrain and gearing

A set of rear sprockets (also known as a cassette) and a derailleur
The drivetrain begins with pedals which rotate the cranks, which are held in axis by the bottom bracket. Most bicycles use a chain to transmit power to the rear wheel. A relatively small number of bicycles use a shaft drive to transmit power. .A very small number of bicycles (mainly single-speed bicycles intended for short-distance commuting) use a belt drive as an oil-free way of transmitting power.^ Basically, working our way downhill with a number of short power climbs into tight technical corners.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

Since cyclists' legs are most efficient over a narrow range of pedaling speeds (cadence), a variable gear ratio helps a cyclist to maintain an optimum pedalling speed while covering varied terrain. As a first approximation, utility bicycles often use a hub gear with a small number (3 to 8) of widely-spaced gears, road bicycles and racing bicycles use derailleur gears with a moderate number (10 to 22) of closely-spaced gears, while mountain bicycles, hybrid bicycles, and touring bicycles use dérailleur gears with a larger number (15 to 33) of moderately-spaced gears, often including an extremely low gear (granny gear) for climbing steep hills.
Different gears and ranges of gears are appropriate for different people and styles of cycling. Multi-speed bicycles allow gear selection to suit the circumstances: a cyclist could use a high gear when cycling downhill, a medium gear when cycling on a flat road, and a low gear when cycling uphill. In a lower gear every turn of the pedals leads to fewer rotations of the rear wheel. This allows the energy required to move the same distance to be distributed over more pedal turns, reducing fatigue when riding uphill, with a heavy load, or against strong winds. A higher gear allows a cyclist to make fewer pedal turns to maintain a given speed, but with more effort per turn of the pedals.
A bicycle with shaft drive instead of a chain
With a chain drive transmission, a chainring attached to a crank drives the chain, which in turn rotates the rear wheel via the rear sprocket(s) (cassette or freewheel). .There are four gearing options: two-speed hub gear integrated with chain ring, up to 3 chain rings, up to 11 sprockets, hub gear built in to rear wheel (3-speed to 14-speed).^ So, that's four rides in five days...TSS is getting up there - hopefully i can sustain this, and when it comes to doing even harder workouts, i can maintain the through the summer...
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

The most common options are either a rear hub or multiple chain rings combined with multiple sprockets (other combinations of options are possible but less common).
With a shaft drive transmission, a gear set at the bottom bracket turns the shaft, which then turns the rear wheel via a gear set connected to the wheel's hub. .There is some small loss of efficiency due to the two gear sets needed.^ Also got some new gear, needed some new shorts, and figured i'd chop two carrots with one swipe, and got full leggings.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

The only gearing option with a shaft drive is to use a hub gear.

Steering and seating

The handlebars turn the fork and the front wheel via the stem, which rotates within the headset. Three styles of handlebar are common. Upright handlebars, the norm in Europe and elsewhere until the 1970s, curve gently back toward the rider, offering a natural grip and comfortable upright position. .Drop handlebars "drop" as they curve forward and down, offering the cyclist best braking power from a more aerodynamic "crouched" position, as well as more upright positions in which the hands grip the brake lever mounts, the forward curves, or the upper flat sections for increasingly upright postures.^ Half of them ran their best times ever, even though they'd been racing for more than 5 years.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ I managed to figure out a line that cut across it all and dropped me into the deepest section of 'The Slop', which was the best section to ride.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Wasn't feeling too spunky (legs a bit flat) so didn't quite get up a few sections...rode well otherwise.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

Mountain bikes generally feature a 'straight handlebar' or 'riser bar' with varying degrees of sweep backwards and centimeters rise upwards, as well as wider widths which can provide better handling due to increased leverage against the wheel.
A Selle San Marco saddle designed for women
.Saddles also vary with rider preference, from the cushioned ones favored by short-distance riders to narrower saddles which allow more room for leg swings.^ I'd passed a few more riders, and only one rider had gotten by me: the young (16) Michael Brinton who's proving to be a diverse and strong rider!!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Also got some new gear, needed some new shorts, and figured i'd chop two carrots with one swipe, and got full leggings.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

Comfort depends on riding position. With comfort bikes and hybrids, cyclists sit high over the seat, their weight directed down onto the saddle, such that a wider and more cushioned saddle is preferable. .For racing bikes where the rider is bent over, weight is more evenly distributed between the handlebars and saddle, the hips are flexed, and a narrower and harder saddle is more efficient.^ Who knows how many more medals might have had to come to Canada were more riders exposed to track racing?
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Halldor Gunnarrson http://onbiking.blogspot.com/ We've mountain biked, raced, and sprinted - let's get you out on the trails more this winter!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

Differing saddle designs exist for male and female cyclists, accommodating the genders' differing anatomies, although bikes typically are sold with saddles most appropriate for men.
.A recumbent bicycle has a reclined chair-like seat that some riders find more comfortable than a saddle, especially riders who suffer from certain types of seat, back, neck, shoulder, or wrist pain.^ I'd passed a few more riders, and only one rider had gotten by me: the young (16) Michael Brinton who's proving to be a diverse and strong rider!!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Who knows how many more medals might have had to come to Canada were more riders exposed to track racing?
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

Recumbent bicycles may have either under-seat or over-seat steering.

Brakes

Linear-pull brake, also known by the Shimano trademark: V-Brake, on rear wheel of a mountain bike
Modern bicycle brakes may be rim brakes, in which friction pads are compressed against the wheel rims, internal hub brakes, in which the friction pads are contained within the wheel hubs, disc brakes, with a separate rotor for braking. Disc brakes are more common on off-road bicycles, tandems and recumbent bicycles than on road-specific bicycles.
A front disc brake, mounted to the fork and hub
With hand-operated brakes, force is applied to brake levers mounted on the handlebars and transmitted via Bowden cables or hydraulic lines to the friction pads. A rear hub brake may be either hand-operated or pedal-actuated, as in the back pedal coaster brakes which were popular in North America until the 1960s, and are common in children's bicycles.
Track bicycles do not have dedicated brakes. .Brakes are not required for riding on a track because all riders ride in the same direction around a track which does not necessitate sharp deceleration.^ Mical Dyck: http://micaldyck.blogspot.com/ One of Canada's top MTB riders, and all-around swell person and new Island resident!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

.Track riders are still able to slow down because all track bicycles are fixed-gear, meaning that there is no freewheel.^ I could bridge up, still wiped from the earlier pull..there was a small group (4) of us that chased until the airport, no dice..
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Still 20m to go, and i was DYING. Breathing so hard, legs very unhappy, i crested the section, sat down and tried to continue pedalling, and there was nothing.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

Without a freewheel, coasting is impossible, so when the rear wheel is moving, the crank is moving. To slow down, the rider applies resistance to the pedals – this acts as a braking system which can be as effective as a friction-based rear wheel brake, but not as effective as a front wheel brake.[17]

Suspension

Bicycle suspension refers to the system or systems used to suspend the rider and all or part of the bicycle. This serves two purposes:
  • To keep the wheels in continuous contact with rough surfaces to improve control.
  • To isolate the rider and luggage from jarring due to rough surfaces.
Bicycle suspensions are used primarily on mountain bicycles, but are also common on hybrid bicycles, and can even be found on some road bicycles, as they can help deal with problematic vibration. Suspension is especially important on recumbent bicycles, since while an upright bicycle rider can stand on the pedals to achieve some of the benefits of suspension, a recumbent rider cannot.

Wheels

The wheel axle fits into dropouts in the frame and forks. A pair of wheels may be called a wheelset, especially in the context of ready-built "off the shelf", performance-oriented wheels.
Tires vary enormously. Skinny 18 to 25 millimeters wide, road-racing tires may be completely smooth, or (slick). On the opposite extreme, off-road tires are 38 to 64 millimeters wide and usually have a deep tread for gripping in muddy conditions or metal spikes for ice.

Accessories, repairs, and tools

Touring bicycle equipped with head lamp, pump, rear rack, fenders/mud-guards, water bottles and cages, and numerous saddle-bags.
Puncture repair kit with tire levers, sandpaper to clean off an area of the inner tube around the puncture, a tube of rubber solution (vulcanizing fluid), round and oval patches, a metal grater and piece of chalk to make chalk powder (to dust over excess rubber solution). Kits often also include a wax crayon to mark the puncture location.
Some components, which are often optional accessories on sports bicycles, are standard features on utility bicycles to enhance their usefulness and comfort. .Mudguards, or fenders, protect the cyclist and moving parts from spray when riding through wet areas and chainguards protect clothes from oil on the chain while preventing clothing from being caught between the chain and crankset teeth.^ Catching up: Saturday Went out on the OBB group ride (meets at Oak Bay Bikes at 9am, be fendered and extendered if wet!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

Kick stands keep a bicycle upright when parked, while a bike lock will help prevent it from being stolen. Front-mounted baskets for carrying goods are often used. Luggage carriers and panniers mounted above the rear tire can be used to carry equipment or cargo. Parents sometimes add rear-mounted child seats and/or an auxiliary saddle fitted to the crossbar to transport children.
Toe-clips and toestraps and clipless pedals help keep the foot locked in the proper position on the pedals, and enable the cyclist to pull as well as push the pedals—although not without their hazards, e.g. may lock foot in when needed to prevent a fall. Technical accessories include cyclocomputers for measuring speed, distance, heart rate, GPS data etc. Other accessories include lights, reflectors, security locks, mirror, water bottles and cages, and bell.[18]
Bicycle helmets may help reduce injury in the event of a collision or accident, and a certified helmet is legally required for some riders in some jurisdictions. Helmets are classified as an accessory[18] or an item of clothing by others.[19]
Many cyclists carry tool kits. These may include a tire patch kit (which, in turn, may contain any combination of a hand pump or CO2 Pump, tire levers, spare tubes, self-adhesive patches, or tube-patching material, an adhesive, a piece of sandpaper or a metal grater (for roughing the tube surface to be patched),[20][21] and sometimes even a block of French chalk.), wrenches, hex keys, screwdrivers, and a chain tool. There are also cycling specific multi-tools that combine many of these implements into a single compact device. More specialized bicycle components may require more complex tools, including proprietary tools specific for a given manufacturer.
Some bicycle parts, particularly hub-based gearing systems, are complex, and many cyclists prefer to leave maintenance and repairs to professional bicycle mechanics. In some areas it is possible to purchase road-side assistance from companies such as the Better World Club. Other cyclists maintain their own bicycles, perhaps as part of their enjoyment of the hobby of cycling or simply for economic reasons. The ability to repair and maintain your own bicycle is also celebrated within the DIY movement.

Standards

A number of formal and industry standards exist for bicycle components to help make spare parts exchangeable and to maintain a minimum product safety.
The International Organization for Standardization, ISO, has a special technical committee for cycles, TC149, that has the following scope: "Standardization in the field of cycles, their components and accessories with particular reference to terminology, testing methods and requirements for performance and safety, and interchangeability."
CEN, European Committee for Standardisation, also has a specific Technical Committee, TC333, that defines European standards for cycles. Their mandate states that EN cycle standards shall harmonize with ISO standards. Some CEN cycle standards were developed before ISO published their standards, leading to strong European influences in this area. European cycle standards tend to describe minimum safety requirements, while ISO standards have historically harmonized parts geometry.[22]

Parts

For details on specific bicycle parts, see list of bicycle parts and category:bicycle parts.

Social and historical aspects

The bicycle has had a considerable effect on human society, in both the cultural and industrial realms.

In daily life

Around the turn of the 20th century, bicycles reduced crowding in inner-city tenements by allowing workers to commute from more spacious dwellings in the suburbs. They also reduced dependence on horses. Bicycles allowed people to travel for leisure into the country, since bicycles were three times as energy efficient as walking and three to four times as fast.
Recently, several European cities and Montreal have implemented successful schemes known as community bicycle programs or bike-sharing. These initiatives complement a city's public transport system and offer an alternative to motorized traffic to help reduce congestion and pollution. In Europe, especially in The Netherlands and parts of Germany and Denmark, commuting by bicycle is very common. In The Netherlands, all train stations are equipped with provisions for bicycle parking for a small fee and the larger ones also with bicycle repair shops, and cycling is so popular that the parking capacity is sometimes exceeded.[23] In Trondheim in Norway, the Trampe bicycle lift has been developed to encourage cyclists by giving assistance on a steep hill.
In cities where the bicycle is not an integral part of the planned transportation system, commuters often use bicycles as elements of a mixed-mode commute, where the bike is used to travel to and from train stations or other forms of rapid transit. Folding bicycles are useful in these scenarios, as they are less cumbersome when carried aboard. Los Angeles removed a small amount of seating on some trains to make more room for bicycles and wheel chairs.[24]
Bicycles offer an important mode of transport in many developing countries. Until recently, bicycles have been a staple of everyday life throughout Asian countries. They are the most frequently used method of transport for commuting to work, school, shopping, and life in general.

Female emancipation

Woman with bicycle, 1890s
The safety bicycle gave women unprecedented mobility, contributing to their emancipation in Western nations. As bicycles became safer and cheaper, more women had access to the personal freedom they embodied, and so the bicycle came to symbolize the New Woman of the late 19th century, especially in Britain and the United States. The bicycle was recognized by 19th-century feminists and suffragists as a "freedom machine" for women. American Susan B. Anthony said in a New York World interview on February 2, 1896: "Let me tell you what I think of bicycling. .I think it has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world.^ I think it's a bit under-ranked..i'd say this was definitely much closer to a 9 than 10...the black 5.9 on the opposing wall is SIGNIFICANTLY more challenging...!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

It gives women a feeling of freedom and self-reliance. I stand and rejoice every time I see a woman ride by on a wheel...the picture of free, untrammeled womanhood." In 1895 Frances Willard, the tightly-laced president of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, wrote a book called How I Learned to Ride the Bicycle, in which she praised the bicycle she learned to ride late in life, and which she named "Gladys", for its "gladdening effect" on her health and political optimism. .Willard used a cycling metaphor to urge other suffragists to action, proclaiming, "I would not waste my life in friction when it could be turned into momentum."^ This blog/site is a collection of my thoughts, articles and other general excitement tied into cycling, training and competing as a vegan bike racer and athlete.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ I was thinking that they could *easily* devise a way to turn a wired PT into a wireless..
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ A little unit like that could turn any wired PT into a wireless...i'd *totally* buy one or two of those things....
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

Male anger at the freedom symbolized by the New (bicycling) Woman was demonstrated when the male undergraduates of Cambridge University showed their opposition to the admission of women as full members of the university by hanging a woman bicyclist in effigy in the main town square. This was as late as 1897.[25] The bicycle craze in the 1890s also led to a movement for so-called rational dress, which helped liberate women from corsets and ankle-length skirts and other restrictive garments, substituting the then-shocking bloomers.

Economic implications

Columbia Bicycles advertisement from 1886
Bicycle manufacturing proved to be a training ground for other industries and led to the development of advanced metalworking techniques, both for the frames themselves and for special components such as ball bearings, washers, and sprockets. These techniques later enabled skilled metalworkers and mechanics to develop the components used in early automobiles and aircraft.
.They also served to teach the industrial models later adopted, including mechanization and mass production (later copied and adopted by Ford and General Motors),[26] vertical integration[27] (also later copied and adopted by Ford), aggressive advertising[28] (as much as 10% of all advertising in U.S. periodicals in 1898 was by bicycle makers),[29] lobbying for better roads (which had the side benefit of acting as advertising, and of improving sales by providing more places to ride),[30] all first practised by Pope.^ People do shorter, more steady pulls, much smoother training...all i'm looking for these days as racing season is over!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ I think it's a bit under-ranked..i'd say this was definitely much closer to a 9 than 10...the black 5.9 on the opposing wall is SIGNIFICANTLY more challenging...!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ This reduces the electrical charge between the inside and outside, so muscle cells contract with much less force until finally they cannot contract at all.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

[30] In addition, bicycle makers adopted the annual model change[31][32] (later derided as planned obsolescence, and usually credited to General Motors), which proved very successful.[33]
Furthermore, early bicycles were an example of conspicuous consumption, being adopted by the fashionable elites.[34] In addition, by serving as a platform for accessories, which could ultimately cost more than the bicycle itself, it paved the way for the likes of the Barbie doll.[35]
Moreover, they helped create, or enhance, new kinds of businesses, such as bicycle messengers,[36] travelling seamstresses,[37] riding academies,[38] and racing rinks[39] (Their board tracks were later adapted to early motorcycle and automobile racing.) Also, there were a variety of new inventions, such as spoke tighteners,[40] and specialized lights,[41] socks and shoes,[42] and even cameras (such as the Eastman Company's Poco).[43] Probably the best known and most widely used of these inventions, adopted well beyond cycling, is Charles Bennett's Bike Web, which came to be called the "jock strap".[44]
A man uses a bicycle to carry goods in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
They also presaged a move away from public transit[45] that would explode with the introduction of the automobile.
J. K. Starley's company became the Rover Cycle Company Ltd. in the late 1890s, and then simply the Rover Company when it started making cars. The Morris Motor Company (in Oxford) and Škoda also began in the bicycle business, as did the Wright brothers.[46] Alistair Craig, whose company eventually emerged to become the engine manufacturers Ailsa Craig, also started from manufacturing bicycles, in Glasgow in March 1885.
.In general, U.S. and European cycle manufacturers used to assemble cycles from their own frames and components made by other companies, although very large companies (such as Raleigh) used to make almost every part of a bicycle (including bottom brackets, axles, etc.^ Boo Cycles Bamboo CX Frame http://www.cyclingnews.com/features/pro-bike-tyler-wrens-boo-bicycles-boocx Another company doing bamboo bike frames!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

) In recent years, those bicycle makers have greatly changed their methods of production. Now, almost none of them produce their own frames.
Many newer or smaller companies only design and market their products; the actual production is done by Asian companies. For example, some 60% of the world's bicycles are now being made in China. Despite this shift in production, as nations such as China and India become more wealthy, their own use of bicycles has declined due to the increasing affordability of cars and motorcycles.[citation needed] One of the major reasons for the proliferation of Chinese-made bicycles in foreign markets is the lower cost of labor in China.[47]
One of the profound economic implications of bicycle use is that it liberates the user from oil consumption (Ballantine, 1972). The bicycle is a inexpensive, fast, healthy and environmentally friendly mode of transport (Illich, 1974)

Legal requirements

Reflectors for riding after dark
Early in its development, as with automobiles, there were restrictions on the operation of bicycles. Along with advertising, and to gain free publicity, Albert A. Pope litigated on behalf of cyclists.[48]
The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic of the United Nations considers a bicycle to be a vehicle, and a person controlling a bicycle (whether actually riding or not) is considered an operator. The traffic codes of many countries reflect these definitions and demand that a bicycle satisfy certain legal requirements before it can be used on public roads. In many jurisdictions, it is an offense to use a bicycle that is not in a roadworthy condition.
In most jurisdictions, bicycles must have functioning front and rear lights when ridden after dark. As some generator or dynamo-driven lamps only operate while moving, rear reflectors are frequently also mandatory. Since a moving bicycle makes little noise, some countries insist that bicycles have a warning bell for use when approaching pedestrians, equestrians, and other cyclists.
Some countries require child and/or adult cyclists to wear helmets, as this may protect riders from head trauma. Countries which require adult cyclists to wear helmets include Spain, Canada, New Zealand and Australia.

