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Bidens
Smooth Beggarticks (Bidens laevis) being pollinated by a bombyliid fly
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Subtribe: Coreopsidinae
Genus: Bidens
L.
Species

Many, see text.

Synonyms

Campylotheca Cass.

Romerillo
Bidens alba
Bidens biternata- Spanish Needles
Maui Beggarticks
Bidens mauiensis
Kalealaha Beggarticks
Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha
Apache Beggarticks
Bidens ferulifolia

Bidens is a genus in the family Asteraceae. It contains about 200 species. The common names beggarticks, bur-marigolds, stickseeds, tickseeds and tickseed sunflowers refer to the achene burrs on the seeds of this genus, most of which are barbed. The generic name refers to the same fact; it means "two-tooth", from Latin bis "two" + dens "tooth".

Bidens achenes sticking to a sleeve

The plants are zoochorous; their seeds will stick to clothing, fur or feathers, and be carried to new habitat. This has enabled them to colonize a wide range, including many oceanic islands. Some of these species occur only in a very restricted range and several are now threatened with extinction, notably in the Hawaiian Islands. Due to the absence of native mammals on these islands, some of the oceanic island taxa have reduced burrs, evolving features that seem to aid in dispersal by the wind instead.

Smooth Beggarticks (B. laevis) is a common fall flower in the southeastern USA. Pitchfork Weed (B. frondosa) is considered to be a weed in New Zealand, although it is not officially declared an invasive species.

On the Hawaiian Islands, Bidens are called kokoʻolau or koʻokoʻolau[1]. They were and still are used to brew a refreshing tea. In some regions, leaves of Hairy Beggarticks (B. pilosa) and Three-lobed Beggarticks (B. tripartita) are sometimes eaten as a vegetable.

Nodding Beggarticks (B. cernua) and Hairy Beggarticks are useful as honey plants. Several Bidens species are used as food by the caterpillars of certain Lepidoptera, such as the noctuid moth Hypercompe hambletoni and the Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui, a brush-footed butterfly). The plant pathogen Bidens mottle virus was named after the present genus, as it was first isolated from Hairy Beggarticks; it infects a wide range of Asteraceae and other plants.

Bidens is found in many areas of the world.[2] It is closely related to the American genus Coreopsis and in fact neither Bidens nor Coreopsis as defined in the 20th century is monophyletic.[2]

Selected species

  • Bidens alba (L.) DC. – Romerillo
  • Bidens amplectens – Waiʻanae Kokoʻolau
  • Bidens amplissima Greene – Vancouver Island Beggarticks
  • Bidens aristosa (Michx.) Britt. – Bearded Beggarticks, Long-bracted Beggarticks, Tickseed Beggarticks, Western Tickseed
  • Bidens asymmetrica (Levl.) Sherff – Koʻolau Kokoʻolau
  • Bidens aurea (Ait.) Sherff – Arizona Beggarticks
  • Bidens bidentoides (Nutt.) Britt. – Delmarva Beggarticks
  • Bidens bigelovii Gray – Bigelow's Beggarticks
  • Bidens bipinnata L. – Spanish Needles; gui zheng cao in Chinese (Chinese: 鬼針草)
  • Bidens campylotheca – Viper Beggarticks
  • Bidens cernua L. (syn. B. glaucescens Greene) – Nodding Beggarticks, Nodding Bur-marigold
  • Bidens cervicata Sherff – Kauaʻi Beggarticks
  • Bidens conjuncta – Bog Beggarticks
  • Bidens connata Muhl. ex Willd. – Purple-stemmed Beggarticks, Purple-stemmed Swamp Beggarticks, Connate Beggarticks, London Bur-marigold, Southern Tickseed
  • Bidens coronata (L.) Britt. – Crowned Beggarticks
  • Bidens cosmoides – Cosmosflower Beggarticks, poʻola nui
  • Bidens cuneata Sherff – Cuneate Bidens, Wedge Beggarticks
  • Bidens cynapiifolia Kunth – West Indian Beggarticks
  • Bidens discoidea (Torr. & Gray) Britt. – Discoid Beggarticks, Small Beggarticks, Swamp Beggarticks, Few-bracted Beggarticks
  • Bidens eatonii Fern. – Eaton's Beggarticks
  • Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq.) DC. – Apache Beggarticks, Fern-leaved Beggarticks
  • Bidens forbesii Sherff – Coastalbluff Beggarticks
  • Bidens frondosa – Devil's Beggarticks, Large-leaved Beggarticks, Common Beggarticks, Common Tickseed, Devil's Bootjack, Devil's Pitchfork, Pitchfork Weed
  • Bidens gardneri Baker – Ridge Beggarticks
  • Bidens hawaiensis Gray – Hawaiʻi Beggarticks
  • Bidens heterodoxa (Fern.) Fern. & St. John – Connecticut Beggarticks
  • Bidens heterosperma Gray – Rocky Mountain Beggarticks
  • Bidens hillebrandiana (Drake) O. Deg. – Seacliff Beggarticks
  • Bidens hyperborea Greene – Estuary Beggarticks, Coastal Beggarticks, Northern Estuarine Beggarticks, Seacliff Beggarticks
  • Bidens laevis (L.) B.S.P. – Smooth Beggarticks, Smooth Bur-marigold, Larger Bur-marigold
  • Bidens lemmonii Gray – Lemmon's Beggarticks
  • Bidens leptocephala Sherff – Few-flowered Beggarticks
  • Bidens macrocarpa (Gray) Sherff – Large-fruited Beggarticks
  • Bidens mannii
  • Bidens mauiensis (Gray) Sherff – Maui Beggarticks
  • Bidens menziesii (Gray) Sherff – Mauna Loa Beggarticks
  • Bidens micrantha Gaud. – Grassland Beggarticks
    • Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha – Kalealaha Beggarticks
  • Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff – Small-fruited Beggarticks
  • Bidens molokaiensis – Molokaʻi Beggarticks
  • Bidens × multiceps Fassett
  • Bidens pilosa – Hairy Beggarticks
  • Bidens polylepis Blake – Awnless Beggarticks
  • Bidens populifolia – Oʻahu Beggarticks, Poplar-leaved Bidens
  • Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don – Manzanilla Trepador
  • Bidens sandvicensis Less. – Shrubland Beggarticks
  • Bidens schimperi Sch. Bip.
  • Bidens simplicifolia
  • Bidens socorrensis
  • Bidens squarrosa Kunth
  • Bidens tenuisecta Gray – Slim-lobed Beggarticks
  • Bidens torta Sherff – Corkscrew Beggarticks
  • Bidens tripartita (syn B. acuta, B. comosa) – Three-lobed Beggarticks, Three-part Beggarticks, Leafy-bracted Beggarticks, Trifid Bur-marigold
  • Bidens triplinervia
    • Bidens triplinervia var. macrantha
  • Bidens valida Sherff – Kahili Beggarticks
  • Bidens vulgata Greene – Big Devil's Beggarticks, Tall Beggarticks, Tall Bur-marigold, Western Sticktight
  • Bidens wiebkei – Wiebke's Beggarticks, Molokaʻi Koʻokoʻolau

