From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"velo" redirects here. For the binding, see VeloBind
.^ Kevin started with a pretty firm pace, so i just stuck to his wheel...but as we were getting to the top his lack of time on the bike was oozing out, and i found myself powering away...unexpected, but it will likely be one of the few times this occurs!
^ One was a climb i hadn't tried yet, and the other two were ones i toyed on (and kicked my butt) on Wed.
^ Boo Cycles Bamboo CX Frame http://www.cyclingnews.com/features/pro-bike-tyler-wrens-boo-bicycles-boocx Another company doing bamboo bike frames!
A person who rides a bicycle is called a cyclist
or a bicyclist
Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number about one billion worldwide, twice as many as automobiles.
They are the principal means of transportation
in many regions. They also provide a popular form of recreation, and have been adapted for such uses as children's toys, adult fitness, military and police applications, courier services and bicycle racing
The basic shape and configuration of a typical upright bicycle
has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885.
Many details have been improved, especially since the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design
. These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for particular types of cycling
The invention of the bicycle has had an enormous impact on society, both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that eventually played a key role in the development of the automobile were originally invented for the bicycle – e.g., ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven sprockets, spoke-tensioned wheels, etc.
(around 1820), the first two-wheeler and as such the archetype of the bicycle
Multiple innovators contributed to the history of the bicycle by developing precursor human-powered vehicles. The documented ancestors of today's modern bicycle were known as draisines
, hobby horses, or push bikes (and modern bicycles are sometimes still called push bikes outside of North America). Being the first human means of transport to make use of the two-wheeler principle, the draisine (or Laufmaschine
, "running machine"), invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais
, is regarded as the forerunner of the modern bicycle. .^ I prolly should have jumped about there and got in front of the group, but i just sat in, and hit the line on the wheels of Craig, Scotty and Daniel.
Michaux' son on velocipede 1868
Thomas McCall in 1869 on his velocipede
In the early 1860s, Frenchmen Pierre Michaux
and Pierre Lallement
took bicycle design in a new direction by adding a mechanical crank
drive with pedals on an enlarged front wheel (the velocipede
). Another French inventor by the name of Douglas Grasso had a failed prototype of Pierre Lallement's bicycle several years earlier. .^ We hit the corner leading into the first hump, and i look back, and no one's there!!!
It featured a tubular steel frame on which were mounted wire-spoked wheels with solid rubber tires. These bicycles were difficult to ride due to their very high seat and poor weight distribution
Bicycle in Plymouth
, England at the start of the 20th century
The dwarf ordinary
addressed some of these faults by reducing the front wheel diameter and setting the seat further back. This necessitated the addition of gearing, effected in a variety of ways, to attain sufficient speed. Having to both pedal and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. J. K. Starley
, J. H. Lawson, and Shergold solved this problem by introducing the chain drive
(originated by the unsuccessful "bicyclette" of Englishman Henry Lawson),
connecting the frame-mounted pedals to the rear wheel. These models were known as dwarf safeties
, or safety bicycles
, for their lower seat height and better weight distribution. (Although without pneumatic tires the ride of the smaller wheeled bicycle would be much rougher than that of the larger wheeled variety.) Starley's 1885 Rover is usually described as the first recognizably modern bicycle. Soon, the seat tube
was added, creating the double-triangle diamond frame
of the modern bike.
Further innovations increased comfort and ushered in a second bicycle craze
, the 1890s' Golden Age of Bicycles
. In 1888, Scotsman John Boyd Dunlop
introduced the first practical pneumatic tire
, which soon became universal. Soon after, the rear freewheel
was developed, enabling the rider to coast. This refinement led to the 1898 invention of coaster brakes
. Derailleur gears
and hand-operated cable-pull brakes
were also developed during these years, but were only slowly adopted by casual riders. By the turn of the century, cycling clubs
flourished on both sides of the Atlantic, and touring and racing became widely popular.
Bicycles and horse buggies were the two mainstays of private transportation just prior to the automobile, and the grading of smooth roads in the late 19th century was stimulated by the widespread advertising, production, and use of these devices.
Bicycles have been and are employed for many uses:
- Utility: bicycle commuting and utility cycling
- Work: mail delivery, paramedics, police, couriering, and general delivery.
- Recreation: bicycle touring, mountain biking, BMX and physical fitness.
- Racing: track racing, criterium, roller racing and time trial to multi-stage events like the Tour of California, Giro d'Italia, the Tour de France, the Vuelta a España, the Volta a Portugal, among others.