See also

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2007-12-07, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles
General
Special uses and related vehicle types
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Notes

  1. ^ DidYouKnow.org. There are about a billion or more bicycles in the world. Retrieved 30 July 2006.
  2. ^ a b Herlihy, David V. (2004). Bicycle: the history. Yale University Press. pp. 200–250. ISBN 0-300-10418-9. 
  3. ^ "Canada Science and Technology Museum: Baron von Drais’ Bicycle". 2006. http://www.sciencetech.technomuses.ca/english/collection/cycles2.cfm. Retrieved 2006-12-23. 
  4. ^ Norcliffe, Glen. The Ride to Modernity: The Bicycle in Canada, 1869-1900 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001), p.50, citing Derek Roberts.
  5. ^ Norcliffe, p.47.
  6. ^ Various (9 December 2006). "Like falling off". New Scientist (2581): 93. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19225812.400. Retrieved 27 January 2009. 
  7. ^ Meijaard, Papadopoulos, Ruina, and Schwab, J.P.; Papadopoulos, Jim M.; Ruina, Andy; Schwab, A.L. (2007). "Linearized dynamics equations for the balance and steer of a bicycle: a benchmark and review". Proc. R. Soc. A. 463 (2084): 1955–1982. doi:10.1098/rspa.2007.1857. 
  8. ^ Wilson, David Gordon; Jim Papadopoulos (2004). Bicycling Science (Third ed.). The MIT Press. pp. 270–272. ISBN 0-262-73154-1. 
  9. ^ Fajans, Joel (July 2000). "Steering in bicycles and motorcycles" (PDF). American Journal of Physics 68 (7): 654–659. doi:10.1119/1.19504. http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~fajans/pub/pdffiles/SteerBikeAJP.PDF. Retrieved 2006-08-04. 
  10. ^ Cossalter, Vittore (2006). Motorcycle Dynamics (Second ed.). Lulu.com. pp. 241–342. ISBN 978-1-4303-0861-4. 
  11. ^ "Bicycle Technology", S.S. Wilson, Scientific American, March 1973
  12. ^ "Johns Hopkins Gazette", 30 August 1999
  13. ^ Whitt, Frank R.; David G. Wilson (1982). Bicycling Science (Second ed.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. pp. 277–300. ISBN 0-262-23111-5. 
  14. ^ How Much Do Bicycles Pollute? Looking at the Carbon Dioxide Produced by Bicycles
  15. ^ History Loudly Tells Why The Recumbent Bike Is Popular Today
  16. ^ Lukenbill, Jen (13 February 2008). "Bamboo bikes". AboutMyPlanet.com. http://www.aboutmyplanet.com/environment/bamboo-bikes/. 
  17. ^ Brown, Sheldon. "Fixed Gear Conversions: Braking". http://www.sheldonbrown.com/fixed.html. Retrieved 2009-02-11. 
  18. ^ a b Bluejay, Michael. "Safety Accessories". Bicycle Accessories. BicycleUniverse.info. http://bicycleuniverse.info/eqp/accessories.html#safety. Retrieved 2006-09-13. 
  19. ^ "The Essentials of Bike Clothing". About Bicycling. About.com. http://bicycling.about.com/library/weekly/aa041098.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-13. 
  20. ^ "Sheldon Brown: Flat tires". http://sheldonbrown.com/flats.html#patching. Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  21. ^ "BikeWebSite: Bicycle Glossary – Patch kit". http://www.bikewebsite.com/bikeop.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  22. ^ The TC149 ISO bicycle committee, including the TC149/SC1 ("Cycles and major sub-assemblies") subcommittee, has published the following standards:
    • ISO 4210 Cycles—Safety requirements for bicycles
    • ISO 6692 Cycles—Marking of cycle components
    • ISO 6695 Cycles—Pedal axle and crank assembly with square end fitting—Assembly dimensions
    • ISO 6696 Cycles—Screw threads used in bottom bracket assemblies
    • ISO 6697 Cycles—Hubs and freewheels—Assembly dimensions
    • ISO 6698 Cycles—Screw threads used to assemble freewheels on bicycle hubs
    • ISO 6699 Cycles—Stem and handlebar bend—Assembly dimensions
    • ISO 6701 Cycles—External dimensions of spoke nipples
    • ISO 6742 Cycles—Lighting and retro-reflective devices—Photometric and physical requirements
    • ISO 8090 Cycles—Terminology (same as BS 6102-4)
    • ISO 8098 Cycles—Safety requirements for bicycles for young children
    • ISO 8488 Cycles—Screw threads used to assemble head fittings on bicycle forks
    • ISO 8562 Cycles—Stem wedge angle
    • ISO 10230 Cycles—Splined hub and sprocket—Mating dimensions
    • ISO 11243 Cycles—Luggage carriers for bicycles—Concepts, classification and testing
    Other ISO Technical Committees have published various cycle relevant standards, for example:
    • ISO 5775 Bicycle tire and rim designations
    • ISO 9633 Cycle chains—Characteristics and test methods
    Published cycle standards from CEN TC333 include:
    • EN 14764 City and trekking bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods
    • EN 14765 Bicycles for young children – Safety requirements and test methods
    • EN 14766 Mountain-bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods
    • EN 14781 Racing bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods
    • EN 14782 Bicycles – Accessories for bicycles – Luggage carriers
    • EN 15496 Cycles – Requirements and test methods for cycle locks
    Yet to be approved cycle standards from CEN TC333:
    • EN 15194 Cycles—Electrically power assisted cycles (EPAC bicycle)
    • EN 15532 Cycles—Terminology
    • 00333011 Cycles – Bicycles trailers – safety requirements and test methods
  23. ^ Joel Broekaert and Reinier Kist (12 February 2010). "So many bikes, so little space". NRC Handelsblad. http://www.nrc.nl/international/article2482297.ece/So_many_bikes%2C_so_little_space. Retrieved 2010-02-13. 
  24. ^ Damien Newton (October 16, 2008). "Metro Making Room for Bikes on Their Trains". LA.StreetsBlog.Org. http://la.streetsblog.org/2008/10/16/metro-making-room-for-bikes-on-their-trains/. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  25. ^ "Newnham College Cambridge: The History of the College". Newnham College. 2009. http://www.newn.cam.ac.uk/about-newnham/college-history/history/content/history-of-the-college-2. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  26. ^ Norcliffe, Glen. The Ride to Modernity: The Bicycle in Canada, 1869-1900 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001), pp.23, 106, & 108. GM's practice of sharing chassis, bodies, and other parts is exactly what the early bicycle manufacturer Pope was doing.
  27. ^ Norcliffe, p.106.
  28. ^ Norcliffe, pp.142–47.
  29. ^ Norcliffe, p.145.
  30. ^ a b Norcliffe, p.108.
  31. ^ Norcliffe, p.23.
  32. ^ Babaian, Sharon. The Most Benevolent Machine: A Historical Assessment of Cycles in Canada (Ottawa: National Museum of Science and Technology, 1998), p.97.
  33. ^ Babaian, p.98.
  34. ^ Norcliffe, pp.8, 12, 14, 23, 147–8, 187–8, 208, & 243–5.
  35. ^ Norcliffe, pp.23, 121, & 123.
  36. ^ Norcliffe, p.212.
  37. ^ Norcliffe, p.214.
  38. ^ Norcliffe, p.131.
  39. ^ Norcliffe, p.30 & 131.
  40. ^ Norcliffe, p.125.
  41. ^ Norcliffe, p.123 & 125.
  42. ^ Norcliffe, p.125 & 126.
  43. ^ Norcliffe, p.238.
  44. ^ Norcliffe, p.128.
  45. ^ Norcliffe, p.214–5.
  46. ^ "The Wrights' bicycle shop". 2007. http://www.nasm.si.edu/Wrightbrothers/who/1893/shop.cfm. Retrieved 2007-02-05. 
  47. ^ The Economist, 15 February 2003
  48. ^ Norcliffe, Glen. The Ride to Modernity: The Bicycle in Canada, 1869-1900 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001), p.108.

References

  • All About Bicycling, Rand McNally.
  • Richard Ballantine, Richard's Bicycle Book, Pan, 1975.
  • Caunter C. F. The History and Development of Cycles Science Museum London 1972.
  • Daniel Kirshner. Some nonexplanations of bicycle stability. American Journal of Physics, 48(1), 1980. The abstract reads "In this paper we attempt to verify a nongyroscopic theory of bicycle stability, and fail".
  • David B. Perry, Bike Cult: the Ultimate Guide to Human-powered Vehicles, Four Walls Eight Windows, 1995.
  • Roni Sarig, The Everything Bicycle Book, Adams Media Corporation, 1997
  • "Randonneurs USA". PBP: Paris-Brest-Paris. March 31, 2005. .http://www.rusa.org/pbp.html. 
  • US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.^ Number of Animals Killed to Produce 1 Million Calories in Eight Food Categories http://www.animalvisuals.org/data/1mc/ An interesting visual.
    • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

    "America's Highways 1776-1976", pp. 42–43. Washington, DC, US Government Printing Office.
  • David Gordon Wilson, Bicycling Science, MIT press, ISBN 0-262-73154-1
  • David V. Herlihy, Bicycle: The History, Yale University Press, 2004
  • Frank Berto, The Dancing Chain: History and Development of the Derailleur Bicycle, San Francisco: Van der Plas Publications, 2005, ISBN 1-892495-41-4.
  • The Data Book: 100 Years of Bicycle Component and Accessory Design, San Francisco: Van der Plas Publications, 2005, ISBN 1-892495-01-5.
  • "Bicycle facts". http://www.didyouknow.org/bicycles.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 

External links

.

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Tips for cycle trips article)

From Wikitravel

This article is a travel topic.
.Cycling has many advantages as a form of travel, as it is the fastest way to travel by human power, but slow enough to allow the type of local immersion that is impossible with powered travel.^ Professionals and consumers are increasingly turning to cycling in the fight against obesity, using everyday travel as an effective form of exercise.
  • Cycling England 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.dft.gov.uk [Source type: General]

^ Cycling in the Highlands The Highlands have excellent cycling opportunities not just because in this area of low population many roads are quiet anyway, but because there are so many ways in which cyclists are encouraged.

^ The Cycling Pros at Santiago Cycling in Tustin, California can provide you with many ways to reach your cycling goals -- whatever they might be.
  • Cycling Pros at Santiago Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.cyclingpros.com [Source type: General]

.The low cost of cycle travel (usually just food and accommodation) is also attractive.^ We even saw our first train track in a while -- so you just know it's more flat than usual from what we had been cycle touring in the mountains.

^ DE bike motors are guaranteed street legal with over 200 MPG at 25 MPH. This means low cost travel and less noise.  .
  • Motorized bicycles, bicycle engines, bike motors, electric bikes, ENCORE and Simple Simon bicycle engines for Dahon folding motorized bikes, engines for recumbents and tricycles information. 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bikemotor.com [Source type: General]

^ We want you to have a good sense of just how great food in Cuba is, for this reason we only include beakfast in the cost of the tour.
  • :: OYE! Tours :: Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.oyetours.ca [Source type: General]

.Multi-continental trips are relatively common, such as from tip to tip of the Americas, but cycling can also be enjoyed in month-, week-, or even weekend-long trips.^ Our 66 TIPS video-based CD-ROM shows you great cycling tips, including how to avoid many common mistakes.
  • The Bicycle Shop - Baton Rouge - Specialized Bianchi and Orbea Bikes 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicycleshop.com [Source type: General]

^ Cycling holiday – long of short – for a weekend break or a week to fortnight tour in one of world’s best cycling destination, or a cross-country tour.
  • Advert Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC race-ncca.org [Source type: General]

^ Campus Bicycles also rents bicycles for daily, weekend and all-week use and we have a large selection of cycling accessories to make your rides more enjoyable.
  • Campus Bicycles - Chico, CA - Trek Scott Felt KHS Road and Mountain Bikes Nirve and Free Agent BMX 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC campusbicycles.com [Source type: General]

.Some routes, such as the Karakoram Highway, are extremely challenging, but an infinite number of safer and easier routes are also available.^ This will be spent on projects to improve the image and promotion of cycling,  the availability and accessibility of cycling and also more cycling infrastructure such as more parking facilities and cycle routes.
  • Cycling in Stoke-on-Trent - Stoke-on-Trent City Council 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.stoke.gov.uk [Source type: General]

Itinerary

See also:

Distance

.On level terrain, without a headwind, a cyclist of average fitness on a touring bike can comfortably cover 60-120 km a day, depending on the number and length of stops.^ It's a fun, fitness filled day for cyclists of all levels.
  • Presque Isle Cycling Club 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC picycling.org [Source type: General]

^ Packing Multi-day bike tour packing.

^ Half Day Beijing Bike Tours (5 tours) .
  • Beijing Bike Tours -Guided Bicycle Tours Beijing -Beijing Cycling Trips-Mountain Biking Beijing China 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bikebeijing.com [Source type: General]

.Distances of up to 250 km a day are feasible, but anything much beyond 120 km will require considerable physical strain and not allow many stops to enjoy the things on they way.^ Either way, changing things up, in a strategic way , can really give you an edge in your bodybuilding and/or body shaping efforts.
  • Cycling Your Training, Diet, and Overall Bodybuilding Program | The Muscle-Build.com Blog 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC blog.muscle-build.com [Source type: General]

^ We enjoy good conversation too so even if you’re not in the market for anything stop on in to browse the store, chew the fat, and talk bikes!
  • home page : Belmont Bicycle Shop : Belmont, NC : 704-825-BIKE 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC belmontbicycles.com [Source type: General]

^ Our daily cycling distance is a leisurely 30-40 miles, which allows plenty of time to stop and explore the surroundings.

.For many, 80-100 km a day will be the optimal distance to aim for, as it will give a sense of achievement and also leave plenty of time to stop for meals and activities.^ Our daily cycling distance is a leisurely 30-40 miles, which allows plenty of time to stop and explore the surroundings.

^ At that speed, I find I have the reaction time and stopping distance to handle most emergencies.
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I usually try to plan overnight stops in decent sized towns to give me variety in lodging, dining, and evening activity if I feel up for it.
  • Planning Your Own European Bicycle Tour 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.Be aware that a full load will slow you down.^ It also helps drivers spot you sooner so they have time to slow down or pass at a safe distance.
  • Albuquerque Bicycle Center, Albuquerque, NM-Trek-Gary Fisher-MirraCo-Bontrager-Saris-Swagman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC albbicyclecenter.com [Source type: General]

^ Don't worry if you missed it, you can down load the show here .* .
  • Bike Newport - Welcome to the Bike Newport bike shop onthe Oregon Coast in Newport Oregon 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bikenewport.net [Source type: General]

^ If a car ahead of you is going only 10 mph, then you slow down, too, behind it.
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

.You may average 25 km/h on your unladen bike, but being loaded up with panniers can reduce that to 15 km/h or less.^ Where do you keep your bike at work?
  • Winter Cycling [Archive] - Bike Forums 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.bikeforums.net [Source type: General]

^ If you do not love your bike, return it.
  • Bike Cycles Bike Shop Bicycle Repair & Custom Bikes Wilmington NC 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bikecycleshop.com [Source type: General]

^ You've got your bike, now what!
  • Planet Bike :: Welcome to Planet Bike 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.planet-bike.co.uk [Source type: General]

.For a seven day itinerary, aim to cover about 400-500 km.^ Stages can last for six to eight hours, covering 90-150 miles (145-240 km), and racers can burn over 10,000 calories a day.
  • Science of Cycling: Aerodynamics: page 2 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.exploratorium.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a good idea to ease into a longer trip, do short days to start with, and take a break on the third or fourth day, to allow sore buttocks and leg muscles to recover, perhaps stopping in a city or engaging in a different outdoor activity, such as kayaking or swimming.^ Although you’ll need a passport to get into Italy from America or Canada, you won’t need a visa unless you are planning to stay longer than 90 days.
  • Enjoy Bicycle Touring In Italy | iijob.biz 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC iijob.biz [Source type: General]

^ However, if you cannot take a bike to Italy, good quality road bikes with triple chainrings are available for rent at a local bike shop for €25 a day.

^ You may not be prepared to cycle all the way into the city to get to work, but you can ride a bike for any number of trips you might otherwise make by car.
  • Cycling at mySimon - Find and Compare Top Cycling Products and Save 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.mysimon.com [Source type: General]

Geography

.Routes with steep hills will reduce your range, in exceptional circumstances to as little as 20 km a day.^ Terrain: If your area has moderate and steep hills, the Charger's wider range of speed/torque capabilities (due to powering through variable gearing) will serve you better.
  • Electric Bikes - Electric-Bikes.com 11 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They provide daily rides to over 20 different destinations in France ranging from 20 to 50 miles, depending on your interests.

^ Join us and experience our most popular mountain bike route over four days of great cycling from the hills of Chiang Dao to the Maekok river.
  • Cycling and Mountain Biking Tours in Chiang Mai and North Thailand | Active Thailand 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.activethailand.com [Source type: General]

.Watch the altitude lines on your map closely, both for individual gradients and total altitude differences.^ Make photocopies of the overall map for the country, mark your three levels in different colors, and try drawing possible connecting routes.
  • Planning Your Own European Bicycle Tour 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ If you can ride your bike comfortably close to this daily mileage, you should be OK unless your tour is totally different terrain.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Their concept of flat, from the perspective of a motorist, is likely to be totally different than your concept as a cyclist.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

.Gradients of more than about 5% are difficult to overcome on a laden touring bike.^ Read more about Bike .
  • Bike at HisRoom 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hisroom.com [Source type: General]

^ Where can I find more information about biking?
  • Cycling (Biking or Bicycling) History, Benefits, Terms, Tips and Bike Safety on MedicineNet.com 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: General]

^ Bikes are civilization's perfect tool for transporting you and your stuff, and Kona's Ute does it better than any car, yak, buffalo, sherpa, or… [ more ] .
  • Pure Energy Cycling and Java House, Lambertville, New Jersey - Custom Bicycles and Fit - Parlee, KONA, BMC, Kuota, Lynskey, Look, Soma, Storck, Blue Competition 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC pureenergycycling.com [Source type: General]

.A rule of thumb is that for every 100 metres of altitude you climb, you should add an extra 15 minutes to your journey time.^ Never have time to get your bike maintained the way you should?
  • Reser Bicycle Outfitters - Bike Shop with Mountain and Road bikes - Newport, Kentucky near Cincinnati, Ohio 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reserbicycle.com [Source type: General]

^ Over 100 used bikes in stock at any given time; you can buy bikes fully refurbished, and our prices are great!
  • Bike Works - Building sustainable communities by educating youth and promoting bicycling 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bikeworks.org [Source type: General]

^ If, before or after your stay with us, you wish to do additional travel that doesn’t include cycling, we will be happy to store your bike and extra luggage at our facilities.

.In hilly or mountainous regions, the easiest routes for cycling are downstream along major rivers, as overall they will be downhill.^ Austria 's first cycle route was along the Danube from Passau to Vienna and since then the tourist and planning authorities in all the other regions of Austria have built up an extensive network of cycling and mountain biking routes across the country.

^ Improving your cycling has the most potential to cut overall time on multisport race days, yet for the majority of athletes it's their least developed discipline.
  • Cycling Coaching for Triathletes [BIKE/SPLIT] 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bikesplit.com [Source type: General]

^ Although they weren't designed for mountain bikes, they do cover some hilly countryside and provide worthwhile lessons about the province's natural history.
  • PEI Cycling - Biking Trails in Prince Edward Island 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.tourismpei.com [Source type: General]

.A long, roundabout route along a river will usually be easier than a short, direct route over a hill or mountain pass.^ This route down the Lorton Valley and along the River Cocker takes you to Loweswater, a delightful picnic spot and with an optional short cut back from Ullock, saving 8 miles.
  • Cycling in Keswick and the North Lakes - Keswick, the Lake District 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.keswick.org [Source type: General]

^ This fund raising Ride, on September 26th 2009, is a one-day bike ride that takes cyclists on a gently rolling route along the Clarion River.
  • Presque Isle Cycling Club 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC picycling.org [Source type: General]

^ The Bavaria route is more mountainous than the others, which run predominantly in river valleys, but nevertheless the daily distance is possible for everyone, because the route follows the valleys.

.However, it is worth bearing in mind that the most scenic routes often come from hilly terrain.^ Well, Barbados is most probably not the first destination coming into someone's mind when planning a holiday associated with bicycle riding.
  • Cycling in Barbados! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.barbados.org [Source type: News]

^ The terrain is rolling to hilly and all of the routes contain some hills (which means great downhills!
  • She Got Bike! 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC shegotbike.com [Source type: General]

^ Along this route you will travel through the most scenic countryside in Niagara.
  • Bicycle Touring in Niagara Falls Canada 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

.If you are feeling up for a challenge, try some hillier routes.^ Enjoy a leisurely scenic ride of just a few miles, or gear yourself up for the more challenging east to west and around the island routes.
  • Jersey.com - Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.jersey.com [Source type: General]

^ You may disagree with some of them, but try as you might, your dissenting views are unlikely to be be published on this site unless under legal direction or I am feeling benevolent.

^ The terrain is rolling to hilly and all of the routes contain some hills (which means great downhills!
  • She Got Bike! 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC shegotbike.com [Source type: General]

.Start small, your legs will get used to it and the views will be worth the effort.^ On a bike, however, you are limited by how fast you can proceed and are likely to gain a better appreciation, especially when you have to earn your view through your own efforts.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Some folks view these frames as works of art, too nice or delicate for daily use, but they aren't your Brigitte parks oh-so-carefully...
  • The Renovo Bicycle - Renovo Hardwood Bicycles 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.renovobikes.com [Source type: General]

^ As you develop your leg strength, aim to work for 3 sets of 10 - 12 reps, followed by 1 - 2 sets of 50% weight, using 1 leg for 4 - 8 reps.
  • Cycling weight training program to improve your cycling ability 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.netfit.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Motor traffic is often worth avoiding as much as possible, for example by planning your cycle trip in less densely populated regions (unless it is in a country that offers exceptionally good cycling facilities, such as The Netherlands or Denmark), by choosing minor roads over trunk roads, and staying away from larger cities unless they offer good cycle paths.^ It is the preferred bike of the Netherlands, a country known for its cycling and cycle-friendliness.

^ Cycling is good for your heart and health .
  • Cycling and health 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.bupa.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the riverway path: NO motorized traffic.

.Not only can it be dangerous to share the road with large numbers of cars and trucks, it will also be less fun.^ Peace of mind when sharing the road with cars and trucks.
  • Motorized bicycles, bicycle engines, bike motors, electric bikes, ENCORE and Simple Simon bicycle engines for Dahon folding motorized bikes, engines for recumbents and tricycles information. 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bikemotor.com [Source type: General]

^ America ’s number one otorcycle and sports car road is only an hour away from Franklin.
  • This area is rich in a variety of hiking trails. 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC franklin-chamber.com [Source type: General]

^ The hundreds of miles of minor roads are narrower, with passing places, but on most of them visibility is excellent and there are even fewer cars, buses and trucks.
  • Cycling - Miles of Smooth Roads, Endlessly Varying Scenery and Astounding Views | Visit Shetland 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.visitshetland.com [Source type: General]

Maps

.Ideally you will have maps showing the contours of the region you are visiting, along with tourist attractions, accommodation, campsites and other useful places.^ Here you will find an extensive selection of little used Highland forestry and other tracks, many of which are close to the main A9 road route north ...
  • VisitScotland Perthshire - Cycling & Mountain Biking 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.perthshire.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Groups live simply, using campsites, hostels, and other modest facilities.
  • Bicycle Trips and Teen Bike Tours 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC biketrips.com [Source type: General]

^ Austria 's first cycle route was along the Danube from Passau to Vienna and since then the tourist and planning authorities in all the other regions of Austria have built up an extensive network of cycling and mountain biking routes across the country.

