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Big Ten Conference
Established: 1896
Big Ten Conference logo

NCAA Division I FBS
Members 11
Sports fielded 25 (men's: 12; women's: 13)
Region Midwestern United States
Mid-Atlantic United States (Penn State)
Former names Intercollegiate Conference
of Faculty Representatives
Big Nine
Western Conference
Headquarters Park Ridge, Illinois
Commissioner James Delany (since 1989)
Big Ten Conference locations

The Big Ten Conference is the United States' oldest Division I college athletic conference. Its eleven member institutions are located primarily in the Midwestern United States, stretching from Iowa and Minnesota in the west to Pennsylvania in the east. The conference competes in the NCAA's Division I; its football teams compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), formerly known as Division I-A, the highest level of NCAA competition in that sport. Member schools of the Big Ten also are members of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, a leading educational consortium. Despite the conference's name, since Penn State joined in 1990, there have been 11 schools in the Big Ten, as signified by the hidden "11" in negative space of the Big Ten Conference logo (each "1" is on either side of the "T" in "Ten").



The Big Ten is the only Division I conference to have all of its member institutions affiliated with the Association of American Universities, a prestigious collection of 60 research institutions, and leads all conferences in the total amount of research expenditures.

Big Ten institutions are also, along with charter member the University Chicago, part of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, which shares a $5.6 billion research fund.

All or most member schools participate in baseball, men's and women's basketball, cross country, field hockey, football, golf, gymnastics, indoor and outdoor track and field, rowing, men's and women's soccer, softball, swimming and diving, tennis, women's volleyball and wrestling.

Institution Location Founded Joined Big Ten Affiliation Undergrad Enrollment Nickname Varsity Teams NCAA Championships (As of Fall 2008)[1]
(excludes football)
Big Ten Championships (As of Spring 2008)[2]
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign Champaign, Illinois
1867 1896 Public 30,895 Fighting
21 17 226
Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana
1820 1899
(Athletics 1900)
Public 30,394 Hoosiers 24 23 161
University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa
1847 1899
(Athletics 1900)
Public 20,907 Hawkeyes 24 23 103
University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan
1817 1896
Public 26,083 Wolverines 27 32 343
Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan
1855 1950
(Athletics 1953)
Public 36,072 Spartans 25 19 78
University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota
1851 1896 Public 38,645 Golden Gophers 25 15 149
Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois
1851 1896 Private/
8,284 Wildcats 19 5 68
Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio
1870 1912 Public 40,212*[3] Buckeyes 36 22 181
Pennsylvania State University State College, Pennsylvania
1855 1990
(Athletics 1993)
Public 38,630*[4] Nittany
29 35 45
Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana
1869 1896 Public 31,290 Boilermakers 18 3 66
University of Wisconsin–Madison Madison, Wisconsin
1848 1896 Public 29,153[5] Badgers 23 25 179
Former Member Location Founded Member of Big Ten Affiliation Undergrad Enrollment Nickname Varsity Teams NCAA Championships (as a member) Big Ten Championships
University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois 1890 1896-1946 Private/Non-sectarian 5,027 Maroons 19 1 73
Locations of current Big Ten Conference full member institutions.


  • Michigan - $7.1 billion [6]
  • Northwestern - $6.5 billion [6]
  • Minnesota - $2.8 billion [6]
  • Ohio State - $2.3 billion [6]
  • Purdue - $1.8 billion [6]
  • Penn State - $1.6 billion [6]
  • Wisconsin - $1.6 billion [6]
  • Indiana - $1.6 billion [6]
  • Illinois - $1.5 billion [6]
  • Michigan State - $1.2 billion [6]
  • Iowa - $1.0 billion[6]

Membership timeline


On January 11, 1895, the presidents of the Universities of Chicago, Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin; Northwestern and Purdue Universities, and Lake Forest College met in Chicago to discuss the regulation and control of intercollegiate athletics. The eligibility of student-athletes was one of the main topics of discussion.[7] The Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives was founded at a second meeting on February 8, 1896.[8] Lake Forest was not at the 1896 meeting that established the conference and was replaced by the University of Michigan. At the time, the organization was more commonly known as the Western Conference, consisting of Purdue, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, Chicago, and Northwestern.

