The Full Wiki

Big bang: Wikis

  
  
  

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Big Bang article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

.
According to the Big Bang model, the Universe expanded from an extremely dense and hot state and continues to expand today.
^ According to the big bang theory, there's no center of the universe.
  • Howstuffworks "How the Big Bang Theory Works" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The big bang theory is essentially a theoretical model for the birth of the universe .
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The facts also state that the universe is still expanding.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A common analogy explains that space itself is expanding, carrying galaxies with it, like raisins in a rising loaf of bread.^ This misconception is probably fostered by the balloon analogy which shows a 2-D spherical model of the Universe expanding in a 3-D space.
  • Frequently Asked Questions in Cosmology 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.astro.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's not that they're moving away from you, as the space between you and them is expanding and they're getting carried further away in the expanding space.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 5: The Big Bang and Cosmic Microwave Background 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

^ It is EXPANDING into existence, it is called an explosion(thus the "bang"), but it is closer to bread rising, that is, if that bread was all that existed.

The graphic scheme above is an artist's concept illustrating the expansion of a portion of a flat Universe.
.The Big Bang is the cosmological model of the initial conditions and subsequent development of the Universe that is supported by the most comprehensive and accurate explanations from current scientific evidence and observation.^ These big bang ripples scientifically substantiate the big bang model prediction.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientific evidence for the big bang model is abundant.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the currently most accepted model for the Universe?
  • Frequently Asked Questions in Cosmology 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.astro.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][2] .As used by cosmologists, the term Big Bang generally refers to the idea that the Universe has expanded from a primordial hot and dense initial condition at some finite time in the past (best available measurements in 2009 suggest that the initial conditions occurred around 13.3 to 13.9 billion years ago[3][4]), and continues to expand to this day.^ Hubble time, the age 2 billion years.
  • ~@Com~|~~BIG BANG THEORY UNDER FIRE~~ 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.nowscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Big Bang - Next day .
  • [Lies, Big Bang, lyrics, jpop, kpop, k-pop, j-pop, jrock, j-rock, videos, concerts, japan, pv, jmusic, oricon, charts] 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.jpopasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The big bang describes the expansion of the universe.
  • Howstuffworks "How the Big Bang Theory Works" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Georges Lemaître proposed what became known as the Big Bang theory of the origin of the Universe, although he called it his "hypothesis of the primeval atom". The framework for the model relies on Albert Einstein's general relativity and on simplifying assumptions (such as homogeneity and isotropy of space).^ According to the big bang theory, there's no center of the universe.
  • Howstuffworks "How the Big Bang Theory Works" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Big bang fundamental theory as to the origin of the universe.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One was Lemaître's Big Bang theory, advocated and developed by George Gamow .

.The governing equations had been formulated by Alexander Friedmann.^ A different solution to Einstein's equations by Alexander Friedmann seemed to indicate that the universe exists in a dynamic form - either expanding or collapsing.

^ It proves there must be a major flaw in big bang's underlying postulate, which is the assumption that the universe is governed by the Friedmann-Lemaître solution of the field equations.
  • Collapse of Big Bang Cosmology and the Emergence of the New Cosmic Center Model of the Universe 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After Edwin Hubble discovered in 1929 that the distances to far away galaxies were generally proportional to their redshifts, as suggested by Lemaître in 1927, this observation was taken to indicate that all very distant galaxies and clusters have an apparent velocity directly away from our vantage point: the farther away, the higher the apparent velocity.^ Edwin Hubble showed in 1929 that the more distant the galaxy, the larger this "redshift."
  • Where did the Big bang take place? - Astronomy.com Forums 19 September 2009 14:50 UTC cs.astronomy.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He claimed the higher acceleration was directly proportional to the distance away from Earth.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Observe a very distant galaxy comparable to our Milky Way Galaxy.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .If the distance between galaxy clusters is increasing today, everything must have been closer together in the past.^ The universe is expanding - and so it stands to reason that, in the past , everything must have been closer together.

^ Hubble found a linear relationship between the velocity of recession and the distance to the galaxy.
  • Big Bang Cosmology 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In effect is it telling us that we need to assign 20 kilometers per second of velocity of recession for every million light years of distance between us and the galaxy.
  • Big Bang Cosmology 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This idea has been considered in detail back in time to extreme densities and temperatures,[6][7][8] and large particle accelerators have been built to experiment on and test such conditions, resulting in significant confirmation of the theory, but these accelerators have limited capabilities to probe into such high energy regimes.^ New particles and antiparticles were created and then annihilated back into energy.

^ In a flash, all that energy is converted back into decay particles.
  • Big bang sparks big reaction - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is ideas and not evidence to back up the theory.

.Without any evidence associated with the earliest instant of the expansion, the Big Bang theory cannot and does not provide any explanation for such an initial condition; rather, it describes and explains the general evolution of the Universe since that instant.^ According to the big bang theory, there's no center of the universe.
  • Howstuffworks "How the Big Bang Theory Works" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Big bang fundamental theory as to the origin of the universe.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was no Big Bang, and there is no expansion.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The observed abundances of the light elements throughout the cosmos closely match the calculated predictions for the formation of these elements from nuclear processes in the rapidly expanding and cooling first minutes of the Universe, as logically and quantitatively detailed according to Big Bang nucleosynthesis.^ According to the big bang theory, there's no center of the universe.
  • Howstuffworks "How the Big Bang Theory Works" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These big bang ripples scientifically substantiate the big bang model prediction.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What was the universe like at the beginning of the big bang?
  • Howstuffworks "How the Big Bang Theory Works" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fred Hoyle is credited with coining the term Big Bang during a 1949 radio broadcast.^ "The term "Big Bang" was coined in 1949 by Sir Frederick Hoyle during a BBC radio program, The Nature of Things ; the text was published in 1950 .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Big Bang advocates have criticized the once competing steady state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold because it provided no explanation for the origin of the universe.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blame that on Sir Fred Hoyle, a critic of the theory, who dismissively called the model a "big bang" as an insult.
  • Howstuffworks "How the Big Bang Theory Works" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is popularly reported that Hoyle, who favored an alternative "steady state" cosmological model, intended this to be pejorative, but Hoyle explicitly denied this and said it was just a striking image meant to highlight the difference between the two models.^ Problems with the Steady State model .
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This contradicts the Steady State model (60) .
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Wikipaedia: 'After confirmation of the Hubble Law by observation, the two most popular cosmological theories became the steady-state theory of Hoyle, Gold and Bondi, and the big bang theory of Ralph Alpher, George Gamow, and Robert Dicke with a small number of supporters of a smattering of alternatives' So it began with Hubble and his v=Hr.

[9][10][11] .Hoyle later helped considerably in the effort to understand stellar nucleosynthesis, the nuclear pathway for building certain heavier elements from lighter ones.^ In the end the Big Bang is one of the cornerstone theories that help scientists understand the universe.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this explosion, the heavier nuclei absorb still more neutrons, thereby building up the heaviest elements, including radioactive ones like uranium.
  • Eric Lerner: The Big Bang Never Happened. Important Cosmology Quotes on Problems of the Big Bang Theory 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The heavy elements observed in the solar system, and in other stars and galaxies, require at least one previous stellar cycle.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation in 1964, and especially when its spectrum (i.e., the amount of radiation measured at each wavelength) sketched out a blackbody curve, most scientists were fairly convinced by the evidence that some Big Bang scenario must have occurred.^ Microwave background radiation, 'remnant of this heat'.

^ The background radiation temperature spectrum is too low.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We were thinking that this week we'd talk about one of the big lines of evidence for the big bang, which is this discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 5: The Big Bang and Cosmic Microwave Background 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

Physical cosmology
WMAP 2008.png
Universe · Big Bang
Age of the universe
Timeline of the Big Bang
Ultimate fate of the universe

Contents

Motivation and development

.The Big Bang theory developed from observations of the structure of the Universe and from theoretical considerations.^ The big bang theory is essentially a theoretical model for the birth of the universe .
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Big Bang Theory How the Universe Will End Some select theories on how the universe will end.
  • The Big Bang Theory - Associated Content - Topic 19 September 2009 14:50 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The Big Bang Theory is a fairytale, folks.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1912 Vesto Slipher measured the first Doppler shift of a "spiral nebula" (spiral nebula is the obsolete term for spiral galaxies), and soon discovered that almost all such nebulae were receding from Earth.^ The first big discovery was the measured Doppler Shift of nebula in 1912.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This continued through the first few decades of the 20th century 'culminating' in the work by Vesto Slipher, Edwin Hubble and Milton Humason on the so-called spiral nebulae -- distinctly non- stellar objects that also seemed to display star-like Doppler shifts.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So when classifying stars, they want to know what emission and absorption lines are visible, which is for the point-like distant stars almost all we can discover about their upper atmospheres.

.He did not grasp the cosmological implications of this fact, and indeed at the time it was highly controversial whether or not these nebulae were "island universes" outside our Milky Way.^ An explanation for this "heavy-on-one-side universe" would be if these fluctuations represented a structure left over from the universe that produced our universe.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Williams explains this as follows: This has profound and unwelcome implications for big-bang theory, because our universe is made of ordinary matter, not equal amounts of matter and antimatter.

^ It's from these slight variations that we can figure out how our universe today is expanding, we can figure out how much matter there is in the universe (compared to energy).
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 5: The Big Bang and Cosmic Microwave Background 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

[12][13] .Ten years later, Alexander Friedmann, a Russian cosmologist and mathematician, derived the Friedmann equations from Albert Einstein's equations of general relativity, showing that the Universe might be expanding in contrast to the static Universe model advocated by Einstein at that time.^ It had already been advanced in 1922 by the Russian mathematician, Alexander Friedmann.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1915, Einstein expanded his calculations to produce the theory of general relativity.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to general relativity, time is variable.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .In 1924, Edwin Hubble's measurement of the great distance to the nearest spiral nebulae showed that these systems were indeed other galaxies.^ Hubble found that a red shift was closely proportional to the distance to the galaxy; a relationship which became known as Hubble's law.

^ The heavy elements observed in the solar system, and in other stars and galaxies, require at least one previous stellar cycle.
  • ~@Com~|~~BIG BANG THEORY UNDER FIRE~~ 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.nowscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, if the light from a far distant galaxy is white, the galaxy is actually moving toward us because light from a static galaxy at that distance would have a natural redshift.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Independently deriving Friedmann's equations in 1927, Georges Lemaître, a Belgian physicist and Roman Catholic priest, proposed that the inferred recession of the nebulae was due to the expansion of the Universe.^ Friedmann and Lematre showed that many equations led to universal expansion.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Friedmann equations were introduced by Alexander Friedmann in order to relate all factors that contribute to the expansion of space based on a homogeneous and isotropic model of the Universe and derived out of Einstein's General Relativity.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This they did by first assuming the universe was governed by the Friedmann-Lemaître expanding spacetime solution of the Einstein field equations and then ex cathedra pronouncing that cosmic expansion would cause galaxies to move apart as space itself was presumed to move apart.
  • Collapse of Big Bang Cosmology and the Emergence of the New Cosmic Center Model of the Universe 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.In 1931 Lemaître went further and suggested that the evident expansion in forward time required that the Universe contracted backwards in time, and would continue to do so until it could contract no further, bringing all the mass of the Universe into a single point, a "primeval atom" where and when the fabric of time and space comes into existence.^ At that time, all the matter in the universe is alleged to have been concentrated at a single point.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Where did the single point come from?
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the continuous expansion would have other consequences.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.Starting in 1924, Hubble painstakingly developed a series of distance indicators, the forerunner of the cosmic distance ladder, using the 100-inch (2,500 mm) Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory.^ Then the American cosmologist, Edwin Powell Hubble, using the new 100 inch telescope at Mount Wilson, showed the Andromeda nebula to be far outside our own galaxy.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hubble used this principle to develop the law of red shifts.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This allowed him to estimate distances to galaxies whose redshifts had already been measured, mostly by Slipher.^ In other words, if the light from a far distant galaxy is white, the galaxy is actually moving toward us because light from a static galaxy at that distance would have a natural redshift.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is now known that, while almost all observed galaxies are redshifted, the Doppler interpretation of this shift does not provide a reliable measure of velocity or (indirectly) of distance.

^ Because astronomers believe that redshift is a measure of distance, most of the distances of millions of galaxies, quasars, and gamma ray bursts have been distorted.
  • The Big Bang Theory 19 September 2009 14:50 UTC lofi.forum.physorg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Where did the Big bang take place? - Astronomy.com Forums 19 September 2009 14:50 UTC cs.astronomy.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1929, Hubble discovered a correlation between distance and recession velocity—now known as Hubble's law.^ Hubble found a linear relationship between the velocity of recession and the distance to the galaxy.
  • Big Bang Cosmology 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hubble found that a red shift was closely proportional to the distance to the galaxy; a relationship which became known as Hubble's law.

^ It is now known that, while almost all observed galaxies are redshifted, the Doppler interpretation of this shift does not provide a reliable measure of velocity or (indirectly) of distance.

[5][17] Lemaître had already shown that this was expected, given the Cosmological Principle.[18]
Artist's depiction of the WMAP satellite gathering data to help scientists understand the Big Bang
.During the 1930s other ideas were proposed as non-standard cosmologies to explain Hubble's observations, including the Milne model,[19] the oscillatory Universe (originally suggested by Friedmann, but advocated by Albert Einstein and Richard Tolman)[20] and Fritz Zwicky's tired light hypothesis.^ Scientists are proposing other alternatives for its origin.

^ The central idea is that the theory of general relativity can be combined with the observations on the largest scales of galaxies receding from each other to extrapolate the conditions of the universe back or forward in time .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Russian mathematician Alexander Friedmann in the early 1920s showed that Einstein’s model of the universe was only one of an infinite number of possible cosmologies, some expanding, some contracting, depending on the value of the cosmological constant, and the "initial conditions" of the universe.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]
.After World War II, two distinct possibilities emerged.^ Before the Second World War, it was thought that the age of the universe was only two billion years.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.One was Fred Hoyle's steady state model, whereby new matter would be created as the Universe seemed to expand.^ The facts also state that the universe is still expanding.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Problems with the Steady State model .
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A static universe is one which is not expanding.

.In this model, the Universe is roughly the same at any point in time.^ The concept of a universe expanding from a single source at a real point of time in the past was developed because Dr. Hubble discovered the red light shift.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the visible portion of the universe, visible universe for short, was originally point-like, the initial singularity of big-bang theory was not time-like like the singularity of a black hole, but space-like.

^ Either the universe has always existed, or it was created at some point in time.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .The other was Lemaître's Big Bang theory, advocated and developed by George Gamow, who introduced big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN)[23] and whose associates, Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman, predicted the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB).^ Microwave background radiation, 'remnant of this heat'.

^ The Big Bang theory and other evidence point to creation.
  • The Big Bang Theory - Associated Content - Topic 19 September 2009 14:50 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Cosmologists who support the Big Bang Theory had predicted that the initial explosion would leave behind background or microwave radiation.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .Ironically, it was Hoyle who coined the phrase that came to be applied to Lemaître's theory, referring to it as "this big bang idea" during a BBC Radio broadcast in March 1949.[25][notes 1] For a while, support was split between these two theories.^ The Big Bang Theory is simply a mess.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The big bang theory is a big black bang theory...
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The big bang theory is an effort to explain what happened during and after that moment.

.Eventually, the observational evidence, most notably from radio source counts, began to favor the latter.^ Observations of the intensity of extended radio sources as a function of distance fail to produce any evidence for the existence of the absorbing material.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The discovery and confirmation of the cosmic microwave background radiation in 1964[26] secured the Big Bang as the best theory of the origin and evolution of the cosmos.^ Microwave background radiation, 'remnant of this heat'.