- Military: scouting, troop movement, supply of provisions, and patrol.^ And probably the "easiest" way to do it is with interval training (although hard climbing and time trialing can work too).
^ This helps athletes run or ride faster even in very long events such as marathons and multi-day bike rides.
^ Halldor Gunnarrson http://onbiking.blogspot.com/ We've mountain biked, raced, and sprinted - let's get you out on the trails more this winter!
See bicycle infantry.
- Show: entertainment and performance, e.g. circus clowns.
- As a novelty musical instrument; e.g. Frank Zappa and P. D. Q. Bach.
The bicycle has undergone continual adaptation and improvement since its inception. These innovations have continued with the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design, allowing for a proliferation of specialized bicycle types.
Bicycles can be categorized in different ways: e.g. by function, by number of riders, by general construction, by gearing or by means of propulsion. .^ Halldor Gunnarrson http://onbiking.blogspot.com/ We've mountain biked, raced, and sprinted - let's get you out on the trails more this winter!
Less common are tandems
, tall bikes
, fixed gear
, folding models
(one of which was used to set the IHPVA Hour record
are not strictly bicycles, as they have respectively one, three and four wheels, but are often referred to informally as "bikes".
Bicycles leaning in a turn
A bicycle stays upright while moving forward by being steered so as to keep its center of gravity
over the wheels.
This steering is usually provided by the rider, but under certain conditions may be provided by the bicycle itself.
The combined center of mass of a bicycle and its rider must lean into a turn to successfully navigate it. This lean is induced by a method known as countersteering
, which can be performed by the rider turning the handlebars directly with the hands
or indirectly by leaning the bicycle.
Short-wheelbase or tall bicycles
, when braking, can generate enough stopping force at the front wheel to flip longitudinally.
The act of purposefully using this force to lift the rear wheel and balance on the front without tipping over is a trick known as a stoppie
, endo or front wheelie.
The bicycle is extraordinarily efficient in both biological and mechanical terms. The bicycle is the most efficient self-powered means of transportation in terms of energy a person must expend to travel a given distance. .^ Final 'a-ha' moment was riding up Ash Hill, i kept seated, and amazingly i could feel each pedal stroke going straight to the wheel.
In terms of the ratio of cargo weight a bicycle can carry to total weight, it is also an efficient means of cargo transportation.
A human traveling on a bicycle at low to medium speeds of around 10–15 mph (15–25 km/h) uses only the energy required to walk. Air drag, which is proportional to the square of speed, requires dramatically higher power outputs as speeds increase. If the rider is sitting upright, the rider's body creates about 75% of the total drag of the bicycle/rider combination. Drag can be reduced by seating the rider in a supine position
or a prone position
, thus creating a recumbent bicycle
or human powered vehicle
. Drag can also be reduced by covering the bicycle with an aerodynamic fairing
.^ (From the numbers in the report, as a comparison, all transportation in the world would be less than 6% of all global emissions..
Construction and parts
In its early years, bicycle construction drew on pre-existing technologies. More recently, bicycle technology has in turn contributed ideas in both old and new areas.
Main article: Bicycle frame
The great majority of today's bicycles have a frame with upright seating which looks much like the first chain-driven bike.
Such upright bicycles
almost always feature the diamond frame
, a truss
consisting of two triangles: the front triangle and the rear triangle. .^ Craig Richey had been in front of me (and behind Dave) and he stood up as i was passing him, he started to crank it and WHAM! I looked back and he was sitting on his top tube!!
The head tube contains the headset
, the set of bearings that allows the fork
to turn smoothly for steering and balance. The top tube connects the head tube to the seat tube at the top, and the down tube connects the head tube to the bottom bracket
. The rear triangle consists of the seat tube and paired chain stays and seat stays. The chain stays run parallel to the chain
, connecting the bottom bracket to the rear dropouts
. The seat stays connect the top of the seat tube (at or near the same point as the top tube) to the rear dropouts.
Historically, women's bicycle frames had a top tube that connected in the middle of the seat tube instead of the top, resulting in a lower standover height
at the expense of compromised structural integrity, since this places a strong bending load in the seat tube, and bicycle frame members are typically weak in bending. This design, referred to as a step-through frame
, allows the rider to mount and dismount in a dignified way while wearing a skirt or dress. .^ I went into it with two goals: Top 20 finish, and not-last.