The first reference to the conference as the Big Nine was in 1899 after Iowa and Indiana had joined. In January 1908, Michigan and the conference parted ways. Ohio State was added to the conference in 1912. The first reference to the conference as the Big Ten was in November 1917 after Michigan rejoined following a nine-year absence.

The conference was again known as the Big Nine after the University of Chicago decided to de-emphasize varsity athletics just after World War II. Chicago discontinued its football program in 1939 and withdrew from the conference in 1946 after struggling to gain victories in many conference matchups. It was believed that one of several schools, notably Pittsburgh, Nebraska, Michigan State, Marquette, Notre Dame, and Iowa State would replace Chicago at the time.[9] On May 20, 1949,[8] Michigan State ended the speculation by joining and the conference was again known as the Big Ten. The Big Ten's membership would remain unchanged for the next 40 years.

The conference’s official name throughout this period remained the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives. It did not formally adopt the name Big Ten until 1987, when it was incorporated as a not-for-profit corporation. In 1990, the Big Ten universities voted to expand the conference to 11 teams, and extended an invitation to Penn State, which it accepted.[10] When Penn State joined in 1990, it was decided that the conference would continue to be called the Big Ten, but its logo was modified to reflect the change; the number 11 is disguised in the white areas of the traditionally blue "Big Ten" lettering.

Following the addition of previously independent Penn State, efforts were made to encourage the University of Notre Dame, the last remaining non-service academy independent, to join the league. Early in the 20th century, Notre Dame had sought official entry into the Big Ten but was never extended an invitation.[11] However, in 1999, both Notre Dame and the Big Ten entered into private negotiations concerning a possible membership that would include Notre Dame. Although the Notre Dame faculty senate endorsed the idea with a near unanimous vote, the ND board of trustees decided against joining the conference and Notre Dame ultimately withdrew from negotiations. [2]

The University of Texas also approached and entered into discussions with the Big Ten in the 1990s. UT was keen to upgrade its academic profile and depart the SWC and desperate to seek affiliation with the Pac 10.

"Texas wanted desperately the academic patina that the Pac 10 yielded," recalls UT President Robert Berdahl,[12] who went on to serve as chancellor at Pac-10 member California-Berkeley. "To be associated with UCLA, Stanford and Cal in academics was very desirable."

Still, expansion in the Pac-10 depended on unanimous approval of the member schools. And Stanford, which had long battled UT in athletics as well as academics[13], objected. For UT, the way west never materialized.

UT next approached the Big Ten. Having added Penn State in 1990, the Big Ten was now made of universities that, in the view of UT officials, matched UT's profile — large state schools with strong academic reputations. Berdahl liked the fact that all 11 conference members belonged to the American Association of Universities.

Yet, distance remained a disadvantage. Iowa, the closest Big Ten school to Austin, was 856 miles away.

But after adding Penn State in 1990, Big Ten officials had put a four-year moratorium on expansion. Although admitting interest, Big Ten bosses ultimately rejected UT's overtures.

Around 1993, it was also explored by the league to add Kansas, Missouri, and Rutgers, or other potential schools to create a 14-team league with two divisions.[14] These talks died when the Big 8 Conference merged with former Southwest Conference members to create the Big 12.

Other possible universities that have gained favor for any possible expansion for the 12th spot in the conference include:

These schools all belong to rival BCS conferences, with the exception of University of Notre Dame football which is independent (all other Notre Dame sports teams compete in the Big East).