.However, these maps tend to be quite detailed and only cover small regions, and if you are covering any kind of distance you will find yourself buying rather a lot of them, which can prove rather expensive and heavy.^ If you are fortunate enough to live within driving distance of our stores, you can take advantage of these savings!!
  • Bike Stop Bicycles Stores: Blue Springs and Lees Summit, MO 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bikestoponline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to help you find A-Bikes for sale more easily, we are now showing current eBay listings on the Buy A-Bike Now page.
  • A-Bike Central - Sinclair A-Bike / ABike / A Bike Folding Bike / Bicycle 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.abikecentral.com [Source type: General]

^ There are also links to buying gear you need, but don't overlook outlets that carry backpacking items as they tend to be the lightest on the market for obvious reasons.
  • Bicycle Touring Europe - TripAdvisor 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

.One good compromise is to buy a road atlas of the country or countries you are planning to visit, tear out (copy) the necessary pages and only take those.^ This turned out to be a good plan.
  • Bicycle Touring in Cuba 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www3.adnc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Planning a visit from out of state?
  • Bike Newport - Welcome to the Bike Newport bike shop onthe Oregon Coast in Newport Oregon 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bikenewport.net [Source type: General]

^ ZION COUNTRY EARLY SPRING CENTURY--February 28, 2009 See Zion’s National Park on a leisurely route that will allow you to get out on the road, test your legs, relax and enjoy an early start on the season.

.You'll often find you can get a good 1:100000 map fairly cheaply, but still showing minor roads, campsites and marking out any steep hills.^ Also, it is important that you pay attention to the maps and road markings for directions.

^ Here you will find an extensive selection of little used Highland forestry and other tracks, many of which are close to the main A9 road route north ...
  • VisitScotland Perthshire - Cycling & Mountain Biking 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.perthshire.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ If you follow a few basic health and safety tips, you'll get the most out of your cycling and reduce your risk of injury.

.Another alternative is a GPS with topographic maps loaded, or a PDA (possibly also combined with a GPS) which you can load topographic maps into.^ It is recommended that you zoom into the area you desire and use the Print "Current View" command to print smaller portions of the map in greater detail.
  • City of Hamilton - Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.hamilton.ca [Source type: General]

^ When you first try to ride a loaded bike it feels like the bike frame is flexing and it is ready to go into a gyration that will throw you off and onto the pavement.
  • Bicycle Touring à la Chain Reaction 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: General]

^ Alternatively, you can pick up a cycle map, available at some Council offices, libraries, tourist information and other public buildings.
  • GMPTE.com - Environment - Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.gmpte.com [Source type: General]

.Even a scanned atlas map onto a PDA is better than nothing.^ The intervening cog, which should step down the geas somewhat, doesn’t appear to be large enough to be very useful, but it’s better than nothing.
  • Bicycles | Gadget Lab | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Don't forget about the informative evening training lectures where you’ll learn how to ride, climb and train better than ever before.
  • Your Road Bike Riding and Cycling Training Website - Cycling-Inform 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling-inform.com [Source type: General]

^ Iron Horse Warrior 4.0 Mountain Bike 2009 There is nothing better than finding a deal.
  • Mountain Bikes - Bikes - Compare Prices, Reviews and Buy at NexTag - Price - Review 11 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.nextag.com [Source type: General]

.There are several GPS devices available with bicycle mountings (see other equipment) below.^ See "Bicycle Registration" below.
  • Bicycle Information - UA Parking and Transportation Services (PTS) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC parking.arizona.edu [Source type: General]

^ Aside from the regular city bikes there are many other types of bicycles for rent: touring bikes, tandems, children’s bicycles, and steps.
  • Cycling - I amsterdam 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.iamsterdam.com [Source type: General]

^ There will also be awards for best dressed, and for the racer who travelled the furthest to get to PEI. Of course several other none traditional awards and door prizes will be given out.
  • Cycling PEI — WELCOME! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cpei.ca [Source type: General]

Other Information

.It's best not to take advice from non-cyclists too seriously, whether given in person, on-line or in print.^ If you are a recreational cyclist or someone who takes the sport a little more seriously there is something to fit your tastes in the province.
  • Saskatchewan Cycling Association - www.saskcycling.ca 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.saskcycling.ca [Source type: General]

^ Whether you are a competitive cyclist looking for the best components, or a parent trying to find training wheels for your child's bike, we have it all!
  • The Bicycle Doctor: Bicycles, Accessories, Parts, Clothing, and Service for Road, Mountain, and Triathlon Bikes! Complete Repair Shop 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bicycledoc.com [Source type: General]

^ Whether you're a serious cyclist or just starting out, this class offers a hard core workout, where the music matters.
  • Equinox | Studio Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.equinox.com [Source type: General]

Often they will overestimate the difficulties, and underestimate the pleasures. .This is particularly true in the case of distance, traffic situations (especially in developing countries) and road conditions.^ The surface of the greater part of the country being loose and sandy, the roads have been paved, and this paving is so bad as to be impossible for light traffic.

^ The road conditions are generally good, the traffic is light, to extremely light, which certainly enhanced the experience of riding.
  • Bicycle Touring in Cuba 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www3.adnc.com [Source type: Original source]

Equipment

.Cycling for extended periods requires somewhat more than a basic set of wheels, and both comfort and convenience can be improved with a few standard add-ons, however every piece of extra weight you pack is going to require extra energy to move around.^ They let you grab more than one… [ more ] .

^ Cycling apparel is also made for comfort and convenience.
  • BeginnerCycling.com : A resource for anyone new to cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC beginnercycling.com [Source type: News]

^ The one thing that is for sure is that there is no denying these are a high-end performance piece of cycling gear.
  • Bicycle .net :: cycling news, races, bike product reviews, training, equipment, gear 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bicycle.net [Source type: General]

The Bicycle

.Hotly debated among cycle tourists is what makes a good touring bicycle.^ For the first time bicycle tourist perhaps a more structured guided tour would be preferable to going it all on your own.
  • Bicycle Touring Europe - TripAdvisor 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ All of the eastern European countries have realised the advantages of cycle touring and are making efforts to build up their own cycling networks.

^ Italy Bicycle Touring costs, bike, cycle, cycling, irish english Tour Costs - Italy You will find details of what is included in the price with individual tour Note: All the Italy tours are priced in ...
  • National Biking Association Resource and Reference Guide - Bicycle Touring Italy information and education guide. 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.natlbike.com [Source type: News]

.Much of the choice depends on what style of touring you plan to do.^ Also, where you plan to tour is an important consideration.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Best of all, bicycle touring can be enjoyed by practically anyone, no matter how much or little riding you've done in the past.
  • Bicycle Touring Basics: Expert Advice from REI 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.rei.com [Source type: General]

^ Mixing youth hostels into your lodgings (especially if you are bicycle touring) allows you access to that very much appreciated shower.
  • Bicycle Touring Europe - TripAdvisor 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

.Someone doing a short supported tour in a developed country will have vastly different needs from someone doing a long distance self-supported tour in a developing country.^ Staying in a quality Farm House or luxury Country House Hotel, with luggage transfer, vehicle support and all the equipment and accessories you'll need, all you'll have to do is pedal!

^ For those who want to participate in this tour but dont feel they can cycle the full distance, there is the option of doing part of the distance each day and then jumping into the support vehicle.
  • :: OYE! Tours :: Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.oyetours.ca [Source type: General]

^ As long as it will support the bike in such a way that you can pedal by hand without the inside pedal striking the car, you’ve got a great place for doing your repairs.
  • Dale's Bike Shop - Oberlin, OH - Trek - Gary Fisher - LeMond - Breezer - Dahon - Biria - Sun - Catrike 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC dalesbikeshop.com [Source type: General]

.While the former will do very well with a light weight road bike, the latter will be better with a dedicated touring bike.^ And better batteries now let you ride for hours between charges while still being relatively light weight.
  • Albuquerque Bicycle Center, Albuquerque, NM-Trek-Gary Fisher-MirraCo-Bontrager-Saris-Swagman 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC albbicyclecenter.com [Source type: General]

^ We offer a select variety of wheel goods and components, for road, track, fixed-gear, single-speed, touring, folding and city bikes.
  • Bike Works NYC - Lower East Side Cycling Center 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bikecult.com [Source type: General]

^ The head-turning Principia Evolution SX offers unbeatable rigidity and very light weight thanks to a handcrafted frame tha...
  • Bicycles / Bike Frames - Save 35-70% on Famous Name Brands 11 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.sierratradingpost.com [Source type: General]

.Almost any bicycle can be used for a tour, but some will enable you to travel farther and more comfortably, with fewer mechanical problems.^ The longer a tour is the more likely you are to run into bicycle problems.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Do you have some sort of problem with me?” he asks.
  • BikePortland.org 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bikeportland.org [Source type: General]

^ Bicycle touring is a phrase used to describe the practice of traveling on a bike.
  • Bicycle Touring à la Chain Reaction 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: General]

.Here we assume you will be carrying at least a moderate amount of baggage.^ You should always carry a flat tire kit and pump and at least one extra tube, and probably at least two extra tubes on long trips.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Unless you are using a folding bicycle Amtrak & VIARail only carry bicycles in baggage cars.

^ To get you started, here is a general breakdown of the different kinds of bikes that REI carries.
  • How to Choose a Bicycle: Expert Advice from REI 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.rei.com [Source type: General]

Comfort

.When spending long hours in the saddle it's important that the bicycle is comfortable for you.^ Fisher's G2 geometry ensures optimum comfort, even on epic days, while the bike's long travel is ready to tackle anything you put in front of it.
  • Home - alsbicycles.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC alsbicycles.com [Source type: General]

^ Whether you're 24-hour racing, commuting, or in love with the thrill of moonlit singletracking, Light & Motion bicycle-lighting systems are so powerful and long lasting they turn night into day!
  • VT BIKE STUFF :: ABILENE, TEXAS 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC vtbikestuff.com [Source type: General]

^ Do you want to spend more time on your bicycle and less time stuck in traffic?  .
  • Home - bicyclecolo.org 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclecolo.org [Source type: General]

.Some things that make it more comfortable are tire choice, handlebar choice, and saddle choice.^ Here are some things that make it impracticable to ride to the extreme right: .
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Generally speaking, the farther the seat is below the handlebars, the more comfortable the ride.
  • How to Choose a Bicycle: Expert Advice from REI 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.rei.com [Source type: General]

^ Some recumbents build in some flexibility in the frame to make the bike ride more comfortable, however.

.Tires should be smooth, for lower rolling resistance, wider than road (racing) tires, and narrower than most mountain bike tires.^ Breaks for road and mountain bikes .
  • Cycling Expert - Home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cyclingexpert.com [Source type: General]

^ I race Downhill Mountain bikes.
  • Cycling England 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.dft.gov.uk [Source type: General]

^ Importance of tire pressure for mountain bikes .
  • Cycling Expert - Home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cyclingexpert.com [Source type: General]

.Something in the rage of 32 to 40mm if using 700C, or 1.25" to 1.75" if using 26" is ideal.^ Schwinn Prelude Men's Road Bike (700c Wheels) ~ Schwinn Buy new : $246.25 4 used and new from $219.99 Are these related to bicycles?
  • Amazon.com: bicycles 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

The important thing is with handlebars is for them to offer a variety of hand postions. This can be achieved in a variety of ways. .One option is the "drop" bars as found on road racing bicycles, these are normally mounted higher on a touring bike, so put less pressure on the hands, provide the most numerous hand positions.^ Jamis Road Bicycles Excellent values in road/touring bikes.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the most famous road races is the Tour de France which started in 1903.
  • Road Cycling Fitness Exercises,Cycling Stretches,Flexibility Exercise 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.thestretchinghandbook.com [Source type: General]

^ Bike tours, cycling tours, bicycling tours from Thomson Bike Tours .
  • Bike tours, cycling tours, bicycling tours from Thomson Bike Tours 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC thomsonbiketours.com [Source type: General]

.Ideally wider drop bars would be chosen for touring than racing.^ However, tourers have started tours in less than ideal condition and have still managed successful tours.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ It has "cowhorn" bars made by inverting a conventional drop bar and lopping off the parts of the bar that would normally point backward.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ That said the support vehicle will always accompany the group on a ride longer than 70 K. And remember, were not racing; were touring though were sure there will be moments of inspiration.
  • :: OYE! Tours :: Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.oyetours.ca [Source type: General]

.The other common way to get multiple hand positions is to put bar ends (horn-style handlebar extensions) on "flat bars" (mountain bike style bars).^ There are 2 basic handlebar styles: drop-bar and flat-bar.
  • How to Choose a Bicycle: Expert Advice from REI 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.rei.com [Source type: General]

^ The standard straight mountain bike handlebars almost everyone uses are uncomfortable, unergonomic, and fundamentally unsafe, as the bicyclist is forced to lean over the bicycle, head thrust forward, hands contorted into a relatively unnatural position.
  • Specialty Bicycles: Recumbents, Handcycles, Trikes, more 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicycleuniverse.info [Source type: General]

^ The laid-back seating position lets you place your feet flat on the ground, and also allows for proper leg extension while pedaling.
  • Trek Wausau, Stadium Bike Green Bay, WI Gary Fisher Cervelo Haro MirraCo 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC stadiumbike.com [Source type: General]

.This is cheep and easy, but only provides 2 or three positions.^ The patent-pending radius frame (“the arc”) provides a range of comfortable, easy, and stress-free riding positions between conventional and semi-recumbent.
  • Electric Bikes - Electric-Bikes.com 11 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another, less common, but excellent option are "moustache bars". A good saddle can really help reduce saddle-soreness, and is worth spending a little extra money on.^ It takes a little getting used to as you can really feel the extra acceleration when you first start pedaling.

^ The right saddle and the right posture can reduce pressure on your crotch, and also minimize chances of saddle sores.
  • Cycling Expert - Home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cyclingexpert.com [Source type: General]

^ I have been really busy at home and at work, so it is hard to find a little extra time to write about bikes.

.Don't go for the biggest, squishiest gel saddle you can find - often the soft seats can rub a lot more against your delicate parts.^ This is the more appropriate height for your seat.
  • How to Ride a Bicycle - wikiHow 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

^ Now that you've learned those hand signals, we'd like to give you a big thumbs-up for finding out more about bike safety!
  • Bike Safety 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

^ Compare our delivered-to-your-door prices to the alternative of shopping around shop to shop trying to find the part or cycle you need.
  • Cycling Accessories | Bike Parts | Cycling Clothing | Tyres & Tubes from Velogear 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.velogear.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It's best to go for the "sculpted" saddles that are designed to support your sit-bones.^ If youre going to fight- fight for the best reasons- .
  • Bicycle Inn, Cyclists, Bakersville, NC, Mt. Mitchell,Charleston, SC,  Hillsborough, NC Vietnam Veterans 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicycleinn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The best saddle is most likely going to be the one that supports your weight on your so-called sit bones (“ ischial tuberosities ”).
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ The best that can be said is that the saddle should be wide enough to enable your ‘sit bones’ to support your weight on a saddle.
  • Cycling Expert - Home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cyclingexpert.com [Source type: General]

.It's a very personal choice, and hard to know what you'll find comfortable until trying it out, so it's a good idea to find a saddle you're happy with well before you leave.^ You're good to go!
  • DART.org - Biketrans Information 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.dart.org [Source type: General]

^ Check it out -- you'll be happy you did.
  • Electric Bike Scooters and Electric Pocket Bikes 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bike-scooters.com [Source type: General]

^ Ultimately, you have to find a saddle that is comfortable for you and that, unfortunately, involves experimentation.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

Strength

.Overall the bicycle should be stronger than a bike not designed to carry loads for long distances.^ Shirts should be visible at long distances.
  • Bicycle Touring and Camping Gear -- Camping Accessories and Equipment for Bicycle Trips 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kenkifer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the average person, we might just be individuals out riding our bikes together, but in reality we are something much bigger and stronger than that.
  • Woodlands Cycling Club - Home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC woodlandscycling.org [Source type: General]

^ There are bicycle trailers made to haul just about anything (from dogs to children, and yes, even boats), but what you’ll find here is a list of trailers that can be used for long-distance bike touring.
  • Bicycle Touring Trailers - Trailers Made For Bike Touring | Bicycle Touring Pro - Inspiration For A New Generation Of Bicycle Travelers 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC bicycletouringpro.com [Source type: General]

.When carrying 10-20kg it's worth having a bike that's a few kg heavier and much stronger.^ To the average person, we might just be individuals out riding our bikes together, but in reality we are something much bigger and stronger than that.
  • Woodlands Cycling Club - Home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC woodlandscycling.org [Source type: General]

^ Having too much bike equipment can be a problem when you run out of room for the latest, greatest gear!
  • VT BIKE STUFF :: ABILENE, TEXAS 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC vtbikestuff.com [Source type: General]

^ Having seen quite a few student designed concept bikes over the years, I can say without hesitation that this is one of my favorites.

.One important part of this is the choice of wheels.^ One very important touring choice is whether to go solo or with a group.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Pick a frame from one of our many choices; Argon 18, Blue Competition Cycles , Surly or Torelli and cherry pick the parts.
  • Paragon Cycling Mesa Phoenix AZ Raleigh Marin Blue Competition Cycles Torelli 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC paragoncycling.com [Source type: General]

.Wheels with 36 or 32 spokes are stronger, as are double walled wheels.^ Both wheels are custom built with Phil Wood hubs, the rear with 48 spokes and the front with 36.

^ Most bicycles have 36 spokes that are equally spaced around the wheel.
  • bicycle-gears 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.exo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For loaded touring, 36 spoke wheels are fine but they must be well-built.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

.Light weight wheels popular with sports cyclists are to be avoided.^ I came to the conclusion it’d be a sporting single that’s light on weight and heavy on torque—something like the Roland Sands 450 SuperSingle or the Ducati Supermono Strada shown above.
  • Bike EXIF | Classic motorcycles, custom motorcycles and cafe racers 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bikeexif.com [Source type: General]

^ Since all the weight is carried on the back, I used light stuff for the front end: an aluminum Alan fork and a skinny 622 mm (700c) front wheel.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ Even a variety of interests can be maintained with little weight penalty provided the cyclist chooses light-weight options.
  • Bicycle Touring and Camping Gear -- Camping Accessories and Equipment for Bicycle Trips 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kenkifer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Carrying Capacity

.The most basic part of being able to carry lots of stuff on your bike is simply being able to bolt a rack (or two) on.^ If you follow a few basic health and safety tips, you'll get the most out of your cycling and reduce your risk of injury.

^ One thing is for sure, we at Bike Reviews have never seen a road bike being sold at Walmart, but with the popularity growing with road cyclists, we have found out Walmart carries road bikes.
  • Bike Reviews - Bike News, Bike Reviews, Bike Info 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bikereviews.com [Source type: General]

^ Keep your bike rack carrying system simple: stick with a 1 bike rack, and avoid the hassle of carrying someone else’s bike.
  • Bike Racks, Bicycle Racks, Bike Carriers, Car Bike Racks, Bike Roof Rack 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.autoanything.com [Source type: General]

It's important to have bolt holes near the rear axle to for the rack, and it's nice to have them near the saddle too. .Ability to use a front rack is also good.^ Blackburn is the most common rack used, offering both a low rider front rack (to keep the front weight as low to the ground as possible) and a rear rack.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Generally, it is recommended to use both front and rear racks for loaded touring, although some tourers use only one or the other, particularly for lighter touring loads.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ When using hand brakes a good habit to develop this early is to use the rear brake slightly earlier than the front.
  • How to Ride a Bicycle - wikiHow 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

.They allow you to balance the weight out more evenly over both wheels, and the bicycle handles better as a result.^ They're also outfitted with more rugged tires and better suspension so they can travel off-road and handle the ordeals of cross-country racing.
  • Dirt Bikes - Find Dirt Bikes items for sale on eBay! 11 September 2009 9:24 UTC popular.ebay.com [Source type: General]

^ Now that you've learned those hand signals, we'd like to give you a big thumbs-up for finding out more about bike safety!
  • Bike Safety 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

^ Finally, believe it or not, there are dangerous drivers out there who get irritated at having to pass you again and decide not to give you as much room the second time they pass.
  • Bicycle Source US - Giant, Schwinn, Dreamer Design, Allen Bike Rack, Kona, Torker Unicycles 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesource.us [Source type: General]

.Ability to bolt on watter bottle cages, is also very good.^ Some spare parts are a good idea as well, especially water-bottle bolts, which are also used to attach the racks.
  • Bicycle Touring and Camping Gear -- Camping Accessories and Equipment for Bicycle Trips 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kenkifer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A longer wheel base will make the bicycle more stable when loaded, and provide a more comfortable ride when loaded up.^ The result are bicycles that are comfortable to ride and also provide wonderful power and range.
  • Electric Bikes - Electric-Bikes.com 11 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perfect bicycle sizing makes riding comfortable .
  • Cycling Best - Home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cyclingbest.com [Source type: General]

^ Its riding position is super comfortable with a… [ more ] .
  • Campus Bike Shop - On Campus Serving Stanford and the Bay Area 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC campusbikeshop.com [Source type: General]

.Of course having a bike that's strong enough to handle the weight is also important.^ Although the steel bicycles were very strong they were also difficult to handle because of their weight.
  • Cycling Best - Home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cyclingbest.com [Source type: General]

^ Cross training is important for cyclists because it can be difficult get enough mileage on the bikes needed to develop the advanced endurance needed for racing.
  • Road Cycling Fitness Exercises,Cycling Stretches,Flexibility Exercise 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.thestretchinghandbook.com [Source type: General]

^ These racks can be mounted on a warehouse wall, factory wall, apartment building wall, in a garage or nearly any other wall strong enough to support the weight.