^ So we split into two group, i much prefer a smaller pack of ~12 riders.
The ease of stepping through is also appreciated by those with limited flexibility or other joint problems. Because of its persistent image as a "women's" bicycle, step-through frames are not common for larger frames.
Another style is the recumbent bicycle
. .^ All this lead to a paved straight of about 250m, and back onto grass with another hairpin.
^ Near the top, i looked back, and i was in a lead group of about 6 riders, and ~20m behind was another smaller pack, an no sign of anyone else..
^ After that, were a couple more twists, and then onto the grass and back to the climb.
The world's fastest bicycle is a recumbent bicycle but this type was banned from competition in 1934 by the Union Cycliste Internationale
Historically, materials used in bicycles have followed a similar pattern as in aircraft, the goal being high strength and low weight. Since the late 1930s alloy steels have been used for frame and fork tubes in higher quality machines. Celluloid
found application in mudguards, and aluminum alloys
are increasingly used in components such as handlebars, seat post
, and brake levers. In the 1980s aluminum alloy frames became popular for their lightness, and their affordability now makes them common. More expensive carbon fiber and titanium frames are now also available, as well as advanced steel alloys and even bamboo.
Drivetrain and gearing
A set of rear sprockets (also known as a cassette) and a derailleur
begins with pedals
which rotate the cranks
, which are held in axis by the bottom bracket
. Most bicycles use a chain to transmit power to the rear wheel. A relatively small number of bicycles use a shaft drive to transmit power. .^ Basically, working our way downhill with a number of short power climbs into tight technical corners.
Different gears and ranges of gears are appropriate for different people and styles of cycling. Multi-speed bicycles allow gear selection to suit the circumstances: a cyclist could use a high gear when cycling downhill, a medium gear when cycling on a flat road, and a low gear when cycling uphill. In a lower gear every turn of the pedals leads to fewer rotations of the rear wheel. This allows the energy required to move the same distance to be distributed over more pedal turns, reducing fatigue when riding uphill, with a heavy load, or against strong winds. A higher gear allows a cyclist to make fewer pedal turns to maintain a given speed, but with more effort per turn of the pedals.
With a chain drive
transmission, a chainring
attached to a crank drives the chain
, which in turn rotates the rear wheel via the rear sprocket
). .^ So, that's four rides in five days...TSS is getting up there - hopefully i can sustain this, and when it comes to doing even harder workouts, i can maintain the through the summer...
The most common options are either a rear hub or multiple chain rings combined with multiple sprockets (other combinations of options are possible but less common).
With a shaft drive
transmission, a gear set at the bottom bracket turns the shaft, which then turns the rear wheel via a gear set connected to the wheel's hub. .^ Also got some new gear, needed some new shorts, and figured i'd chop two carrots with one swipe, and got full leggings.
The only gearing option with a shaft drive is to use a hub gear
Steering and seating
turn the fork
and the front wheel via the stem
, which rotates within the headset
. Three styles of handlebar are common. Upright handlebars
, the norm in Europe and elsewhere until the 1970s, curve gently back toward the rider, offering a natural grip and comfortable upright position. .^ Half of them ran their best times ever, even though they'd been racing for more than 5 years.
^ I managed to figure out a line that cut across it all and dropped me into the deepest section of 'The Slop', which was the best section to ride.
^ Wasn't feeling too spunky (legs a bit flat) so didn't quite get up a few sections...rode well otherwise.
Mountain bikes generally feature a 'straight handlebar' or 'riser bar' with varying degrees of sweep backwards and centimeters rise upwards, as well as wider widths which can provide better handling due to increased leverage against the wheel.
A Selle San Marco saddle designed for women
.^ I'd passed a few more riders, and only one rider had gotten by me: the young (16) Michael Brinton who's proving to be a diverse and strong rider!!
^ Also got some new gear, needed some new shorts, and figured i'd chop two carrots with one swipe, and got full leggings.
Comfort depends on riding position. With comfort bikes and hybrids, cyclists sit high over the seat, their weight directed down onto the saddle, such that a wider and more cushioned saddle is preferable. .^ Who knows how many more medals might have had to come to Canada were more riders exposed to track racing?
^ Halldor Gunnarrson http://onbiking.blogspot.com/ We've mountain biked, raced, and sprinted - let's get you out on the trails more this winter!
Differing saddle designs exist for male and female cyclists, accommodating the genders' differing anatomies, although bikes typically are sold with saddles most appropriate for men.