The office of the commissioner of athletics was created in 1922 "to study athletic problems of the various member universities and assist in enforcing the eligibility rules which govern Big Ten athletics."[7]

Name Years Notes
Major John L. Griffith 1922–1944 died in office
Kenneth L. "Tug" Wilson 1945–1961 retired
Bill Reed 1961–1971 died in office
Wayne Duke 1971–1989 retired
James Delany 1989–present


Bowl games

Since 1946, the Big Ten champion has had a tie-in with the Rose Bowl game, now a BCS bowl. The Big Ten also has tie-ins with seven non-BCS bowls.

Michigan appeared in the first bowl game, the 1902 Rose Bowl. The Big Ten did not allow their schools to participate in bowl games, other than the Rose Bowl, until the agreement struck with the Pacific Coast Conference for the 1947 Rose Bowl. From 1946 through 1971, the Big Ten did not allow the same team to represent the conference in consecutive years in the Rose Bowl with an exception made after the 1961 season in which Minnesota played in the 1962 Rose Bowl after playing in the 1961 Rose Bowl due to Ohio State declining the bid. It was not until the 1975 season that the Big Ten allowed teams to play in bowl games other than the Rose Bowl. Due to those rules, Big Ten powers such as Michigan and Ohio State have lower numbers of all-time bowl appearances than powerhouse teams from the Big 12 Conference (formerly the Big 8 Conference and Southwest Conference) and Southeastern Conference, which always placed multiple teams in bowl games every year.

Bowl selection procedures

Although the pick order usually corresponds to the conference standings, the bowls are not required to make their choices strictly according to the won-lost records; many factors influence bowl selections, especially the turnout of the fans for past bowl games. Picks are made after BCS selections; the bowl with the #2 pick will have the first pick of the remaining teams in the conference.

The Capital One, Outback, Alamo and Champs Sports Bowls can select any eligible team except a team that has two fewer wins or two more losses than another eligible team. The Insight and Motor City Bowls have no such restrictions, but if two Big Ten teams are selected by BCS bowls, the Alamo and Champs Sports Bowls also do not have that restriction. However, the bowls cannot select a 6-6 team if a 7-5 or better team is not selected by a Big Ten-affiliated bowl.[22][23]

Marching bands

Big Ten football games are also well known for the participation and excellence of the Big Ten Conference universities' marching bands. Nine of the eleven participating Big Ten Conference universities have won the Sudler Trophy, the most prestigious award a collegiate marching band can receive. The first three trophies were all awarded to Big Ten conference members, and the Big Ten boasts more Sudler Trophy award winners than any other conference.

During the pre-game show performance, the marching band of a Big Ten Conference university has the tradition of playing the opposing team's fight song. The origin of this tradition is from the Big Ten's Purdue University where the "All-American" Marching Band became the first school in history to play their opponent's fight song.[24][25] [26]

Men's basketball

The Big Ten has participated in basketball since 1904, and has led the nation in attendance every season since 1978.[27] It has been a national powerhouse in men's basketball, having multiple championship winners and often sending four or more teams to the NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament. Previous NCAA champions include Indiana with five titles, Michigan State with two, and Wisconsin, Michigan, and Ohio State with one each.[28] Ohio State played in the first NCAA tournament national championship game in 1939, losing to Oregon. Despite this, Jimmy Hull of Ohio State was the first NCAA tournament MVP. The first three tournament MVP's came from the Big Ten (Marv Huffman of Indiana in 1940 and John Katz of Wisconsin in 1941).

Big Ten teams have also experienced success in the postseason NIT. Since 1974, 13 Big Ten teams have made it to the championship game, winning eight championships. NIT champions from the Big Ten include Michigan and Ohio State with two, and Indiana, Minnesota, Penn State, and Purdue with one each.

In addition, the Helms Athletic Foundation recognizes Illinois as the 1915 National Champions, Minnesota as the 1902 and 1919 National Champions, Northwestern as the 1931 National Champion, Purdue as the 1932 National Champions, and Wisconsin as the 1912, 1914 and 1916 National Champions.

