Biman Bangladesh Airlines: Wikis


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Biman Bangladesh Airlines
বিমান বাংলাদেশ এয়ারলাইনস
Bangladesh written in green on a white background below an image of a stylised stork. Underneath that is written Biman Bangladesh Airlines in Bengali script.
Founded 1972
Hubs Shahjalal International Airport
Secondary hubs
Frequent flyer program Frequent Flyer Programme[1]
Fleet size 15 (+12 orders)
Destinations 16
Company slogan Your home in the sky.
Bengali: আকাশে শান্তির নীড়
Headquarters Dhaka, Bangladesh
Key people Air Commodore (Retd.) Muhammad Zakiul Islam (CEO)[2]
Website www.biman‑
A white aircraft with Bangladesh written in green on the front half below the windows with a dark green colour on the tail facing left
A Biman Boeing 737-800 at Shahjalal International Airport, Bangladesh featuring the new livery. (2010)

Biman Bangladesh Airlines (Bengali: বিমান বাংলাদেশ এয়ারলাইনস) is the flag carrier of Bangladesh, with its main hub at Shahjalal International Airport in Dhaka. It also operates flights from Shah Amanat International Airport in Chittagong and earns revenue from the connecting service to Osmani International Airport in Sylhet. Biman provides international passenger and cargo service to Asia and Europe along with major domestic routes. It has air service agreements with 42 countries, but maintains flights to only 16. Until 23 July 2007, the airline was wholly owned and managed by the Government of Bangladesh, when it was transformed into Bangladesh's largest public limited company by the Caretaker Government of Bangladesh.[3] The airline has its head office, "Balaka Bhaban", in Kurmitola, Dhaka.

Created in February 1972, Biman enjoyed an internal monopoly in the Bangladesh aviation industry until 1996.[4] In the decades following its founding, the airline expanded both its fleet and destinations, but suffered heavily owing to corruption and mishaps and at its peak, operated flights to 29 international destinations as far away as New York City in the west and Tokyo in the east. The airline has suffered large financial losses and has a reputation for poor service because of regular flight cancellations and delays, due to its ageing fleet. Some of Biman's long-haul fleet is banned for safety reasons in the United States and the European Union. Annual Hajj flights, transporting non-resident Bangladeshi workers and migrants as well as Biman's subsidiaries, form an important part of the carrier's business.[5] Rising oil prices have created additional pressure on the airline, which is widely reported to have failed to meet its payment obligations to the state-owned petroleum corporation, BPC. Biman has a two-star ranking out of five by Skytrax.[6] The carrier is facing competition from a number of local private airlines as well as some international carriers, which offer greater reliability and service standards, targeting the country's air transport sector which is experiencing 8% growth per annum, owing to a large number of non-resident Bangladeshis.

After becoming a public limited company, Biman has trimmed the number of staff and turned its attention to modernising the fleet. Biman has made a deal with Boeing for procurement of ten new aircraft, along with options for another ten. The carrier is in the process of leasing some aircraft for the interim period to re-start flights to some of the destinations in Asia, Europe and North America.



Biman Bangladesh Airlines was established on 4 January 1972 to be Bangladesh's national airline under the Bangladesh Biman Ordinance (Presidential Order No. 126).[7][8] The initiative to launch the flag carrier was taken by 2,500 former employees, including ten Boeing 707 commanders and seven other pilots, of Pakistan International Airlines, who submitted a proposal to the government on 31 December 1971 following the independence of Bangladesh.[9] The airline was initially called Air Bangladesh International but was soon renamed Biman Bangladesh Airlines.[10]

In modern Bengali, the word বিমান biman refers to "aeroplane", originating from the Sanskrit word vimāna, a name given to a flying machine mentioned in ancient Vedic literature. The logo, painted on the tail, is a stylised white stork (বলাকা bôlaka) inside a red circle. The initial livery was a dark blue line extending across the aircraft along the windows and covering the tail section. This was replaced in the 1980s by dark green and red lines, matching the colours of the Bangladesh flag, and has remained for over two decades. The bôlaka has also given its name to the Biman headquarters, the "Balaka Bhaban" (বলাকা ভবন bôlaka bhôban, Stork Building),[11][12][13] and a landmark sculpture in Dhaka depicting storks is in front of Biman's former headquarters.[14]