Serviceability

Nothing lasts forever. .Check, or have a professional check, your bike before you leave.^ You will not be able to claim your bike without this claim check.

^ There is a train to Santiago, slow (14 hours), but you may have better luck getting your bikes on it than the bus.
  • Bicycle Touring in Cuba 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www3.adnc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You'll also want to make sure that nothing will get caught in your bike chain, such as loose pant legs, backpack straps, or shoelaces.
  • Bike Safety 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

.Let them know that you plan to do a tour on it and you don't want mechanical problems messing it up -- don't let them try to save you money at the cost a problem on your tour.^ Save your money, Mike!

^ Let me know what you think.
  • cycling training | cycling coaching 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.pponline.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ You don't want it too small or too big.
  • Bike Safety 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

.When choosing a bike (or adapting a bike) look for parts that are as mechanically simple as possible, as they will be more reliable and easier to service when eventually something wears out.^ Lacking spokes, it uses a direct-gear-chain drive system, which leaves the bike looking like a simple set of open curves.
  • cycling - Gizmodo 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC gizmodo.com [Source type: General]

^ To the average person, we might just be individuals out riding our bikes together, but in reality we are something much bigger and stronger than that.
  • Woodlands Cycling Club - Home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC woodlandscycling.org [Source type: General]

^ Buy any road bike priced at $999 or more, and we will give you a gift certificate equal to 10% of the purchase price to buy accessories, parts, repairs or anything else that we sell.

.Avoid proprietary parts entirely (like the Cannondale "Headshock") as they can only be serviced by authorized dealers.^ Parts Cleaning Service In-store only!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ While these last avoid the necessity of a separate bike light, they are emergency lights only.
  • Bicycle Touring and Camping Gear -- Camping Accessories and Equipment for Bicycle Trips 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kenkifer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you have one of our Service Packs or Lifetime Tune Ups, you can get it for only $100.00 (parts not included)!
  • Old Town Bicycle. Your Quality Bicycle Shop Since 1995. 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC oldtownbicycle.com [Source type: General]

.Other details depend where you are travelling, but as a rule of thumb don't use the latest technology, stick to tried and true systems.^ The general rule of thumb is that you should drink one fluid ounce of water equal to one half of your body weight.
  • Cycling | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ "It's still the cheapest traveling fraternity you'll ever join, and probably less than half the price of any other bike built to measure."
  • Travel bicycles by Bike Friday, manufacturer of high performance folding bicycles and folding bike accessories. : 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bikefriday.com [Source type: General]

^ Are you trying to edit someone else's post, access administrative features or some other privileged system?

.If traveling in the developing world a good rule of thumb is to try to keep your bike as compatible as possible with department store Mountain bikes.^ A smile is a good rule of thumb.
  • How to Ride a Bicycle - wikiHow 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

^ Keep your bike rack carrying system simple: stick with a 1 bike rack, and avoid the hassle of carrying someone else’s bike.
  • Bike Racks, Bicycle Racks, Bike Carriers, Car Bike Racks, Bike Roof Rack 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.autoanything.com [Source type: General]

^ You are pampered by engaging leaders and supported by a van that moves your luggage and serves as your traveling snack bar and bike-repair shop.

.Bikes like these have penetrated many developing markets, and replacement parts are more commonly available in many countries.^ Now that you've learned those hand signals, we'd like to give you a big thumbs-up for finding out more about bike safety!
  • Bike Safety 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

^ It would be nice if bars like these were available in an extra strong deluxe version, but since they're considered to be a fetish accessory in this country this inexpensive Taiwanese bar is the best one I've been able to find.
  • Specialty Bicycles: Recumbents, Handcycles, Trikes, more 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicycleuniverse.info [Source type: General]

^ Again, nothing against them — it’s a free country — but these cyclists bear little in common with most people who might want to use a bike for their everyday lives.
  • Bicycles — Dave Troy: Fueled By Randomness 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC davetroy.com [Source type: General]
  • bicycles — Dave Troy: Fueled By Randomness 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC davetroy.com [Source type: General]

.It would be unwise to try for compatibility with the Chinese/Indian roadster that is even more common in many developing countries.^ In many European countries, bicycles are particularly common at railway stations and in canals .
  • Bicycle - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although many are very happy, even ecstatic, with their Brooks saddle, others have tried them and never gotten comfortable with them.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ With all the bicycles, there would be many more bicycles colliding with other bicycles, thus increasing fatalities.
  • Bicycle Transportation History, Past, Present andFuture 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lafn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The parts would be hard to find in the developed world, and would not be high quality anywhere.^ Giant isn't satisfied with being the largest bicycle company in the world; they work hard to make the best bikes available anywhere.
  • Bicycles NYC (Larry & Jeff's) - New York City 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesnyc.com [Source type: General]

^ Thought we would never see any more high quality rims in this size and drilling.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ For well over 100 years, they've been crafting high-quality bikes that are famous around the world.
  • Home - alsbicycles.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC alsbicycles.com [Source type: General]

Component Choices

.
  • Shifters: Many modern bicycles have vary complex shifters that are not possible to service, changing to bar-end shifters is a good choice for bars that will fit them (drop or moustache) as they are very robust.^ I mount the top bar flat and allow the drops to slope, as this gives me seven clearly different hand positions, counting both underhanded and overhanded positions but without counting the drops, which I find useful for mounting my bar-end shifters.
    • Bicycle Touring and Camping Gear -- Camping Accessories and Equipment for Bicycle Trips 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kenkifer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In such situations they are find it very -very convenient to make of bicycle because it is an easy mode to burn those calories .
    • Cycling Expert - Home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cyclingexpert.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Although the steel bicycles were very strong they were also difficult to handle because of their weight.
    • Cycling Best - Home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cyclingbest.com [Source type: General]

    .Old (80's or 90's) mountain bike "thumbie" shifters are a good choice if using flat bars, but are hard to come by, and are only compatible with the number of gears they were designed to be used with at the time.
  • More gears is not always better, while it is important to have a good range of gears, especially a very low option, 9 or 10 speed rear cogsets wear faster, and come out of adjustment more easily than 7 or 8; and do not necessarily give wider range.
  • Rear Hub: The rear hub is a part of the bike that is under a lot of stress.^ For more on flip-flop hubs, see the section on fixed-gear mountain bikes.
    • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Mountain bikes come in 2 basic varieties: .
    • How to Choose a Bicycle: Expert Advice from REI 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.rei.com [Source type: General]

    ^ However, the number of gears is not as important as how low the gearing goes.
    • How to Choose a Bicycle: Expert Advice from REI 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.rei.com [Source type: General]

    .The older standard of rear hub was designed for a threaded freewheel, the new one is called a freehub and is used with a cassette.^ Sometimes people worry because the hub thread isn't as deep as a freewheel specific hub, but this is never a problem with a single-speed freewheel.
    • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    ^ So what do you think of a hub that uses an internal coil spring to even out the pedal stroke and better distribute a rider’s pedaling power to the rear wheel?

    ^ This bike has truly vertical dropouts, but I wanted to set it up with a flip-flop hub: fixed gear on one side, two-speed freewheel on the other .
    • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

    .more info The newer freehub is stronger, and more reliable, and the gears come off more easily to replace a broken spoke if needed.^ Next, spoke breakage is a common problem so you should have extra spokes and the tools to replace a broken spoken.
    • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

    ^ No bike shops in the area had a freewheel remover, so I bought some longer spokes and got a welding shop to braze the new spokes to the broken-off old ones.
    • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

    ^ An alternative repair item to consider is the FiberFix Spoke, which is a Kevlar cord that can be used as a temporary replacement for a spoke, obviating the need to remove the cassette/freewheel to replace a cassette side broken spoke.
    • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

    .While replacement parts are harder to find in the developing world, it would be a good choice there too.^ I just find it odd that I would have a valve flat before the ride and I would be the mechanic with the stuff and "be there" when needed for a SYL (swell young lady) when she needed me.
    • Bicycle Inn, Cyclists, Bakersville, NC, Mt. Mitchell,Charleston, SC,  Hillsborough, NC Vietnam Veterans 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicycleinn.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ideally, one would ride the various choices and choose accordingly but it may be difficult to find riding opportunities.
    • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

    .It would be far less likely to need replacement than a freewheel hub, and if for some reason it did, it could be replaced with a freewheel hub wheel at that time.
  • Headsets: Threadless 1 1/8th inch is a good choice.^ Well after an effort like that as one might imagine I was somewhat hesitant to take my steed out on anything less than dry as bone roads.
    • Beaches Cycling Club(BCC) - BCC: Networking Cyclists 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC beachescyclingclub.ning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Even if you’re already in good shape, cycling uses different muscles than other exercises, and your body will need time to get used to the new types of stress.
    • Beginner’s Guide to Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC zenhabits.net [Source type: General]

    ^ I really wish topics like this could make it in the papers but unfortunately bicycling is considered an undoable "sport" by far too many for all the wrong reasons.
    • Bicycles — Dave Troy: Fueled By Randomness 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC davetroy.com [Source type: General]

    .While threaded 1 inch have been around for longer, they require large tools to adjust, and are not as strong.^ Make sure the straps are adjusted so they're snug enough that you can't pull or twist the helmet around on your head.
    • Bike Safety 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

    .Avoid integrated Headsets.
  • Bottom-brackets: Square taper Bottom-brackets are the most common, and the easiest to find replacement parts for, they make a good choice.^ In such situations they are find it very -very convenient to make of bicycle because it is an easy mode to burn those calories .
    • Cycling Expert - Home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cyclingexpert.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Perhaps the easiest way to avoid common cycling injuries is to make sure your bike frame properly fits your body.
    • Cycling | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Let us help you find the easiest and most efficient way to travel with your toys!
    • Home - beaconcycling.com 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC beaconcycling.com [Source type: General]

    .The only disadvantage is they are a few dozen grams heavier, not a worry on a touring bike.^ From then on, whenever Neil and Sharon had vacation, they went on a bike tour somewhere in Alberta or BC. The Gulf Islands in BC and the San Juan Islands in Washington were Neil and Sharon's favourite places to tour.

    ^ Shoes designed for touring should have recessed cleats, and a more flexible rubber sole so that the cyclist can be as comfortable walking while off the bike, as they are efficient when riding the bike.

    ^ We try to fix this by adding bike lanes but in reality I feel this is only putting a bandage on the grid (unless they are separated lanes).

    .Avoid the many different splined standards.
  • In many developing contries the 26" decimal wheel size (aka ISO 559) is more common than the 700C size (ISO 622).^ Today, bicycles come in all shapes and sizes: from wheel releasing, thin tire racing bicycles; to knobby tire mountain bicycles; to fat tire beach cruisers and more.

    ^ (SWB and LWB) position of handlebars – above and below seat steering (ASS and BSS) wheel size – typically 16 – 20 inches in front and 20 inches to 700C in the rear number of wheels – typically 2 (or it wouldn’t be a bicycle) but also available with 3 in a tricycle pannier mounting – offering more mounting options than just the front/rear options of an upright bicycle .
    • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Today could not have been any more different than yesterday.
    • GAS/Intrinsik Cycling Team 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC gascyclingteam.com [Source type: General]

    .(But other sizes that are now discontinued in most of the developed world may be even more common) It's probably safest to stick with 26" if possible.^ Most sizes in stock now!
    • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The most accessible fuel on the planet is Unleaded Gasoline (even more available than wood), must have appropriate fuel containers.
    • Bicycle Checklist, Bicycle Touring Checklist, Bicycle Camping Checklist 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.struck.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If you're on your own, you could probably join other cyclists now and again along the way.
    • Cycling Sports, - by Provence Beyond 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.beyond.fr [Source type: General]

    Be aware that the naming conventions for tire sizes are convoluted and not self evident. For example there are 6 different incompatible sizes all known as 26" see this list for more info.

Frame

Steal is a good choice for the frame. .It comes in a number of forms for bike use: quality Cro-mo steel is a bit heavier than aluminium, and Hi-Ten steel significantly so, but both more than make up by being more durable, safer to ride if an crash occurs, and may be possible so improvise some sort of repair if damaged.^ Coming Up Will jump on the bike for a short ride tomorrow.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ This bike really belongs to his mother , but he rides it more than she does.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ These additions to New York's streets are eye-catching and original, but are constructed with durable material similar to that used in our current bike racks.
  • NYCDOT - Bicycle Information 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.nyc.gov [Source type: News]

.Lugged frames may be stronger than welded because of the additional material at the joints, but only if well made.^ These prohibitions included derailleur gears, wheel rims made of anything except wood and frames of a configuration other than the standard diamond.
  • Bicycle History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.jimlangley.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well, anyone can ride the train but only a minority could ride a bicycle because they didn't own a bike.
  • Bicycle Transportation History, Past, Present andFuture 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lafn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With well-crafted aluminum alloy frames and lithium batteries, these bikes are lighter than other electric bikes.
  • Electric Bikes - Electric-Bikes.com 11 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Titanium is the strongest, and lightest, most weather resistant, but impossible to repair (without very very very specialized equipment) and out of most peoples budgets.^ Most tourers will want to carry some photographic equipment to capture those special moments on tour.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Cycling training DOESN’T need to be as complex as most people make out.
  • Cycling Training Programs & Coaching Online 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.mycycling.com [Source type: General]

^ There is plenty to see and do in the Big Apple without taking a big bite out of your budget.
  • Bicycle Touring in Niagara Falls Canada 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

.Dedicated touring bikes, like the Surly Long Haul Trucker, Trek 520, Thorn Sherpa, or similar, are ideal; but not the only option.^ Similar to road bikes but built for much more intense conditions, these are ideal for someone interested in racing down a rough hill.
  • Cycling buying guide 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.shopwiki.com [Source type: General]

^ He ONLY had three of his seven consecutive Tour victories under his belt at that time but already words like "incomparable" were being used to describe this cycling "Superman."
  • Lance Armstrong Cycling: lance memorabilia, armstrong jersey, lance armstrong signed photo, lance signatures, lance armstrong yellow jersey, cycling autographs, tour de france, the yellow jersey, seven tour de france victories, livestrong 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sportsgalleryweb.com [Source type: General]

^ This 1984 trick bike, with its unicycle style direct rear drive, is very similar to the minimalist bike design that you saw here not long ago.

.Many older (90's) mountain bikes fit the characteristics of a good touring bike, with some modifications made, most importantly removing suspension forks if present, putting slick tires on, and adding bar ends (or putting drop bars on).^ What’s most important is that the bike fits you.
  • Beginner’s Guide to Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC zenhabits.net [Source type: General]

^ Can older touring bikes be used?
  • Bicycle Touring and Camping Gear -- Camping Accessories and Equipment for Bicycle Trips 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kenkifer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tradeoffs from a full-suspension mountain bike?
  • How to Choose a Bicycle: Expert Advice from REI 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.rei.com [Source type: General]

.
  • An odometer, or cycle computer, is essential for long tours when you need to gauge distance travelled against maps and road signs, preferably calibrated in local units (miles in the United States and United Kingdom, kilometers everywhere else).^ Everyone needs bicycle touring maps.
    • National Biking Association Resource and Reference Guide - Bicycle Touring information and education guide. 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.natlbike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Do you really need a dedicated unit?
    • Latest Cycling news, reviews, photos and video - Pocket-lint 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.pocket-lint.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Introduction to long-distance bicycle touring.

    .A simple GPS may be preferable, as it displays more accurate information and does not require a mechanical trigger on the wheel, and has other benefits as detailed below.
  • Even if you're a very light packer, you'll want a set of panniers to put your gear in.^ You'll gladly give your other mirror away.
    • Tips and Tricks - Bike Forums 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.bikeforums.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Your mind, body and others around you will immensely benefit from it.

    ^ If you follow a few basic health and safety tips, you'll get the most out of your cycling and reduce your risk of injury.

    .Backpacks raise your centre of gravity, cause you to sweat more or even over heat, and will fatigue your back.^ You can improve your ability by paying careful attention to my advice, by reading books on touring and backpacking, and by making short trips to test your understanding.
    • Bicycle Touring and Camping Gear -- Camping Accessories and Equipment for Bicycle Trips 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kenkifer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A: If your last bike was a 10-speed, then you may be surprised to learn that today’s bikes commonly come with 18, 21, 24 or even 27 gears.
    • How to Choose a Bicycle: Expert Advice from REI 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.rei.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Their more aerodynamic riding position (bent over at the waist) may put more strain on your back if you are less flexible.
    • How to Choose a Bicycle: Expert Advice from REI 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.rei.com [Source type: General]

    .A rack with bags mounted on either side of your rear wheel is a much better alternative, with a pair for the front if you have more stuff.^ Bike stand, rear wheel mount .

    ^ Everything you need to get more from your bike rack.
    • Bike Racks, Bicycle Racks, Bike Carriers, Car Bike Racks, Bike Roof Rack 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.autoanything.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Both wheels are custom built with Phil Wood hubs, the rear with 48 spokes and the front with 36.

    .Front bags aren't only if you can't fit everthing in the back, they spread the load out over both wheels better and make the bicycle handle better as a result.^ If they are 1 mile each, the result is only about a 1/2 % increase in bicycle passenger-miles.
    • Bicycle Transportation History, Past, Present andFuture 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lafn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Any saddle still has to fit you and you only.
    • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the Maker Shed: MAKE: Volume 11 includes a special "DIY Wheels" section, with plans for making a mobile drive-in movie theater, a cool chopper out of an old bicycle, and a pedal powered iPod charger.
    • Make: Online: Bicycles Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

    .Another option is to carry your luggage in a separate trailer.
  • Take specialist cycling maps of the area you plan to cover, and a compass to navigate them.^ This can be in your local area or another country.
    • National Biking Association Resource and Reference Guide - Bicycle Touring information and education guide. 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.natlbike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Finally, you can plan your tour using regular maps.
    • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You are pampered by engaging leaders and supported by a van that moves your luggage and serves as your traveling snack bar and bike-repair shop.

    .Cycling maps are often also included in cycling travel guides.^ These guides are also helpful in that they have maps for most cities and towns, so you often won"t need a separate city map.
    • Planning Your Own European Bicycle Tour 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    .If cycling maps aren't available, use maps at a scale of 1:50,000, to 1:200,000.
  • A Wi-Fi-, UMTS- and GPS-equipped PDA will set you back about US$600, but offers several advantages: a) You won't need to take large numbers of maps with you, adding to weight and cost.^ Some companies are now adding a rubber heal tip to the shoe, and offering rubber cleat covers that can be put over your cleats for those times that you need to get off your bike and walk.

    ^ Even if you’re already in good shape, cycling uses different muscles than other exercises, and your body will need time to get used to the new types of stress.
    • Beginner’s Guide to Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC zenhabits.net [Source type: General]

    ^ There are a number of locations where these bike trees are now in place in Tokyo – some hold 600-odd bikes, others more than 6,000.
    • Make: Online: Bicycles Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

    b) .As your position is displayed on the map in real time, you don't need to make frequent stops to look for directions, and you're less likely to cycle the wrong way c) It doubles as an altimeter and odometer d) You don't need to take a heavy paper travel guide e) You can browse the Internet while you're on the move, even in more remote areas, which allows you to book accommodation in advance, book train tickets, look up phone numbers, check the weather forecast, and write your travel blog.^ Do you really need a dedicated unit?
    • Latest Cycling news, reviews, photos and video - Pocket-lint 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.pocket-lint.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You're less likely to get hit when your movement doesn't take motorists by surprise.
    • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Have you allowed enough time for attractions that you want to visit in an area?
    • Planning Your Own European Bicycle Tour 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    .PDAs can be attached to the handlebars using special brackets; make sure you encase it in sealed, water-proof plastic cover.
  • You may want to consider a clipless pedal system, in which a cleat on your shoe locks into the pedal.^ Not sure which system your bike uses?
    • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Cycling Shoes & Pedal Systems Cycling shoes are special shoes designed to attach to the bikes pedals via a clip-in system.