^ Big bang fundamental theory as to the origin of the universe.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Big Bang only gained a clear upper hand after the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation or CMBR in the late 60's.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Much of the current work in cosmology includes understanding how galaxies form in the context of the Big Bang, understanding the physics of the Universe at earlier and earlier times, and reconciling observations with the basic theory.^ Big bang fundamental theory as to the origin of the universe.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By understanding the basic structure of the universe we can determine how the big bang was caused.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How could it be that in the big bang it is not conserved?
  • Collapse of Big Bang Cosmology and the Emergence of the New Cosmic Center Model of the Universe 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Huge strides in Big Bang cosmology have been made since the late 1990s as a result of major advances in telescope technology as well as the analysis of copious data from satellites such as COBE,[27] the Hubble Space Telescope and WMAP.^ The big bang theory predetermines the size, the shape and the age of the universe (according to the latest satellite data, it is an expanding sphere 78 billion light years in diameter and 13.7 billion years old.
  • Where did the Big bang take place? - Astronomy.com Forums 19 September 2009 14:50 UTC cs.astronomy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From this most simple cosmology we find simple sensible explanations to the many problems of the big bang theory of cosmology .
  • Eric Lerner: The Big Bang Never Happened. Important Cosmology Quotes on Problems of the Big Bang Theory 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in the big bang, things are different, and I should think that Pitts would be aware that its huge inconsistencies have long been openly accepted and taught in prestigious universities.
  • Collapse of Big Bang Cosmology and the Emergence of the New Cosmic Center Model of the Universe 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .Cosmologists now have fairly precise and accurate measurements of many of the parameters of the Big Bang model, and have made the unexpected discovery that the expansion of the Universe appears to be accelerating.^ There was no Big Bang, and there is no expansion.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The discovery of quasars gave an unexpected boost to the big bang theory.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cosmologists refer to the universe's expansion as inflation .
  • Howstuffworks "How the Big Bang Theory Works" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Overview

Timeline of the Big Bang

External Timeline A graphical timeline is available at
Graphical timeline of the Big Bang
.Extrapolation of the expansion of the Universe backwards in time using general relativity yields an infinite density and temperature at a finite time in the past.^ According to general relativity, time is variable.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extrapolating backwards, the duration of the bounce converges to zero in a finite time.

^ The Friedmann equations were introduced by Alexander Friedmann in order to relate all factors that contribute to the expansion of space based on a homogeneous and isotropic model of the Universe and derived out of Einstein's General Relativity.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .This singularity signals the breakdown of general relativity.^ Classical general relativity predicts the universe began with a singularity, but it can't prove anything until after the Big Bang.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ General relativity says "singularity" but that was never intended as a physical description of what really happens, rather only as an indication that what really happens is beyond the ability of general relativity to describe.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The whole point of trying to find a quantum theory of gravity (string theory for instance) is to get around the singularities that crop up in the classical theory of general relativity.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.How closely we can extrapolate towards the singularity is debated—certainly not earlier than the Planck epoch.^ This initial state was a singularity, which implies that it was a beginning-point to spacetime; there is no earlier time than the instant of the singularity since the instant of the singularity is (by definition [4] ) the first instant of time.
  • Atheism, Theism and Big Bang Cosmology (1991) 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC qsmithwmu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This means that for any physical configuration C that occupies an instant arbitrarily close to the instant occupied by the singularity from which C was emitted, there obtain laws connecting C to the configurations occupying later instants but there obtains no law connecting C to the earlier singularity.
  • Atheism, Theism and Big Bang Cosmology (1991) 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC qsmithwmu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the universe has a zero radius at the singularity, it is not then 4D, but since the singularity is a physical state earlier than the 4D continuum it can be considered to be the first state of the universe (this is discussed further in section VI).
  • Atheism, Theism and Big Bang Cosmology (1991) 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC qsmithwmu.com [Source type: Original source]

.The early hot, dense phase is itself referred to as "the Big Bang",[notes 2] and is considered the "birth" of our Universe.^ The big bang theory is essentially a theoretical model for the birth of the universe .
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what caused the big bang itself?
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, measurements by the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) show a universe geometry that doesn't coincide with more probable predictions of a Big Bang model.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Based on measurements of the expansion using Type Ia supernovae, measurements of temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background, and measurements of the correlation function of galaxies, the Universe has a calculated age of 13.73 ± 0.12 billion years.^ This radiation, specifically known as the cosmic microwave background radiation is a throwback to the youngest years of the Universe.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latest estimate puts the age of the universe at just 8 billion years.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These parameters are based on accurate measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .The agreement of these three independent measurements strongly supports the ΛCDM model that describes in detail the contents of the Universe.^ Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.

^ 'N ote that these numbers are in substantial agreement with the results of the WMAP team, despite a completely independent analysis and independent redshift survey data; this is a powerful confirmation of their results and the emerging standard model of cosmology.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And it certainly cannot explain the power spectrum of the anisotropy, with the first peak at l=220, which supports the model that predicted it several years prior to it being measured.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earliest phases of the Big Bang are subject to much speculation.^ So much for Big Bang being a myth.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Matter has a maximum density much less than is claimed by the Big Bang proponents.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a big bang singularity were to be the earliest state of the universe, this singularity would emit a life-producing configuration of particles.
  • Atheism, Theism and Big Bang Cosmology (1991) 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC qsmithwmu.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the most common models, the Universe was filled homogeneously and isotropically with an incredibly high energy density, huge temperatures and pressures, and was very rapidly expanding and cooling.^ The Friedmann equations were introduced by Alexander Friedmann in order to relate all factors that contribute to the expansion of space based on a homogeneous and isotropic model of the Universe and derived out of Einstein's General Relativity.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this kind of distribution, it is expected that in places where the density was high, the temperature should have been higher by about a few millionths of a degree.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most people agree that the universe started billions of years ago with a huge explosion, known as the "Big Bang."
  • The Big Bang Theory - Associated Content - Topic 19 September 2009 14:50 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Approximately 10−37 seconds into the expansion, a phase transition caused a cosmic inflation, during which the Universe grew exponentially.^ Cosmologists refer to the universe's expansion as inflation .
  • Howstuffworks "How the Big Bang Theory Works" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It asserts that, at the time of the big bang, the universe experienced an exponential expansion, in which it doubled in size every 10–35 seconds (hence "inflation").
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Inflation theory, which proposes a period of extremely rapid (exponential) expansion of the universe during its first few moments, is no help, Carroll said.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[31] .After inflation stopped, the Universe consisted of a quark–gluon plasma, as well as all other elementary particles.^ They once thought protons and neutrons were the smallest components of the atom's nucleus, but the colliders showed that they are made of quarks and gluons and that there are other forces and particles.
  • FOXNews.com - 'Big Bang' Machine Sets Power Record 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ All particle physics is done nowadays in Minkowski space time, because that is the description of the universe that makes highly relativistic kinematics and collision descriptions have the most natural expressions.

^ And it all happens in a consistent direction from past to future, throughout the universe.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[32] .Temperatures were so high that the random motions of particles were at relativistic speeds, and particle–antiparticle pairs of all kinds were being continuously created and destroyed in collisions.^ "If matter cannot be created or destroyed then the idea that the big bang created all everything is in itself improbable."
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even this matter is not inert and lifeless, but is broken up into electrically-charged subatomic particles, subject to all kinds of movement, processes and change.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All particle physics is done nowadays in Minkowski space time, because that is the description of the universe that makes highly relativistic kinematics and collision descriptions have the most natural expressions.

.At some point an unknown reaction called baryogenesis violated the conservation of baryon number, leading to a very small excess of quarks and leptons over antiquarks and antileptons—of the order of one part in 30 million.^ This is less than 2 parts in one million.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the expansion rate is less by one part in 10 12 , the universe would collapse very early in its formation.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Says: June 20th, 2008 at 8:30 pm Out of all the creatures, and millions of years, how come we are the only ones that can look to the heavens and wonder?
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.This resulted in the predominance of matter over antimatter in the present Universe.^ The strong constraint of the observed flat universe also requires this, since Ω m , the density of matter is insufficient to result in a closed universe.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As we take a look at existing theories that attempt to explain the universe, it is essential to look at historical scientific work that results in present day theories.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That would appear to be reasonable for a universe consisting of matter that is expanding as the normal result of an explosion.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]
.The Universe continued to grow in size and fall in temperature, hence the typical energy of each particle was decreasing.^ In addition, some Big Bang cosmologists who have accepted inflation, continue to describe events essentially in accordance with the typical chronology of pre-inflation Big Bang, having a linear decrease in temperature (energy) and a linear increase in size as functions of time, without consideration of the appropriate changes necessary to accommodate inflation.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It asserts that, at the time of the big bang, the universe experienced an exponential expansion, in which it doubled in size every 10–35 seconds (hence "inflation").
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I suppose that you could look at the universe as a growing tree and equate sunlight to "dark energy".

.Symmetry breaking phase transitions put the fundamental forces of physics and the parameters of elementary particles into their present form.^ The fundamental mistake here is to imagine that the universe is equal to the observable universe, and that it is possible to reconstruct the entire history of the universe, as a linear process, without taking into account all the different phases, transitions, and different states through which matter passes.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fundamental or particle physics, the study of the underlying structure of matter and energy, focuses on the effort to unify the basic forces of nature.
  • Eric Lerner: The Big Bang Never Happened. Important Cosmology Quotes on Problems of the Big Bang Theory 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Quantum theory is concerned with the emission and absorption of energy by matter and with the motion of material particles; the quantum theory and the theory of relativity together form the theoretical basis of modern physics.

[34] .After about 10−11 seconds, the picture becomes less speculative, since particle energies drop to values that can be attained in particle physics experiments.^ This period starts at t = 1 x 10 -11 seconds.
  • Howstuffworks "How the Big Bang Theory Works" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, particle physics also suffers from an increasing contradiction between theory and experiment.
  • Eric Lerner: The Big Bang Never Happened. Important Cosmology Quotes on Problems of the Big Bang Theory 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But on reaching the critical point, it experiences a violent end, collapsing under its own weight in less than a second.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.At about 10−6 seconds, quarks and gluons combined to form baryons such as protons and neutrons.^ They formed neutrons and protons.
  • Howstuffworks "How the Big Bang Theory Works" 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Quarks are always held together by strong nuclear forces that are observable as larger particles such as protons and neutrons.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notice of material changes will be posted on the Site's homepage and/or will be provided by e-mailing you or notifying you upon login about these changes; the form of such notice is at our discretion.
  • Big Bang Theory | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

The small excess of quarks over antiquarks led to a small excess of baryons over antibaryons. .The temperature was now no longer high enough to create new proton–antiproton pairs (similarly for neutrons–antineutrons), so a mass annihilation immediately followed, leaving just one in 1010 of the original protons and neutrons, and none of their antiparticles.^ New particles and antiparticles were created and then annihilated back into energy.

^ The most simple atoms were formed first: hydrogen, which only has one proton, neutron, and electron, and helium, with two protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most notably, the temperature of the universe would eventually get so high that you could no longer have stable atoms, in which case the hypothetical observer wouldn't be able to hold himself together.” .
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.A similar process happened at about 1 second for electrons and positrons.^ When it was about a tenth its present size, matter and antimatter started to mix, annihilating each other and generating huge quantities of energetic electrons and positrons.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After these annihilations, the remaining protons, neutrons and electrons were no longer moving relativistically and the energy density of the Universe was dominated by photons (with a minor contribution from neutrinos).^ These theorize that the universe came into existence due to an intense explosion of incredibly dense energy.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Observational evidence shows that ejection of matter and energy from these centers in the form of compact objects, gas and relativistic particles is responsible for the population of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and gamma-ray burst sources in the universe.

^ The most simple atoms were formed first: hydrogen, which only has one proton, neutron, and electron, and helium, with two protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few minutes into the expansion, when the temperature was about a billion (one thousand million; 109; SI prefix giga-) kelvins and the density was about that of air, neutrons combined with protons to form the Universe's deuterium and helium nuclei in a process called Big Bang nucleosynthesis.^ There was no Big Bang, and there is no expansion.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But that is not what Big Bang is about and is not possible while there is any unevenness about the universes distribution.

^ It was just a big bang, an explosion in one part of the universe.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

[35] .Most protons remained uncombined as hydrogen nuclei.^ The most simple atoms were formed first: hydrogen, which only has one proton, neutron, and electron, and helium, with two protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the Universe cooled, the rest mass energy density of matter came to gravitationally dominate that of the photon radiation.^ The universe was "radiation dominated" before decoupling and "matter dominated" after it.

^ Then through E = mc 2 , this energy density is similar to a mass density.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The science of astronomy has determined the universe began approximately 12 billion years ago from an explosion of very dense matter and energy.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After about 379,000 years the electrons and nuclei combined into atoms (mostly hydrogen); hence the radiation decoupled from matter and continued through space largely unimpeded.^ While galaxies are a mere hundred thousand light-years across and clusters not more than ten million or so, a supercluster might snake through a few hundred million light-years of space.
  • Eric Lerner: The Big Bang Never Happened. Important Cosmology Quotes on Problems of the Big Bang Theory 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At that point the previously opaque universe became clear, and radiation is said to have traveled un-scattered through space to become the MBR received today.

^ Too bad I can't go back in time about 25,000 years and introduce the concept of science.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.This relic radiation is known as the cosmic microwave background radiation.^ Microwave background radiation, 'remnant of this heat'.

^ This radiation, specifically known as the cosmic microwave background radiation is a throwback to the youngest years of the Universe.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WMAP image of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation .
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field showcases galaxies from an ancient era when the Universe was younger, denser, and warmer according to the Big Bang theory.
.Over a long period of time, the slightly denser regions of the nearly uniformly distributed matter gravitationally attracted nearby matter and thus grew even denser, forming gas clouds, stars, galaxies, and the other astronomical structures observable today.^ No star or galaxy has ever been seen to form in space from star gas.

^ It is simply radiation produced by the stars, galaxies and other matter in the universe.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A gas cloud could not form a galaxy, star or planet.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The details of this process depend on the amount and type of matter in the Universe.^ For the universe as a whole, the shape of the curvature depends on the average density of the matter.

^ Therefore no amount of "bang", no matter how big, is going to thrust the universe out into, well, the universe.

^ For example, the theory requires a certain amount of matter in the universe.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The three possible types of matter are known as cold dark matter, hot dark matter and baryonic matter.^ What is this non-baryonic dark matter?
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can it be that they were so desperate at their signal failure to deliver the goods with "cold dark matter" that they finally decided to do an about-turn on the neutrino?
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the period before decoupling, non-baryonic dark matter was able to form gravitational fluctuations since, unlike baryons, it was not coupled to photons.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The best measurements available (from WMAP) show that the dominant form of matter in the Universe is cold dark matter.^ This is where the notion of "cold dark matter" comes in.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ 'Cold dark matter is dead.'

^ Can it be that they were so desperate at their signal failure to deliver the goods with "cold dark matter" that they finally decided to do an about-turn on the neutrino?
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The other two types of matter make up less than 18% of the matter in the Universe.^ They make up the physical matter of our universe.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two possible viewpoints one can look at Universe from: one view is that the Universe started out as bits and pieces of matter.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Matter has a maximum density much less than is claimed by the Big Bang proponents.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]
.Independent lines of evidence from Type Ia supernovae and the CMB imply the Universe today is dominated by a mysterious form of energy known as dark energy, which apparently permeates all of space.^ At that point the previously opaque universe became clear, and radiation is said to have traveled un-scattered through space to become the MBR received today.