Since 1999, the Big Ten has taken part in the ACC–Big Ten Challenge with the Atlantic Coast Conference. The ACC holds an 10-1 record against the Big Ten, and Michigan State is the only Big Ten school without a losing record in the challenge.

NCAA tournament champions, runners-up and locations

† denotes overtime games. Multiple †'s indicate more than one overtime.

Year Champion Runner-up Venue and city
1939 Oregon 46 Ohio State 33 Patten Gymnasium Evanston, Illinois
1940 Indiana 60 Kansas 42 Municipal Auditorium Kansas City, Missouri
1941 Wisconsin 39 Washington State 34 Municipal Auditorium Kansas City, Missouri (2)
1953 Indiana (2) 69 Kansas 68 Municipal Auditorium Kansas City, Missouri (4)
1956 San Francisco (2) 83 Iowa 71 McGaw Hall Evanston, Illinois (2)
1960 Ohio State 75 California 55 Cow Palace San Francisco, California
1961 Cincinnati 70 Ohio State 65 Municipal Auditorium Kansas City, Missouri (8)
1962 Cincinnati (2) 71 Ohio State 59 Freedom Hall Louisville, Kentucky (3)
1965 UCLA (2) 91 Michigan 80 Memorial Coliseum Portland, Oregon
1969 UCLA (5) 92 Purdue 72 Freedom Hall Louisville, Kentucky (6)
1976 Indiana (3) 86 Michigan 68 Spectrum Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1979 Michigan State 75 Indiana State 64 Jon M. Huntsman Center Salt Lake City, Utah
1981 Indiana (4) 63 North Carolina 50 Spectrum Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (2)
1987 Indiana (5) 74 Syracuse 73 Louisiana Superdome New Orleans, Louisiana (2)
1989 Michigan 80 Seton Hall 79 Kingdome Seattle, Washington (4)
1992 Duke (2) 71 Michigan 51 Metrodome Minneapolis, Minnesota
1993 North Carolina (3) 77 Michigan 71 Louisiana Superdome New Orleans, Louisiana (3)
2000 Michigan State (2) 89 Florida 76 RCA Dome Indianapolis, Indiana (4)
2002 Maryland 64 Indiana 52 Georgia Dome Atlanta, Georgia (2)
2005 North Carolina (4) 75 Illinois 70 Edward Jones Dome St. Louis, Missouri (3)
2007 Florida (2) 84 Ohio State 75 Georgia Dome Atlanta, Georgia (3)
2009 North Carolina (5) 89 Michigan State 72 Ford Field Detroit, Michigan

Post-season NIT championships

Year Champion Runner-up MVP Venue and city
1974 Purdue 87 Utah 81 Mike Sojourner, Utah Madison Square Garden New York City
1979 Indiana 53 Purdue 52 Butch Carter and Ray Tolbert, Indiana Madison Square Garden New York City
1980 Virginia 58 Minnesota 55 Ralph Sampson, Virginia Madison Square Garden New York City
1982 Bradley 68 Purdue 61 Mitchell Anderson, Bradley Madison Square Garden New York City
1984 Michigan 83 Notre Dame 63 Tim McCormick, Michigan Madison Square Garden New York City
1985 UCLA 65 Indiana 62 Reggie Miller, UCLA Madison Square Garden New York City
1986 Ohio State 73 Wyoming 63 Brad Sellers, Ohio State Madison Square Garden New York City
1988 Connecticut 72 Ohio State 67 Phil Gamble, UConn Madison Square Garden New York City
1993 Minnesota 62 Georgetown 61 Voshon Lenard, Minnesota Madison Square Garden New York City
1997 Michigan 82 Florida State 73 Louis Bullock, Michigan Madison Square Garden New York City
2004 Michigan 62 Rutgers 55 Daniel Horton, Michigan Madison Square Garden New York City
2006 South Carolina 76 Michigan 64 Renaldo Balkman, South Carolina Madison Square Garden New York City
2008 Ohio State 92 Massachusetts 85 Kosta Koufos, Ohio State Madison Square Garden New York City
2009 Penn State 69 Baylor 63 Jamelle Cornley, Penn State Madison Square Garden New York City

