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"Big Basin" redirects here. For other uses, see Big Basin (disambiguation)
Big Basin Redwoods State Park
IUCN Category II (National Park)

Meandering walkways take visitors through lush Redwood groves.
Location California, United States
Nearest city Santa Cruz, California
Coordinates 37°10′21″N 122°13′21″W / 37.1725°N 122.2225°W / 37.1725; -122.2225Coordinates: 37°10′21″N 122°13′21″W / 37.1725°N 122.2225°W / 37.1725; -122.2225
Area 18,000 acres (73 km²)
Established 1902
Governing body California Department of Parks & Recreation

Big Basin Redwoods State Park is a state park in the U.S. state of California, located in Santa Cruz County about 36 km (23 miles) northwest of Santa Cruz. The park contains almost all of the Waddell Creek watershed, which was formed by the seismic uplift of its rim and the erosion of its center by the many streams in its bowl-like depression.

Big Basin is California's oldest State Park, established in 1902. Its original 3,800 acres (15 km²) have been increased over the years to over 18,000 acres (73 km²). Home to the largest continuous stand of ancient Coast Redwoods south of San Francisco, the park consists of 10,800 acres (44 km2) of old growth[1], as well as recovering redwood forest, with mixed conifer, oaks, chaparral and riparian habitats. Elevations in the park vary from sea level to over 600 m (2,000 ft). The climate ranges from foggy and damp near the ocean to sunny, warm ridge tops.

The park has over 130 km (80 miles) of trails. Some of these trails link Big Basin to Castle Rock State Park and the eastern reaches of the Santa Cruz range. The Skyline-to-the-Sea Trail threads its way through the park along Waddell Creek to Waddell Beach and the adjacent Theodore J. Hoover Natural Preserve, a freshwater marsh.[2]

The park has a large number of waterfalls, a wide variety of environments (from lush canyon bottoms to sparse chaparral-covered slopes, many animals (deer, raccoons, an occasional bobcat) and lots of bird life – including Steller's jays, egrets, herons and Acorn woodpeckers.

Buzzard's Roost.

Contents

History of the basin

Contrary to popular belief that prehistoric people did not inhabit the old growth forests, archaeological evidence has been found, although sporadically, within the Park. Numerous resources would have been available to California Indians in the old growth forests, such as basketry material, plant foods like acorns and bulbs as well as animal prey for hunters and perhaps unknown traditional sacred places. Ohlone tribes that lived on watercoures which begin in Big Basin Redwoods State Park were the Quiroste, Achistaca, Cotoni and Sayante.(Milliken, Randall A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area 1769-1810. A Ballena Press Publication 1996, Novato, Ca).

In October of 1769 the Portola expedition 'discovered' the redwoods of southern Santa Cruz County, and camped at the mouth of Waddell Creek, in present-day Big Basin, later that month. Although many in the party had been ill with scurvy, they gorged themselves on berries and quickly recovered. This miraculous recovery, as it seemed at the time, inspired the name given to the valley: 'Cañada de la Salud' or Canyon of Health.

The Redwood forested country of Big Basin served as a refuge for Ohlone Indians early during the Spanish occupation of the area: “The first active resistance to Spanish power in the Bay Area was led by Charquin, a leader of the Quiroste in the area of Point Ano Nuevo, down the coast from San Francisco. Although he did not fight Spanish soldiers until early 1793, Charquin had harbored fugitive neophytes since November of 1791. Charquin and his followers retreated into the rugged country behind Point Ano Nuevo in late 1791, lands that were equidistant from the missions San Francisco, Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz. From there he invited dissatisfied neophytes to join him. On January 6, 1793, Mission San Francisco servant Diego Olbera baptized a twenty two year old woman on the verge of death ‘at the Quiroste village in the Mountains’ (SFR-B 1165). Olbera was probably in the vicinity to convince Charquin and his followers to return to the Mission. Instead relations degenerated further. During the eighteen years that the Spanish military had been present among tribes of the Bay Area, its leaders had tried to avoid direct confrontation that might result in losses and a resultant weakening of its authority. But the success of Charquin goaded the soldiers into action. No diary services stemming from any successful expedition against Charquin, yet indirect evidence exist that one did take place, and that it occurred in late April and early May of 1793. An entry in the Mission San Francisco Libro de Difuntos on May 3, 1793 recorded the death of two children of runaway families in the mountain Quiroste Village of Chipletac (SFR-D 541,542). Charquin seems to have been captured at that time. Quiroste resistance did not end with the capture of Charquin in the spring of 1793. On December 14, 1793, Quirostes took part in a direct attack on Mission Santa Cruz, the only attack on a Mission north of Monterey ever reported during the entire Spanish era. The attack on Mission Santa Cruz was a continuation of the ongoing history of the Charquin resistance. Clues suggest that the Quiroste anger resulted from mission penetration into traditional family control of Marriage.(Milliken)

