The Full Wiki

Bilobalide: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bilobalide
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(5aR-(3aS*,5aα,8b,8aS*,9a,10aα))-9-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-10,10a-dihydro-8,9-dihydroxy-4 H,5aH,9H-furo[2,3-b]furo[3',2':2,3]cyclopenta[1,2- c]furan-2,4,7(3H,8H)-trione
Identifiers
CAS number 33570-04-6
ATC code  ?
PubChem 73581
Chemical data
Formula C 15H18O8  
Mol. mass 326.299 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism  ?
Half life  ?
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status legal
Routes oral

Bilobalide is a biologically active terpenic trilactone present in Ginkgo biloba.[1]

Contents

Chemistry

Bilobalide is a main constituent of the terpenoids found in Ginkgo leaves. It also exists in minor amounts in the roots. It is a sesquiterpenoid, i.e. it has a 15-carbon skeleton. Its exact synthesis pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate is still unknown.

Biosynthesis

Bilobalide and ginkgolide both have very similar biosynthesis pathway. Bilobalide is formed by partially degraded from ginkgoglide. Bilibalide is derived from GGPP, which is formed by addition of FPP to IPP unit, to form a C15 sesquiterpene. Such formation went through the MVA and MEP pathways. In order to generate bilobalide, C20 ginkgolide 13 must form first. To transform from GGPP to abietenyl cation 5, a single bifunctional enzyme abietadiene syntase E1 is required. However, due to the complexity of ginkgolide structures for rearrangement, ring cleavage, and formation of lactone rings, diterpene 8 is used to explain instead. Levopimaradiene 6 and abietatriene 7 are precursors for ginkgolide and bilobalide formation. The unusual tert-butyl substituent is formed from A ring cleavage in 9. Bilobalide 13 then formed in loss of carbons through degradation from ginkgolide 12, and lactones are formed from residual carboxyl and alcohol functions. The end product of bilobalide contains sesquiterpenes and three lactones units. [2] Biosynthesis mechanism of Bilobalide.

Pharmacology

Bilobalide is important for producing several of the effects of Gingko biloba extracts, and it has neuroprotective effects,[3][4] as well as inducing the liver enzymes CYP3A1 and 1A2,[5] which may be partially responsible for interactions between gingko and other herbal medicines or pharmaceutical drugs. Bilobalide has recently been found to be an antagonist at the GABAA and GABAA-rho receptors. Of GABAA, it may possibly be selective for the subunits predominantly implicated in cognitive and memory functioning such as α1.

See also

References

  1. ^ van Beek TA, Montoro P (2009). "Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals". Journal of Chromatography A 1216 (11): 2002–32. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2009.01.013. PMID 19195661.  
  2. ^ Dewick, P. M. Medicinal Natural Products: Products:A Biosynthetic Approach. Third Edition ed.; Wiley&Sons: West Sussex, England, 2009; p 230-232.
  3. ^ Defeudis FV (2002). "Bilobalide and neuroprotection". Pharmacological Research 46 (6): 565–8. doi:10.1016/S1043-6618(02)00233-5. PMID 12457632. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1043661802002335.  
  4. ^ Kiewert C, Kumar V, Hildmann O, Hartmann J, Hillert M, Klein J (2008). "Role of glycine receptors and glycine release for the neuroprotective activity of bilobalide". Brain Research 1201: 143–50. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2008.01.052. PMID 18325484.  
  5. ^ Deng Y, Bi HC, Zhao LZ, He F, Liu YQ, Yu JJ, Ou ZM, Ding L, Chen X, Huang ZY, Huang M, Zhou SF (2008). "Induction of cytochrome P450s by terpene trilactones and flavonoids of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in rats". Xenobiotica 38 (5): 465–81. doi:10.1080/00498250701883233. PMID 18421621.  
Advertisements

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message