Women's basketball

Women's basketball teams have played a total of nine times in the NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championship (since 1982) and Women's National Invitation Tournament (since 1998). Big Ten women's teams have also led conference attendance from 1993-1999.[29]

NCAA tournament champions, runners-up and locations

Year Champion Runner-up Venue and city
1993 Texas Tech 84 Ohio State 82 The Omni Atlanta, Georgia
1999 Purdue 62 Duke 45 San Jose Arena San Jose, California
2001 Notre Dame 68 Purdue 66 Savvis Center St. Louis, Missouri
2005 Baylor 84 Michigan State 62 RCA Dome Indianapolis, Indiana

Women's National Invitation Tournament championship games

Year Champion Runner-up Venue and city
1998 Penn State 59 Baylor 56 Ferrell Center Waco, Texas
1999 Arkansas 67 Wisconsin 64 Bud Walton Arena Fayetteville, Arkansas
2000 Wisconsin 75 Florida 74 Kohl Center Madison, Wisconsin
2001 Ohio State 62 New Mexico 61 University Arena Albuquerque, New Mexico
2007 Wyoming 72 Wisconsin 56 Arena-Auditorium Laramie, Wyoming
2008 Marquette 81 Michigan State 66 Breslin Center East Lansing, Michigan



The members of the Big Ten have longstanding rivalries with each other, especially on the football field. Each school has at least one traveling trophy at stake. Some Big Ten rivalries include (with their respective traveling trophy in parentheses):

Furthermore, the Big Ten football schedule is set up with each team having two permanent matches within the conference, with the other eight teams in the conference rotating out of the schedule in pairs for two-year stints. Permanent matches are as follows:

  • Illinois: Indiana, Northwestern
  • Indiana: Illinois, Purdue
  • Iowa: Minnesota, Wisconsin
  • Michigan: Michigan State, Ohio State
  • Michigan State: Michigan, Penn State
  • Minnesota: Iowa, Wisconsin
  • Northwestern: Illinois, Purdue
  • Ohio State: Michigan, Penn State
  • Penn State: Michigan State, Ohio State
  • Purdue: Indiana, Northwestern
  • Wisconsin: Iowa, Minnesota


Indiana and Purdue have a heated rivalry in college basketball between the two schools with the most Big Ten basketball championships, winning 41 times between the two schools.

Michigan State and Wisconsin also have a recent venomous rivalry - Michigan State beat Wisconsin in the 2000 Final Four en route to their national championship. In 2008 the unranked Spartans upset the top-ranked Badgers in East Lansing, further adding to the rivalry. In the most recent big game between the two, Michigan State beat the Badgers in East Lansing, in the only meeting of the season. However, the Badgers under head coach Bo Ryan have beaten Tom Izzo's Spartans eleven times. Izzo has led MSU to only four victories against Wisconsin during this time-span.

In recent years, Illinois and Michigan State have also enjoyed some competitive rivalry matches with each other, particularly during the season of 2004-2005, when both Illinois and Michigan State made it to the Final Four.

Extra-conference rivalries

Purdue, Michigan State and Michigan are among the Big Ten football teams that have rivalries with Notre Dame. After the University of Southern California with 28 wins, the Michigan State Spartans have the winningest record against the Irish, with 27. The Purdue Boilermakers follow with 26.

Penn State had a longstanding rivalry with Pittsburgh of the Big East, but the two schools have not met since 2000. Penn State also had long histories with independent Notre Dame; West Virginia, Syracuse, and Rutgers of the Big East; Maryland and Boston College of the ACC; and Temple, of the Mid-American Conference (MAC). Penn State also has strong intrastate rivalries with Patriot League universities Bucknell in men's basketball and men's lacrosse, and Lehigh in wrestling. Most of these rivalries were cultivated while Penn State operated independent of conference affiliation; the constraints of playing a full conference schedule, especially in football, have reduced the number of meetings between Penn State and its non-Big Ten rivals.