A white plane with red and green cheatlines across it's fuselage with landing gears down shown against a blue sky with some clouds
A Biman Airbus A310-300 landing at London Heathrow Airport, England. (2007)

On 4 February 1972, Biman started its domestic service on the Dhaka–Chittagong, Dhaka–Jessore and Dhaka–Sylhet routes with a World War II vintage Douglas Dakota and Douglas DC-3, both gifts from the Bangladesh Air Force.[9][15] On 10 February 1972, Biman experienced its first accident when the Douglas DC-3 crashed near Dhaka during a flight test, killing all five crew members.[16] A Douglas DC-6 was immediately leased to keep the domestic service running.[9][17] On 4 March 1972, Biman started its international operations with a once-a-week flight to London using a Boeing 707 chartered from British Caledonian.[9] The short haul fleet was supplemented by a Fokker F27 from India on 3 March 1972 which saw the start of a daily flight between Kolkata (Calcutta) and Dhaka on 28 April 1972.[18] Three additional Fokker F27s were acquired during March and September of the same year bringing the number of Fokker F27 aircraft to four.[9] In the first year of operation, Biman operated 1,079 flights carrying just over 380,000 passengers.[19]

A white aircraft with cargo doors open being loaded.
Biman's Boeing 777-200ER being loaded for its maiden commercial flight at Shahjalal International Airport, Bangladesh. (2010)

Four Fokker F27s joined the fleet in 1973, enabling Biman to double the frequency of the Kolkata flight to a twice daily service.[18] A Boeing 707 was added to the fleet in September and the flight to London became twice weekly, while a Chittagong–Kolkata flight also began operating.[18] In 1974 operations were extended to Kathmandu (February), Bangkok (November) and Dubai (December).[18] In 1976, Biman sold two of its Fokker F27s and bought another Boeing 707 to extend international services to Abu Dhabi, Karachi and Mumbai.[18] Singapore was added to Biman's list of international destinations, when a third Boeing 707 was purchased in February 1977, followed by Jeddah, Doha and Amsterdam the following year, which also saw the purchase of its fourth Boeing 707.[18] In 1977, Biman was converted into a public sector corporation to be governed by a board of directors appointed by the government.[18] The airline broke even for the first time in 1977–78, and made a profit the following year.[19] International destinations expanded to include Kuala Lumpur, Athens, Muscat and Tripoli in 1979, followed by Yangon, Tokyo and Dhahran in 1980.[18]

In 1983, three Douglas DC-10s joined the fleet and the airline started to phase out the Boeing 707s.[15][18] The network expanded further to include Baghdad (1983), Paris (1984) and Bahrain (1986).[18] On 4 August 1984, Biman faced its worst accident when a Fokker F27 flying in from Chittagong crashed near Dhaka, killing all 49 on board, including Captain Kaniz Fatema Roksana, the airline's first female pilot.[20] The long haul fleet was supplemented by the purchase of two new Airbus A310s in 1996, followed by the addition of two more in 2000, from Singapore Airlines and Air Jamaica, and another in 2003.[18]

In the 2005–06 fiscal year, Biman carried 1.15 million passengers, a growth of 70% from the previous decade's average. However, with the rise of private domestic carriers in Bangladesh, Biman's market share for domestic passengers dropped by 35% over the previous ten years' average, with only 162,000 passengers travelling with Biman in the domestic sector in the 2005–06 fiscal year. During the same period, Biman reported its biggest annual loss of over US$120 million (BDT 8.3 billion), with a US$100 million (BDT 6.9 billion) loss reported the following year.[21] Biman also fell behind millions of dollars in payments to its fuel supplier, the Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation.[22]


The airline was wholly owned by the Bangladesh government through the Bangladesh Biman Corporation since its inception. In 1977, Biman was converted into a public sector corporation which afforded Biman limited autonomy, governed by a board of directors appointed by the government.[18] The authorised share capital was increased to BDT 2 billion in 1987,[23] and Biman was transformed into a public limited company, the largest in Bangladesh, in 2007.