    ^ Generally, I recommend using whatever pedal/shoe system you are most used to.
    • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    .This will give you better pedalling efficiency, and allow you to use a greater range of the muscles in your legs, thus fatiguing them less.^ Even if you’re already in good shape, cycling uses different muscles than other exercises, and your body will need time to get used to the new types of stress.
    • Beginner’s Guide to Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC zenhabits.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Recovery segments (and permission to leave) at the 45 and 60 minute mark allow you the flexibility to program this amazing workout into your busy day.
    • Equinox | Studio Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.equinox.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Spend some quality time with food -- and give your muscles the premium fuel they need for winter training.
    • Oregon & Portland Cycling News | Biking in Oregon � OregonLive.com 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.oregonlive.com [Source type: General]

    .If you choose this, you might also want to take a lightweight pair of flip flops for walking around off the bike, to prevent the cleats from getting worn down.
  • A lock is essential in most most parts of the world.^ Choose the circuit what else like you and take part in a race of motorcycles.
    • Bike games, Free Bike games - Dailygames.com 11 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.dailygames.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The E+ takes you where you want to go.
    • Electric Bikes - Electric-Bikes.com 11 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What’s most important is that the bike fits you.
    • Beginner’s Guide to Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC zenhabits.net [Source type: General]

    .A small D-lock is preferred by some as it's compact, hard to break, and suitable for locking the bike to a solid object; others prefer cable locks which, although not as strong, allow you to lock up your bike to a wider variety of things, and are lighter.
  • Bottles for storing water in.^ In your garage or yard, you can store your bike anywhere.
    • Bike Racks, Bicycle Racks, Bike Carriers, Car Bike Racks, Bike Roof Rack 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.autoanything.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Coasting breaks up your rhythm and allows your legs to stiffen up.
    • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You can also store your bike or take it on vacation with a car rack .
    • eBay Guides - Bicycles Buying Guide 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC pages.ebay.com [Source type: General]

    .You can also get backpacks with a large bladder you can fill with water: these have a tube that sits on your shoulder so that you can sip water easily, or water bags for carrying a backup supply on the rack in arid conditions.
  • Fenders: If there's even a slight chance of rain, and there's allways a slight chance of rain, these are more than worth their weight.
  • Lights: Even if you don't plan to ride at night, it's easy enough to get caught out after dark.^ These are a must if you ride when it begins to get dark.
    • Beginner’s Guide to Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC zenhabits.net [Source type: General]

    ^ I can't stress this item enough: If you ride at night, get a rear light!
    • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When you get there don't forget to bookmark it!

    They are a basic safety item, and the front one doubles as a flashlight (torch).
  • A kickstand adds weight, but can be handy in places where it's inconvenient to park your bike against an object or the ground.

Repair Kit

.The choice of tools depends on where you are going, how self sufficient you need to be, and what repairs you are capable of.^ You can do your own analysis of how fast a bike or trike will go with different gear and wheel size combinations.

^ When you're actually going through an intersection, you'll need to be paying very close attention to what's in front of you.
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This can be one of the best (or worst) parts of your whole European tour, depending on where you go, what you tend to eat, and how fussy you are.
  • Planning Your Own European Bicycle Tour 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.Don't bother taking anything you don't know how to use, it will just be dead weight.^ As a randonneur, I can relate to the idea that if you want to know anything about cycling comfort and the serviceability of equipment, ask a dinky-di long-distance cyclist.

^ Don't forget about the informative evening training lectures where you’ll learn how to ride, climb and train better than ever before.
  • Your Road Bike Riding and Cycling Training Website - Cycling-Inform 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling-inform.com [Source type: General]

^ However, we agree with the Wired blog that suggests its more the perfect way to show off just how fast you...
  • Latest Cycling news, reviews, photos and video - Pocket-lint 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.pocket-lint.com [Source type: General]

A Basic kit would include:
.
  • a fully featured multitool (allen keys with some other basic tools), pump, patch kit, chain tool (and replacement rivets if using a shimano chain, or masterlink if using a SRAM) and one or more spare inner tubes.
  • Zap-straps, duct tape (gaffer tape) and locktight are extremely useful and with a little ingenuity can be used to fix all sorts of things.
  • Some spare bolts could save the day, 5mm is the most useful, it's used on almost all bikes for the racks, and various other things.^ Go with a bike rack that makes use of spare tire space.
    • Bike Racks, Bicycle Racks, Bike Carriers, Car Bike Racks, Bike Roof Rack 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.autoanything.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Spare Tire Bike Racks easily mount where other bike racks fail.
    • Bike Racks, Bicycle Racks, Bike Carriers, Car Bike Racks, Bike Roof Rack 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.autoanything.com [Source type: General]

    ^ One more thing.
    • Bicycles | Gadget Lab | Wired.com 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

    If you don't have them, in a pinch a less important bolt (eg for the water bottle) can be borrowed to replace a more important one (eg for the rack).
An Advanced kit is good if you need (or want) to be more self reliant,
.
  • Spare cables (bake, and derailleur).
  • Spokes, either temporary Kevlar ones, or permanent stainless steel ones, with a hypercracker (or similar) to remove the cogset.
  • Brake small parts: V-brake "noodles" and hanger if using V-brakes.^ Likewise the brakes — Tektro IO cable-actuated disc brakes, with the front brake equipped with the DiscBlock lock (a hardened steel pin that fits through one of the holes in the disc for casual theft-prevention).

    ^ Folding tire - left rear outside pocket Tube - left rear outside pocket Lube - left rear outside pocket Extra spokes - vertical pocket, right rear pannier Spare brake and derrailleur cables - left rear pannier Rear axle - in tool bag or handlebar bag .
    • Bicycle Touring and Camping Gear -- Camping Accessories and Equipment for Bicycle Trips 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kenkifer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But more experienced cyclists (and I’m not one yet) use the front brake most of the time.
    • Beginner’s Guide to Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC zenhabits.net [Source type: General]

    .Cross over cables if using cantilever brakes.
  • The type of pads needed by your brakes.
  • a spare derailleur hanger, the part that attaches the derailleur to the frame of the bicycle, on aluminium bicycles they are removable, and designed to bend easily to prevent damage to the frame and/or derailleur.^ Track bicycles are designed for use on velodromes (bicycle tracks).
    • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I used to lift the bicycle up by the edge of the saddle, but I damaged a Brooks Pro that way--the rivets that held the leather top to the saddle frame pulled out from being stressed in this un-anticipated direction!
    • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A road racing bicycle, using a mix of shaped aluminum tubing and carbon fiber parts .

    .They are very specific to the model of bicycle so finding one on the road would be difficult, even in a developed country.
  • Leatherman or similar non-bicycle specific miltitool, could be useful, but only in addition to a bicycle specific one.^ So if only bicycle was used, then from the time one could estimate the mileage.
    • Bicycle Transportation History, Past, Present andFuture 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lafn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It would be nice if bars like these were available in an extra strong deluxe version, but since they're considered to be a fetish accessory in this country this inexpensive Taiwanese bar is the best one I've been able to find.
    • Specialty Bicycles: Recumbents, Handcycles, Trikes, more 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicycleuniverse.info [Source type: General]

    ^ In addition, batteries create heat when they are being used or charged, so they should not be in an enclosed space during those times or they could be damaged from overheating.

    .(Using the wrong tool is a great way to round bolts, and generally mess up your bike.
  • Long distance tours in developing countries may take a spare set of tires with them.^ Not sure which system your bike uses?
    • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Go with a bike rack that makes use of spare tire space.
    • Bike Racks, Bicycle Racks, Bike Carriers, Car Bike Racks, Bike Roof Rack 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.autoanything.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This is why many recreational bikes are set up this way.
    • How to Choose a Bicycle: Expert Advice from REI 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.rei.com [Source type: General]

    Ones with a folding bead will pack up reasonably small.

Clothing

There is a variety of cycling-specific clothing that can make your trip much more comfortable and/or safe:
.
  • Helmet - required by law in some jurisdictions.^ Note that, in some places, if you ride a bike on pavement, its a law to wear a helmet while doing so.
    • How to Ride a Bicycle - wikiHow 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

    They are widely recommended as an important safety precaution. .They also offer some protection from the sun.
  • Jacket - wind- and water-proof layer for protection from precipitation and cooler temperatures.
  • Cycling shorts - special shorts with padding around the crotch to increase comfort and reduce chafing, also can be warn under looser fitting clothing for more modest people, or when in more modest countries.
  • Tights - for cooler weather than shorts; more comfortable than pants and less likely to get caught in the chain.^ Reduces friction and irritation to make cycling for hours more comfortable.
    • SBS: Cycling Central - home 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sbs.com.au [Source type: General]

    ^ Instructables user cmachia made a simple bike trailer from some scavanged wood and two bike tires to fill a need to haul more stuff than fits in a backpack.
    • Make: Online: Bicycles Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There are a number of locations where these bike trees are now in place in Tokyo – some hold 600-odd bikes, others more than 6,000.
    • Make: Online: Bicycles Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

    .Usually come with reflective markings at the ankle.
  • Gloves - Wearing padded gloves to minimize vibration and pressure on the hands during long rides makes a huge difference to your comfort.^ Make photocopies of the overall map for the country, mark your three levels in different colors, and try drawing possible connecting routes.
    • Planning Your Own European Bicycle Tour 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Ease of use and the body cradling padded sling seat make for a very nice ride.
    • Electric Bikes - Bicycle Options and Accessories: trailers, tandems, technologies, and access 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you can ride your bike comfortably close to this daily mileage, you should be OK unless your tour is totally different terrain.
    • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

    .Use cut-off style for warmer temperatures, full-finger for cooler.
  • Eye protection - UV protection is better for the long term health of your eyes and makes for a more comfortable ride.^ A calm but alert mind and body will feel more comfort, realize better health and safety, and achieve greater success.
    • How to Ride a Bicycle - wikiHow 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I always have a big goal for October but that is a long way off, so I have shorter term goals along the way that help me perform at optimal levels by the time October rolls around.
    • Your Road Bike Riding and Cycling Training Website - Cycling-Inform 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling-inform.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It is designed specifically as a high-performance single-speed machine, without any derailer-related doodads, but unlike track bikes, it has geometry and tire clearance that make it very versatile and comfortable for road use or even off-road as long as the trails don't ge too "technical."
    • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

    Detachable lenses allow you to use the best lens colour for different conditions (such as yellow for cloud cover or clear for nocturnal riding).
  • Tent, sleeping bag, and bedroll - if you're not intending to stay in a town each night, and/or want to minimize costs.
  • Cooking equipment (stove, pots, utensils) is used by some to avoid restaurant eating, although it is common to buy ready-to-eat groceries.

Stay safe

There are some simple and important precautions you should take when planning a bicycle trip:
  • Familiarize yourself with basic repairs, especially puncture repairs. .park tool has good info on their site, as does the more entertaining and opinionated site of Sheldon Brown.^ Sheldon Brown Web site by Sheldon Brown .
    • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sheldon Brown's site offers in-depth articles on various aspects of bicycle technology.
    • Electric Bikes - Bicycle Options and Accessories: trailers, tandems, technologies, and access 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: General]

    ^ See Sheldon Brown’s link to wheel building at http://www.sheldonbrown.com/wheelbuild.html for more details .
    • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

    Neither is a substitute for good hands on experience though.
  • Make sure you're carrying enough fluids: you may consume around 1 litter per hour of cycling.
  • Even when cycling under cloud cover, sunscreen is essential to protect your skin in the short term (sunburn) and long term (skin cancer).

Eat

.Food choice depends largely where you are in the world, see respective sections for more info about foods.^ By limiting the number of things you change between builds a programmer can see how A affects B directly or indirectly without worrying about how C fits in.
  • JSEDLAK » Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC jsedlak.com [Source type: General]

^ For more on flip-flop hubs, see the section on fixed-gear mountain bikes.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ The farther left you are (such as in "B"), the more likely the driver will see you.
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

.As you will be working hard, and burning lots of calories, it's important to get enough energy in your food.^ It requires all your physical and mental energy and after you draw on all your reserves you can wear you out quickly as you while pump up your hear...
  • Cycling | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ This technique works best if you ride with clips & straps, but if you are really proficient in disengaging from clipless pedals, try it at your own risk.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ If you are planning a long tour, you need to be in good enough shape to start your tour and you can, to some extent, ride your way into shape, starting with easy days.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

.Consuming foods high in carbohydrates and fats is a good source.^ Carbo Loading: Depletion Phase: In the good old days of carbo-loading, endurance athletes would complete an especially exhausting workout, consume platefuls of fat-laden goodies for three days or so, and then shift to three days of low-fat, high-carbohydrate food in order to maximally boost their muscle- glycogen levels before an important competition.
  • cycling training | cycling coaching 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.pponline.co.uk [Source type: General]

Get in

.Getting your bicycle to the start of your intended cycle route can be an adventure in itself.^ Bike For All Everything you wanted to know about cycling but were afraid to ask; getting started, everyday cycling, routes, sport...
  • Cycling resources from the Virtual Library of Sport 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ Exploring Germany by Bike Map and route finder, articles Bicycle Germany Learn how to conduct your own self-guided, non supported bicycle tour in Germany.
  • Cycling resources from the Virtual Library of Sport 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.sportsvl.com [Source type: News]

^ Start your bicycle tour in Salzburg with a panorama of the Alps at your back, cycling through the spectacular Salzkammergut, to medieval Cesky Krumlov.

.You will need to do some research in advance about which carriers let you take your bicycle on board.^ Chainline Everything you need to know about your bicycle's chainline.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ You need to be familiar with your bicycle and how it handles.
  • Planning Your Own European Bicycle Tour 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ To get in shape, you mostly need to just ride your bicycle.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

.
  • Airlines may require any or all of the following: that you fix the pedals in position; that you lower the pressure in your tires (emptying them entirely leaves the rims will little protection).^ If you are an event or tour director and would like to enter your data please GO HERE to Enter Your Bicycle Tour or Event All listings are free.
    • Bicycle Tour Directory: Road Cycling and Mountain Biking Tours, Events & Clubs 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bicycletour.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Recovery segments (and permission to leave) at the 45 and 60 minute mark allow you the flexibility to program this amazing workout into your busy day.
    • Equinox | Studio Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.equinox.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It requires all your physical and mental energy and after you draw on all your reserves you can wear you out quickly as you while pump up your hear...
    • Cycling | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    .To give your bike good protection it's best to pack your bicycle in a special box (most bikeshops are happy to give you the sturdy cardbord box bicycles are delivered to them in), and the airlines often require this.^ Obtain a bicycle box from a bike shop; 2.

    ^ Most are rated Good for impact protection.
    • Helmets: Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute: Bike Helmets 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bhsi.org [Source type: General]

    ^ We recommend that you store your bicycle in a special protective box, which you can obtain free of charge at the station.

    .Airlines vary about permitting a bicycle as a free item of checked baggage: some allow this, some require that you pay an extra fee.^ It allowed women to not have to wear dresses and it allowed women to check into a hotel without a man and bicycle tour groups facilitated men and women mixed (un-chaperoned) and some bicycle competitions had men and women competing with one another (not heard of, in recent history).
    • Bicycle Checklist, Bicycle Touring Checklist, Bicycle Camping Checklist 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.struck.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Unfortunately, most air travel in the USA requires an extra fee to transport a bicycle, typically $75-$100 (Southwest Airlines is a “bargain” at $40), even if you are within the baggage limit.
    • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Chainline Everything you need to know about your bicycle's chainline.
    • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    .Shop around before buying a ticket.^ By buying beforehand, you have time to shop around and compare.
    • Planning Your Own European Bicycle Tour 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

    .In almost all cases you need to inform the airline in advance that you wish to check a bicycle.^ No matter what you need - bicycle clothing, bike cases, wheels, tyres, tubes, fluid trainers and bike stands, we can help you with the best quality accessories at the lowest prices.
    • Cycling Accessories | Bike Parts | Cycling Clothing | Tyres & Tubes from Velogear 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.velogear.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ That’s really all you need to start off.
    • Beginner’s Guide to Cycling 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC zenhabits.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Train all San Francisco City-employed traffic engineers and transit planners in the needs and concerns of bicyclists, to make them aware of issues that affect bicycles.
    • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Read the regulations yourself before checking in, as the airline's staff may attempt to charge you when the bicycle should be carried for free.
  • Buses may have luggage compartments under the seating area, which may only have room for one or two bicycles, or they may have cargo areas inside the bus, or roof-racks, or they might not carry bicycles at all.^ Tandem bicycles carry two people (or, with a kiddie seat, three).
    • Electric Bikes - Bicycle Options and Accessories: trailers, tandems, technologies, and access 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: General]

    ^ So you may want to wait till it's finished before reading it.
    • Bicycle Transportation History, Past, Present andFuture 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lafn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ True folding bicycle can be carried, in the passenger compartment, as carry on luggage.

    .Buses may also require a bike to be dismantled and placed in a case or box.^ Some airlines don’t require boxing a bike (usually boxing is require in North America ) and will take a bike with pedals removed and the handlebar turned sideways.
    • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As has been the case with previous concept bikes though, elements of the design may make their way into future Cannondale urban bicycles .

    ^ Some folks place a small triangle of cardboard at the closed end of the box to minimize bike in the box movement.

    .Again, check at the time of booking.
  • Trains may have lots of space for bicycles, for example if they include special cars for freight, and at the opposite extreme they may not carry them at all.^ All trains now have a bicycle car that carries a total of 24 bicycles.
    • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Currently, all trains now have a bicycle car that carries a total of 24 bicycles.
    • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In addition, batteries create heat when they are being used or charged, so they should not be in an enclosed space during those times or they could be damaged from overheating.

    .If the train requires that you book a seat, you may need to inform them at the time of booking that you will be carrying a bicycle.^ Some of the poor ride out of necessity, but lower income families ($20,000 - $35,000) can afford automobiles and may not have the time and money to mess with bicycles.
    • Bicycle Transportation History, Past, Present andFuture 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lafn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Note that if you determine your gearing needs prior to purchasing a bicycle, you may be able to negotiate with your dealer to swap out standard gearing for more practical/appropriate gearing with little or no change in price.
    • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Tandem bicycles carry two people (or, with a kiddie seat, three).
    • Electric Bikes - Bicycle Options and Accessories: trailers, tandems, technologies, and access 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: General]

    .If you're travelling on a service that doesn't require booking try to avoid peak times; many commuter services either charge extra for bicycles at peak times, or simply do not have room in the carriages for bicycles.
  • Ferries tend to be a very bike-friendly form of transport and most will carry bicycles without a problem.^ In most cases, it is wise to carry extra.
    • Bicycle Checklist, Bicycle Touring Checklist, Bicycle Camping Checklist 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.struck.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I try to bike as a form of functional transportation, not just for exercise.
    • bicycles — Dave Troy: Fueled By Randomness 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC davetroy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It’s a very evolved city bike, but not a commuter bike either.

    Some will charge a small extra fee for this. .On a car ferry, you will usually ride on and off with the rest of the vehicles and be directed to an area where you can place your bike, normally with ropes to secure it.^ Get on the bike and ride it to determine if it suits you.
    • Bicycle Touring and Camping Gear -- Camping Accessories and Equipment for Bicycle Trips 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.kenkifer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Your bike is as threatening to a pedestrian as a car is threatening to you.
    • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After 2hrs, i'm usually itching to get off the bike.
    • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

    Some ferry companies will let you leave panniers on the bike during the voyage, but be sure to take everything you need for the trip, and anything valuable.
This is a usable article. It touches on all the major areas of the topic. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BICYCLE (from prefix bi = twice, and Gr. KiKAos, a circle, wheel). .The modern bicycle, as developed from the old velocipede (see Cycling), consists essentially of two wheels placed one behind the other and mounted on a frame which carries a saddle for the rider.^ No matter how desolate the road, when one car is seen in the rear view, you can bet, that two or three others are close behind.
  • Tips and Tricks - Bike Forums 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.bikeforums.net [Source type: General]

^ On the one hand we cycle past donkey-carts and horse-carriages in the country on the other hand the cities buzz with modern business-life.

^ These prohibitions included derailleur gears, wheel rims made of anything except wood and frames of a configuration other than the standard diamond.
  • Bicycle History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.jimlangley.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between the wheels is a crank-axle which the rider drives by means of the cranks and pedals, and its motion is transmitted to the rear or driving wheel either by a chain which passes over two chain wheels, one fixed on the crank-axle and the other on the hub of the rear wheel, or, in the chainless bicycle, by a tubular shaft and two pairs of bevelwheels.^ In the Maker Shed: MAKE: Volume 11 includes a special "DIY Wheels" section, with plans for making a mobile drive-in movie theater, a cool chopper out of an old bicycle, and a pedal powered iPod charger.
  • Make: Online: Bicycles Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ No matter how desolate the road, when one car is seen in the rear view, you can bet, that two or three others are close behind.
  • Tips and Tricks - Bike Forums 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.bikeforums.net [Source type: General]

^ Tandem cycling allows two riders of different skill levels to stay together without forcing one rider to speed up or the other rider to slow down.
  • Cycling | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.The rear wheel is usually so arranged that it can turn, when the bicycle is running by its own momentum, independently of the chain and pedals (" free-wheel "), and a variable speed gear is often provided so that the rider may at will alter the ratio between the rate of revolution of the crank-axle and the driving wheel.^ Notice how freely the drive train turns when the chain is too loose.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ The additional two pieces of the puzzle that were subsequently incorporated by Starley and others were (4) a “geared-up” drivetrain (such that the number of pedal revolutions does not equal the number of wheel rotations) and (5) the chain drive itself which was eventually to become ubiquitous.
  • Bicycle History 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.jimlangley.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you do bang a pedal on a fixed gear, the pedal can lift the rear wheel off the road, and down you will go.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.The front, or steering wheel, is mounted in a fork having its two upper ends brazed into the " crown," to which also the lower end of the steering tube is brazed.^ They had a water bottle cage mounted under their front top tube that exists to hold an Air Horn .
  • Bicycle Checklist, Bicycle Touring Checklist, Bicycle Camping Checklist 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.struck.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I took the longer valve tube off the front wheel of my bike.
  • Bicycle Inn, Cyclists, Bakersville, NC, Mt. Mitchell,Charleston, SC,  Hillsborough, NC Vietnam Veterans 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicycleinn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Wytze: “The hubs / wheels are identical; it is transformed into the specific front or rear hub by inserting either a dynamo or gear 'module'.