Iowa has an in-state rivalry with Iowa State, with the winner getting the Cy-Hawk Trophy. Iowa also holds rivalries in basketball with Drake and Northern Iowa.

Indiana has an out-of conference rivalry with Kentucky, but the rivalry has a much higher profile in basketball than in football.

Illinois has a longstanding basketball rivalry with Missouri, with the two men's teams squaring off annually in the "Braggin' Rights" game in St. Louis. This rivalry has been carried over into football as "The Arch Rivalry" with games played at the Edward Jones Dome in St. Louis in 2002 and 2003 and four games scheduled from 2007 to 2010.[3]

Wisconsin has a long-standing, in-state basketball rivalry with Marquette. The series has intensified as of late with both teams having made the Final Four in recent years. The schools also played an annual football game before Marquette abandoned its football program in 1961.

In the early days of the Big Ten, the Chicago-Michigan game was played on Thanksgiving, usually with conference championship implications and was considered one of the first major rivalries of the conference.

Also in the early days of the conference, and at Knute Rockne's insistence, Northwestern and Notre Dame had a yearly contest, with the winner taking home a shillelagh, much like the winner of the USC-Notre Dame and Purdue-Notre Dame contests now receive. The Northwestern-Notre Dame shillelagh was largely forgotten by the early 1960s and is now solely an element of college football's storied past.[30]

Conference facilities

The Big Ten has the distinction of being the conference with the most stadiums seating over 100,000, at three of the stadiums (Beaver Stadium, Michigan Stadium, and Ohio Stadium). There are only two other stadiums of that size in college football. They are Neyland Stadium at the University of Tennessee in the Southeastern Conference and Darrell K. Royal-Texas Memorial Stadium at the University of Texas at Austin in the Big 12 Conference.

The three stadiums are the three largest stadiums in the List of American football stadiums by capacity, as well as, third, fourth, and sixth in the list of the largest sports stadiums in the world.

School Football stadium Stadium capacity Basketball arena Arena capacity Baseball stadium Stadium capacity
Illinois Memorial Stadium 70,000 Assembly Hall 16,618 Illinois Field 3,000
Indiana Memorial Stadium 52,692 Assembly Hall 17,456 Sembower Field 2,250
Iowa Kinnick Stadium 70,585 Carver-Hawkeye Arena 15,500 Duane Banks Field 3,000
Michigan Michigan Stadium 110,001 Crisler Arena 13,751 Ray Fisher Stadium 4,000
Michigan State Spartan Stadium 75,005 Breslin Student Events Center 16,280 Drayton McLane Baseball Stadium at John H. Kobs Field/Cooley Law School Stadium 2,500/11,000
Minnesota TCF Bank Stadium 50,805 Williams Arena 14,321 Siebert Field/Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome 1,500/46,564
Northwestern Ryan Field 49,256 Welsh-Ryan Arena 8,117 Rocky Miller Park 1,000
Ohio State Ohio Stadium 102,329[31] Value City Arena 19,500 Bill Davis Stadium 4,450
Penn State Beaver Stadium 107,282 Bryce Jordan Center 15,261 Medlar Field at Lubrano Park 5,406
Purdue Ross-Ade Stadium 62,500 Mackey Arena 14,123 Lambert Field 1,100
Wisconsin Camp Randall Stadium 80,321 Kohl Center 17,230 No baseball team N/A


As of 2010, the Big Ten has carriage agreements with the following broadcast and cable networks.[32]

Broadcast television

Cable television

  • Big Ten Network was created in 2006 through a joint partnership between the Big Ten and News Corporation and debuted the following year, replacing the ESPN Plus package previously offered to Big Ten markets via syndication. Based in downtown Chicago, the network's lineup consists exclusively of Big Ten-related programming, such as a nightly highlights show, in addition to live events.[33]
  • ESPN Inc.-Big Ten football, basketball and volleyball air on ESPN and ESPN2, and sometimes on ESPNU and ESPN Classic. The conference's contract with ABC/ESPN also allows for the transmission of events through ESPN's mobile, Internet and On Demand platforms.