.^ I'd passed a few more riders, and only one rider had gotten by me: the young (16) Michael Brinton who's proving to be a diverse and strong rider!!
^ Who knows how many more medals might have had to come to Canada were more riders exposed to track racing?
Recumbent bicycles may have either under-seat or over-seat steering
Modern bicycle brakes
may be rim brakes
, in which friction pads are compressed against the wheel rims, internal hub brakes
, in which the friction pads are contained within the wheel hubs, disc brakes
, with a separate rotor for braking. Disc brakes
are more common on off-road bicycles, tandems
and recumbent bicycles than on road-specific bicycles.
A front disc brake, mounted to the fork
With hand-operated brakes, force is applied to brake levers mounted on the handlebars and transmitted via Bowden cables
or hydraulic lines to the friction pads. A rear hub brake may be either hand-operated or pedal-actuated, as in the back pedal coaster brakes
which were popular in North America until the 1960s, and are common in children's bicycles.
do not have dedicated brakes. .^ Mical Dyck: http://micaldyck.blogspot.com/ One of Canada's top MTB riders, and all-around swell person and new Island resident!
.^ I could bridge up, still wiped from the earlier pull..there was a small group (4) of us that chased until the airport, no dice..
^ Still 20m to go, and i was DYING. Breathing so hard, legs very unhappy, i crested the section, sat down and tried to continue pedalling, and there was nothing.
Without a freewheel, coasting is impossible, so when the rear wheel is moving, the crank is moving. To slow down, the rider applies resistance to the pedals – this acts as a braking system which can be as effective as a friction-based rear wheel brake, but not as effective as a front wheel brake.
Bicycle suspension refers to the system or systems used to suspend the rider and all or part of the bicycle. This serves two purposes:
- To keep the wheels in continuous contact with rough surfaces to improve control.
- To isolate the rider and luggage from jarring due to rough surfaces.
Bicycle suspensions are used primarily on mountain bicycles, but are also common on hybrid bicycles, and can even be found on some road bicycles, as they can help deal with problematic vibration. Suspension is especially important on recumbent bicycles, since while an upright bicycle rider can stand on the pedals to achieve some of the benefits of suspension, a recumbent rider cannot.
Main article: Bicycle wheel
The wheel axle fits into dropouts
in the frame
. A pair of wheels may be called a wheelset
, especially in the context of ready-built "off the shelf", performance-oriented wheels.
Tires vary enormously. Skinny 18 to 25 millimeters wide, road-racing tires may be completely smooth, or (slick
). On the opposite extreme, off-road tires are 38 to 64 millimeters wide and usually have a deep tread for gripping in muddy conditions or metal spikes for ice.
Accessories, repairs, and tools
Touring bicycle equipped with head lamp
, rear rack
, fenders/mud-guards, water bottles and cages
, and numerous saddle-bags.
Puncture repair kit with tire levers, sandpaper to clean off an area of the inner tube around the puncture, a tube of rubber solution (vulcanizing fluid), round and oval patches, a metal grater and piece of chalk to make chalk powder (to dust over excess rubber solution). Kits often also include a wax crayon to mark the puncture location.
Some components, which are often optional accessories on sports bicycles, are standard features on utility bicycles
to enhance their usefulness and comfort. .^ Catching up: Saturday Went out on the OBB group ride (meets at Oak Bay Bikes at 9am, be fendered and extendered if wet!
keep a bicycle upright when parked, while a bike lock
will help prevent it from being stolen. Front-mounted baskets
for carrying goods are often used. Luggage carriers
mounted above the rear tire can be used to carry equipment or cargo. Parents sometimes add rear-mounted child seats
and/or an auxiliary saddle fitted to the crossbar to transport children.
and clipless pedals
help keep the foot locked in the proper position on the pedals, and enable the cyclist to pull as well as push the pedals—although not without their hazards, e.g. may lock foot in when needed to prevent a fall. Technical accessories include cyclocomputers
for measuring speed, distance, heart rate, GPS data etc. Other accessories include lights
, reflectors, security locks
, mirror, water bottles and cages
, and bell.
may help reduce injury in the event of a collision or accident, and a certified helmet is legally required for some riders in some jurisdictions. Helmets are classified as an accessory
or an item of clothing by others.