^ You are discussing endless about dark energy, dark matter, etc and earn a lot of money for foolish evidences.

^ I suppose that you could look at the universe as a growing tree and equate sunlight to "dark energy".

.The observations suggest 72% of the total energy density of today's Universe is in this form.^ Observational evidence shows that ejection of matter and energy from these centers in the form of compact objects, gas and relativistic particles is responsible for the population of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and gamma-ray burst sources in the universe.

^ Superstring theory suggests that there were at least 10 dimensions when the universe was created, and these dimensions still exist today.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Baryons or ordinary matter, which contributes Ω b = 0.047 (or 4.7% of the critical mass-energy of the universe) Dark matter which contributes Ω m - Ω b where Ω m is the total matter density.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the Universe was very young, it was likely infused with dark energy, but with less space and everything closer together, gravity had the upper hand, and it was slowly braking the expansion.^ While the visible portion of the universe, visible universe for short, was originally point-like, the initial singularity of big-bang theory was not time-like like the singularity of a black hole, but space-like.

^ Even if the pre-inflation universe were curved like a sphere (corresponding to Omega less than 1) or hyperbolic (Omega greater than 1), that tremendous burst of expansion forced the scale of any curvature to flatness.

^ The science of astronomy has determined the universe began approximately 12 billion years ago from an explosion of very dense matter and energy.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But eventually, after numerous billion years of expansion, the growing abundance of dark energy caused the expansion of the Universe to slowly begin to accelerate.^ Tens of billions of years pass in the growing darkness ...
  • Eric Lerner: The Big Bang Never Happened. Important Cosmology Quotes on Problems of the Big Bang Theory 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Astrophysicists claim dark energy is causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the young have no desire to be stupid, so no, you are not doing anything for them, in fact it was a very young researcher who found the Dark Energy causing the accelerating expansion of the universe.

.Dark energy in its simplest formulation takes the form of the cosmological constant term in Einstein's field equations of general relativity, but its composition and mechanism are unknown and, more generally, the details of its equation of state and relationship with the Standard Model of particle physics continue to be investigated both observationally and theoretically.^ Einstein’s general theory of relativity."
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The modern cosmological constant is related to this dark energy.

^ The Friedmann equations were introduced by Alexander Friedmann in order to relate all factors that contribute to the expansion of space based on a homogeneous and isotropic model of the Universe and derived out of Einstein's General Relativity.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.All of this cosmic evolution after the inflationary epoch can be rigorously described and modeled by the ΛCDM model of cosmology, which uses the independent frameworks of quantum mechanics and Einstein's General Relativity.^ Einstein’s general theory of relativity."
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Friedmann equations were introduced by Alexander Friedmann in order to relate all factors that contribute to the expansion of space based on a homogeneous and isotropic model of the Universe and derived out of Einstein's General Relativity.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The time I describe is the proper time as defined in general relativity, which is an absolute invariant.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.As noted above, there is no well-supported model describing the action prior to 10−15 seconds or so.^ (Looking back, there are no regrets from my actions) 8.
  • Crunchyroll - Big Bang's Group Info 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.crunchyroll.com [Source type: General]

^ In a cyclic model, there is no such thing as an ultimate fate of the Universe since the Universe will simply collapse and expand alternately forever.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 50's and 60's, these two were the most well-supported cosmological models.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apparently a new unified theory of quantum gravitation is needed to break this barrier.^ Furthermore, inflation has great credence because it is consistent with Grand Unified Theories that integrate quantum scale phenomena with cosmological scale phenomena.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Understanding this earliest of eras in the history of the Universe is currently one of the greatest unsolved problems in physics.^ This time the problem is in cosmology, the study of the structure and "evolution" of the universe as revealed by its largest physical systems, galaxies and clusters of galaxies.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the end the Big Bang is one of the cornerstone theories that help scientists understand the universe.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To answer this question, one must look at current theories describing what happened after the first 10 -34 seconds of the universe.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Underlying assumptions

.The Big Bang theory depends on two major assumptions: the universality of physical laws, and the Cosmological Principle.^ Big bang fundamental theory as to the origin of the universe.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Big Bang Theory is simply a mess.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The big bang theory is a big black bang theory...
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cosmological principle states that on large scales the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic.^ It predicts that the universe, on such a large scale, should be smooth and homogeneous.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Which is to say, the expansion has no boundary present in the past light cone and the universe is largely homogeneous and the expansion isotropic.

^ Large-scale Voids are too old The Big bang theory predicts that no object in the universe can be older than the Big Bang.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These ideas were initially taken as postulates, but today there are efforts to test each of them.^ Superstring theory suggests that there were at least 10 dimensions when the universe was created, and these dimensions still exist today.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is absolutely nothing "astonishing" about these ideas, which were known decades ago.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, the first assumption has been tested by observations showing that largest possible deviation of the fine structure constant over much of the age of the Universe is of order 10−5.^ The central idea is that the theory of general relativity can be combined with the observations on the largest scales of galaxies receding from each other to extrapolate the conditions of the universe back or forward in time .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The real significance of Friedmann’s work was that it called into question the idea of a closed static universe, and showed that other models were possible.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First, let us look at the most accepted way of measuring the age of the universe.

[37] .Also, General Relativity has passed stringent tests on the scale of the solar system and binary stars while extrapolation to cosmological scales has been validated by the empirical successes of various aspects of the Big Bang theory.^ According to general relativity, time is variable.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Big Bang Theory is simply a mess.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Einstein’s general theory of relativity."
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

[notes 3]
.If the large-scale Universe appears isotropic as viewed from Earth, the cosmological principle can be derived from the simpler Copernican Principle, which states that there is no preferred (or special) observer or vantage point.^ There is no point to any of it.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are two possible viewpoints one can look at Universe from: one view is that the Universe started out as bits and pieces of matter.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which is to say, the expansion has no boundary present in the past light cone and the universe is largely homogeneous and the expansion isotropic.

.To this end, the cosmological principle has been confirmed to a level of 10−5 via observations of the CMB.[notes 4] The Universe has been measured to be homogeneous on the largest scales at the 10% level.^ The central idea is that the theory of general relativity can be combined with the observations on the largest scales of galaxies receding from each other to extrapolate the conditions of the universe back or forward in time .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We will likely find in the future, that present observations, such as noted by Halton Arp or Burbidge and others, struggling to understand the universe, will also be challenged by newer observations.

^ At this angular scale the amplitude of the fluctuations in the CMB is about 50µK according to the WMAP measurements.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]

FLRW metric

.General relativity describes spacetime by a metric, which determines the distances that separate nearby points.^ Most X-rays come from nearby or very far away, but generally not from intermediate distances.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, when we measure the distances between two of the farthest points located at opposite sides of the cosmos, they appear to be too far apart when compared with the distance that should be separating them.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Einstein proposed in his General Theory of Relativity that both distance and time are flexible forming a single entity he called spacetime.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The points, which can be galaxies, stars, or other objects, themselves are specified using a coordinate chart or "grid" that is laid down over all spacetime.^ These objects could not be stars because they were too far away, well beyond any of the galaxies that were known.

^ QUOTE Please explain how galaxies can colide if they are all moving away from each other.

^ They all die having never found the elusive life in other galaxies or our own galaxy because none exists.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cosmological principle implies that the metric should be homogeneous and isotropic on large scales, which uniquely singles out the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric (FLRW metric).^ It predicts that the universe, on such a large scale, should be smooth and homogeneous.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Friedmann equations were introduced by Alexander Friedmann in order to relate all factors that contribute to the expansion of space based on a homogeneous and isotropic model of the Universe and derived out of Einstein's General Relativity.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which is to say, the expansion has no boundary present in the past light cone and the universe is largely homogeneous and the expansion isotropic.

.This metric contains a scale factor, which describes how the size of the Universe changes with time.^ The central idea is that the theory of general relativity can be combined with the observations on the largest scales of galaxies receding from each other to extrapolate the conditions of the universe back or forward in time .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It asserts that, at the time of the big bang, the universe experienced an exponential expansion, in which it doubled in size every 10–35 seconds (hence "inflation").
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That one photograph was more instrumental in understanding our place in the universe and how fragile life is than any other discovery made at any time.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

This enables a convenient choice of a coordinate system to be made, called comoving coordinates. .In this coordinate system, the grid expands along with the Universe, and objects that are moving only due to the expansion of the Universe remain at fixed points on the grid.^ Thus the universe was rapidly "expanded"—in the minds of men—and has continued to expand ever since, as more and more distant objects are discovered.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only are the supernova spectra Doppler shifted, they are time dilated as expected by GR predictions of a non-Euclidean expanding universe.

^ What physicists mean by the universe expanding is not that the distance between galaxies and clusters of galaxies are increasing because they are moving away, in fact, it is because space itself is actually expanding.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.While their coordinate distance (comoving distance) remains constant, the physical distance between two such comoving points expands proportionally with the scale factor of the Universe.^ Now, we can see that the mode with the maximum amplitude must have a scale such that the fluid has compressed exactly once in the lifetime of the universe up to the time of decoupling.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What physicists mean by the universe expanding is not that the distance between galaxies and clusters of galaxies are increasing because they are moving away, in fact, it is because space itself is actually expanding.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And if that whole universe is expanding, then into what is it expanding and at what rate, since all space and time have to be, by definition, inside that theoretical point, with there being absolutely nothing outside it?

[39]
.The Big Bang is not an explosion of matter moving outward to fill an empty universe.^ It was just a big bang, an explosion in one part of the universe.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "If matter cannot be created or destroyed then the idea that the big bang created all everything is in itself improbable."
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the visible portion of the universe, visible universe for short, was originally point-like, the initial singularity of big-bang theory was not time-like like the singularity of a black hole, but space-like.

.Instead, space itself expands with time everywhere and increases the physical distance between two comoving points.^ The curvature of space-time increases ever faster.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it actual distance or a time/space thing.

^ What physicists mean by the universe expanding is not that the distance between galaxies and clusters of galaxies are increasing because they are moving away, in fact, it is because space itself is actually expanding.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because the FLRW metric assumes a uniform distribution of mass and energy, it applies to our Universe only on large scales—local concentrations of matter such as our galaxy are gravitationally bound and as such do not experience the large-scale expansion of space.^ Expansion from the BB is only ONE of the forces shaping our universe.

^ It predicts that the universe, on such a large scale, should be smooth and homogeneous.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The last assumption is that the universe is on a large scale pretty evenly distributed in mass and energy.
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Horizons

.An important feature of the Big Bang spacetime is the presence of horizons.^ Another old Big Bang problem that is related to the smoothness problem is called the horizon problem.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The acoustic horizon - ie the distance sound can travel in the fluid in the time between Big Bang and decoupling corresponds to the angular scale of the first peak.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the basic features of big-bang cosmology are inherently untestable.

.Since the Universe has a finite age, and light travels at a finite speed, there may be events in the past whose light has not had time to reach us.^ Which is to say, the expansion has no boundary present in the past light cone and the universe is largely homogeneous and the expansion isotropic.

^ First, let us look at the most accepted way of measuring the age of the universe.

^ Since decoupling was not an instantaneous event but took place over a period of time, this shell has a finite thickness.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This places a limit or a past horizon on the most distant objects that can be observed.^ This exponential decay can make the spacing of distant objects appear to grow rapidly (the uneven expansion observed for highly receeding galaxies).

^ The observed evidence of a correlation between the distance of distant objects and red shift can not be disputed.

^ Of course, he is wrong in this, but the most absurd aspect of his statement about Eddington's observations is that he rejects the notion that an object can be directly observed by refracting or bending the path of photons.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conversely, because space is expanding, and more distant objects are receding ever more quickly, light emitted by us today may never "catch up" to very distant objects.^ Space has expanded by a factor of z+1 since the light was emitted from an object at redshift, z.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, if the light from a far distant galaxy is white, the galaxy is actually moving toward us because light from a static galaxy at that distance would have a natural redshift.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The thought was that a distant body was moving away from us because the light emitted had a shift to a longer wave length caused by the velocity.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This defines a future horizon, which limits the events in the future that we will be able to influence. .The presence of either type of horizon depends on the details of the FLRW model that describes our Universe.^ Standard rate Promotions will be subject to either the "single opt-in" or the "double-opt-in" (Site/SMS) method, at the discretion of Spike depending on the type of Promotion.
  • Big Bang Theory | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Since we understand that there are several dozen models for the universe, we must conclude that it isn't an easy process to construct a cosmological model from our observations.

^ The law instead favors the more popular model that details the possible ending of our universe – The Big Freeze .
  • Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Our understanding of the Universe back to very early times suggests that there is a past horizon, though in practice our view is also limited by the opacity of the Universe at early times.^ The central idea is that the theory of general relativity can be combined with the observations on the largest scales of galaxies receding from each other to extrapolate the conditions of the universe back or forward in time .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hot/ Dense early universe is universally accepted by almost all real cosmologists and new evidence supporting it is found almost daily(hourly, at times).

^ There are two possible viewpoints one can look at Universe from: one view is that the Universe started out as bits and pieces of matter.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So our view cannot extend further backward in time, though the horizon recedes in space.^ Even though we may be able to alter the speed at which we travel through time, we cannot stop time from passing.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And then Einstein extended this concept of Minkowski space-time to curved space-time and demonstrated there was just one way that Gravity fit into the picture.

^ In 1968 and 1970, they published papers in which they extended Einstein's Theory of General Relativity to include measurements of time and space.

.If the expansion of the Universe continues to accelerate, there is a future horizon as well.^ If cyclic, then the Universe will not accelerate indefinitely, and there will be a Big Crunch, and indeed an infinite sequence of Big Crunches and Big Bangs.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Somehow, if the universe is to collapse in the future as some believe, all the energy that was expended in the birth and expansion of the Big Bang universe was only borrowed; someday to be paid back.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The universe isn't an explosion that sprang out into empty space; there was no empty space until expansion began.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[40]

Observational evidence

.The earliest and most direct kinds of observational evidence are the Hubble-type expansion seen in the redshifts of galaxies, the detailed measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the abundance of light elements (see Big Bang nucleosynthesis), and today also the large scale distribution and apparent evolution of galaxies[41] which are predicted to occur due to gravitational growth of structure in the standard theory.^ Instead, the evidence put forward was the microwave background and three light elements.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no Big Bang, and there is no expansion.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The redshift is the empirical evidence supporting expansion.

.These are sometimes called "the four pillars of the Big Bang theory".^ The Big Bang Theory is simply a mess.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The big bang theory is a big black bang theory...
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Big Bang Theory is a fairytale, folks.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]

Hubble's law and the expansion of space

.Observations of distant galaxies and quasars show that these objects are redshifted—the light emitted from them has been shifted to longer wavelengths.^ Quasars of distant galaxies are too faint to be visible.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High redshift objects emit limited visible light.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Space has expanded by a factor of z+1 since the light was emitted from an object at redshift, z.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This can be seen by taking a frequency spectrum of an object and matching the spectroscopic pattern of emission lines or absorption lines corresponding to atoms of the chemical elements interacting with the light.^ Each atom has its own characteristic set of spectral lines, so we know when that characteristic set of lines is shifted further down towards the red end of the spectrum.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of absorption line systems seen in Lyman alpha does not monotonically increase with redshift.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lerner claims that the isotropy and the black body spectrum of the CMB can be explained by absorption of the primary radiation by interstellar dust and re-emission.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These redshifts are uniformly isotropic, distributed evenly among the observed objects in all directions.^ It is now known that, while almost all observed galaxies are redshifted, the Doppler interpretation of this shift does not provide a reliable measure of velocity or (indirectly) of distance.