See also


  1. ^ and Championship/General Information/champs_listing1.html "How many NCAA Division I championships has your school won?". National Collegiate Athletic Association. and Championship/General Information/champs_listing1.html. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  2. ^ (PDF) Big Ten Conference Records Book 2008–09 (61st ed.). Park Ridge, Illinois: Big Ten Conference. 2008. pp. 374. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  3. ^ Includes only Columbus Main campus. "The Ohio State University - Statistical Summary". The Ohio State University Institutional Research and Planning. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  4. ^ Includes only University Park campus. "Undergraduate and Graduate/First Professional Fall Enrollment 2009 and 2008". Penn State Bursar. Retrieved 2010-02-26. 
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "2007 NACUBO Endowment Study" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  7. ^ a b "Big Ten History". Big Ten Conference. Retrieved 2007-01-14. 
  8. ^ a b Canham, Don (1996). From The Inside: A Half Century of Michigan Athletics. Olympia Sports Press. pp. 281. ISBN 0965426300. 
  9. ^ "Chicago U. Withdraws From Big Ten".,3858021&dq=chicago+big+ten+conference&hl=en. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  10. ^ "An Ingenious Inception: Penn State Joins the Big Ten Conference". Retrieved 2007-02-09. 
  11. ^ Pamela Schaeffer (1999-02-19). "Notre Dame shuns Big Ten, fears losing `distinctiveness'". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 2007-01-14. 
  12. ^ Mark Wangrin (2007-08-13). "Power brokers: How tagalong Baylor, Tech crashed the revolt". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
  13. ^ Mark Wangrin (2007-08-13). "Power brokers: How tagalong Baylor, Tech crashed the revolt". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
  14. ^ "Kansas, Big 10 a good fit?". Retrieved 2009-11-10. 
  15. ^ "What the Big Ten Would Look Like With a 12th Team". Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  16. ^ "If the Big Ten does expand, it could do far worse than to present a new Husky image". Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  17. ^ "Big Ten Expansion a Vision Test for UConn". Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  18. ^ a b "Conference network could prompt bigger Big Ten". Retrieved 2007-07-27. 
  19. ^ a b c d "Alden: Big Ten has not contacted Mizzou". Retrieved 2007-07-27. 
  20. ^ a b c
  21. ^ "The Big Twen?". Retrieved 2007-07-27. 
  22. ^ Rittenberg, Adam (2008-11-17). "Projecting the Big Ten bowls". Retrieved 2008-11-18. 
  23. ^ Rittenberg, Adam (2008-11-18). "Another Big Ten bowl selection nugget". Retrieved 2008-11-18. 
  24. ^ Northwestern University Wildcat Marching Band#Pregame and Halftime
  25. ^ Michigan Marching Band#Visitor's Fight Song
  26. ^ [1] Purdue Marching Band firsts
  27. ^ (PDF) Official 2007 NCAA Men's Basketball Records Book. Indianapolis, Indiana: NCAA. 2006. pp. 241. ISBN 978-1572439092. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  28. ^ "Big Ten Men's Basketball History". Big Ten Conference. 2004. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  29. ^ (PDF) Official 2007 NCAA Women's Basketball Records Book. Indianapolis, Indiana: NCAA. 2006. pp. 199. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  30. ^
  31. ^ "Ohio Stadium - The Ohio State Buckeyes Official Athletics Site". The Ohio State University Department of Athletics. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  32. ^ The Big Ten Conference Announces Media Agreements Increasing National Coverage of Big Ten Sports
  33. ^ Big Ten and Fox Announce Official Name and Unveil Logo for Big Ten Network

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