During the late 1980s, Hossain Mohammad Ershad, President of Bangladesh at the time, served as president of Biman. After an early period of expansion and growth, Biman entered an era of nose-diving profits and slow growth, exacerbated by incompetent and corrupt management; with padding of purchases, falsified repair bills and unprofitable routes kept in operation for political reasons.[24][25] Research conducted in 1996 found that Biman had 5,253 non-flying personnel, 30% more than Singapore Airlines which had almost a ten-times larger fleet. The report described Biman as "poorly managed, overstaffed, undercapitalized, and subject to excessive political interference in its day-to-day management."[26]

In the 1992–93 fiscal year, accounts under the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism revealed that BDT 22 million in tax was not paid to the Government. The audit carried out in 1999, also showed that Biman was owed BDT 2.2 million by travel agents from the proceeds of ticket sales, most likely with the collusion of Biman officials.[27] Additionally, BDT 2.4 million was overpaid as incentive commission to the sales agents in violation of Biman policies. In 2007, the caretaker government launched an anti-corruption drive which saw the arrest of Shamim Iskander, the brother of ex-prime minister Begum Khaleda Zia and a former Biman flight engineer, on multiple corruption charges.[28] This was shortly followed by the forced retirement of 35 other employees and officials, some of whom were close aides of Iskander.[29]


Owing to the growing losses, which began in the late 1990s,[30][31] the government offered 40% of Biman to foreign airlines in 2004, hoping a buyer would take over the management of the carrier. However, the proposal demanded that many decision-making rights remain with the Bangladesh government, and the offer was ignored by outside airlines. A similar initiative in 1998 cost Biman US$1.6 million in consultancy fees with no positive results.[32]

In May 2007, the caretaker government approved plans to turn Biman into a public limited company with shareholdings split between seven public sector organisations.[33] As a part of the restructuring, the government put in place a voluntary retirement scheme (VRS) to reduce the man-equipment ratio (MER) of 367:1 (ratio of manpower to aircraft). The industry average at the time was 200:1, with other Asian airlines operating with MERs of around 150:1.[34] The VRS provided compensation based on length of service, at a cost to the government of over US$40 million, which was borrowed from the World Bank. While Biman management had expected to reduce its workforce by 1,600 personnel, 2,162 applications for VRS were received, many from employees who expected to be dismissed with little or no severance if the quota was not achieved. Biman accepted 1,877 applications and affirmed that key personnel would not be allowed to leave the organisation via VRS.[34][35]

On 23 July 2007, Biman Bangladesh Airlines Ltd became the largest public limited company in Bangladesh.[3] Earlier suggestions that the airline should be renamed Bangladesh Airlines Ltd were rejected.[36] The government is the sole shareholder of the 1.5 billion shares, but intends to offer 49% to the private sector while retaining majority ownership.[37] The previous managing director, Dr. Abdul Momen, was appointed the cheif executive officer as well as managing director in the new organisation. The six directors were appointed from the ministries of energy, commerce, finance, civil aviation, foreign affairs and the cabinet division, with the cabinet secretary taking on the role as chair. The six secretaries and a joint secretary to the civil aviation ministry have been made the seven shareholders of the new PLC.[37] In September 2008, Air Commodore Zahed Kuddus (retd) was appointed by the government to replace Dr Momen as the CEO of Biman. His previous civil aviation post was during 2002–05, when he was chair of the Civil Aviation Authority of Bangladesh (CAAB). Prior to that he had held various posts in the Bangladesh Air Force.[38]

Following the privatisation, an initiative was launched by ex-Biman employees, who left the organisation via the VRS, to set up a competing airline.[39] Names proposed for the airline included Air Bangla International, Biman Employees Airlines and Balaka.[40] They were joined by previous managing directors of Biman, along with the former president of the Bangladesh Airline Pilots' Association.[39]


The interior of a DC-10 aircraft showing the backs of seats. The overhead lockers are mostly open.
The interior of a Biman McDonnell Douglas DC-10.