^ These could all be contributing factors to a redshift.

^ All observed characteristics of quasars are customarily interpreted using the standard Big Bang model and the assumption that their redshifts are primarily due to the expansion of the universe.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the redshift is interpreted as a Doppler shift, the recessional velocity of the object can be calculated.^ It is now known that, while almost all observed galaxies are redshifted, the Doppler interpretation of this shift does not provide a reliable measure of velocity or (indirectly) of distance.

^ Some extra-galactic objects had to have redshifts which were not caused by a recesson velocity.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That in turn is based on the accepted Doppler interpretation of red shift which, as we will see, may present additional difficulties.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For some galaxies, it is possible to estimate distances via the cosmic distance ladder.^ In recent years, new techniques of measuring the distance of galaxies have been applied, which have led astronomers to revise earlier estimates drastically.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

When the recessional velocities are plotted against these distances, a linear relationship known as Hubble's law is observed:[5]
v = H_0 D \,
where
v is the recessional velocity of the galaxy or other distant object
D is the comoving proper distance to the object and
H0 is .Hubble's constant, measured to be 70.1 ± 1.3 km/s/Mpc by the WMAP probe.^ Based upon this Hubble constant, we have a universe that is measured around 15 to 20 billions of years.

^ This constant is expressed as velocity as a function of distance in units of either kilometers per second per megaparsec (km/sec/Mpc), or in units of kilometers per second per million light year (km/sec/MLYs).

^ Before we look at the Hubble constant, which is used to measure the age of the universe, we need to understand that the Hubble constant is "not constant".

[30]
.Hubble's law has two possible explanations.^ The creation of the universe only has two possible explanations.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Either we are at the center of an explosion of galaxies—which is untenable given the Copernican Principle—or the Universe is uniformly expanding everywhere.^ The universe has galaxies and clusters of galaxies everywhere.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What physicists mean by the universe expanding is not that the distance between galaxies and clusters of galaxies are increasing because they are moving away, in fact, it is because space itself is actually expanding.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A different solution to Einstein's equations by Alexander Friedmann seemed to indicate that the universe exists in a dynamic form - either expanding or collapsing.

.This universal expansion was predicted from general relativity by Alexander Friedman in 1922[14] and Georges Lemaître in 1927,[15] well before Hubble made his 1929 analysis and observations, and it remains the cornerstone of the Big Bang theory as developed by Friedmann, Lemaître, Robertson and Walker.^ Einstein's General Theory of Relativity said that the universe must be contracting.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theories of Friedmann were given an important boost by the observations of Hubble and Wirtz.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no Big Bang, and there is no expansion.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The theory requires the relation v = HD to hold at all times, where D is the proper distance, v is the recessional velocity, and v, H, and D varying as the Universe expands (hence we write H0 to denote the present-day Hubble "constant").^ And all over something called the Hubble Constant.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hubble constant is determined by how fast the universe is expanding.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the BB Theory, that would require the formation of large numbers of quasars too soon after the BB. That interpretation of data also results in the anomaly of quasars at various distances, and thus of various ages, that are observed to have similar electromagnetic spectrums.

.For distances much smaller than the size of the observable Universe, the Hubble redshift can be thought of as the Doppler shift corresponding to the recession velocity v.^ Astronomers can measure velocity and distance with red-shifting.

^ The concept of a universe expanding from a single source at a real point of time in the past was developed because Dr. Hubble discovered the red light shift.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.

.However, the redshift is not a true Doppler shift, but rather the result of the expansion of the Universe between the time the light was emitted and the time that it was detected.^ The same results are true when looking at the expansion rate of the universe.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It asserts that, at the time of the big bang, the universe experienced an exponential expansion, in which it doubled in size every 10–35 seconds (hence "inflation").
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the redshift is entirely or partially non-Doppler (that is, not due to cosmic expansion), then it could be an intrinsic property of a galaxy, as basic a characteristic as its mass or luminosity.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]
.That space is undergoing metric expansion is shown by direct observational evidence of the Cosmological Principle and the Copernican Principle, which together with Hubble's law have no other explanation.^ There is nothing more to say about Bruno, since Bruno's beliefs have no direct contribution to make to the modern scientific debate on cosmological origins.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to a law of quantum mechanics known as the Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons can occupy the same energy state in an atom.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The universe isn't an explosion that sprang out into empty space; there was no empty space until expansion began.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Astronomical redshifts are extremely isotropic and homogenous,[5] supporting the Cosmological Principle that the Universe looks the same in all directions, along with much other evidence.^ The universe is homogeneous in all directions.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I speak only of this Universe not all of the others.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ La Galaxy The Grand Unified Theory of Stupidity If you've always thought that the entire universe seems to be an exercise in stupidity, you were right all along.
  • The Big Bang Theory - Associated Content - Topic 19 September 2009 14:50 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.If the redshifts were the result of an explosion from a center distant from us, they would not be so similar in different directions.^ We would not be discovering M-87 and its similar centers of huge explosions.

^ In other words, if the light from a far distant galaxy is white, the galaxy is actually moving toward us because light from a static galaxy at that distance would have a natural redshift.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, scientists and shamans differ vastly in far more respects than they are similar.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Measurements of the effects of the cosmic microwave background radiation on the dynamics of distant astrophysical systems in 2000 proved the Copernican Principle, that the Earth is not in a central position, on a cosmological scale.^ Microwave background radiation, 'remnant of this heat'.

^ It does not explain the cosmic microwave background.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cosmic Microwave Background is the most perfect blackbody spectrum ever measured.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[notes .5] Radiation from the Big Bang was demonstrably warmer at earlier times throughout the Universe.^ While the visible portion of the universe, visible universe for short, was originally point-like, the initial singularity of big-bang theory was not time-like like the singularity of a black hole, but space-like.

^ Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.

^ If the radius of the big-bang universe were for example, 15 billion light years (BLYs), two regions at the edge of space are thus 30 BLYs apart.

.Uniform cooling of the cosmic microwave background over billions of years is explainable only if the Universe is experiencing a metric expansion, and excludes the possibility that we are near the unique center of an explosion.^ It does not explain the cosmic microwave background.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the radius of the big-bang universe were for example, 15 billion light years (BLYs), two regions at the edge of space are thus 30 BLYs apart.

^ The science of astronomy has determined the universe began approximately 12 billion years ago from an explosion of very dense matter and energy.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cosmic microwave background radiation

WMAP image of the cosmic microwave background radiation
.During the first few days of the Universe, the Universe was in full thermal equilibrium, with photons being continually emitted and absorbed, giving the radiation a blackbody spectrum.^ The first objects illuminated the universe a few hundred million years later.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The strong magnetic field of the current causes electrons to emit the x-ray synchrotron (non-thermal) radiation captured in the image.

^ In the universe that we live in, photons moving at the speed of light cannot get from one side of the universe to the other in time to account for this observed isotropy in the thermal radiation.

.As the Universe expanded, it cooled to a temperature at which photons could no longer be created or destroyed.^ The current hypothesis is that if continuous expansion occurred, it would lead to heat death where no life could be sustained anywhere in the universe.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lasand 11th February 2008 - 11:03 PM Hello OldWoman1904, In my view quanta can no longer be created or destroyed.

^ Einstein, no less, had reservations about the mathematical approach favoured by expanding universe proponents: .
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The temperature was still high enough for electrons and nuclei to remain unbound, however, and photons were constantly "reflected" from these free electrons through a process called Thomson scattering.^ The universe remained too hot for electromagnetic forces to take hold and bond electrons to their parent nuclei.

^ It is shown that the creation processes which takes place in the nuclei of galaxies are closely linked to the high energy and explosive phenomena, which are commonly observed in galaxies at all redshifts.

.Because of this repeated scattering, the early Universe was opaque to light.^ At that point the previously opaque universe became clear, and radiation is said to have traveled un-scattered through space to become the MBR received today.

^ In the words of Stephen Hawking, "the early universe was simpler, and it was a lot more appealing, because it was a lot simpler."
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This force or object had to be black, emit no X-rays, emit no radiation, emit nothing, have no effect on light, because no such object can be seen or detected in the universe.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the temperature fell to a few thousand Kelvin, electrons and nuclei began to combine to form atoms, a process known as recombination.^ According to a law of quantum mechanics known as the Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons can occupy the same energy state in an atom.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to this theory, the helium core contracts, raising the temperature to the point where the helium nuclei can fuse to form carbon, releasing new energy.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the grip of the neutron star’s gravitational field, electrons could only emerge at the magnetic poles, losing energy in the form of radio waves in the process.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since photons scatter infrequently from neutral atoms, radiation decoupled from matter when nearly all the electrons had recombined, at the epoch of last scattering, 379,000 years after the Big Bang.^ It is all a BIG SCAM, not a big bang.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surface of Last Scattering: The photons that we observe in the Cosmic Background Radiation have been streaming through the cosmos since the time of decoupling more than 13.3 billion years ago.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "If matter cannot be created or destroyed then the idea that the big bang created all everything is in itself improbable."
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.These photons make up the CMB that is observed today, and the observed pattern of fluctuations in the CMB is a direct picture of the Universe at this early epoch.^ These are the basic LEGO pieces that make up our universe.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These appeared to indicate that the universe, or at least the part of it we can observe, was expanding.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The theories predict that material in the early universe clumped together from the ‘bottom up,’ so that galaxies formed first, then only later clumped to form clusters."
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The energy of photons was subsequently redshifted by the expansion of the Universe, which preserved the blackbody spectrum but caused its temperature to fall, meaning that the photons now fall into the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.^ The terms 'recession velocity' and 'expansion velocity' were quickly brought into service by astronomers at the telescope, and by popularizers, to describe the physical basis for the redshift.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electromagnetism binds atoms into molecules, transports photons from the sun and stars, and fires the synapses of the brain.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In this paper we show that other models of a Universe in dynamical equilibrium without expansion had predicted this temperature prior to Gamow.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The radiation is thought to be observable at every point in the Universe, and comes from all directions with (almost) the same intensity.^ This point will denote the edge of the observable universe.

^ The universe is homogeneous in all directions.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At that point the previously opaque universe became clear, and radiation is said to have traveled un-scattered through space to become the MBR received today.

.In 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson accidentally discovered the cosmic background radiation while conducting diagnostic observations using a new microwave receiver owned by Bell Laboratories.^ Microwave background radiation, 'remnant of this heat'.

^ In 1964, Bell labs originally discovered cosmic background microwave radiation.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, there is the three-degrees Kelvin microwave background radiation discovered by Penzias and Wilson in 1965, thereafter claimed to be a primordial relic of the ‘Big Bang’.

[26] .Their discovery provided substantial confirmation of the general CMB predictions—the radiation was found to be isotropic and consistent with a blackbody spectrum of about 3 K—and it pitched the balance of opinion in favor of the Big Bang hypothesis.^ These big bang ripples scientifically substantiate the big bang model prediction.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.

^ You start this article with the sentence "This week's startup of Europe's Large Hadron Collider didn't generate a big bang or a black hole."
  • Big bang sparks big reaction - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Penzias and Wilson were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery.^ Penzias and Wilson shared in the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery.

^ "Far from confirming the Peebles-Dicke model, the Penzias-Wilson discovery clearly ruled out the closed oscillating model."
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the death knell for the Steady State theory was the discovery of the CMB by Penzias and Wilson, which cannot be explained by the Steady State hypothesis.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1989, NASA launched the Cosmic Background Explorer satellite (COBE), and the initial findings, released in 1990, were consistent with the Big Bang's predictions regarding the CMB. COBE found a residual temperature of 2.726 K and in 1992 detected for the first time the fluctuations (anisotropies) in the CMB, at a level of about one part in 105.^ A major breakthrough came in 1990 when the COBE (COsmic Background Explorer) satellite found ripples at the edge of the universe [ [3] ].
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But how did the initial big bang happen in the first place?
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was just a big bang, an explosion in one part of the universe.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

[27] John C. Mather and George Smoot were awarded Nobels for their leadership in this work. .During the following decade, CMB anisotropies were further investigated by a large number of ground-based and balloon experiments.^ This leads to predictions of the formation of large numbers of intermediate mass stars during the formations of galaxies.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2000–2001, several experiments, most notably BOOMERanG, found the Universe to be almost spatially flat by measuring the typical angular size (the size on the sky) of the anisotropies.^ The Hot/ Dense early universe is universally accepted by almost all real cosmologists and new evidence supporting it is found almost daily(hourly, at times).

^ Alignment of CBR with the Local Supercluster The largest angular scale components of the fluctuations(anisotropy) of the CBR are not random, but have a strong preferred orientation in the sky.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The postulated expansion of this flat Big Bang universe (just at escape velocity) would eventually cease to increase, and thereafter remain at a fixed size.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See shape of the Universe.)
.In early 2003, the first results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) were released, yielding what were at the time the most accurate values for some of the cosmological parameters.^ Page et al, First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations:Interpretation of the TT and TE Angular Power Spectrum Peaks, sumitted to the Astrphysical Journal available on-line here: .
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spergel et al, First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Determination of Cosmological Parameters , accepted by the Astrophysical Journal, available on line here: .
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Komatsu et al, First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Tests of Gaussianity , accepted by the Astrophysical Journal, available on line here: .
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This spacecraft also disproved several specific cosmic inflation models, but the results were consistent with the inflation theory in general,[28] it confirms too that a sea of cosmic neutrinos permeates the Universe, a clear evidence that the first stars took more than a half-billion years to create a cosmic fog.^ According to this theory, there can be nothing in the universe older than 15 billion years.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The central idea is that the theory of general relativity can be combined with the observations on the largest scales of galaxies receding from each other to extrapolate the conditions of the universe back or forward in time .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it is not clear how an enormously fast rate of expansion might result in an average density at the critical level; and the low observed density of the universe represents an especially severe problem to inflation theory.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A new space probe named Planck, with goals similar WMAP, was launched in May 2009. It is anticipated to soon provide even more accurate measurements of the CMB anisotropies.^ At this angular scale the amplitude of the fluctuations in the CMB is about 50µK according to the WMAP measurements.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the advent of the new 200 inch telescope in the 1960s, even more distant objects were detected, moving away at 150,000 miles per second.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ August 18th, 2009 1:58 pm ET The new realm which is coming to our state of existence soon is called the "Duple"...
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many other ground- and balloon-based experiments are also currently running; see Cosmic microwave background experiments.^ It does not explain the cosmic microwave background.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Measurements from WMAP show that the fluctuations in the microwave background are about 10% stronger on one side of the sky than on the other.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Big Bang theory is based on good solid evidence, the Cosmic Background radiation being only one piece.

.The background radiation is exceptionally smooth, which presented a problem in that conventional expansion would mean that photons coming from opposite directions in the sky were coming from regions that had never been in contact with each other.^ But the continuous expansion would have other consequences.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A major problem was the extreme smoothness of the background microwave radiation.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The background radiation is omni directional.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leading explanation for this far reaching equilibrium is that the Universe had a brief period of rapid exponential expansion, called inflation.^ Inflation theory, which proposes a period of extremely rapid (exponential) expansion of the universe during its first few moments, is no help, Carroll said.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It asserts that, at the time of the big bang, the universe experienced an exponential expansion, in which it doubled in size every 10–35 seconds (hence "inflation").
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In this paper we show that other models of a Universe in dynamical equilibrium without expansion had predicted this temperature prior to Gamow.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This would have the effect of driving apart regions that had been in equilibrium, so that all the observable Universe was from the same equilibrated region.^ If the radius of the big-bang universe were for example, 15 billion light years (BLYs), two regions at the edge of space are thus 30 BLYs apart.