Others seeking safety in the redwoods of Big Basin were the Franciscan fathers themselves. In 1818 the Monterey Bay was visited by the Argentine Pirate Hipólito Bouchard. The Padres at Mission Santa Cruz, fearing the ransacking of Bouchard and his fellow corsairs, took the Missions most valued possessions and fled to the interior mountains. The Mission was ransacked, not by the Pirate Bouchard, but by unruly citizens of neighboring Branciforte. (Verado, Denzil "A History of Big Basin State Park" 1975. unpublished)

By the late 1800s, redwood forests were gaining international appreciation. Early conservationists, including such notables as Andrew P. Hill, Father Robert Kenna, John J. Montgomery, Carrie Stevens Walter and Josephine McCracken, led the movement to create a park to preserve the mighty redwoods. On May 19, 1900, the Sempervirens Club was formed at the base of Slippery Rock, within the present day park. In 1902, the California Redwood Park was created in Big Basin on 3800 acres (15 km²), most of it old growth forest.

In the following decades, visitation to Big Basin grew steadily as park amenities were developed. The Big Basin Inn offered cabins to rent, a restaurant, general store, barber shop, gas station and photographic studio. There were also a post office, a concrete swimming pool, boating areas, tennis courts and a dance floor. Campsites cost 50 cents a night in 1927 and many families stayed all summer. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps assigned a company to Big Basin. These men built the amphitheater, miles of trails, and many of the buildings still used today.

Plantlife

Although redwoods dominate the landscape, many other plant species are common in Big Basin. One will certainly see Douglas-fir, tan oak, madrone and wax myrtle trees in the park. Competing for sunshine are also many shrubs such as huckleberries, western azalea, and many varieties of ferns. Spring and summer bring the wildflowers: redwood sorrel, salal, redwood violets, trillium, star lily and mountain iris. The rains of fall and winter deliver hundreds of kinds of fungi in a startling variety of shapes, sizes and colors.

Upon climbing to higher elevations, one will find the forest growing thinner, as redwoods are replaced by more drought-tolerant species. The higher, drier ridges and slopes of Big Basin are typically full of chaparral vegetation: knobcone pines, chinquapin and buckeye create the canopy, with ceanothus, manzanita, chaparral pea and chamise growing dense and low. Adding a splash of color are wildflowers such as Indian paintbrush, monkey flower, bush poppies and yerba santa.

Near the mouth of Waddell Creek is the Theodore J. Hoover Natural Preserve, a freshwater marsh that is rare because it has been relatively undisturbed. This special place provides habitat for a wide variety of birds, reptiles and amphibians. The nearby Rancho Del Oso Nature and History Center interprets the cultural and natural history of the area.

Wildlife

A wide variety of animals live within Big Basin, many of which can be seen by visitors.

Amongst mammals, Black-tailed deer, gray squirrels, chipmunks and raccoons are common, but foxes, coyotes, bobcats, and opossums are also present. Mountain lions are known to live in the park but are extremely rare. Grizzly bears are extinct in California, but were numerous in the past.

Bird life is abundant throughout the park. Steller's jays and acorn woodpeckers are both seen and heard, and the dark-eyed junco is widespread. Less obvious are the brown creeper, Anna's hummingbird, common flicker, olive-sided flycatcher and sharp-shinned hawk. The first marbled murrelet nest ever sighted was located in Big Basin not far from the park headquarters. These robin-sized seabirds nest high in the oldest Douglas-firs and redwoods to feed their young. They can be seen or heard at dawn and dusk, high above the forest canopy.

Many reptiles are also present, but aside from the ubiquitous Coast Range subspecies of the Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis bocourtii), most are rarely seen due to their shy behavior. The only dangerous reptile in the park is the Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus), found almost exclusively in the high, dry chaparral.

The damp, shady woodland floor is home to a variety of amphibians. Commonly seen species include the California Newt (Taricha torosa torosa), Pacific Tree Frog (Pseudacris regilla), and Arboreal Salamander (Aneides lugubris). Less commonly seen are the Black Salamander (Aneides flavipunctatus) and California Giant Salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus) and the endangered California Red-legged Frog (Rana draytonii). Particularly intriguing are banana slugs (Ariolimax spp.), which can reach 6 inches long.

California Sisters (Adelpha bredowii) are prominent butterfly denizens, fluttering high in the canopies above the trails.

Accessibility

Big Basin can be approached from the east, through redwood forest and coastal mountains, or from the coast, along State Route 1. The eastern route, over State Route 9 through Saratoga and smaller towns like Boulder Creek is more popular because of the famous trees. This route passes Castle Rock State Park (California) on the eastern side of the Santa Cruz range.

From SR 1, Gazos Creek road offers a pleasant fire-road route for mountain bikes (road closed to motor vehicles), which can then descend into the headquarters area or turn off on Johansen fire road to join China Grade above its intersection with State Route 236.

The park is about an hour and a half south of San Francisco, or five hours north of Los Angeles.