Many cyclists carry tool kits
. These may include a tire patch kit (which, in turn, may contain any combination of a hand pump
or CO2 Pump
, tire levers
, spare tubes
, self-adhesive patches, or tube-patching material, an adhesive, a piece of sandpaper or a metal grater (for roughing the tube surface to be patched),
and sometimes even a block of French chalk
, hex keys
, and a chain tool
. There are also cycling specific multi-tools
that combine many of these implements into a single compact device. More specialized bicycle components may require more complex tools, including proprietary tools specific for a given manufacturer.
Some bicycle parts, particularly hub-based gearing systems, are complex, and many cyclists prefer to leave maintenance and repairs
to professional bicycle mechanics
. In some areas it is possible to purchase road-side assistance from companies such as the Better World Club
. Other cyclists maintain their own bicycles, perhaps as part of their enjoyment of the hobby of cycling or simply for economic reasons. The ability to repair and maintain your own bicycle is also celebrated within the DIY
A number of formal and industry standards exist for bicycle components to help make spare parts exchangeable and to maintain a minimum product safety.
The International Organization for Standardization
, has a special technical committee for cycles, TC149, that has the following scope: "Standardization in the field of cycles, their components and accessories with particular reference to terminology, testing methods and requirements for performance and safety, and interchangeability."
, European Committee for Standardisation, also has a specific Technical Committee, TC333, that defines European standards for cycles. Their mandate states that EN cycle standards shall harmonize with ISO standards
. Some CEN cycle standards were developed before ISO published their standards, leading to strong European influences in this area. European cycle standards tend to describe minimum safety requirements, while ISO standards have historically harmonized parts geometry.
Social and historical aspects
The bicycle has had a considerable effect on human society, in both the cultural and industrial realms.
In daily life
Around the turn of the 20th century, bicycles reduced crowding in inner-city tenements by allowing workers to commute
from more spacious dwellings in the suburbs. They also reduced dependence on horses. Bicycles allowed people to travel for leisure into the country, since bicycles were three times as energy efficient as walking and three to four times as fast.
Recently, several European cities and Montreal
have implemented successful schemes known as community bicycle programs
or bike-sharing. These initiatives complement a city's public transport system and offer an alternative to motorized traffic to help reduce congestion and pollution. In Europe, especially in The Netherlands and parts of Germany and Denmark, commuting
by bicycle is very common. In The Netherlands, all train stations are equipped with provisions for bicycle parking for a small fee and the larger ones also with bicycle repair shops, and cycling is so popular that the parking capacity is sometimes exceeded.
in Norway, the Trampe bicycle lift
has been developed to encourage cyclists by giving assistance on a steep hill.
In cities where the bicycle is not an integral part of the planned transportation system, commuters often use bicycles as elements of a mixed-mode commute
, where the bike is used to travel to and from train stations or other forms of rapid transit. Folding bicycles
are useful in these scenarios, as they are less cumbersome when carried aboard. Los Angeles removed a small amount of seating on some trains to make more room for bicycles and wheel chairs.
Bicycles offer an important mode of transport in many developing countries. Until recently, bicycles have been a staple of everyday life throughout Asian countries. They are the most frequently used method of transport for commuting to work, school, shopping, and life in general.
Woman with bicycle, 1890s
The safety bicycle
gave women unprecedented mobility, contributing to their emancipation
in Western nations. As bicycles became safer and cheaper, more women had access to the personal freedom they embodied, and so the bicycle came to symbolize the New Woman
of the late 19th century, especially in Britain and the United States. The bicycle was recognized by 19th-century feminists
as a "freedom machine" for women. American Susan B. Anthony
said in a New York World
interview on February 2, 1896: "Let me tell you what I think of bicycling. .^ I think it's a bit under-ranked..i'd say this was definitely much closer to a 9 than 10...the black 5.9 on the opposing wall is SIGNIFICANTLY more challenging...!
It gives women a feeling of freedom and self-reliance. I stand and rejoice every time I see a woman ride by on a wheel...the picture of free, untrammeled womanhood." In 1895 Frances Willard, the tightly-laced president of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union
, wrote a book called How I Learned to Ride the Bicycle
, in which she praised the bicycle she learned to ride late in life, and which she named "Gladys", for its "gladdening effect" on her health and political optimism. .^ This blog/site is a collection of my thoughts, articles and other general excitement tied into cycling, training and competing as a vegan bike racer and athlete.
^ I was thinking that they could *easily* devise a way to turn a wired PT into a wireless..