^ But that being would obviously work in the same reality, the same rules, the same cycles as our world and as the rest of the universe does.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle would never have made the mistake of talking about a time before time existed, or claiming that the entire universe was, in effect, created from nothing.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

Abundance of primordial elements

.Using the Big Bang model it is possible to calculate the concentration of helium-4, helium-3, deuterium and lithium-7 in the Universe as ratios to the amount of ordinary hydrogen, H.[35] All the abundances depend on a single parameter, the ratio of photons to baryons, which itself can be calculated independently from the detailed structure of CMB fluctuations.^ Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.

^ At that time, all the matter in the universe is alleged to have been concentrated at a single point.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Used in the idea of the "Big Bang" or Universe Creation, the idea of a priori is this: .
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The ratios predicted (by mass, not by number) are about 0.25 for 4He/H, about 10−3 for 2H/H, about 10−4 for 3He/H and about 10−9 for 7Li/H.^ This leads to predictions of the formation of large numbers of intermediate mass stars during the formations of galaxies.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]
.The measured abundances all agree at least roughly with those predicted from a single value of the baryon-to-photon ratio.^ The values of the periodicities are refinements of those predicted by Lehto.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those predictions had varied over a range of 5 to 50 K. (26) History also shows that some Big Bang cosmologists' "predictions" of MBR temperature have been "adjusted" after-the-fact to agree with observed temperatures.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And a new measurement of the free neutron lifetime is 6 sigma smaller that the previous world average, giving a new prediction of the helium abundance of 24.6 percent.

The agreement is excellent for deuterium, close but formally discrepant for 4He, and a factor of two off for 7Li; in the latter two cases there are substantial systematic uncertainties. .Nonetheless, the general consistency with abundances predicted by BBN is strong evidence for the Big Bang, as the theory is the only known explanation for the relative abundances of light elements, and it is virtually impossible to "tune" the Big Bang to produce much more or less than 20–30% helium.^ Matter has a maximum density much less than is claimed by the Big Bang proponents.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ October 20, 2009 Wheaton takes on 'Big Bang Theory' .
  • Wheaton takes on 'Big Bang Theory' – The Marquee Blog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC marquee.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Big Bang should have produced a much stronger radiation measurement.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .Indeed there is no obvious reason outside of the Big Bang that, for example, the young Universe (i.e., before star formation, as determined by studying matter supposedly free of stellar nucleosynthesis products) should have more helium than deuterium or more deuterium than 3He, and in constant ratios, too.^ But this was in no way a big bang that created matter, space, and time.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no more actual evidence than before.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no Big Bang, and there is no expansion.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Galactic evolution and distribution

.
This panoramic view of the entire near-infrared sky reveals the distribution of galaxies beyond the Milky Way.
^ Deep surveys of the sky reveal the nature of the galaxies was quite different in the past, which is a prediction of a non-steady-state universe.

^ Some surveys of distant galaxies affected by gravitational lensing are so detailed that the distribution of dark matter over significant swathes of the sky can be determined (46), (47), (48).
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elliptical galaxy M87 is a type of galaxy that looks much different than our own Milky Way Galaxy.

The galaxies are color coded by redshift.
.Detailed observations of the morphology and distribution of galaxies and quasars provide strong evidence for the Big Bang.^ What is the evidence against the Big Bang?
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the "big bang" were about this simple, it could explain the choatic jumble of everything we see in the observable universe including "blue shifted" galaxies.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some surveys of distant galaxies affected by gravitational lensing are so detailed that the distribution of dark matter over significant swathes of the sky can be determined (46), (47), (48).
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A combination of observations and theory suggest that the first quasars and galaxies formed about a billion years after the Big Bang, and since then larger structures have been forming, such as galaxy clusters and superclusters.^ The discovery of quasars gave an unexpected boost to the big bang theory.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Big Bang Theory is simply a mess.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For galaxies to form, perhaps one or two billion years are needed.

.Populations of stars have been aging and evolving, so that distant galaxies (which are observed as they were in the early Universe) appear very different from nearby galaxies (observed in a more recent state).^ We can observe very many different phase of similar events in the universe.

^ Observe a very distant galaxy comparable to our Milky Way Galaxy.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are very different small conglomeration of stars.

.Moreover, galaxies that formed relatively recently appear markedly different from galaxies formed at similar distances but shortly after the Big Bang.^ This, then, is the most recent version of the big bang.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Re-ionisation occurred and the first stars formed at z = 20 and at 180 Myr after Big Bang (10).
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps these collisions will be so violent in nature that they will begin to form new singularities, and a new universe will come out of a next Big Bang.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.These observations are strong arguments against the steady-state model.^ Problems with the Steady State model .
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These observations completely reject the Steady State hypothesis.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This contradicts the Steady State model (60) .
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Observations of star formation, galaxy and quasar distributions and larger structures agree well with Big Bang simulations of the formation of structure in the Universe and are helping to complete details of the theory.^ The discovery of quasars gave an unexpected boost to the big bang theory.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But that is not what Big Bang is about and is not possible while there is any unevenness about the universes distribution.

^ The Big Bang Theory is simply a mess.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45][46]

Other lines of evidence

.After some controversy, the age of Universe as estimated from the Hubble expansion and the CMB is now in good agreement with (i.e., slightly larger than) the ages of the oldest stars, both as measured by applying the theory of stellar evolution to globular clusters and through radiometric dating of individual Population II stars.^ "Well," comments Carlos Frank, quoted in the same booklet, "if it turns out that the ages of the stars are greater than the expansion time of the universe, as inferred by the measurement of the Hubble Constant and the measurement of the density of the universe, then there is a genuine crisis.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, as previously noted, both the birth of the universe from a gigantic vacuum fluctuation(2,52) and the expansion of the universe from a gigantic cosmic repulsive force are speculations that have no means of verification.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of those quasars are reckoned by Big Bang theorists to be observed as they were at less than one tenth of the age of the universe, (25) far sooner than such fields might have developed in accordance with Big Bang Theory.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The prediction that the CMB temperature was higher in the past has been experimentally supported by observations of temperature-sensitive emission lines in gas clouds at high redshift.^ Thus no redshifts are required to explain the strong emission lines.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Implied cloud temperatures (5,000-10,000 degrees) are below predicted 30,000 degrees.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attempts to reconcile the data with FRW predictions by assuming that high-z galaxies have intrinsically higher surface brightness than low-z galaxies appear to face insurmountable problems.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This prediction also implies that the amplitude of the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect in clusters of galaxies does not depend directly on redshift; this seems to be roughly true, but unfortunately the amplitude does depend on cluster properties which do change substantially over cosmic time, so a precise test is impossible.^ It is now known that, while almost all observed galaxies are redshifted, the Doppler interpretation of this shift does not provide a reliable measure of velocity or (indirectly) of distance.

^ If the redshift is entirely or partially non-Doppler (that is, not due to cosmic expansion), then it could be an intrinsic property of a galaxy, as basic a characteristic as its mass or luminosity.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Lehto-Ti t model the redshift is presumed to arise from time dependent decay from an origin at the Planck scale; the decay process is a form of period doubling.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Features, issues and problems

.While scientists now prefer the Big Bang model over other cosmological models, the scientific community was once divided between supporters of the Big Bang and those of alternative cosmological models.^ These big bang ripples scientifically substantiate the big bang model prediction.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientific evidence for the big bang model is abundant.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The intimidation of those scientists rejecting the Big Bang Theory is extreme.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Throughout the historical development of the subject, problems with the Big Bang theory were posed in the context of a scientific controversy regarding which model could best describe the cosmological observations (see the history section above).^ These big bang ripples scientifically substantiate the big bang model prediction.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientific evidence for the big bang model is abundant.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oldest and perhaps best known problem of Big Bang Theory is that of the singularity.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the overwhelming consensus in the community today supporting the Big Bang model, many of these problems are remembered as being mainly of historical interest; the solutions to them have been obtained either through modifications to the theory or as the result of better observations.^ These big bang ripples scientifically substantiate the big bang model prediction.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So much for Big Bang being a myth.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supporters of the big bang theory may retort that these theories do not explain every cosmological observation.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The core ideas of the Big Bang—the expansion, the early hot state, the formation of helium, the formation of galaxies—are derived from many observations that are independent from any cosmological model; these include the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background, large scale structure, and the Hubble diagram for Type Ia supernovae.^ Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.

^ These big bang ripples scientifically substantiate the big bang model prediction.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was no Big Bang, and there is no expansion.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Precise modern models of the Big Bang appeal to various exotic physical phenomena that have not been observed in terrestrial laboratory experiments or incorporated into the Standard Model of particle physics.^ Big Bang: A modern myth?
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The big bang from observing gaseous states.

^ This is precisely what the big bang theory states.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of these features, dark matter is currently the subject to the most active laboratory investigations.^ Investigators have made valiant efforts, both theoretical and observational, to find that missing matter, both cold dark matter (CDM) and hot dark matter (HDM).
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You, sir, are simply the most well spoken but utterly clueless individual on these matters I've come across for at least a year's time.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .Remaining issues, such as the cuspy halo problem and the dwarf galaxy problem of cold dark matter, are not fatal to the dark matter explanation as solutions to such problems exist which involve only further refinements of the theory.^ A solution to this problem has been proposed using the concept of Cold Dark Matter.

^ This is where the notion of "cold dark matter" comes in.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dark matter must exist—because our theory demands it!
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

Dark energy is also an area of intense interest for scientists, but it is not clear whether direct detection of dark energy will be possible.[48]
.On the other hand, inflation and baryogenesis remain somewhat more speculative features of current Big Bang models: they explain important features of the early universe, but could be replaced by alternative ideas without affecting the rest of the theory.^ Big bang fundamental theory as to the origin of the universe.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Could the other side of a black hole be a Big Bang?
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our ideas about the history of the universe are dominated by big bang theory.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[notes .6] Discovering the correct explanations for such phenomena are some of the remaining unsolved problems in physics.^ By the end of the decade, 150 were discovered—some of them estimated to be nine billion light years away, assuming the red-shift to be correct.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

Horizon problem

.The horizon problem results from the premise that information cannot travel faster than light.^ The problem for the big-bang theory is that collisions cannot move information faster than the speed of light.

^ To state that inflation at orders of magnitude faster than the speed of light solved the horizon problem that had been attributed to the high rate of expansion of pre-inflation Big Bang Theory, may be illogical.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We cannot and will not be responsible for any problems or liability that may arise if you do not give us accurate, truthful or complete information or Personal Information or you fail to update such information or Personal Information.
  • Big Bang Theory | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.In a Universe of finite age, this sets a limit—the particle horizon—on the separation of any two regions of space that are in causal contact.^ If the radius of the big-bang universe were for example, 15 billion light years (BLYs), two regions at the edge of space are thus 30 BLYs apart.

^ Causes of Quantum Uncertainty - The Micro-universe Electrons sometimes behave in two ways; sometimes as particles and sometimes as waves.

^ Before the Second World War, it was thought that the age of the universe was only two billion years.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

[49] .The observed isotropy of the CMB is problematic in this regard: if the Universe had been dominated by radiation or matter at all times up to the epoch of last scattering, the particle horizon at that time would correspond to about 2 degrees on the sky.^ At that time, all the matter in the universe is alleged to have been concentrated at a single point.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the temperature of the universe was at absolute zero, all matter would collapse.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The universe was "radiation dominated" before decoupling and "matter dominated" after it.

.There would then be no mechanism to cause wider regions to have the same temperature.^ There would be no not caring about it.
  • The Big Bang Theory Review | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to a law of quantum mechanics known as the Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons can occupy the same energy state in an atom.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no mechanism for correction, and it focuses on internal interpretation, subjectivity and fortune telling.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A resolution to this apparent inconsistency is offered by inflationary theory in which a homogeneous and isotropic scalar energy field dominates the Universe at some very early period (before baryogenesis).^ Some of those quasars are reckoned by Big Bang theorists to be observed as they were at less than one tenth of the age of the universe, (25) far sooner than such fields might have developed in accordance with Big Bang Theory.
  • Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essayon Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The science of astronomy has determined the universe began approximately 12 billion years ago from an explosion of very dense matter and energy.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which is to say, the expansion has no boundary present in the past light cone and the universe is largely homogeneous and the expansion isotropic.

.During inflation, the Universe undergoes exponential expansion, and the particle horizon expands much more rapidly than previously assumed, so that regions presently on opposite sides of the observable Universe are well inside each other's particle horizon.^ As I pointed out, what can be more absurd than to propose that ‘The Universe’ is expanding?

^ Is expansion of the universe observable?

^ Inflation theory, which proposes a period of extremely rapid (exponential) expansion of the universe during its first few moments, is no help, Carroll said.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

The observed isotropy of the CMB then follows from the fact that this larger region was in causal contact before the beginning of inflation.
.Heisenberg's uncertainty principle predicts that during the inflationary phase there would be quantum thermal fluctuations, which would be magnified to cosmic scale.^ Seriously, is it valid to invoke the Uncertainty Principle, which I would understand to be a feature of a universe already in existence, as an explanation of the actual origin of the universe?

^ Mentioned earlier was the fact that there are many uncertainties regarding the quantum theory.

^ A credible model that predicts significant effects of electromagnetism at cosmic scales is lacking .
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These fluctuations serve as the seeds of all current structure in the Universe.^ An explanation for this "heavy-on-one-side universe" would be if these fluctuations represented a structure left over from the universe that produced our universe.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And these, in turn, will only represent a minute proportion of all the matter which stretches far beyond the limits of the observable universe and reaches out to infinity.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of these variables suggest that the universe did not simply come together as some chance event.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Inflation predicts that the primordial fluctuations are nearly scale invariant and Gaussian, which has been accurately confirmed by measurements of the CMB.
.If inflation occurred, exponential expansion would push large regions of space well beyond our observable horizon.^ This exponential decay can make the spacing of distant objects appear to grow rapidly (the uneven expansion observed for highly receeding galaxies).

^ Popper showed, that while it is forever beyond our ability to prove absolutely (verify) a universal statement; it is well within our means to disprove (falsify) such a statement.

^ Inflation's rapid expansion caused space to become flatter, forcing omega toward one, no matter what its initial value.

Flatness/oldness problem

The overall geometry of the Universe is determined by whether the Omega cosmological parameter is less than, equal to or greater than 1. Shown from top to bottom are a closed Universe with positive curvature, a hyperbolic Universe with negative curvature and a flat Universe with zero curvature.
.The flatness problem (also known as the oldness problem) is an observational problem associated with a Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric.^ Since an Omega of one corresponds to a flat universe, this is known as "The Flatness Problem."

[49] .The Universe may have positive, negative or zero spatial curvature depending on its total energy density.^ The universe is flat; it has zero curvature.

^ For the universe as a whole, the shape of the curvature depends on the average density of the matter.

^ (If total energy is non zero, conservation of energy would not apply: if energy can magically appear at the big bang, then why not anytime?
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.Curvature is negative if its density is less than the critical density, positive if greater, and zero at the critical density, in which case space is said to be flat.^ Even if the pre-inflation universe were curved like a sphere (corresponding to Omega less than 1) or hyperbolic (Omega greater than 1), that tremendous burst of expansion forced the scale of any curvature to flatness.