.The steering tube is mounted by ball bearings in the socket tube, which forms the forward portion of the rear-frame.^ The Mark I was held together by slipping the head tube of the rear frame over the seat post of the front frame, and lashing the front seat stays to the rear down tube with rope.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ Add the rear fender, the luggage carrier, the chainguard and the step through frame to the equation and you will see that this is a more logical form then the diamond shape.

.The highest quality of materials and the most accurate workmanship are required to produce a first-class bicycle.^ Joey explains: “Our project, simplicity in inner city bicycling, was at first glance a fun aesthetic opportunity in new trends, color, and materials.

^ And with current 4M pixel cameras typically requiring 2M for highest quality JPEG compression, 1G provides room for 500 pictures.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ There just aren't any accurate statistics on this since the great majority of bicycle injury accidents aren't reported since most of them don't involved collision with another vehicle.
  • Bicycle Transportation History, Past, Present andFuture 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lafn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Steel of 75 to loo tons per sq. in. tensile strength is used in chains, spokes, &c. In balls and ball-races, hardness without brittleness, and homogeneity are of primary importance. Broken balls, or even traces of wear in bearings, are now seldom heard of in a first-class bicycle. .The process of case-hardening, whereby an extremely hard outer skin is combined with a tough interior, has been brought to a high degree of perfection, and is applied to many parts of the bicycle, particularly chains, free-wheels and toothedwheel variable speed gears.^ Many stock touring bicycles come with a standard gearing of 52/42/30 chainrings , which is generally too high a gearing for loaded touring on anything but a flat route or for a very strong cyclist.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Gearing: none (many hub motors), fixed gear reduction for more torque, variable drives the chain through the bicycle gears which provides better hill-climbing and top-end speed than direct drive systems using motors of similar wattage.
  • Electric Bikes - Electric-Bikes.com 11 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The limited supply and high cost of parking as well as traffic congestion and the City's compactness make bicycling an attractive option for many.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Interchangeability of parts is secured by working to the smallest possible limits of error of workmanship.
Table of contents

Frames

Fig. 1 represents a road-racer. A full roadster would have the handles a little higher relatively to the saddle, and would be provided with mud-guards, free-wheel and sometimes a gear-case FIG. I.
and variable speed gear. Fig. .2 shows a lady's bicycle with gearcase and dress-guard.^ Most of the photos from that era show most women riding woman's bicycles in long, ankle length dresses and not in bloomers.
  • Bicycle Transportation History, Past, Present andFuture 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lafn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rear frame of the " diamond " type(fig.^ Add the rear fender, the luggage carrier, the chainguard and the step through frame to the equation and you will see that this is a more logical form then the diamond shape.

.I) is subjected to very small stresses due to vertical load.^ It is small and light so it doesn't take up much room or add to the weight of the load very much and yet ...
  • Tips and Tricks - Bike Forums 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.bikeforums.net [Source type: General]

.The front fork and steering post are subject to bending moment due to the reaction from the ground in the direction dcb. A slight amount of elasticity in the front fork adds considerably to the comfort in riding over rough roads.^ In its present configuration, it offers a nice balance of comfort and performance, leaning a bit in the comfort direction, but still quick and fun to ride.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ The front and rear shocks do smooth out the roughness of road surfaces…I’ve long believed that suspension components are overkill for just about any commuter-friendly bike and add unneeded complexity and weight to the bike, but in many cases they DO serve to make things a bit more comfortable.

^ Add in its comfortable,oversized seat and you have a powerful ride that's easy to handle.
  • Electric Bikes - Electric-Bikes.com 11 September 2009 9:24 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the brake is applied lightly to the front wheel, the reaction from the ground falls more closely along the axis of the front fork, and the bending moment at the crown is diminished.^ This same feel for traction will help you learn exactly how hard you can apply your front brake without quite lifting the rear off the ground.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Unfortunately, they are less rigid front-to-back, so if you fit a brake, the fork may flex objectionably when the brake is applied.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ This can be performed easily by strapping the front brake closed (simple rubber-band in picture).
  • Bicycle Checklist, Bicycle Touring Checklist, Bicycle Camping Checklist 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.struck.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the front brake is applied harder the reaction from the ground at d may pass through the crown, in which case the bending moment at the crown is zero.^ Unfortunately, they are less rigid front-to-back, so if you fit a brake, the fork may flex objectionably when the brake is applied.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ This same feel for traction will help you learn exactly how hard you can apply your front brake without quite lifting the rear off the ground.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ This is true because when you are applying the front brake to the maximum, there is no weight on the rear wheel, so it has no traction.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

Still harder application of the brake causes a bending moment in the opposite direction. In fig. .I the axes of the top and bottom tubes of the rear frame are produced to meet at a. If the reaction from the ground is in the direction da, the top and bottom tubes are subjected to pure compressive and tensile stresses respectively.^ I used to lift the bicycle up by the edge of the saddle, but I damaged a Brooks Pro that way--the rivets that held the leather top to the saddle frame pulled out from being stressed in this un-anticipated direction!
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ The Mark I was held together by slipping the head tube of the rear frame over the seat post of the front frame, and lashing the front seat stays to the rear down tube with rope.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

When no brake pressure is applied a bending moment due to the overhang ab is superimposed on these tubes. .Thus a short socket head with top tube sloping downwards towards the head gives a stronger frame than a horizontal top tube.^ The Mark I was held together by slipping the head tube of the rear frame over the seat post of the front frame, and lashing the front seat stays to the rear down tube with rope.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

.The steering axis ef is arranged so as to cut the ground at f, a little in front of the point of contact d of the wheel with the ground, giving a slight castor action, and making steering possible without use of the handle-bar.^ Also, it can handle rough use without denting.
  • Electric Bikes - Bicycle Options and Accessories: trailers, tandems, technologies, and access 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of my fixed-gear bikes have 165 mm cranks,which give a bit more ground clearance than the 170 mm's usually used on road bikes.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Recumbent Barn's Blackbent comes in various configurations and sizes (under- and over-seat steering, with and without front suspension).
  • Electric Bikes - Bicycle Options and Accessories: trailers, tandems, technologies, and access 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: General]

.The rake of the steering head (that is the angle between ef and bd) and the set of the fork (that is the displacement of the wheel centre c from the axis ef) may be varied within tolerably large limits without much affecting the easy steering properties of the bicycle.^ You slide it between the forks, insert the brake modules and the specific modules, tighten them and the wheel is all set.

^ This may happen when parking very close to ones destination is difficult or expensive, so one parks further away where parking is easy or free and rides a bicycle from the parked auto to the destination.
  • Bicycle Transportation History, Past, Present andFuture 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lafn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On a short tour, this may not be much of an issue as an extra set of batteries and one or two large memory cards, which are getting cheaper by the day, may be sufficient.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

The transverse stresses on the rear frame due to the action of pedalling are more severe than those due to the FIG. 2.
vertical load. .The pedal pressure is applied at a considerable distance from the central plane of the bicycle, and the pedal pin, cranks and crank-axle are subjected to a bending moment which is transmitted by the ball bearings to the frame.^ By applying back-pressure on the pedals, you can supply all the braking that the rear wheel really needs.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.The downtube from the seat lug to the crank-bracket and the bottom tube from the foot of the steering socket tube to the crankbracket are made fairly stout to resist this bending moment.^ Special Purchase Shimano 105 Triple cranks WITH Bottom Bracket (175 mm only) ALL GONE! .
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Bottom Bracket Size Database Which bottom bracket goes with which crank?
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ How much of a problem this is will depend on your bottom bracket height, crank length, and the design of your pedals.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.Further, the pull of the chain causes a transverse bending moment in the plane of the chain-stays, which must be stiff enough under heavy pedal pressure.^ But bloomers were short enough to prevent them from being caught by the bicycle chain or pedals.
  • Bicycle Transportation History, Past, Present andFuture 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lafn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tubular portions of the frame are made of weldless colddrawn steel tube.^ Its construction consists of a steel tubular frame with replaceable ABS panels.

^ This 1950's Gnôme-Rhône was made of aluminum tubes riveted into steel lugs.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

The junctions or lugs are usually of malleable cast iron, bored to fit the outside of the tube, the final union being effected by brazing. In very light bicycles the tubes are kept thin, 22 or 24 W.G. (. 028 in. or 022 in. thickness) at the middle, and are strengthened at the ends by internal liners. Or butt-ended tubes are employed, the tubes being drawn thicker at the ends than in the middle. The steering post and fork sides especially should be thus strengthened at their junction with the crown. .Some of the best makers use sheet steel stampings instead of cast lugs, greater lightness and strength being secured, and in some cases the sheet steel lugs are inside the tubes, so that the joints are all flush on the outside.^ Steel plates used to cover work in progress should have no-skid surfaces and either have beveled edges or be built up on all sides with asphalt.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This reduces the electrical charge between the inside and outside, so muscle cells contract with much less force until finally they cannot contract at all.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ This 1950's Gnôme-Rhône was made of aluminum tubes riveted into steel lugs.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

.The front fork blades are best made of sheet steel stamped to shape and with the edges brazed together to form a hollow tube.^ This 1950's Gnôme-Rhône was made of aluminum tubes riveted into steel lugs.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ The Mark I was held together by slipping the head tube of the rear frame over the seat post of the front frame, and lashing the front seat stays to the rear down tube with rope.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

.The sheet steel that can be thus employed has a much higher elastic limit than a weldless steel tube.^ Some European countries have a much higher percentage of citizens speaking English than others.
  • Planning Your Own European Bicycle Tour 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

Bearings

Ball bearings are universally used. .Each row of balls runs between two ball-races of hardened steel, one on the stationary member, the other on the rotating member.^ This bike has truly vertical dropouts, but I wanted to set it up with a flip-flop hub: fixed gear on one side, two-speed freewheel on the other .
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ This bike has a flip-flop hub with a fixed gear on one side, a two-speed freewheel on the other.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ OK, maybe that last one is a bit older than the other two.

The outer is called the " cup," and the inner the " cone." One of the four ball-races is FIG. 3.
adjustable axially so that the bearing may run without any shake. The ball-races are often made of separate pieces of steel, but the crank-axle usually has the cones formed integral with it, the necessary hardness being obtained by case-hardening. .According as the two cups face outwards or inwards the bearing is said to have outward or inward cups, and according as the adjustable ball race is the cone or cup, the bearing is said to be cone-adjusting or cup adjusting.^ So, i've got Shawnigan this weekend, and next weekend i'm planning to head over to the mainland for the final two 'cross races in the province - a BC Cup on Sat, and Provincial Championships on Sunday.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

Fig. 3 shows a ball-bearing hub with outward cups. The hub-shell H is turned out of mild steel, and the cups C are forced into the ends of the hub-shell and soldered thereto. A thin washer W is then spun into the end, for the purpose of retaining oil, and a thin internal tube T unites the two cups, and guides the oil fed in at the middle of the hub to the balls. .The projecting flanges S are for the attachment of the tangent spokes used to build the hub into the wheel.^ Then the spokes are “stress relieved”, meaning that extra tension is temporarily applied to all spokes to force them to adapt to the hub flange and to the rim eyelet.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ So what do you think of a hub that uses an internal coil spring to even out the pedal stroke and better distribute a rider’s pedaling power to the rear wheel?

^ According to Wytze: “The hubs / wheels are identical; it is transformed into the specific front or rear hub by inserting either a dynamo or gear 'module'.

.The spindle A has the two cones screwed on it, one C 1 against a shoulder, the other C2 adjustable.^ No matter how desolate the road, when one car is seen in the rear view, you can bet, that two or three others are close behind.
  • Tips and Tricks - Bike Forums 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.bikeforums.net [Source type: General]

^ This bike has truly vertical dropouts, but I wanted to set it up with a flip-flop hub: fixed gear on one side, two-speed freewheel on the other .
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ This bike has a flip-flop hub with a fixed gear on one side, a two-speed freewheel on the other.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

.The spindle ends are passed through the back-fork ends and are there adjusted in position by the chain-tension adjusters.^ This is usually because they don't know the technique of "walking" the wheel back and forth in the fork ends.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Note that for each tooth difference, the axle position in the fork end will change by 1/8" (3 mm.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Unfortunately, i usually have to stop at the lights passing through Sidney, but that's about 20-25mins of the interval, and quality ride-time there.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

After adjustment the nuts N clamp the spindle securely between the fork-ends. .The chain-wheel or free-wheel clutch is screwed on the end of the hubshell, with a right-hand thread.^ If you hand-pedal it and then accidentally have a finger an article of clothing come into contact with the chain or a sprocket, the momentum of the wheel will keep the drive train rolling.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.The chain being at the right-hand side of the bicycle (as the rider is seated) the driving pull of the chain tends to screw the chain-wheel tight against the shoulder.^ If you do it on the right-hand side of the street, you risk getting slammed by a car behind you that's turning right.
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you hand-pedal it and then accidentally have a finger an article of clothing come into contact with the chain or a sprocket, the momentum of the wheel will keep the drive train rolling.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ If the chain is too tight, the drive train will bind, perhaps only at one angle of the pedals (chainwheels are not usually perfectly concentric).
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.A locking-ring R with a left-hand thread, screwed tight against the chain-wheel, prevents the latter from being unscrewed by backpedalling.^ I'd put the smaller sprocket on the side without the lock ring, because it's less likely to come unscrewed.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ If you hand-pedal it and then accidentally have a finger an article of clothing come into contact with the chain or a sprocket, the momentum of the wheel will keep the drive train rolling.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ This is prevented by making sure that your chainline is straight, and that your chain is adequately tight.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

With a free-wheel clutch screwed on the hub, the lockingring may be omitted.
Fig. 4 shows one end of the cup-adjusting hub, with inward bearings. .The cones are formed of one piece with the spindles, and the adjusting cup C is screwed in the end of the hub shell, and locked in position by the screwed locking-ring R. The figure also illustrates a divided spindle for facilitating the removal of the tire for repair when required without disturbing the wheel, bearings, chain or gear. ?, ???'??^ Flat tires should be expected on any length trip and you should be prepared to fix flats, either repairing the tube or replacing it with a new one.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ This gives me three different gears, but I have to stop and move the chain (or reverse the rear wheel) manually to shift.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ According to Wytze: “The hubs / wheels are identical; it is transformed into the specific front or rear hub by inserting either a dynamo or gear 'module'.

I ?
?d?i????? IIIIIi Illlllllnll Illillllllilll ??nnnnrnumnnnn ?illlllilllll??? [[Iiiiiiiiiiiii???Iiiiii??, J ?,? I P B Fig]]. 4.
case. .The chain side of the hub-spindle, not shown in the figure, is secured to the frame in the usual way; on the left side the spindle S projects very little beyond the adjusting cup.^ Just as a hack, it is set up with the chain on the left side.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ You're riding the wrong way (against traffic, on the left-hand side of the street).
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

A distance washer W is placed between the end of the spindle S and the fork-end F.
.A detachable screw-pin, or the footstep, P, passes through the chain-adjusting draw-bolt B, the fork-end F, and the distance washer W, and is screwed into the end of the spindle S, the hexagon head of the detachable pin drawing all the parts securely together.^ If you do it, and have any sense of self-preservation at all, it will cause you to go much slower than you otherwise could, everytime you go through an intersection, or pass a driveway.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ We need to go into our key events both “fresh” and “fit.” We all understand the fit part.

^ Once you have the chainrings centered and secured, adjust the position of the rear axle to make the chain as nearly tight as possible without binding.
  • Fixed Gear Bicycles for the Road 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.On unscrewing the detachable pin, the distance washer W drops out of place, leaving a clear space for removing the tire without disturbing any other part.^ Getting out of the saddle uphill feels SOLID. I'm noticing how sloppy other parts are, like my front wheel.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Tire Valve Leak Problem & Solution: Sometimes, a valve leak can be discovered (or eliminated as a problem source) by placing a drop of or two of water (in the field) or soapy water (if available) into the tire valve itself.
  • Bicycle Checklist, Bicycle Touring Checklist, Bicycle Camping Checklist 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.struck.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surly "Dingle" Double Fixed-Gear Sprockets Now you can have two gears on your fixy without needing to remove the wheel to select your other gear ratio!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.The inward-cups bearing retains more oil than the other form.^ There are a number of locations where these bike trees are now in place in Tokyo – some hold 600-odd bikes, others more than 6,000.
  • Make: Online: Bicycles Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ Always try to do more for others than they might for you.
  • Bicycle Inn, Cyclists, Bakersville, NC, Mt. Mitchell,Charleston, SC,  Hillsborough, NC Vietnam Veterans 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicycleinn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, eyeglasses/helmet mirror users have a broader view than the fixed handlebar mirror by rotating their head to scan more background.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

.The pressure on a ball being normal to the surface of contact with the ball race, and each ball touching two ball races, the two points of contact must be in line with the centre of the ball.^ The point is that cycling is an endurance sport, and to compete in long races and/or events we must build up the mental and physical endurance required.

^ Tara also won two Silver's, in the Individual Pursuit (Sarah Hammer won), and Points Race.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

All the lines of pressure on the balls of a row meet at a point f on the axis of the spindle. The distance between the two points f (fig. 5) may be called the virtual length of the bearing. .Other things being equal, the outward-cups bearing has a greater virtual length than the inward-cups bearing.^ The risk of riding on Friday or Saturday night is much greater than riding on other nights because all the drunks are out driving around.
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

In hubs and pedals where the actual distance between the two rows of balls is sufficient, this point is of little importance. At the crank-axle bearing, however, where the pedal pressure which produces pressure on the axle bearings is applied at a considerable overhang beyond the ball-races, the greater virtual length of the outward-cups is an advantage.
Fig. 5 shows diagrammatically the usual form of crank-axle bearing which has in ward-cups and is cupadjusting. The end of the bracket is split and the cup after adjustment is clamped in position by the clamping screw S. The usual mode of fastening the cranks to the axle is by round cotters C with a flat surface at a slight angle to the axis, thus forming a wedge, which is driven in tight. The small end of the cotter projects through the crank, and is screwed and held in place by a nut. The chain-wheel at the usually detachably fastened to the right-hand crank.
i?:?¦?, ???? ?  ?..... ,.....? ? ?..??.r.?. r.. FIG. 5.
crank-axle is The Rudge-Whitworth crank-bracket has outward cups and is cup-adjusting. The cranks are cotterless. Fig. 6 is a sectional view. .The left crank and axle are forged in one piece.^ Pedal Thread Adaptors Adaptors let you install modern pedals on bikes and exercisers that have old-fashioned one-piece-cranks.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

The fastening of the right crank and chainwheel is by multiple grooves and teeth, this fastening being better mechanically than the cotter type.

Pedals

.The pedal consists of a pedal body, on which the foot of the rider rests, mounted by ball-bearings on a pedal-pin, which is secured to the end of the crank and turns with it.^ Panniers, with secure mounts, loose ends secured, well fitted racks (front and back), pre-eliminate noise.
  • Bicycle Checklist, Bicycle Touring Checklist, Bicycle Camping Checklist 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.struck.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pedal body is made in many forms, but usually the bearing-cups are contained in a tube from the ends of which project plates, carrying rubber blocks, or serrated plates (rat-trap pedals), on which the foot of the rider rests.^ Lyotard white rubber pedals Nice pedals for urban riding with plain shoes, made in France.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

Cone adjustment is most used. .The fastening of the pedal pin to the crank is best effected by screwing it up against a shoulder, the right and left crank eyes being tapped with right and left hand screws respectively.^ Wheel Spin checks are looking for less wheel wobble (left/right, up/down) per tool adjustment action.
  • Bicycle Checklist, Bicycle Touring Checklist, Bicycle Camping Checklist 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.struck.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You're riding the wrong way (against traffic, on the left-hand side of the street).
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

With this arrangement, if the pedal pin screw is a slack fit in the crank eye, the pressure on the pedal tends to screw it up against the shoulder.

Wheels

.Bicycle and tricycle wheels are made on the " suspension " principle, the spokes being of high-tenacity steel wire, screwed up to a certain initial tension, thus putting a circumferential compression on the rim.^ They also can be used to secure the bicycle to a fixed object with the same lock that is used to lock up the wheels High up and well visible, the bicycle rider sits on a pedestal compared to other road users.