^ A little unit like that could turn any wired PT into a wireless...i'd *totally* buy one or two of those things....
Male anger at the freedom symbolized by the New (bicycling) Woman was demonstrated when the male undergraduates of Cambridge University
showed their opposition to the admission of women as full members of the university by hanging a woman bicyclist in effigy in the main town square
. This was as late as 1897.
The bicycle craze
in the 1890s also led to a movement for so-called rational dress
, which helped liberate women from corsets and ankle-length skirts and other restrictive garments, substituting the then-shocking bloomers
Bicycle manufacturing proved to be a training ground for other industries and led to the development of advanced metalworking techniques, both for the frames themselves and for special components such as ball bearings
, and sprockets
. These techniques later enabled skilled metalworkers and mechanics to develop the components used in early automobiles and aircraft.
.^ People do shorter, more steady pulls, much smoother training...all i'm looking for these days as racing season is over!
^ I think it's a bit under-ranked..i'd say this was definitely much closer to a 9 than 10...the black 5.9 on the opposing wall is SIGNIFICANTLY more challenging...!
^ This reduces the electrical charge between the inside and outside, so muscle cells contract with much less force until finally they cannot contract at all.
In addition, bicycle makers adopted the annual model change
(later derided as planned obsolescence
, and usually credited to General Motors), which proved very successful.
Furthermore, early bicycles were an example of conspicuous consumption
, being adopted by the fashionable elites.
In addition, by serving as a platform for accessories, which could ultimately cost more than the bicycle itself, it paved the way for the likes of the Barbie doll
Moreover, they helped create, or enhance, new kinds of businesses, such as bicycle messengers,
and racing rinks
(Their board tracks were later adapted to early motorcycle
and automobile racing
.) Also, there were a variety of new inventions, such as spoke tighteners,
and specialized lights,
socks and shoes,
and even cameras (such as the Eastman Company
Probably the best known and most widely used of these inventions, adopted well beyond cycling, is Charles Bennett's Bike Web, which came to be called the "jock strap
They also presaged a move away from public transit
that would explode with the introduction of the automobile.
J. K. Starley's company became the Rover Cycle Company Ltd. in the late 1890s, and then simply the Rover Company
when it started making cars. The Morris Motor Company
) and Škoda
also began in the bicycle business, as did the Wright brothers
Alistair Craig, whose company eventually emerged to become the engine manufacturers Ailsa Craig
, also started from manufacturing bicycles, in Glasgow in March 1885.
.^ Boo Cycles Bamboo CX Frame http://www.cyclingnews.com/features/pro-bike-tyler-wrens-boo-bicycles-boocx Another company doing bamboo bike frames!
) In recent years, those bicycle makers have greatly changed their methods of production. Now, almost none of them produce their own frames.
Many newer or smaller companies only design and market their products; the actual production is done by Asian companies. For example, some 60% of the world's bicycles are now being made in China. Despite this shift in production, as nations such as China
become more wealthy, their own use of bicycles has declined due to the increasing affordability of cars and motorcycles.
One of the major reasons for the proliferation of Chinese-made bicycles in foreign markets is the lower cost of labor in China.
One of the profound economic implications of bicycle use is that it liberates the user from oil consumption (Ballantine, 1972). The bicycle is a inexpensive, fast, healthy and environmentally friendly mode of transport (Illich, 1974)
Reflectors for riding after dark
Early in its development, as with automobiles
, there were restrictions on the operation of bicycles. Along with advertising, and to gain free publicity, Albert A. Pope
litigated on behalf of cyclists.
The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic
of the United Nations
considers a bicycle to be a vehicle, and a person controlling a bicycle (whether actually riding or not) is considered an operator. The traffic codes of many countries reflect these definitions and demand that a bicycle satisfy certain legal requirements before it can be used on public roads. In many jurisdictions
, it is an offense to use a bicycle that is not in a roadworthy condition.
In most jurisdictions, bicycles must have functioning front and rear lights when ridden after dark. As some generator or dynamo
-driven lamps only operate while moving, rear reflectors
are frequently also mandatory. Since a moving bicycle makes little noise, some countries insist that bicycles have a warning bell for use when approaching pedestrians, equestrians, and other cyclists.
Some countries require child and/or adult cyclists to wear helmets
, as this may protect riders from head trauma. Countries which require adult cyclists to wear helmets include Spain, Canada, New Zealand
This audio file was created from a revision dated 2007-12-07, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)