^ Matter has a maximum density much less than is claimed by the Big Bang proponents.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, observations showed that this was not the case; the further they looked out into space, the greater the intensity of the radio waves.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The problem is that any small departure from the critical density grows with time, and yet the Universe today remains very close to flat.^ The strong constraint of the observed flat universe also requires this, since Ω m , the density of matter is insufficient to result in a closed universe.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now that we are able to see so far back in time that there is very little to see in Space optically, it's just a matter of time before we discover what existed as the density of the Universe began to thin and expand.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This time the problem is in cosmology, the study of the structure and "evolution" of the universe as revealed by its largest physical systems, galaxies and clusters of galaxies.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[notes .7] Given that a natural timescale for departure from flatness might be the Planck time, 10−43 seconds, the fact that the Universe has reached neither a Heat Death nor a Big Crunch after billions of years requires some explanation.^ FACT. The suns average burn time is 10,000 years.

^ Some scientists estimate it to be at 10 billion years old.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the radius of the big-bang universe were for example, 15 billion light years (BLYs), two regions at the edge of space are thus 30 BLYs apart.

.For instance, even at the relatively late age of a few minutes (the time of nucleosynthesis), the Universe density must have been within one part in 1014 of its critical value, or it would not exist as it does today.^ Truth is, time exists as space does.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The central idea is that the theory of general relativity can be combined with the observations on the largest scales of galaxies receding from each other to extrapolate the conditions of the universe back or forward in time .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The best way to determine if God exists and is still active in this world today is to look back in time.
  • Does the Big Bang Prove God? 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.halozone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]
.A resolution to this problem is offered by inflationary theory.^ To get round this and other problems, Alan Guth, the American physicist, advanced his theory of the "inflationary universe."
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the inflationary period, spacetime expanded to such an extent that its curvature would have been smoothed out.^ With knowledge gained from a previous life cycle that such was an impossibility I sought to expand my consciousness to other universes and seek out pure knowledge to resolve this conundrum.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If confirmed by further analysis, the impossibility of such high-µ galaxies would rule out all FRW expanding universe (big bang) models.
  • The Big Bang never happened 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC fixall.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, it is theorized that inflation drove the Universe to a very nearly spatially flat state, with almost exactly the critical density.^ Baryons or ordinary matter, which contributes Ω b = 0.047 (or 4.7% of the critical mass-energy of the universe) Dark matter which contributes Ω m - Ω b where Ω m is the total matter density.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, in the macro-universe - as in the micro-universe - there are severe spatial limitations to how much scientists can learn about nature.

^ The infinitely dense big- bang universe would initially be in exactly that state.

Magnetic monopoles

The magnetic monopole objection was raised in the late 1970s. .Grand unification theories predicted topological defects in space that would manifest as magnetic monopoles.^ Cosmologists who support the Big Bang Theory had predicted that the initial explosion would leave behind background or microwave radiation.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The initial discovery that galaxies formed clusters was a great shock to astrophysicists because the Big Bang Theory would predict otherwise.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the theory, it would have to have an immensely strong magnetic field.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.These objects would be produced efficiently in the hot early Universe, resulting in a density much higher than is consistent with observations, given that searches have never found any monopoles.^ The Hot/ Dense early universe is universally accepted by almost all real cosmologists and new evidence supporting it is found almost daily(hourly, at times).

^ An explanation for this "heavy-on-one-side universe" would be if these fluctuations represented a structure left over from the universe that produced our universe.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Matter has a maximum density much less than is claimed by the Big Bang proponents.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This problem is also resolved by cosmic inflation, which removes all point defects from the observable Universe in the same way that it drives the geometry to flatness.^ This point will denote the edge of the observable universe.

^ Ned Wright answers How can the Universe be infinite if it was all concentrated into a point at the Big Bang?

^ In the same way, I point out that to say 'All light-sources that are receding exhibit a redshift, therefore whenever you see a redshift you are seeing a light-source receding'.

[49]
.A resolution to the horizon, flatness, and magnetic monopole problems alternative to cosmic inflation is offered by the Weyl curvature hypothesis.^ In his second (Thuan) quote he seems unaware that the Horizon Problem (and the Flatness Problem) has been resolved by the concept of inflation (14) (15) (16) and that the signature of inflation is seen in the data of COBE and WMAP quoted above (17).
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51][52]

Baryon asymmetry

.It is not yet understood why the Universe has more matter than antimatter.^ However, observations indicate that there is more matter than antimatter.

^ Expansion of matter in the universe is subject to serious question, but much more so is the expansion of space.

^ This showed that the universe was more diffuse than Gamow had thought, with less gravity, which aggravated the basic problem of where all the energy for the big bang came from.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

[33] .It is generally assumed that when the Universe was young and very hot, it was in statistical equilibrium and contained equal numbers of baryons and antibaryons.^ In general, elliptical galaxies contain similar numbers of stars as spiral galaxies, but are ellipsoidal in shape (spirals are mostly flat), have no spiral structure, and little gas and dust.

^ Third, if the universe was initially very, very hot as the Big Bang suggests, we should be able to find some remnant of this heat.

^ Roughly 3/4th of the universe is hydrogen and roughly 1/4 is helium which is a general prediction of many hot, quickly expanding theories of cosmogenesis.

.However, observations suggest that the Universe, including its most distant parts, is made almost entirely of matter.^ Matter is not "made" as the universe continues to expand.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle would never have made the mistake of talking about a time before time existed, or claiming that the entire universe was, in effect, created from nothing.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If there were a distant galaxy made out of antimatter, you couldn't distinguish it from a matter galaxy just by seeing the light from it.

.An unknown process called "baryogenesis" created the asymmetry.^ The process for creating matter from energy is called "pair production", where a matter – antimatter particle pair is created at the expense of energy.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

For baryogenesis to occur, the Sakharov conditions must be satisfied. .These require that baryon number is not conserved, that C-symmetry and CP-symmetry are violated and that the Universe depart from thermodynamic equilibrium.^ Violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in a closed cycling universe, which necessitates the total entropy of the universe decreasing from a high level to nearly zero.

^ The idea that the entropy of the universe has somehow decreased in violation of the second law of thermodynamics is largely nonsensical.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[53] .All these conditions occur in the Standard Model, but the effect is not strong enough to explain the present baryon asymmetry.^ After all it does seem that random coincidence created the conditions we are fortunate enough to thrive in today and it could just as easily be taken away by chance.
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are presently some 50 theories proposed by cosmologists to explain the Big Bang, all of which are nothing but mathematical models.

^ "One of the basic tenets of cosmology is that the universe is the same in all directions, and the standard model of inflation is built on that foundation," Erickcek told New Scientist.

Globular cluster age

.In the mid-1990s, observations of globular clusters appeared to be inconsistent with the Big Bang.^ The Big Bang can match each of the critical observations, but only with adjustable parameters, one of which (the cosmic deceleration parameter) requires mutually exclusive values to match different tests.

^ When physical observations do not match the Big Bang Theory, university professors simply ignore the physical facts.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By all measures, as we have seen above, the Big Bang hypothesis is well supported by observation and data and cannot logically be characterised as a myth.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Computer simulations that matched the observations of the stellar populations of globular clusters suggested that they were about 15 billion years old, which conflicted with the 13.7 billion year age of the Universe.^ The latest estimate puts the age of the universe at just 8 billion years.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The edge of the contained universe 13.7 billion light-years away.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is our universe at 15 billions of years of age, too young?

.This issue was generally resolved in the late 1990s when new computer simulations, which included the effects of mass loss due to stellar winds, indicated a much younger age for globular clusters.^ This new generation of space telescopes will soon tell us that the universe is 15, 17, then 20 billion years old, when the reality is that it is much older than that, if there is an age that can be slapped on it.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ M87 is much bigger than an average galaxy, appears near the center of a whole cluster of galaxies known as the Virgo Cluster, and shows an unusually high number of globular clusters.

^ Install Microsoft Defender (for Windows computers) Please note that we cannot be responsible for the effects of any third party software including Malware on your computer system.
  • Big Bang Theory | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[54] .There still remain some questions as to how accurately the ages of the clusters are measured, but it is clear that these objects are some of the oldest in the Universe.^ Let us take a further look at some of these large agglomerations that exist in the universe.

^ First, let us look at the most accepted way of measuring the age of the universe.

^ Unless there was some way to evaluate time from different parts of the universe...but that isn't ever going to happen.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

Dark matter

A pie chart indicating the proportional composition of different energy-density components of the Universe, according to the best ΛCDM model fits – roughly 95% is in the exotic forms of dark matter and dark energy
.During the 1970s and 1980s, various observations showed that there is not sufficient visible matter in the Universe to account for the apparent strength of gravitational forces within and between galaxies.^ According to the big bang cosmologists, in order for galaxies to have been formed from the big bang, there must have been sufficient matter in the universe to bring about an eventual halt to its expansion through the law of gravitation.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ August 25th, 2009 6:14 pm ET Isn't it the case that we need to have a theory about what happens on the other side of black holes to complete our accounting for matter and energy in the visible universe?
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, the classification of stars has led to the conclusion that there is no new kind of matter in the universe.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.This led to the idea that up to 90% of the matter in the Universe is dark matter that does not emit light or interact with normal baryonic matter.^ What is this non-baryonic dark matter?
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not all matter emits light, so it is believed that there is some "dark matter" in the universe.

^ Moreover, the classification of stars has led to the conclusion that there is no new kind of matter in the universe.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, the assumption that the Universe is mostly normal matter led to predictions that were strongly inconsistent with observations.^ Moreover, the classification of stars has led to the conclusion that there is no new kind of matter in the universe.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The standard model works well with collisionless cold dark matter at predicting the largest scale structures in the universe including the biggest sheets of supergalaxies.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When astronomers add up all the visible matter and energy in the universe it comes to very much less than the critical value (a value determined mathematically - not by observation).

.In particular, the Universe today is far more lumpy and contains far less deuterium than can be accounted for without dark matter.^ And as far as that mysterious dark matter..
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Expansion of matter in the universe is subject to serious question, but much more so is the expansion of space.

^ Matter has a maximum density much less than is claimed by the Big Bang proponents.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While dark matter was initially controversial, it is now indicated by numerous observations: the anisotropies in the CMB, galaxy cluster velocity dispersions, large-scale structure distributions, gravitational lensing studies, and X-ray measurements of galaxy clusters.^ The central idea is that the theory of general relativity can be combined with the observations on the largest scales of galaxies receding from each other to extrapolate the conditions of the universe back or forward in time .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again, this is out-of-date, since a huge range of galaxy surveys has since been completed and the evidence for dark matter in the dispersion of peculiar velocities in clusters is incontrovertible (41) - (44) According to General Relativity, the presence of the gravitational effects of matter distorts spacetime locally.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wittman et al, Detection of weak gravitational lensing distortions of distant galaxies by cosmic dark matter at large scales, Nature 405, 143 - 148 (2001) .
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55]
.The evidence for dark matter comes from its gravitational influence on other matter, and no dark matter particles have been observed in laboratories.^ The evidence for dark matter can be characterised as follows: .
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is where the notion of "cold dark matter" comes in.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There’s no evidence that there’s any dark matter at all.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many particle physics candidates for dark matter have been proposed, and several projects to detect them directly are underway.^ Quantum theory is concerned with the emission and absorption of energy by matter and with the motion of material particles; the quantum theory and the theory of relativity together form the theoretical basis of modern physics.

^ The Big Bang requires sprinkling galaxies, clusters, superclusters, and the universe with ever-increasing amounts of this invisible, not-yet-detected “dark matter” to keep the theory viable.

^ Many of the problems in particle physics are 'solved' ad hoc by inventing new concepts.

[56]

Dark energy

.Measurements of the redshiftmagnitude relation for type Ia supernovae have revealed that the expansion of the Universe has been accelerating since the Universe was about half its present age.^ Problen is, that what you are seeing in the universe as it appears is only half the cycle the expansion part.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ‘Universe’ is, by definition, all that there is, including all space and time , which leaves no space that it can expand into nor any time by which that expansion can be measured.

^ Riess et al, Observational Evidence from Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe and a Cosmological Constant , Astron J 116, 1009 (1998) .
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To explain this acceleration, general relativity requires that much of the energy in the Universe consists of a component with large negative pressure, dubbed "dark energy". Dark energy is indicated by several other lines of evidence.^ A pressure gradient is needed to generate an acceleration.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central idea is that the theory of general relativity can be combined with the observations on the largest scales of galaxies receding from each other to extrapolate the conditions of the universe back or forward in time .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An accelerating expansion for the universe can be explained by a dark energy or cosmological constant, Λ, which exerts an expanding pressure on the cosmos independent of expansion.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Measurements of the cosmic microwave background indicate that the Universe is very nearly spatially flat, and therefore according to general relativity the Universe must have almost exactly the critical density of mass/energy.^ It does not explain the cosmic microwave background.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Einstein's General Theory of Relativity said that the universe must be contracting.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cosmic Microwave Background is the most perfect blackbody spectrum ever measured.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But the mass density of the Universe can be measured from its gravitational clustering, and is found to have only about 30% of the critical density.^ Black holes are real masses in the universe so large that the gravitational field will not allow light to escape.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theories predict that material in the early universe clumped together from the ‘bottom up,’ so that galaxies formed first, then only later clumped to form clusters."
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The matter density data was derived from the Abell/ACO Cluster Survey, the IRAS Point Source Redshift catalogue and the Automated Plate Measuring Machine cluster catalogue.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Since dark energy does not cluster in the usual way it is the best explanation for the "missing" energy density.^ Baryons or ordinary matter, which contributes Ω b = 0.047 (or 4.7% of the critical mass-energy of the universe) Dark matter which contributes Ω m - Ω b where Ω m is the total matter density.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lerner cites Byrd and Valtonen who claimed that the observations of galactic velocities in clusters, if properly interpreted, does not lead to the conclusion of the existence of dark matter.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unless that state can be reproduced, there is no way the smallest state of matter (and any forces) could affect each other.You could argue that the state does exist as subatomic energies.

.Dark energy is also required by two geometrical measures of the overall curvature of the Universe, one using the frequency of gravitational lenses, and the other using the characteristic pattern of the large-scale structure as a cosmic ruler.^ Depending on the Promotion, we may also collect an Internet email address or other Information and, depending on the Information collected, the user may also be required to confirm his or her agreement to this Privacy Policy and the Terms of Use Agreement.
  • Big Bang Theory | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ "Gravitational lensing" requires enormous amounts of mass.

^ However, the latest measurements indicate that the vacuum energy (energy in the nothingness), may contribute between 60 and 70 percent of the total; total being the total matter and energy in the universe.

.Negative pressure is a property of vacuum energy, but the exact nature of dark energy remains one of the great mysteries of the Big Bang.^ Dark energy is a kin to Big Foot.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where did the energy in the Big Bang come from?
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This showed that the universe was more diffuse than Gamow had thought, with less gravity, which aggravated the basic problem of where all the energy for the big bang came from.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

Possible candidates include a cosmological constant and quintessence. .Results from the WMAP team in 2008, which combined data from the CMB and other sources, indicate that the Universe today is 72% dark energy, 23% dark matter, 4.6% regular matter and less than 1% neutrinos.^ The central idea is that the theory of general relativity can be combined with the observations on the largest scales of galaxies receding from each other to extrapolate the conditions of the universe back or forward in time .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You are discussing endless about dark energy, dark matter, etc and earn a lot of money for foolish evidences.

^ August 25th, 2009 6:14 pm ET Isn't it the case that we need to have a theory about what happens on the other side of black holes to complete our accounting for matter and energy in the visible universe?
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[30] .The energy density in matter decreases with the expansion of the Universe, but the dark energy density remains constant (or nearly so) as the Universe expands.^ Matter condensed later from the expanded energy.