^ I screwed a 15 tooth track sprocket onto the steel hub, which lines up nicely with the 28 tooth ring on the triple crankset.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

.In the " artillery " wheel, the wooden spokes are in compression, and the rim is under tension.^ Then the spokes are “stress relieved”, meaning that extra tension is temporarily applied to all spokes to force them to adapt to the hub flange and to the rim eyelet.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

.The rims, which are made to a section suitable for pneumatic tires (see Tire), may be of sheet steel or aluminium alloy rolled to the required section, either without joint or jointed by brazing or riveting.^ Requiring building management/leasing companies to provide secure bicycle parking facilities (see section on "parking").
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wood rims are used on racing bicycles, but in England are not popular for roadster bicycles. .Holes are drilled at or near the central plane of the rim for the spoke nipples, which have shoulders resting on the outer surface of the rim and shanks projecting through the rim towards the hub.^ Then the spokes are “stress relieved”, meaning that extra tension is temporarily applied to all spokes to force them to adapt to the hub flange and to the rim eyelet.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Surly fixed/free Mountain hub in 36 hole drilling Special purchase limited edition Surly hub, silver, 36 holes, double sided fixed/free for singlespeed mountain bikes.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ How about lacing a 36 hole hub to a 28 hole rim...?
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

The spoke ends are screwed to fit the nipples. The shank of the nipple has a square cut on its outside surface by which it can be screwed up. .The spoke flanges on the hub are placed far apart and the spread of the spokes gives the wheel lateral stability.^ Then the spokes are “stress relieved”, meaning that extra tension is temporarily applied to all spokes to force them to adapt to the hub flange and to the rim eyelet.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

.Tangential rigidity under driving and braking is obtained by fastening the spokes to the hub tangentially (figs.^ The prototype, which was made by Le Batard, has an aluminium frame, 24" wheels, double kevlar drive belt and a SRAM P5 hub with a coaster brake.

I and 2). .The hub fastening of the spoke is simply obtained by forming a hook and head on the spoke end, and passing it through a hole in the hub flange.^ Then the spokes are “stress relieved”, meaning that extra tension is temporarily applied to all spokes to force them to adapt to the hub flange and to the rim eyelet.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Use a small cut-down length of spoke with a hook formed at one end as a chain-lifter for when the chain de-rails.
  • Tips and Tricks - Bike Forums 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.bikeforums.net [Source type: General]

^ I.R.O. Large Flange Fixed/free hubs, now in 36 hole These are the best value going in a track/singlespeed hub.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.The best spokes are butted at the ends, i.e. made of larger diameter than at the middle, to allow for screwing at one end and the hook bend at the other.^ Use a small cut-down length of spoke with a hook formed at one end as a chain-lifter for when the chain de-rails.
  • Tips and Tricks - Bike Forums 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.bikeforums.net [Source type: General]

^ In the advent of a spoke breaking on the drive side, cut off the end, form a hook which can be hooked through the hub and threaded up to the rim.
  • Tips and Tricks - Bike Forums 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.bikeforums.net [Source type: General]

^ Tandem cycling allows two riders of different skill levels to stay together without forcing one rider to speed up or the other rider to slow down.
  • Cycling | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

Chains

There are two widely used types of chains. The " block " chain (fig. 7) consists of a series of central blocks connected FIG.
by side plates. The " roller " chain (fig. 8) consists of a series of outside and inside links. .The outside link A is made up of two steel side plates P united by two shouldered rivets R. The inside link B consists of two side plates P united by two tubular pieces T, which form bushes for the rivets R and pivots for the rollers L. The rivets, bushes and rollers are case-hardened.^ Steel plates used to cover work in progress should have no-skid surfaces and either have beveled edges or be built up on all sides with asphalt.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This bike has truly vertical dropouts, but I wanted to set it up with a flip-flop hub: fixed gear on one side, two-speed freewheel on the other .
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ The route consists of three stages; you can ride just one, or link two or all...

Roller chains for cycles are made in two pitches, 2 in. and, in., and in widths from a in. to 4 in. between the side plates of the inside links. The weight of 4 ft. length (96 links) of a z in. pitch s in. wide roller chain is about 124 oz., and its breaking load is about 2000 lb. In a block chain the ends of the blocks engage with the teeth of the chain-wheels, and the same surfaces continually coming into contact, the wear may become excessive, especially when exposed to mud and grit. In the roller chain the outer surfaces of the rollers engage with the teeth of the chain-wheels, and during the engagement and disengagement may roll slightly on the tubular rivets. The surface of contact of the roller and tubular rivet is not directly exposed CZ to the dust and grit from the road. The rollers therefore serve the double purpose of (I) transferring the relative motion of the parts to a pair of surfaces under better conditions as regards lubrication, and (2) presenting a new part of the outside surface of the roller for the next engagement with the chain-wheel. .The durability of roller chains is thus much greater than that of block chains, under the usual conditions of cycling.^ Therefore, Durability and Reparability become much more important factors for Touring Survivability than Light Weight or Performance oriented issues.
  • Bicycle Checklist, Bicycle Touring Checklist, Bicycle Camping Checklist 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.struck.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think it's a bit under-ranked..i'd say this was definitely much closer to a 9 than 10...the black 5.9 on the opposing wall is SIGNIFICANTLY more challenging...!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ The risk of riding on Friday or Saturday night is much greater than riding on other nights because all the drunks are out driving around.
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

Chain-wheels

The pitch line of the chain-wheel is polygonal (fig. 9), a, b, c, d being centres of adjacent joints of the chain when lying in contact with the wheel. The path a of the joint a of the chain, relative to the chain-wheel as it enters on to and leaves the chain-wheel, is evidently the curve a 3 a 2 a 1 a a' 2, made up of a series of circular arcs having centres d, c, b, b', c', respectively. Similarly for the path of the adjacent joint b. The fullest possible form of the tooth is that between the two parallel curves, of radii less by an amount equal to the radius of the roller, as indicated in fig. .9. But since it is neither necessary nor desirable that the roller should roll along the whole length of the tooth, the radii of curvature of the tooth outline may be less than shown in fig.^ And the “hard” work should involve less time and fewer intervals than in previous training.

9. A good arrangement of tooth form is shown in fig. 10.
Number of teeth on hub
chain-wheel 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 28
Percentage variation . 5.1 3.5 2.7 2
I
1.6 1
3
0.9 0.7
Owing to the polygonal pitch surfaces of the chain-wheels a chain does not transmit motion with con stant speed-ratio of the shafts. .The variation of speed-ratio in a chain with links of equal pitch is approximately inversely proportional to the square of the number of teeth in the smaller chain-wheel, as shown in the table annexed, in which the percentage variation is maximum speed-ratio - minimum speed-ratio The rollers as they come in contact with the chain-wheel strike it with a speed proportional to the angular speed of the chain-wheel and to the pitch of the chain, causing a certain amount of noise.^ Sturmey-Archer 8-speed Internal Gear Hubs These are particularly well suited for small-wheel bikes due to the 305% up-gearing they offer.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ NuVinci Continuously-Variable "Gear" Hub An infinite number of "speeds!"
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

Chain Adjustment

.To keep the chain running at correct tension, it is necessary to have some adjustment of the distance between the crank-axle and hub.^ Since the skewer is thinner than the axle, this allowed some front-to-back adjustment.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ The vertical dropouts didn't allow chain tension adjustment because the axle was a snug fit in the slot.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

This is obtained either by an eccentric ad j ustment at the crank-bracket, an eccentric adjustment at the hub-spindle or by draw-bolts at the fork-ends, the last method being most common.

Gear-case

The modern roller chain by makers of repute is so durable that the necessity for a gear-case is not so great as when chains were of inferior quality. .But if the bicycle is to require the minimum amount of care and attention a gear-case should be fitted.^ The staff should have the various skills required for implementing the bicycle program, although it is not necessary to have each staff member skilled in all areas.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The City should require all new and renovated buildings to set aside space for indoor bicycle parking.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The case study also covers gearing choices and touches on bike fit, bar-end shifters, and headlights.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

.The Sunbeam gear-case is built into the frame and is oil-retaining, and the chain, chain-wheels, free-wheel and two-speed gear are continually lubricated by an oil-bath.^ I built this in the late '60's from two Raleigh Sports frames brazed together.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ With a three speed coaster brake hub the focus is on a robust, rust free frame and parts that keeps the rider upright, safe, and comfortable.

^ A low-end 10 speed frame that I built up for him as a road bike, with Shimano indexed barcons.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

A detachable gear-case is not usually oil-retaining, but serves to exclude grit and mud from the chain.

Gear and Crank-length

.The " gear " of a bicycle is given by the formula Dn l /n 2 where D is the diameter of the driving wheel in inches, n 3 and n 2 the numbers of teeth on the crank-axle and hub chain-wheels respectively.^ Gives the function of a flip-flop hub without the need to remove the wheel to change gears.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ White Industries ENO Fixed/Free MTB Hubs The first fixed-gear hub to feature an eccentric axle mount, allowing it to work in bikes with vertical dropouts!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ This gives me three different gears, but I have to stop and move the chain (or reverse the rear wheel) manually to shift.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

At each revolution of the crank-axle, the bicycle is moved forward a distance equal to the circumference of the circle of diameter equal to the gear. Thus with a 28 in. diameter driving-wheel, .18 teeth on the hub chain-wheel, 45 teeth on the crank-axle chain-wheel, the bicycle is geared to 7
in.^ Gives the function of a flip-flop hub without the need to remove the wheel to change gears.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ This gives me three different gears, but I have to stop and move the chain (or reverse the rear wheel) manually to shift.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ According to Wytze: “The hubs / wheels are identical; it is transformed into the specific front or rear hub by inserting either a dynamo or gear 'module'.

The usual crank-length is 62 to 7 in. Cranks of 71, 8 and 9 in. length can be had, but require a bicycle frame of special design. The gear should be roughly proportional to the crank-length. The gear to times the crank-length is a good proportion for an average rider.

Free-wheels

.A free-wheel clutch transmits the drive in one direction only, allowing the pedals to remain at rest at the will of the rider, while the bicycle runs on.^ The grassy field allowed me to bridge up to a rider a time or two, but that was about the only momentum i could manage..
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ So what do you think of a hub that uses an internal coil spring to even out the pedal stroke and better distribute a rider’s pedaling power to the rear wheel?

^ I'd passed a few more riders, and only one rider had gotten by me: the young (16) Michael Brinton who's proving to be a diverse and strong rider!!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

With a free-wheel, chain breakages are reduced or nearly eliminated, as should the chain get accidentally caught the free-wheel comes into play. There are three principal types of free-wheel clutches - roller, ratchet and friction cone. The roller type was the earliest in use, but has fallen into disfavour. A sectional view of a ball-bearing ratchet free-wheel, with outer cover removed, is shown in fig. .11. The ring on which the three pawls and springs are carried is screwed on the end of the hub; the chain-wheel is combined with an inner ratchet wheel and is mounted by two rows of ball bearings on the pawl ring.^ So what do you think of a hub that uses an internal coil spring to even out the pedal stroke and better distribute a rider’s pedaling power to the rear wheel?

^ This gives me three different gears, but I have to stop and move the chain (or reverse the rear wheel) manually to shift.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ Since all the weight is carried on the back, I used light stuff for the front end: an aluminum Alan fork and a skinny 622 mm (700c) front wheel.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

The friction cone type of free-wheel clutch is usually combined with a brake FIG. 6.
FIG. 8.
FIG. 9.
FIG. IO.
average speed-ratio X loo.
inside the hub, the whole combination being termed a coaster hub. Fig. .12 shows a sectional view of the Eadie two-speed coaster, in which the free-wheel clutch and brake are combined with a twospeed gear.^ This bike has truly vertical dropouts, but I wanted to set it up with a flip-flop hub: fixed gear on one side, two-speed freewheel on the other .
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ With a three speed coaster brake hub the focus is on a robust, rust free frame and parts that keeps the rider upright, safe, and comfortable.

^ The prototype, which was made by Le Batard, has an aluminium frame, 24" wheels, double kevlar drive belt and a SRAM P5 hub with a coaster brake.

.The free-wheel clutch action is as follows: A forward pressure of the pedals turns the externally threaded driving cone H in the internally threaded cone F, the latter being thus forced to the right into engagement with the cup J which is screwed to the hub-shell, thus forming a friction driving clutch.^ A car coming towards you makes a left turn right in front of you, or right into you.
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You're riding on the sidewalk and cross the street at a crosswalk, and a car makes a right turn, right into you.
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A car makes a right turn from a side street, driveway, or parking lot, right into you.
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

.The pedals being held stationary the driving cone H is stationary, and the hub running on the ball bearings G, the cone F travels towards the left until released from the cup J, when it also remains at rest.^ Regardless of how well it works, I was initially intrigued by the fact that this hub, which basically redistributes pedaling energy to boost performance, is being marketed for racing.

^ Now with Sturmey-Archer ASC 3-speed hub, still driving on the left!
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

In this type of free-wheel clutch it is essential that there be little or no friction between the screwed surfaces. of .H and F, else on beginning to pedal, the cone F may remain stationary relative to the driving cone H, and no engagement between F and J may take place.^ Istanbul, 1974 Typical of the bikes I saw in Turkey, this bike has no pedals (just the axles remain) and no brakes.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ The number of bicycle accidents per year appears to have remained relatively steady, with between 424 and 496 reported bicycle accidents per year.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If F be prevented from turning faster than the hub-shell, as is sometimes done by a light spring between the two, the engagement of the friction clutch must take place as soon as FIG. 12. - Eadie Two-speed Coaster Hub.^ An Action-Oriented Teaching Approach - Learning must take place on a bicycle rather than in a classroom-like setting.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This bike has truly vertical dropouts, but I wanted to set it up with a flip-flop hub: fixed gear on one side, two-speed freewheel on the other .
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ They had less time to see you and take evasive action because they're approaching you faster than normal (because you're going towards them rather than away from them).
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

the pedals tend to move faster than the speed corresponding to that of the hub-shell.
Brakes of many types are used, differing in the place and mode of application. .The tire brake has fallen into disuse, rim brakes and internal hub brakes being usual.^ Shimano Alfine Disc Brake Compatible 8-speed internal gear hubs in stock!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Shimano Alfine Disc Brake Compatible 8-speed internal gear hubs back in stock!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

The retarding force that can be applied by a brake is limited by the possibility of skidding the wheel. .In riding at uniform speed, without acceleration, the greater part of the load is on the rear-wheel; but as soon as the brake is applied to cause retardation the wheel load distribution is altered, more load being thrown on the front wheel.^ So what do you think of a hub that uses an internal coil spring to even out the pedal stroke and better distribute a rider’s pedaling power to the rear wheel?

^ Getting out of the saddle uphill feels SOLID. I'm noticing how sloppy other parts are, like my front wheel.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ According to Wytze: “The hubs / wheels are identical; it is transformed into the specific front or rear hub by inserting either a dynamo or gear 'module'.

.Thus the most powerful brake is one applied to the front wheel.^ The most difficult spoke break to repair, yet one of the most frequent, is a cassette/freewheel side rear wheel spoke.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

.On the other hand, a front-wheel brake often sets up an unpleasant vibration of the front fork.^ You slide it between the forks, insert the brake modules and the specific modules, tighten them and the wheel is all set.

^ This bike has truly vertical dropouts, but I wanted to set it up with a flip-flop hub: fixed gear on one side, two-speed freewheel on the other .
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ With Mathauser brake shoes, the braking is quite good, especially since I built it up with 630 mm (27") wheels, which shorten the caliper reach by 4 mm.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

.On a greasy road too powerful pressure on the frontwheel brake may cause a side-slip with no chance of recovery; while with the back-wheel brake recovery is possible.^ Several people eased by as i had no high-end to power up the climb...so sad..trailed the group around the field and then lost contact on the road..
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Sturmey-Archer Combined Generator/Drum Brake Hubs Dynohubs are Back, now with 3 watts of power and a built-in drum brake!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.The Bowden system of transmission, which is largely used for cycle brake work, consists of a steel stranded cable inside a flexible tube formed by a closely wound spiral of steel wire, the cable being practically inextensible and the spiral tube practically incompressible; if the ends of the latter be fastened it forms a guide tube for the cable, any movement given to one end of the cable being transmitted to the other end.^ Steel plates used to cover work in progress should have no-skid surfaces and either have beveled edges or be built up on all sides with asphalt.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another much bigger group caught us, but it wasn't terribly cohesive, and ended up being a lot of work to stay in, with people not at all working as a group.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Our month long exhibition will consist of a collection large color photographs of works, accompanied by a printed zine.

The spiral tube may be led round any corners, but the frictional resistance of the cable inside the spiral tube increases with the total angle of curvature of the guide tube; the laws of friction of a rope passing over a drum apply. In fitting the Bowden system the total curvature should therefore be kept as small as possible. .With a back-pedalling rim brake the cycle cannot be wheeled backwards unless a special device is used to throw the operating clutch out of action.^ Unlike a typical electric bike, which uses a hand operated throttle to control the power from the motor, the Sanyo motor kicks in as soon as the rider starts pedaling.

^ This is as fast as a normal set up, but you can't take out the wheels when the brakes are engaged (hence the brake - wheel lock).

^ Rafael points out that his special mold system allows flexibility in tailoring the bike to the intended use.

.A back-pedalling brake is most conveniently applied inside the hub, as in the coaster hub.^ Special purchase deal on Sprinter 7 coaster brake hubs from England.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ With a three speed coaster brake hub the focus is on a robust, rust free frame and parts that keeps the rider upright, safe, and comfortable.

^ The prototype, which was made by Le Batard, has an aluminium frame, 24" wheels, double kevlar drive belt and a SRAM P5 hub with a coaster brake.

In the Eadie two-speed coaster (fig. 12) the braking action is obtained by the expansion of the steel band I against a phosphor bronze ring L carried by the rotating hub-shell. .The steel band I is mounted on a disk with a projecting arm, the end of which is clipped to the frame tube.^ The project ended up rethinking what a “frame” meant, getting ride of basic key components, and creating a new type of compact bicycling.

.The expansion of the steel band is effected by the movement of the lever K fixed to the cone E. On moving the pedals backward the screw drive-ring H forces the cone nut F with which it engages to theleft into contact with the cone E. The backward movement of the pedals being continued sets up the required movement of the lever K, and applies the brake.^ This bike has truly vertical dropouts, but I wanted to set it up with a flip-flop hub: fixed gear on one side, two-speed freewheel on the other .
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ I had it set up with the Sturmey-Archer ASC 3-speed fixed gear hub that used to be on my Lenton Grand Prix.
  • Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Page 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC sheldonbrown.org [Source type: General]

^ The derailleur was moved to the pivot of the rear swing arm and is set up much like a bottom bracket w/ suspension on a mountain bike.

Variable Speed Gears

.The effort required to propel a bicycle varies greatly, according to the conditions of road surface, gradient up or down hill, wind against or behind.^ You innocently move a little to the left to go around a parked car or some other obstruction in the road, and you get nailed by a car coming up from behind.
  • Bicycle Safety: How to Not Get Hit by Cars 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bicyclesafe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The staff should have the various skills required for implementing the bicycle program, although it is not necessary to have each staff member skilled in all areas.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ideally, your route would include some hills similar to your real tour so you get a feel for the effort required to cycle a loaded bicycle up a typical hill.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

.To meet these variable conditions, a variable speed-gear is an advantage.^ NuVinci Continuously-Variable "Gear" Hub An infinite number of "speeds!"
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Sturmey-Archer 8-speed Internal Gear Hubs These are particularly well suited for small-wheel bikes due to the 305% up-gearing they offer.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.The action of the human motor is, however, so entirely different from that of a mechanical motor that it is easy, without practical experience, to over-estimate the value of a variable speed gear.^ NuVinci Continuously-Variable "Gear" Hub An infinite number of "speeds!"
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

Probably from 50 in. to 80 in. represents the greatest useful range of gear for an average rider. .With a gear lower than 50 in., the speed of climbing a steep gradient is so slow that balancing difficulties begin, and it is better to walk up.^ I was very surprised to see that it's completely 'open' - as in i can get off my bike and walk/climb up into the bridges and lines....
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ At the top of the climb was the only section that i'd have to run - but it was a long, windy section up a steep rocky section.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ "Downgearing" Need lower gears to climb your local hills?
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

With 80 in. gear and 7 in. cranks, the speed of pedalling, even at 25 miles an hour, is not irksome, provided the conditions are favourable. .For those who have not cultivated the art of quick pedalling the useful range of gear under favourable conditions may be extended to say 90 in.^ Other available sources can only be used for bicycle projects under very specific conditions and/or as components of other projects.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For those of you who made it this far, I will say again that I am really impressed with this student project.

or loo in. .The gear-ratio of a two-speed gear is the ratio of the high to the low gear.^ Surly "Dingle" Double Fixed-Gear Sprockets Now you can have two gears on your fixy without needing to remove the wheel to select your other gear ratio!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Schlumpf Innovations Two-speed gears to mount inside your bottom bracket.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

The most suitable gear-ratio for any rider will depend upon his personal physique and the nature of the country in which he rides. .For a middle-aged rider of average physique a gearratio of 125: 100 is suitable, for those of weaker physique the gear-ratio may with advantage be greater, say 137.5: 100; while for road racing it may be smaller, say 117: 100. With a three-speed gear the low and high gears should be chosen respectively below and above the single gear which suits the rider, the middle gear being about the same as the rider's usual single gear.^ The route should appeal to casual bicyclists by being on streets with low traffic volumes.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a three speed coaster brake hub the focus is on a robust, rust free frame and parts that keeps the rider upright, safe, and comfortable.