Footnotes

  1. ^ Carr (2006)
  2. ^ a b Crawford, D. J. (2005). "Phylogeny of Eastern North American Coreopsis (Asteraceae-Coreopsideae): insights from nuclear and plastid sequences, and comments on character evolution". American Journal of Botany 92: 330. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.2.330.  

References

  • Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L., Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press.   ISBN 0-89672-614-2 (Book)

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids II
Ordo: Asterales
Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Coreopsideae
Genus: Bidens
Species: B. abyssinica - B. acaulis - B. acrifolia - B. aequisquamosa - B. alamosana - B. alba - B. alpina - B. amplectens - B. amplissima - B. andicola - B. andrei - B. anthemoides - B. antheriscoides - B. antiguensis - B. arbuscula - B. aristosa - B. artemisifolius - B. asplenioides - B. asymmetrica - B. aurea - B. awaluana - B. beckii - B. bidentoides - B. bigelovii - B. bipinnata - B. biternata - B. brittonii - B. buchtienii - B. campylotheca - B. carpodonta - B. cernua - B. cervicata - B. chiapensis - B. chinensis - B. clarendonesis - B. coartata - B. collina - B. conjuncta - B. connata - B. coreopsides - B. cornuta - B. coronata - B. cosmoides - B. cuneata - B. cynapifolia - B. cynapiifolia - B. dahlioides - B. daucifolia - B. degeneri - B. dimidiata - B. discoidea - B. dissecta - B. durangifolia - B. eatoni - B. eatonii - B. edentula - B. ekmanii - B. esmartinezii - B. fecunda - B. ferulifolia - B. filamentosa - B. forbesii - B. frondosa - B. gardneri - B. gentryi - B. geraniifolia - B. gracilis - B. gracillima - B. grandiflora - B. halawana - B. hawaiensis - B. hendersonensis - B. heterodoxa - B. heterophylla - B. heterosperma - B. hillebrandiana - B. hintonii - B. hivaoana - B. hyperborea - B. inermis - B. integrifolia - B. kelloggii - B. kivuensis - B. laevis - B. lantanoides - B. lemmonii - B. leptocephala - B. leucantha - B. longipetiolata - B. macounii - B. macrocarpa - B. macroptera - B. magnidisca - B. maraiana - B. mauiensis - B. menziesii - B. mexicana - B. micrantha - B. minensis - B. mitis - B. mollifolia - B. molokaiensis - B. muelleri - B. nashii - B. ocellatus - B. odorata - B. pallida - B. palmeri - B. parryi - B. patula - B. perversa - B. peucedanifolius - B. pilosa - B. polyglossa - B. polylepis - B. populifolia - B. prestinaria - B. pringlei - B. pseudocosmos - B. quadriseta - B. reptans - B. riedelii - B. riparia - B. rosea - B. rostrata - B. rubifolia - B. sambucifolia - B. sandwicensis - B. sarmentosa - B. schaffneri - B. shrevei - B. speciosa - B. squarrosa - B. subalternans - B. subspiralis - B. teikteetinii - B. tenera - B. tenuisecta - B. tereticaulis - B. torta - B. townsendii - B. tripartita - B. triplinervia - B. tuberosa - B. urbanii - B. valida - B. vulgata - B. waimeana - B. wiebkei

Name

Bidens L.

Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Bidens on Wikimedia Commons.

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