^ Matter is not "made" as the universe continues to expand.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An accelerating expansion for the universe can be explained by a dark energy or cosmological constant, Λ, which exerts an expanding pressure on the cosmos independent of expansion.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore matter made up a larger fraction of the total energy of the Universe in the past than it does today, but its fractional contribution will fall in the far future as dark energy becomes even more dominant.^ And as far as that mysterious dark matter..
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Baryons or ordinary matter, which contributes Ω b = 0.047 (or 4.7% of the critical mass-energy of the universe) Dark matter which contributes Ω m - Ω b where Ω m is the total matter density.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the universe becomes more Λ-dominated, its expansion will accelerate.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the ΛCDM, the best current model of the Big Bang, dark energy is explained by the presence of a cosmological constant in the general theory of relativity.^ The energy of the collision was the Big Bang.

^ Dark energy is a kin to Big Foot.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Big Bang Theory is simply a mess.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the size of the constant that properly explains dark energy is surprisingly small relative to naive estimates based on ideas about quantum gravity.^ You are discussing endless about dark energy, dark matter, etc and earn a lot of money for foolish evidences.

^ It's still expanding, and maybe that explains "dark energy", and it's still sucking matter into it and maybe that explains "dark matter".

^ We should also be aware that the Dark Energy Theory is a blatant violation of Dr. Albert Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity and his Theory of General Relativity .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Distinguishing between the cosmological constant and other explanations of dark energy is an active area of current research.^ The modern cosmological constant is related to this dark energy.

^ By inspection, the universe is looking flatter, and the energy density due to the cosmological constant is now statistically well above zero.

^ Certainly, he refers to no primary source other than these and seems to be unaware of huge swathes of cosmological research.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The future according to the Big Bang theory

.Before observations of dark energy, cosmologists considered two scenarios for the future of the Universe.^ I suppose that you could look at the universe as a growing tree and equate sunlight to "dark energy".

^ I have not fully explored such a theory, but it will be my first step before considering the idea of astrology as an energy in the universe.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We will likely find in the future, that present observations, such as noted by Halton Arp or Burbidge and others, struggling to understand the universe, will also be challenged by newer observations.

.If the mass density of the Universe were greater than the critical density, then the Universe would reach a maximum size and then begin to collapse.^ The dynamics of speeds greater than light that would be necessary.

^ Matter has a maximum density much less than is claimed by the Big Bang proponents.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather than imagining a balloon popping and releasing its contents, imagine a balloon expanding: an infinitesimally small balloon expanding to the size of our current universe.

.It would become denser and hotter again, ending with a state that was similar to that in which it started—a Big Crunch.^ In the same vein, some people object to the Big Bang hypothesis because it describes a closed universe and an ultimate end in Big Crunch or heat death.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sadly, since the big crunch is the end of everything, our unfortunate Superbrain will evidently be placed in a rather strict diet for the rest of eternity.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The infinitely dense big- bang universe would initially be in exactly that state.

[40] .Alternatively, if the density in the Universe were equal to or below the critical density, the expansion would slow down, but never stop.^ Aristotle would never have made the mistake of talking about a time before time existed, or claiming that the entire universe was, in effect, created from nothing.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Baryons or ordinary matter, which contributes Ω b = 0.047 (or 4.7% of the critical mass-energy of the universe) Dark matter which contributes Ω m - Ω b where Ω m is the total matter density.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This has serious implications for the attempts to establish the average density of the universe, which is necessary to obtain in order to establish whether there is enough gravity to halt the Hubble Expansion.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Star formation would cease as all the interstellar gas in each galaxy is consumed; stars would burn out leaving white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes.^ The stars near the black hole have been drawn in.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No star or galaxy has ever been seen to form in space from star gas.

^ In other words, if the light from a far distant galaxy is white, the galaxy is actually moving toward us because light from a static galaxy at that distance would have a natural redshift.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Very gradually, collisions between these would result in mass accumulating into larger and larger black holes.^ The universe would grow in volume little by little, galaxies would not be come into collision and quasars wouldn’t be create.

^ Black holes are real masses in the universe so large that the gravitational field will not allow light to escape.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The minimum size of a black hole is called the " Rieske Minimum Black Hole Mass.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The average temperature of the Universe would asymptotically approach absolute zero—a Big Freeze.^ (If total energy is non zero, conservation of energy would not apply: if energy can magically appear at the big bang, then why not anytime?
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To make the standard big-bang theory correspond to reality, cosmologists had to make the assumption that the average density of the universe was equal to the density immediately following the BB. That density would be remarkably high.

^ At that time, which we call the big bang, the density of the universe and the curvature of space-time would have been infinite.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, if the proton were unstable, then baryonic matter would disappear, leaving only radiation and black holes.^ Unequal amounts of matter and antimatter would then have disappeared into each hole.

^ Also, if you wish to say that it was the last "Big Crunch" that brought all matter to a single point and then the big bang happened, then the big bang (which is generally depicted as a star exploding) would have left the mother-of-all-black-holes in the center of the universe.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It refers to orthogonality, which would mean that the 10D universe (assuming String theory is at least partly correct) is at right-angles to the matter inside a black hole, and at right angles to all of our dimensions.

.Eventually, black holes would evaporate by emitting Hawking radiation.^ This implies that a black hole can evaporate, although this would take an unimaginably long period of time.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The origin of the universe just prior to the proposed Big Bang would be trillions of trillions of times more massive than any suspected black hole.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, one would look in vain in all the writings of Einstein for any reference to the big bang, black holes and the like.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The entropy of the Universe would increase to the point where no organized form of energy could be extracted from it, a scenario known as heat death.^ The universe could not exist in any other form or else we would not experience it.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ IS NO single point of where the universe began.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "If we are part of a bigger multiverse, there is no maximal-entropy equilibrium state and entropy is produced via creation of universes like our own."
  • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.Modern observations of accelerated expansion imply that more and more of the currently visible Universe will pass beyond our event horizon and out of contact with us.^ As the universe becomes more Λ-dominated, its expansion will accelerate.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists and researchers are not naive enough to completely discount our role in the universe, however they are also not naive enough to put us front and center in its cause and effect.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Expansion of matter in the universe is subject to serious question, but much more so is the expansion of space.

The eventual result is not known. .The ΛCDM model of the Universe contains dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant.^ Since we now know of the existence of dark energy which seems to take the form of a cosmological constant Λ (from observations of very distant SN1a supernovae (52) (53) (54) and from observations of the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the CMB (45) ), we are able with the sum of baryons, non-baryonic dark matter and dark energy to obtain the critical mass-energy density required by the Big Bang model plus inflation, which is a flat geometry universe as observed.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard model works well with collisionless cold dark matter at predicting the largest scale structures in the universe including the biggest sheets of supergalaxies.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He thought the universe was static and introduced a cosmological constant as a correction factor.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This theory suggests that only gravitationally bound systems, such as galaxies, would remain together, and they too would be subject to heat death, as the Universe expands and cools.^ (This contradiction is true only of theories or systems, not of mathematical givens such as 2+2 = 4.

^ When Einstein first developed his theories of relativity he believed, that the universe was static (neither expanding nor collapsing).

^ Not only are the supernova spectra Doppler shifted, they are time dilated as expected by GR predictions of a non-Euclidean expanding universe.

.Other explanations of dark energy—so-called phantom energy theories—suggest that ultimately galaxy clusters, stars, planets, atoms, nuclei and matter itself will be torn apart by the ever-increasing expansion in a so-called Big Rip.^ It is simply radiation produced by the stars, galaxies and other matter in the universe.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given enough time even stars and planets will be ripped apart.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dark energy is a kin to Big Foot.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57]

Speculative physics beyond Big Bang theory

.
This is an artist's concept of the Universe expansion, where space (including hypothetical non-observable portions of the Universe) is represented at each time by the circular sections.
^ Only space-time expansion can explain that.

^ It's space-time expansion, not actual acceleration.

^ While the visible portion of the universe, visible universe for short, was originally point-like, the initial singularity of big-bang theory was not time-like like the singularity of a black hole, but space-like.

.Note on the left the dramatic expansion (not to scale) occurring in the inflationary epoch, and at the center the expansion acceleration.^ The expansion phase of each cycle includes a period of radiation-, matter-, and quintessence-domination, the last phase of which corresponds to the current epoch of nuclear and molecular acceleration.

The scheme is decorated with WMAP images on the left and with the representation of stars at the appropriate level of development.
Image from WMAP press release, 2006
.While the Big Bang model is well established in cosmology, it is likely to be refined in the future.^ While the visible portion of the universe, visible universe for short, was originally point-like, the initial singularity of big-bang theory was not time-like like the singularity of a black hole, but space-like.

^ Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.

^ As far as we are concerned, events before the big bang can have no consequences, so they should therefore cut them out of the model and say that time had a beginning at the big bang."
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Little is known about the earliest moments of the Universe's history.^ All that's counted as known -- the Big Bang, the expanding universe, the structure of the cosmos--must be left as a dry stream in history books.

^ The fact that very little that was known in 1953 about DNA and the way it works, in no way diminishes the accuracy of Watson and Crick's observations.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even the calculations that our universe is expanding at an accelerating rate may be biased because the original position from which the universe came about is not precisely known.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems require the existence of a singularity at the beginning of cosmic time.^ Scientists like Alfvn, Anthony Peratt and others, have elaborated a model of the universe which is dynamic, not static, but which does not require a beginning in time.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not content with the beginning (and end) of time for the universe as a whole, Penrose and Hawking now discover numerous parts of the universe where time has already ended!
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The big-bang universe begins in a singularity (all matter, energy, space, and time crushed into a point of infinite density).

.However, these theorems assume that general relativity is correct, but general relativity must break down before the Universe reaches the Planck temperature, and a correct treatment of quantum gravity may avoid the singularity.^ Einstein's General Theory of Relativity said that the universe must be contracting.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central idea is that the theory of general relativity can be combined with the observations on the largest scales of galaxies receding from each other to extrapolate the conditions of the universe back or forward in time .
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the second place, however much the concept of time may be converted into the more general idea of being, this takes us not one step further.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

[58]
Some proposals, each of which entails untested hypotheses, are:
.
  • models including the Hartle–Hawking no-boundary condition in which the whole of space-time is finite; the Big Bang does represent the limit of time, but without the need for a singularity.^ But this was in no way a big bang that created matter, space, and time.
    • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There was no Big Bang, and there is no expansion.
    • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Specially the big bang singularity.
    • Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang | Universe Today 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    [59]
  • .
  • brane cosmology models[60] in which inflation is due to the movement of branes in string theory; the pre-big bang model; the ekpyrotic model, in which the Big Bang is the result of a collision between branes; and the cyclic model, a variant of the ekpyrotic model in which collisions occur periodically.^ The energy of the collision was the Big Bang.

    ^ The Big Bang Theory is simply a mess.
    • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Big Bang Theory is a fairytale, folks.
    • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In the latter model, the Big Bang was preceded by a Big Crunch and the Universe endlessly cycles from one process to the other.^ It was just a big bang, an explosion in one part of the universe.
    • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Big Bang might have been one of those.
    • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The center of one side is the Big Bang; and the other side the Big Crunch.
    • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

    [61][62][63]
  • .
  • chaotic inflation, in which universal inflation ends locally here and there in a random fashion, each end-point leading to a bubble universe expanding from its own big bang.^ There was no Big Bang, and there is no expansion.
    • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But that is not what Big Bang is about and is not possible while there is any unevenness about the universes distribution.

    ^ While the visible portion of the universe, visible universe for short, was originally point-like, the initial singularity of big-bang theory was not time-like like the singularity of a black hole, but space-like.

    [64][65][66]
.Proposals in the last two categories see the Big Bang as an event in a much larger and older Universe, or multiverse, and not the literal beginning.^ So much for Big Bang being a myth.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Universe is much older.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the visible portion of the universe, visible universe for short, was originally point-like, the initial singularity of big-bang theory was not time-like like the singularity of a black hole, but space-like.

Religious interpretations

.The Big Bang is a scientific theory, and as such is dependent on its agreement with observations.^ The Big Bang and Redshift Theories are not scientific laws or laws of physics.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Big Bang Theory is a fairytale, folks.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Big Bang Theory is far out.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But as a theory which addresses the origins of reality, it has always carried theological and philosophical implications.^ He assumes that philosophical and scientific considerations carry equal weight as we seek to determine the cosmological origins of the natural universe.
  • The Big Bang is not a Myth 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.evolutionpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1920s and 1930s almost every major cosmologist preferred an eternal steady state Universe, and several complained that the beginning of time implied by the Big Bang imported religious concepts into physics; this objection was later repeated by supporters of the steady state theory.^ The steady state theory assumed the universe to be homogeneous in time and space.
  • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Big Bang Theory is simply a mess.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Bible correctly describes the decrepit state of the supporters of the Big Bang Theory.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] .This perception was enhanced by the fact that the originator of the Big Bang theory, Monsignor Georges Lemaître, was a Roman Catholic priest.^ The Big Bang Theory is simply a mess.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Big Bang Theory is a fairytale, folks.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Big Bang Theory is far out.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68]
.Since the acceptance of the Big Bang as the dominant physical cosmological paradigm, there have been a variety of reactions by religious groups as to its implications for their respective religious cosmologies.^ There was no Big Bang, and there is no expansion.
  • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If cyclic, then the Universe will not accelerate indefinitely, and there will be a Big Crunch, and indeed an infinite sequence of Big Crunches and Big Bangs.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As for the "so-called scientists", big bang cosmology in fact makes perfectly good sense and is completely consistent with the laws of physics as we know them.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some accept the scientific evidence at face value, while others seek to reconcile the Big Bang with their religious tenets, and others completely reject or ignore the evidence for the Big Bang.^ So this is not a reason for rejecting the big bang so readily.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As for the "so-called scientists", big bang cosmology in fact makes perfectly good sense and is completely consistent with the laws of physics as we know them.
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Could the other side of a black hole be a Big Bang?
  • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[69]

Notes

  1. ^ It is commonly reported that Hoyle intended this to be pejorative. However, Hoyle later denied that, saying that it was just a striking image meant to emphasize the difference between the two theories for radio listeners. See chapter 9 of The Alchemy of the Heavens by Ken Croswell, Anchor Books, 1995.
  2. ^ There is no consensus about how long the Big Bang phase lasted. For some writers this denotes only the initial singularity, for others the whole history of the Universe. Usually, at least the first few minutes (during which helium is synthesized) are said to occur "during the Big Bang".
  3. ^ Detailed information of and references for tests of general relativity are given at Tests of general relativity.
  4. ^ This ignores the dipole anisotropy at a level of 0.1% due to the peculiar velocity of the solar system through the radiation field.
  5. ^ Astronomers reported their measurement in a paper published in the December 2000 issue of Nature titled The microwave background temperature at the redshift of 2.33771 which can be read here. A press release from the European Southern Observatory explains the findings to the public.
  6. ^ If inflation is true, baryogenesis must have occurred, but not vice versa.
  7. ^ Strictly, dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant drives the Universe towards a flat state; however, our Universe remained close to flat for several billion years, before the dark energy density became significant.