See also

References

  1. ^ Bolsinger, Charles L.; Waddell, Karen L. (1993), Area of old-growth forests in California, Oregon, and Washington, United States Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Resource Bulletin PNW-RB-197, http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/pnw_rb197.pdf  
  2. ^ Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary page

External links

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

North America : United States of America : California : Bay Area : Big Basin Redwoods State Park

Big Basin Redwoods State Park [1] is the oldest state park in California, and one of the best places to see old growth coastal redwood trees (sequoia sempervirens) in the Bay Area.

Understand

History

As the population of the Bay Area grew in the 19th century, demand for timber led to large-scale logging of the the redwoods in the Santa Cruz mountains. In 1902, a group of prominent citizens, led by the painter and photographer A.P. Hill, convinced the state legislature to establish a state park to preserve one of the last areas of virgin redwood forest in the Santa Cruz mountains.

Flora and Fauna

The park is famous for its magnificent coastal redwoods, but it also features knobcone pines and other native species. The larger mammals in the park include mule deer, bobcats and (rare) mountain lions.

Climate

A large valley in the Santa Cruz mountains, the "big basin" is a watershed whose streams flow into the Pacific Ocean. The mountains trap the coastal fog and rain, providing an ideal climate for the redwoods. Though wet and chilly in the winter, the forest is warm and dry during the summer and fall months.

Get in

The park is less than an hour from San Jose and the cities on the Peninsula. Highway 236, also called Big Basin Way, runs from Highway 9 through the park, to rejoin Highway 9 about 10 miles south in the town of Boulder Creek. The north entrance to the park is about 9 miles from Highway 9, and the south entrance is about 9 miles from the town of Boulder Creek. The road is narrow and very twisty, and is crossed by bridle trails at a number of points.

Fees/Permits

Day use fees are $6 per vehicle. Pay at the Park Headquarters.

Get around

Once you've arrived at the park headquarters, there's not much use for your car, unless you're driving on to one of the park's picnic areas or campgrounds.

On Foot

The park has trails for all types of visitors, including wheelchair-accessible paths, and short trails that have no vertical gain whatsoever. Many of the trails from the park headquarters rise up to the ridge of the basin, and proceed down toward the ocean. These trails are good for 5 to 10 mile hikes, with moderate uphill climbs.

The Skyline to the Sea Trail begins at Castle Rock State Park, to the east of Big Basin. The second half of the 30-mile long trail passes through Big Basin, and runs all the way down to the Pacific Ocean at Wadell Beach.

By bike

Bicylces are not allowed on the trails, but the park has several miles of paved roads that are closed to cars, and are in excellent condition.

  • A small park museum is directly adjacent to the park headquarters. Open from 9AM to 5PM, admission is free.
  • Berry Creek Falls is more than 80 feet high. It's about 10 miles from the park headquarters to the falls and back.

Do

Despite the park's lean budget, the rangers lead a number of activities for visitors, including educational classes for children, evening campfires, and guided hikes. Docents also lead educational hikes for visitors curious about the flora, fauna and history of the park.

  • There is a small grocery store near the park headquarters, which sells food, firewood, and camping supplies. The store is open from 10AM to 4PM daily, and is closed during December and January.
  • A small gift shop at the park headquarters sells souvenirs and books.
  • There is no gas station in the park. The closest gas station is in Boulder Creek.

Sleep

Lodging

Big Basin Tent Cabins are a very popular way to stay at the park. Each tent cabin has two double platform beds with mattress pads and a wood stove. Tent cabins cost $50 per night, with a 2-night minimum on weekends. The cabins are managed by a private company. For reservations call 800-874-TENT (8368).

Camping

Because of its proximity to the Bay Area, camp sites at the park are usually reserved far in advance during the summer months. Plan ahead if you want to stay at the park during the summer. Family campgrounds and group campgrounds can be reserved up to 7 months in advance.

Family Campgrounds provide sites for tents or RVs. The park has 146 camp sites distributed among four different campgrounds. Most campgrounds have parking right at the sites, so they are suitable for either tents or RVs. Some campgrounds are "walk-in" sites, so they are only suitable for tents. Some of the family campgrounds have coin-operated hot water showers. Site fees are $25 per night, and a 2-night minimum is required for weekends in the summer. Reservations are handled through Reserve America [2], tel: 800-444-PARK (7275). Reserve America charges an additional fee of $7.50.

Four Group Campgrounds at the park can accommodate groups of 40 or 50 people. Reservations for group campgrounds are also handled through Reserve America.

Backcountry

Four Trail Camps are also in the park, mostly along the Skyline to the Sea Trail. You must have a reservation to camp at the trail camps, and cannot camp two consecutive nights at the same site. Reservations can be made up to two months in advance, through the park headquarters, tel. (831) 338-8861. The site fee for trail camps is $10.

Stay Safe

Be aware of rattlesnakes sunning themselves on trails during the morning heat.

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