^ Near the top, i looked back, and i was in a lead group of about 6 riders, and ~20m behind was another smaller pack, an no sign of anyone else..
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

.All the variable speed gears at present made consist of toothed wheel mechanism either at the hub or crank-bracket, and nearly all are based on the same epicyclic train of toothed wheels.^ NuVinci Continuously-Variable "Gear" Hub An infinite number of "speeds!"
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Fit all Shimano 8- and 9-speed hubs.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Gear Calculator for internally-geared hubs a variation on my Online Gear Calculator .
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.At one speed there is no relative motion of the toothed wheels, the whole mechanism revolving as one solid piece; this is called the " normal " speed.^ I want one…or I should say, “I want it” since there are no others in existence.

^ Koga-Miyata LiteAce 8-speed Commuter Bike A great bike for the real "serious cyclist"--there's no cycling more serious than commuting!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ We hit the corner leading into the first hump, and i look back, and no one's there!!!
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

.At the other speed one part of the mechanism is held stationary and the driven part revolves faster or slower than the driver, according as the gearing is up or down.^ OK, maybe that last one is a bit older than the other two.

^ I'm geared up, heading back, a few other riders are changing as well..
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Tandem cycling allows two riders of different skill levels to stay together without forcing one rider to speed up or the other rider to slow down.
  • Cycling | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.In some two-speed gears the normal is the high speed, in others the low.^ Also got some new gear, needed some new shorts, and figured i'd chop two carrots with one swipe, and got full leggings.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Surly "Dingle" Double Fixed-Gear Sprockets Now you can have two gears on your fixy without needing to remove the wheel to select your other gear ratio!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Schlumpf Innovations Two-speed gears to mount inside your bottom bracket.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.In expressing the gear-ratio, the normal speed will be denoted by 100. At the normal gear there is of course no additional friction.^ Koga-Miyata LiteAce 8-speed Commuter Bike A great bike for the real "serious cyclist"--there's no cycling more serious than commuting!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.The type of two-speed gear used practically settles whether the normal gear is at high or low speed; but it seems best, other things being equal, to have the low speed the normal gear, as then the conditions are worst.^ Of course, this type of question works best where points A and B are within reasonable distance of each other.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Reduced corner radii to slow the speed of turning traffic (most likely to be useful in combination with other measures that operate midblock).
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surly "Dingle" Double Fixed-Gear Sprockets Now you can have two gears on your fixy without needing to remove the wheel to select your other gear ratio!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.If the high speed is at normal gear, then at low speed the chain gears up and the two-speed gear gears down; which is, to say the least, a roundabout transmission.^ Tandem cycling allows two riders of different skill levels to stay together without forcing one rider to speed up or the other rider to slow down.
  • Cycling | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Sturmey-Archer 8-speed Internal Gear Hubs These are particularly well suited for small-wheel bikes due to the 305% up-gearing they offer.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ The integrated transmission with the gears in the rear hub means the bicycle can be ridden in formal clothes and at any speed.

Fig. .13 is a sectional view of the Sunbeam two-speed gear which is arranged at the crank-axle, and clearly shows the relative disposition of the toothed wheel mechanism common to nearly all cycle speed gears.^ Surly "Dingle" Double Fixed-Gear Sprockets Now you can have two gears on your fixy without needing to remove the wheel to select your other gear ratio!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Sturmey-Archer 8-speed Internal Gear Hubs These are particularly well suited for small-wheel bikes due to the 305% up-gearing they offer.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Schlumpf Innovations Two-speed gears to mount inside your bottom bracket.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

The chain-wheel is fixed to the annular wheel A; the planet carrier C is fixed to the crank; and when the sunwheel D is held stationary, the chain-wheel is driven faster than the cranks. .When the sun-wheel D is released, the planet carrier C drives the annular wheel A by the ratchet free-wheel clutch; the part thus revolves as a solid piece, and gives the normal or low speed.^ With a three speed coaster brake hub the focus is on a robust, rust free frame and parts that keeps the rider upright, safe, and comfortable.

^ Getting out of the saddle uphill feels SOLID. I'm noticing how sloppy other parts are, like my front wheel.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

The gearratio is 1 33.3: 100.
Fig. 14 is a sectional view of the " Hub " twospeed gear, the chain wheel or free-wheel FIG." 14.
clutch being omitted. .In this the annular wheel is the driver, and the planet carrier is part of the hub-shell.^ You have a cheap, empty shell as a hub/wheel.

When the central pinion is held stationary the hub is driven at a less speed than the chain-wheel; the gear-ratio is 100: 76.2.
.In the Fagan two-speed gear, shown combined with the Eadie coaster hub in fig.^ Freewheeling Sram iMotion 9-speed internal gear hubs in stock!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Sram iMotion 9-speed internal gear hubs in stock!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ NuVinci Continuously-Variable "Gear" Hub An infinite number of "speeds!"
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.12, the sun-wheel B can be moved laterally by the striking gear, so as to engage with the chain-wheel centre C, giving normal gear, or with an internally toothed wheel A fixed to the spindle.^ Half Links Fixed-gear fans with limited chain adjustment room will be glad to know that half-links are now available for 3/32" ("road") chain.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Gives the function of a flip-flop hub without the need to remove the wheel to change gears.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Surly "Dingle" Double Fixed-Gear Sprockets Now you can have two gears on your fixy without needing to remove the wheel to select your other gear ratio!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

The chain-wheel centre C carries the annular wheel, and the four planet pinions D are mounted on the driving cone H. Thus the gear gives a reduction of speed, the gear-ratio being loo: 75.
FIG. II.
.FIG. 13. - Sunbeam Two-Speed Gear.^ Schlumpf Innovations Two-speed gears to mount inside your bottom bracket.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.The Sturmey-Archer three-speed hub (fig.^ Sturmey-Archer 7-speed hubs $69.95!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ With a three speed coaster brake hub the focus is on a robust, rust free frame and parts that keeps the rider upright, safe, and comfortable.

^ Gear Calculator Updated version of my popular Gear Calculator, now supports Rohloff, Shimano, SRAM & Sturmey-Archer hubs.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.15) has gear-ratios 125: loo: 80. In the high gear position the epicyclic toothed wheels are to the extreme left position.^ Surly "Dingle" Double Fixed-Gear Sprockets Now you can have two gears on your fixy without needing to remove the wheel to select your other gear ratio!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.The chain-wheel is mounted by a free-wheel on a drive-ring, with which the ends of the spindles of the planet wheels engage at high gear.^ White Industries ENO Fixed/Free MTB Hubs The first fixed-gear hub to feature an eccentric axle mount, allowing it to work in bikes with vertical dropouts!
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

.The sun-wheel, not shown in the figure, is held stationary, and the annular wheel engages with a ring screwed to the hub-shell, by means of keys engaging in notches.^ You have a cheap, empty shell as a hub/wheel.

The hub is thus driven at a higher speed than the chainwheel. .For normal gear, the striking gear draws the internal mechanism of the hub towards a central position, compressing a spring, disengaging the sun-wheel and locking the drive-ring hub and annular wheel together.^ Gear Calculator for internally-geared hubs a variation on my Online Gear Calculator .
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ So what do you think of a hub that uses an internal coil spring to even out the pedal stroke and better distribute a rider’s pedaling power to the rear wheel?

^ Wytze explains: “There is a central locking point in the stem, it locks the handlebars (as in the video), and it locks off the flow in the hydraulic brake lines, so the wheels can be locked.

At low gear, the internal mechanism FIG. 15.
is drawn to the right-hand side, where the planet carrier engages with the end plate of the hub by means of claw-clutches. .The annular wheel is still engaged with the drive-ring, and the sun-wheel is again locked to the spindle.^ This is as fast as a normal set up, but you can't take out the wheels when the brakes are engaged (hence the brake - wheel lock).

The hub is thus driven at a lower speed.

Tandem Bicycles

.The weight of a roadster tandem is about the same as, or a trifle less than, that of two single roadster bicycles, but the frictional resistance of the mechanism, the rolling resistance of the tires, and the air resistance at a given speed are much less than twice the values for a single bicycle.^ Bicycles allowed if the bus is less than 50% occupied.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bicycling at this level is more about fashion and culture than speed and performance.

^ This would be possible, by converting four-way STOP signs to two-way stops or switching two-way STOP signs to stop the cross street rather than the designated bicycle priority street.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Consequently, much higher speeds are attained on the level, and free-wheeling down hill is much faster.^ Tandem cycling allows two riders of different skill levels to stay together without forcing one rider to speed up or the other rider to slow down.
  • Cycling | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.On the other hand for riding up hill on a moderate gradient, the effort required is about the same as on a single, while on very steep gradients the tandem is at a slight disadvantage.^ Tandem cycling allows two riders of different skill levels to stay together without forcing one rider to speed up or the other rider to slow down.
  • Cycling | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Final 'a-ha' moment was riding up Ash Hill, i kept seated, and amazingly i could feel each pedal stroke going straight to the wheel.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Anyway, catching up on the week: Saturday - OBB Ride Still wasn't feeling very great, cold still lingering.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

.For the full enjoyment of tandem riding, therefore, a two-speed gear is a necessity, while a three-speed gear is better.^ So a hummer full of vegetables is significantly better for the environment than riding a bike to McDonald's.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Also got some new gear, needed some new shorts, and figured i'd chop two carrots with one swipe, and got full leggings.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Sheldon Brown's Left Drive, Three-speed, Fixed-gear Gunnar Street Dog I never claimed to be sane...
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

In the Raleigh tandem (fig. 16) the frame design is such that it can be ridden by two ladies, and the strength and rigidity is sufficient for two heavyweight riders. The steering and control of the brakes is done by the front rider. .Connected steering is employed in some tandems, allowing the rear rider to steer if necessary.^ Tandem cycling allows two riders of different skill levels to stay together without forcing one rider to speed up or the other rider to slow down.
  • Cycling | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.For two expert tandem riders, connected steering is slightly more pleasurable than fixed handle grips for the rear rider, but on the other hand, divided control may lead to disaster at a critical moment.^ On the other hand, international air travel may allow bike transportation without an additional fee.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ On the other hand, eyeglasses/helmet mirror users have a broader view than the fixed handlebar mirror by rotating their head to scan more background.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ I bet OBB orders more of the Nano's than any other shop on the planet...
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

.Most passengers on a tandem with connected steering unconsciously give the steering FIG. 16. a bias in one direction or the other, putting a nervous strain on the steersman which becomes almost intolerable towards the end of a long ride.^ Showed me a cool way to avoid a spot i disliked on a 5.9, one of the nice things about climbing with other people...they can give you ideas.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ Tandem cycling allows two riders of different skill levels to stay together without forcing one rider to speed up or the other rider to slow down.
  • Cycling | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

Motor Bicycles

Fig. .17 shows a touring motor bicycle, fitted with luggage carrier and stand, the latter for supporting the bicycle while at rest.^ Members of the touring list are often on the lookout for such bicycles on ebay and will often alert touring list members when something interesting shows up on ebay .
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ If you are planning a tour where you will be riding your bicycle with little additional weight (e.g., a supported tour), you should be able to get a pretty good idea of your conditioning needs from normal riding.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ You may also plan a tour loop where you can transport your bicycle(s) and equipment via motorized vehicle.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

.The average speed of a motor bicycle being much greater than that of a pedal bicycle the stresses on the frame due to moving over rough roads are greater.^ Igleheart Custom Frames and Bicycles New Igleheart custom fixed-gear road bike, custom touring frame .
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Bicycling at this level is more about fashion and culture than speed and performance.

^ Gunnar Sport Road Bicycle Frames Classic road geometry, with a premium on comfort.
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

This necessitates greater strength and weight in all parts - frame, wheels and tires. To take this increased weight up steep gradients requires increased engine power. .The weight of a touring motor bicycle may be from 150 to 200 lb.^ Touring can be stressful for your bicycle so be prepared to tighten whatever bolts/nuts may come loose.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ Just be sure that your LBS knows something about touring bicycles and doesn’t try to sell you something else because it’s already in the shop.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ If you are planning a tour where you will be riding your bicycle with little additional weight (e.g., a supported tour), you should be able to get a pretty good idea of your conditioning needs from normal riding.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

The drive is usually by a V belt of leather, or of canvas and rubber, the angle of the V being 28°. .The engine speed at maximum power is from 1500 to 2000 revolutions a minute, and the belt gears down in a ratio varying between s ands according to the cylinder capacity of the engine.^ NuVinci Continuously-Variable "Gear" Hub An infinite number of "speeds!"
  • What's New On The Harris Cyclery Website 20 September 2009 3:18 UTC www.sheldonbrown.com [Source type: General]

The possibility of the belt slipping slightly is conducive to smoothness of drive; chain-driving, except in combination with a slipping clutch, is too harsh. .The principal defect of the belt drive is that the belt stretches, and on coming to a steep hill may have to be tightened before the bicycle can be driven up.^ Touring can be stressful for your bicycle so be prepared to tighten whatever bolts/nuts may come loose.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ A 5 meter drop and short stretch before the barriers (just two), another downhill on the road, and then back up to the lap/finish point.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

.The control of the speed and power of the engine is effected by the throttle, extra air valve and spark advance, the levers for which are all placed within convenient reach of the driver.^ Unlike a typical electric bike, which uses a hand operated throttle to control the power from the motor, the Sanyo motor kicks in as soon as the rider starts pedaling.

As the engine is almost invariably air-cooled, the skilful manipulation of these three levers is essential for satisfactory results. .On a good level road when the engine may be working at a small fraction of its maximum power, the proportion of air mixed with the petrol vapour from the carburettor may be great, giving a " weak " mixture, yet one rich enough to be ignited in the cylinder.^ And unless one has a solar charger, recharging may require periodic motel accommodation (or a campground with AC power) to allow overnight charging, although some chargers are fast enough that quick charging during a meal in a restaurant may be feasible.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ I personally commute on a lightweight road bike with no fenders, so a bike like this would work for me if it had a small integrated rear rack for a light trunk pack.

^ A regular road bike may work just fine.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

The throttle valve may be fully open and the spark advanced for high speed; the throttle partially closed and spark retarded for slow speed. Under these conditions the engine will run for an indefinite period without overheating. .Up a steep gradient, the mixture may have to be made " richer " by partial closing of the extra air opening, and as more heat is evolved, the cylinder walls may become overheated, unless the engine power is sufficient to keep the bicycle moving through the air at a good speed.^ From the top of this section we weave through a few backyards, and then into another slick muddy section with a couple short sprints off the bike up steep embankments.
  • Cycling & Track Racing, Vegan-Style! 10 February 2010 13:53 UTC cycling.thenoisies.com [Source type: General]

^ If you are staying at a motel or other accommodation, you should expect to either be able to keep your bicycle locked in your room or have the proprietor lock it up someplace for you.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

^ When possible, it’s also a good idea to keep your bicycle within viewing distance, such as when eating at a restaurant.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

.As the engine cannot run steadily at low speed, pedalling is resorted to for starting and for riding slowly through traffic.^ Of course, the limitation with regular maps is they do not identify which roads would be good cycling roads, with low traffic and/or good riding shoulders.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

For this purpose, an " exhaust valve lifter " is usually fitted, by means of which the exhaust can be kept FIG. 17.
permanently open, in order to relieve the resistance to pedalling which the compression stroke would otherwise offer.
The nominal rating of the horse-power of a motor cycle engine is rather vague and indefinite. A 3-H.P. engine may have a cylinder of 76-80 mm. diameter and 76-80 mm. stroke. .Twin-cylinder engines, with one crank, are largely used, and some excellent 4-cylinder motor bicycles are made with bevel gear transmission.^ A system of bicycle routes was developed to (1) incorporate in the City's Master Plan (2) be used for maps that will be made available to bicyclists throughout the City and (3) to help prioritize investment in route facilities.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maintain fleets of bicycles and helmets for use by City employees along with motor vehicle fleets (as done by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission and Caltrans District 1).
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the SFPD's database for accidents is useful, some changes are recommended: In a car-bike collision, a bicycle should be treated as a second vehicle.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The chief advantage of the multicylinder engine is the smoother drive obtained.
.A " trailer " with two wheels for carrying a passenger can be attached to a motor bicycle, but the element of risk is increased.^ Two bicycles per bus, seniors and wheelchair passengers have priority, cyclist must be at least 16 years old.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the number of reported motor vehicle accidents has decreased slightly, the proportion of bicycle accidents to total accidents has increased from 3.4 percent to almost 4 percent.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Duboce Avenue - Close Duboce Avenue between Market and Church Streets to motor vehicle traffic and implement a two-way bicycle-only facility.
  • Bicycle Advisory Committee: The San Francisco Bicycle Plan 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sfgov.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A side-car, with one additional wheel, forms a safer passenger carrier.^ The most difficult spoke break to repair, yet one of the most frequent, is a cassette/freewheel side rear wheel spoke.
  • Frequently Asked Questions 11 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cyclingaway.com [Source type: General]

(A. Se.)

Bida >>

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Bicycles article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Bicycles
This book is a comprehensive guide to riding and maintaining bicycles, easily understood by the rank amateur whilst also having useful information for experienced bike mechanics.
If you come across anything that you don't understand, please do leave a message on the relevant discussion page, and we'll try to clarify things for you. If you're having trouble, then the chances are that someone else is too.

Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. What style of riding is best for me
  3. Equipment and accessories
  4. Riding tips and safety tips
  5. Very detailed guide to safety
  6. Maintenance and repair
  7. Modifications

Related books


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|250px|Early bicycles]] [[File:|thumb|250px|A modern mountain bike; its thick, wide tires allow it to be used on rocky trails]]

A bicycle, or bike, is a small, human powered land vehicle with a seat, two wheels, two pedals, and a metal chain connected to cogs on the pedals and rear wheel. A frame gives the bike strength, and all of the parts other than the frame are attached to the frame. The name comes from these two wheels - the prefix "bi-" meaning two, and the suffix "-cycle" meaning wheel. It is powered by a person riding on top, who pushes the pedals around with his or her feet.

Riding bicycles, which is also called cycling, is an important way to travel in several parts of the world. It is also a common recreation, a good form of low-impact exercise, and a popular sport. It is also the second most popular spectator sport in the world. Bicycling uses less energy per mile than any other human transport.[1]

Contents

Invention

File:Draisine or Laufmaschine, around 1820. Archetype of the Bicycle. Pic
Wooden Draisine (around 1820), the first two-wheeler

In 1817 a German professor, baron Karl von Drais, created the first two wheeled bicycle. It had a handlebar, and looked like a bicycle of today, but it didn`t have pedals, and it had a wooden body.

Basic Design

Basic components common to most bikes include a seat, pedals, gearing, gear shifter, handlebar, wheels, brakes, cables, and frame elements. Some bikes are fixed gear and have no shifting capability.

Types of Bicycles

Mountain Bicycle

The mountain bicycle is used for riding on rough roads. They have many speeds (usually more than 20), wide tires, and powerful wheels. The tire tread is specially designed to ride smoothly on hills, grass, and mountains.

Urban Bicycle

The Urban bicycle is used for the convenient ride around the city. It`s comfortable and has a relatively high speed. It has a comfortable seat but is heavy. It usually has fenders to keep water and mud from spraying the rider.

Woman’s Bicycle

The difference between a woman's bicycle and other bicycles is the location of the top tube. When women began to ride bikes, they wore long skirts. The manufacturers of bicycles changed the location of the top tube to make it easier for women to sit down on them while wearing a skirt.

Tandem Bicycle

The tandem is a bicycle for 2 people. It has two pairs of pedals. The cyclists sit one behind another. The first cyclist steers the bicycle. There are bicycles for 3 and more people. There was a bicycle for 40 people.

Electric Bicycle

Electric bicycles have electric motors normally found inside the hub of either the front or rear wheel. You can choose to ride using the motor only, or with pedals only or with both together.

In the U.S. the federal government has set a limit of 750 Watts and a top electric-powered speed of 20MPH to have only the rules that apply to bicycles and no extra restrictions such as operator license, vehicle license, registration or insurance requirements.

Road Bicycle

A road bicycle usually has smaller tires, less than 1" thick, with a frame that is much lighter than a mountain bicycle. Road bikes are a great option for training longer distances and changing out the pedals for clip in shoes are the best way to go. There are variations, as some road bicycles have regular tires. A road bike can go very fast and is a good choice when participating in a bike race.

Safety

When riding on streets, it is safest to ride on the same side of the street that cars drive (which would mean riding on the right side of the road in countries where people drive on the right side of the road, and riding on the left in countries where people drive on the left).. To avoid hitting people, riders must obey signs that say "no bicycling", even if it does not seem to make sense at the time. Low light makes bicycle lighting important; so without bicycle lighting, it may be safer not to ride. Wearing a helmet makes bicycle riding safer. More than 300,000 people children alone to go to a hospital every year because they were hurt riding a bicycle.[2] Wearing a helmet does not mean that somebody cannot be hurt if they crash their bicycle, but it makes being hurt less likely.[3] Some bicycles have bells or horns that the rider can use to warn other people that they are riding by them.

References

  1. "Science of Cycling: Human Power". www.exploratorium.edu. pp. 1. http://www.exploratorium.edu/cycling/humanpower1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  2. "Bike Safety". kidshealth.org. http://kidshealth.org/kid/watch/out/bike_safety.html. Retrieved July 29, 2010. 
  3. "Helmets: How they Work and What Standards Do". bhsi.org. http://www.bhsi.org/general.htm. Retrieved July 29, 2010. 

Other pages

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Up to date as of December 14, 2010

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