References

  1. ^ Feuerbacher, B.; Scranton, R. (25 January 2006). "Evidence for the Big Bang". TalkOrigins. http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/astronomy/bigbang.html#evidence. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  2. ^ Wright, E.L. (9 May 2009). "What is the evidence for the Big Bang?". Frequently Asked Questions in Cosmology. UCLA, Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics. http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/cosmology_faq.html#BBevidence. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  3. ^ Komatsu, E. (2009). "Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Cosmological Interpretation". Astrophysical Journal Supplement 180: 330. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/180/2/330. Bibcode2009ApJS..180..330K. 
  4. ^ Menegoni, Eloisa et al. (2009), "New constraints on variations of the fine structure constant from CMB anisotropies", Physical Review D 80 (8), doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.80.087302, http://arxiv.org/abs/0909.3584 
  5. ^ a b c d Hubble, E. (1929). "A Relation Between Distance and Radial Velocity Among Extra-Galactic Nebulae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 15 (3): 168–73. doi:10.1073/pnas.15.3.168. PMID 16577160. PMC 522427. http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/debate/1996/hub_1929.html. 
  6. ^ Gibson, C.H. (21 January 2001). "The First Turbulent Mixing and Combustion". IUTAM Turbulent Mixing and Combustion. http://sdcc3.ucsd.edu/~ir118/GibsonAbstract.pdf. 
  7. ^ Gibson, C.H. (2001). "Turbulence And Mixing In The Early Universe". arΧiv:astro-ph/0110012 [astro-ph]. 
  8. ^ Gibson, C.H. (2005). "The First Turbulent Combustion". arΧiv:astro-ph/0501416 [astro-ph]. 
  9. ^ "'Big bang' astronomer dies". BBC News. 22 August 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1503721.stm. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  10. ^ Croswell, K. (1995). "Chapter 9". The Alchemy of the Heavens. Anchor Books. 
  11. ^ Mitton, S. (2005). Fred Hoyle: A Life in Science. Aurum Press. p. 127. 
  12. ^ Slipher, V.M. "The Radial Velocity of the Andromeda Nebula". Lowell Observatory Bulletin 1: 56–57. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1913LowOB...2...56S. 
  13. ^ Slipher, V.M. "Spectrographic Observations of Nebulae". Popular Astronomy 23: 21–24. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1915PA.....23Q..21S. 
  14. ^ a b Friedman, A.A. (1922). "Über die Krümmung des Raumes". Zeitschrift für Physik 10: 377–386. doi:10.1007/BF01332580.  (German)
    (English translation in: Friedman, A. (1999). "On the Curvature of Space". General Relativity and Gravitation 31: 1991–2000. doi:10.1023/A:1026751225741. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999GReGr..31.1991F. )
  15. ^ a b Lemaître, G. (1927). "Un univers homogène de masse constante et de rayon croissant rendant compte de la vitesse radiale des nébuleuses extragalactiques". Annals of the Scientific Society of Brussels 47A: 41.  (French)
    (Translated in: "A Homogeneous Universe of Constant Mass and Growing Radius Accounting for the Radial Velocity of Extragalactic Nebulae". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 91: 483–490. 1931. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1931MNRAS..91..483L. )
  16. ^ Lemaître, G. (1931). "The Evolution of the Universe: Discussion". Nature 128: 699–701. doi:10.1038/128704a0. 
  17. ^ Christianson, E. (1995). Edwin Hubble: Mariner of the Nebulae. New York (NY): Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0374146608. 
  18. ^ a b c Peebles, P.J.E. (2003). "The Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy". Reviews of Modern Physics 75: 559–606. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.75.559. arΧiv:astro-ph/0207347. 
  19. ^ Milne, E.A. (1935). Relativity, Gravitation and World Structure. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press. LCCN 35-19093. 
  20. ^ Tolman, R.C. (1934). Relativity, Thermodynamics, and Cosmology. Oxford (UK): Clarendon Press. LCCN 34-32023. 
    Reissued (1987). New York (NY): Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-65383-8.
  21. ^ Zwicky, F. (1929). "On the Red Shift of Spectral Lines through Interstellar Space". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 15 (10): 773–779. doi:10.1073/pnas.15.10.773. PMID 16577237. PMC 522555. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1929PNAS...15..773Z.  Full articlePDF (672 KB).
  22. ^ Hoyle, F. (1948). "A New Model for the Expanding Universe". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 108: 372. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1948MNRAS.108..372H. 
  23. ^ Alpher, R.A.; Gamow, G. (1948). "The Origin of Chemical Elements". Physical Review 73: 803. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.73.803. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1948PhRv...73..803A. 
  24. ^ Alpher, R.A. (1948). "Evolution of the Universe". Nature 162: 774. doi:10.1045/march2004-featured.collection. 
  25. ^ Singh, S. "Big Bang". http://www.simonsingh.net/Big_Bang.html. Retrieved 2007-05-28. 
  26. ^ a b Penzias, A.A.; Wilson, R. W. (1965). "A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s". Astrophysical Journal 142: 419. doi:10.1086/148307. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1965ApJ...142..419P. 
  27. ^ a b Boggess, N.W., et al.; Mather, J. C.; Weiss, R.; Bennett, C. L.; Cheng, E. S.; Dwek, E.; Gulkis, S.; Hauser, M. G. et al. (1992). "The COBE Mission: Its Design and Performance Two Years after the launch". Astrophysical Journal 397: 420. doi:10.1086/171797. 
  28. ^ a b Spergel, D.N., et al. (2006). Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Three Year Results: Implications for Cosmology. http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0603449v2. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  29. ^ Hawking, S.W.; Ellis, G.F.R. (1973). The Large-Scale Structure of Space-Time. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20016-4. 
  30. ^ a b c d Hinshaw, G., et al. (2008). "Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr3/pub_papers/fiveyear/basic_results/wmap5basic.pdf. 
  31. ^ Guth, A.H. (1998). The Inflationary Universe: Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins. Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0099959502. 
  32. ^ Schewe, P. (2005). "An Ocean of Quarks". Physics News Update (American Institute of Physics) 728 (1). http://www.aip.org/pnu/2005/split/728-1.html. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  33. ^ a b Kolb and Turner (1988), chapter 6
  34. ^ Kolb and Turner (1988), chapter 7
  35. ^ a b c Kolb and Turner (1988), chapter 4
  36. ^ Peacock (1999), chapter 9
  37. ^ Ivanchik, A.V. (1999). "The Fine-Structure Constant: A New Observational Limit on Its Cosmological Variation and Some Theoretical Consequences". Astronomy and Astrophysics 343: 459. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999A%26A...343..439I. 
  38. ^ Goodman, J. (1995). "Geocentrism Reexamined". Physical Review D 52: 1821. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.52.1821. 
  39. ^ d'Inverno, R. (1992). "Chapter 23". Introducing Einstein's Relativity. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-859686-3. 
  40. ^ a b Kolb and Turner (1988), chapter 3
  41. ^ Gladders, M.D., et al.; Yee, H. K. C.; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Hoekstra, Henk; Hall, Patrick B.; Infante, Leopoldo (2007). "Cosmological Constraints from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey". The Astrophysical Journal 655 (1): 128–134. doi:10.1086/509909. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApJ...655..128G. 
  42. ^ The Four Pillars of the Standard Cosmology
  43. ^ Peacock (1999), chapter 3
  44. ^ Steigman, G. (2005). Primordial Nucleosynthesis: Successes And Challenges. arΧiv:astro-ph/0511534. 
  45. ^ Bertschinger, E. (2001). Cosmological Perturbation Theory and Structure Formation. arΧiv:astro-ph/0101009. 
  46. ^ Bertschinger, E. (1998). "Simulations of Structure Formation in the Universe". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 36: 599–654. doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.36.1.599. http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146%2Fannurev.astro.36.1.599. 
  47. ^ [1]
  48. ^ [2]
  49. ^ a b c Kolb and Turner (1988), chapter 8
  50. ^ Dicke, R.H.; Peebles, P.J.E. "The big bang cosmology—enigmas and nostrums". in Hawking, S.W. (ed); Israel, W. (ed). General Relativity: an Einstein centenary survey. Cambridge University Press. pp. 504–517. 
  51. ^ Penrose, R. (1979). "Singularities and Time-Asymmetry". in Hawking, S.W. (ed); Israel, W. (ed). General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey. Cambridge University Press. pp. 581–638. 
  52. ^ Penrose, R. (1989). "Difficulties with Inflationary Cosmology". in Fergus, E.J. (ed). Proceedings of the 14th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics. New York Academy of Sciences. pp. 249–264. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb50513.x. 
  53. ^ Sakharov, A.D. (1967). "Violation of CP Invariance, C Asymmetry and Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe". Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki, Pisma 5: 32.  (Russian)
    (Translated in Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Letters 5, 24 (1967).)
  54. ^ Navabi, A.A.; Riazi, Nematollah (2003). "Is the Age Problem Resolved?". Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy 24: 3. doi:10.1007/BF03012187. 
  55. ^ Keel, B. "Dark Matter". http://www.astr.ua.edu/keel/galaxies/darkmatter.html. Retrieved 2007-05-28. 
  56. ^ Yao, W.M., et al. (2006). "Review of Particle Physics". Journal of Physics G 33: 1–1232. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/33/1/001.  Chapter 22: Dark matterPDF (152 KB).
  57. ^ Caldwell, R.R; Kamionkowski, Marc; Weinberg, Nevin N. (2003). "Phantom Energy and Cosmic Doomsday". Physical Review Letters 91: 071301. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.071301. arΧiv:astro-ph/0302506. 
  58. ^ Hawking, S.W. (1973). The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09906-4. 
  59. ^ Hartle, J.H. (1983). "Wave Function of the Universe". Physical Review D 28: 2960. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.28.2960. 
  60. ^ Langlois, D. (2002). Brane Cosmology: An Introduction. arΧiv:hep-th/0209261. 
  61. ^ Linde, A. (2002). Inflationary Theory versus Ekpyrotic/Cyclic Scenario. arΧiv:hep-th/0205259. 
  62. ^ Than, K. (2006). "Recycled Universe: Theory Could Solve Cosmic Mystery". Space.com. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/060508_mm_cyclic_universe.html. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  63. ^ Kennedy, B.K. (2007). "What Happened Before the Big Bang?". http://www.science.psu.edu/alert/Bojowald6-2007.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  64. ^ Linde, A. (1986). "Eternal Chaotic Inflation". Modern Physics Letters A1: 81. 
  65. ^ Linde, A. (1986). "Eternally Existing Self-Reproducing Chaotic Inflationary Universe". Physics Letters B 175: 395–400. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(86)90611-8. 
  66. ^ Khoury1, J.; Ovrut, B. A.; Seiberg, N.; Steinhardt, P. J.; Turok, N. (2002). "From big crunch to big bang". Physical Review D 65 (8). doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.65.086007. 
  67. ^ Kragh, H. (1996). Cosmology and Controversy. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02623-8. 
  68. ^ People and Discoveries: Big Bang Theory, www.pbs.org
  69. ^ Wright, E.L (24 May 2009). "Cosmology and Religion". Ned Wright's Cosmology Tutorial. http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/cosmo-religion.html. Retrieved 2009-10-15. 

Books

  • Kolb, Edward; Turner, Michael (1988). The Early Universe. Addison–Wesley. ISBN 0-201-11604-9. 
  • Peacock, John (1999). Cosmological Physics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521422701. 

Further reading

For an annotated list of textbooks and monographs, see physical cosmology.
  • Barrow, John D. (1994). .The Origin of the Universe: To the Edge of Space and Time.^ While the visible portion of the universe, visible universe for short, was originally point-like, the initial singularity of big-bang theory was not time-like like the singularity of a black hole, but space-like.

    ^ All particle physics is done nowadays in Minkowski space time, because that is the description of the universe that makes highly relativistic kinematics and collision descriptions have the most natural expressions.

    ^ According to their calculations, time and space had a finite beginning that corresponded to the origin of matter and energy."

    New York: Phoenix. ISBN 0465053548.
     
  • Alpher, R. A.; R. Herman (August 1988). .Reflections on early work on 'big bang' cosmology.^ As for the "so-called scientists", big bang cosmology in fact makes perfectly good sense and is completely consistent with the laws of physics as we know them.
    • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is the point of pre big bang cosmology in string theory (colliding 'branes' and the 'ekpyrotic universe'), or 'bouncing' cosmologies in loop quantum gravity & string theory.
    • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Big Bang cosmology is a convolution of knowledge & interpretation, a union of science and philosophy, which is certainly enlightening, whether or not it counts as knowledge.
    • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

    Physics Today. pp. 24–34.
     
  • Mather, John C.; John Boslough (1996). .The very first light: the true inside story of the scientific journey back to the dawn of the Universe.^ The initial near speed of light for the expanding universe in the Big Bang Theory seems large at first glance, but this is not the case.
    • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Our looking back based on the matter we can see contains therefore the possibility that it is tricking us, because the very first moments are unknownable without having scientific precision.
    • Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang? – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

    New York: BasicBooks. p. 300. ISBN 0-465-01575-1.
     
  • Singh, Simon (2004). .Big Bang: The origins of the universe.^ A universe that came from nothing in the big bang will disappear into nothing at the big crunch, its glorious few zillion years of existence not even a memory."
    • The Big Bang 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ While the visible portion of the universe, visible universe for short, was originally point-like, the initial singularity of big-bang theory was not time-like like the singularity of a black hole, but space-like.

    ^ Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.

    New York: Fourth Estate. ISBN 0007162200.
     
  • Davies, Paul (1992). .The Mind of God: The scientific basis for a rational world.^ Romans 12:2 And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what [is] that good and acceptable and perfect will of God.
    • The Big Bang and Redshift Light and Dark Energy Theories Have Many Big Flaws, Errors, and Problems. 10 February 2010 12:14 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: Simon & Schuster UK. ISBN 0-671-71069-9.
     

External links


Simple English

File:Universe
The Big Bang model is that the universe begun in an extremely dense and hot condition and has expanded. The theory suggests, and measurements show, that the universe is still expanding today.[1]

The Big Bang is the scientific (theory) that the universe began by growing out from a very dense and hot condition about 13.7 billion years ago.[1] As a whole, space is growing and the temperature is falling as time passes. Cosmology is the name given to how the universe began and how it has developed. Scientists that study cosmology agree the Big Bang theory matches what they have seen so far.[1]

Fred Hoyle called the theory the "Big Bang" on his radio show. He did not believe the Big Bang was correct. Scientists who did not agree with him thought the name was funny and used it. Since then, Fred Hoyle's reasons for not liking the theory have been shown to be wrong.[2]

Scientists base the Big Bang theory on many different observations. The most important is the redshift of very far away galaxies. Redshift is when the light from an object moving away from the earth looks like it has lost energy. Objects moving towards the earth look like their light has gained energy. This is because of the Doppler effect. The more redshift there is, the faster the object is moving. When we see the redshift we can see how fast the object is moving. Since everything is moving away from everything else at a carefully measured rate, scientists calculate that everything was in the same place 13.7 billion years ago. Because most things become colder when they become bigger, the universe must have been very hot when it started.[3]

Other observations that support the Big Bang theory are the amounts of chemical elements in the universe. Amounts of hydrogen, helium, and lithium seem to agree with the theory of the Big Bang. Scientists also have found "cosmic microwave background radiation". This radiation is radio waves that are everywhere in the universe. It is now very weak and cold, but a long time ago it was very strong and very hot.[1]

The Big Bang might also have been the beginning of time. If the Big Bang was the beginning of time then there was no universe before the Big Bang. Other ideas that also have a Big Bang do not have a beginning of time at 13.7 billion years ago. Instead, these theories say that the beginning of the universe as we currently know it began at that time. Before then the universe may have been very different.[3]

References

krc:Уллу атылыуrue:Бінґ Бенґ


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 09, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Big Bang, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message