Biman is notable for disruptions to its flight schedule and poor customer service.[41] In 2007, Biman faced strong criticism from major international airports including London Heathrow Airport and Dubai International Airport for its failure to maintain flight schedules. Heathrow Airport operator BAA wrote to Biman providing evidence which showed Biman had not achieved the minimum 80% usage of its allocated landing slots at Heathrow, as required by EU and International Air Transport Association (IATA) regulations, during summer 2007. Biman should therefore not expect slot allocations at Heathrow for summer 2008 and should look to Stansted or Gatwick airports if it wished to continue serving London.[42] However, following discussions with BAA, Biman obtained landing slots for the summer 2008 period on condition that it achieved 80% usage.[43] However, delays continued unabated and in September 2008, Biman's Dhaka–London direct flight utilising a DC-10 aircraft was diverted and landed at Gatwick when it did not have sufficient fuel to remain in a holding pattern over Heathrow following arrival over three hours after the scheduled time.[44] In an article published on 10 September 2008 in The Times, Biman was labelled the worst performer for punctuality at Heathrow, with flights delayed on average by three hours.[45]

In 2008, the United Nations (UN) advised its staff not to fly with Biman citing safety and security concerns and problems with Biman maintaining its flight schedules. It made it clear that UN staff who flew with Biman would do so at their own risk and not be eligible to make claims on insurance. Biman's then newly appointed managing director said he was unaware of the UN directive but admitted Biman did face problems in managing its flight schedules. He expected the situation to improve with the procurement of aircraft in the coming months.[46]

The interior of Biman's Boeing 777 aircraft showing the fronts of seats which are in various shades of indigo and violet.
The interior of the economy class cabin of Biman's first Boeing 777-200ER.

A two-class service (J and Y) is operated on Biman's wide-body airliners and a single class service on the smaller aircraft.[47] The Maslin Executive Class cabin on its Airbus A310s is set up in a 2-3-2 configuration while the setup on the Douglas DC-10-30s is a more spacious 2-2-2 configuration. The economy class cabins are set up in a typical 2-5-2 configuration.[48]

English and Bengali language newspapers are available on board the aircraft along with Biman's in-flight magazine, Digonto (Horizon) which is published quarterly. It has an emphasis on information on tourist destinations in Bangladesh and other places reachable by Biman.[49] While the majority of the content is in English, for an international audience, some features are available in other languages, including Bengali.[50]

In-flight entertainment aboard Biman aircraft is rated "very poor" by Skytrax.[51] Biman's service as a whole is reflected in its two-star ranking (out of five) from Skytrax, which is indicative of the poor standard of service provided by the airline that falls below the industry average.[6][52] The Douglas DC-10-30s are equipped with a projector in each cabin, while the Airbus A310s have monitors that drop down from the ceiling below the luggage racks in the center of the aircraft. While other airlines using modern aircraft are able to provide more personal in-flight experiences via seatback LCD screens, Biman's ageing fleet has maintained the standard equipment available when the planes were manufactured.[53][54]

Biman operates a frequent flyer programme which awards customers with a free round trip flight on production of ticket stubs for ten round trip journeys on Biman. The free ticket is for the route which has been flown the most out of the ten. Journeys on local routes are excluded from the offer.[1]

The interior of Biman's Boeing 777 aircraft showing the fronts of seats which are light blue in colour.
The interior of the business class cabin in Biman's first Boeing 777-200ER.

An agreement was signed with Amadeus in 2007 to upgrade Biman's ticketing system with an e-ticketing solution in order to comply with IATA rules, which set out a deadline of 31 December 2007 for all member airlines to switch over their ticketing systems. E-ticketing has enabled major airlines to provide online check-in facilities, reducing the need to queue up at check-in counters. However, Biman has not made any attempts to improve customer service through the adoption of e-ticketing, although it has been able to reduce its own costs.[55] In 2005, Biman had briefly stopped using the Amadeus ticketing system when the government suspended the operation of a local Amadeus subsidiary following a court order, after allegations of money laundering.[56] However, the suspension, lasting only a month, was lifted after the writ was appealed in the High Court.[57]

Biman Cargo

Biman also operates a cargo service using the cargo holds of its passenger aircraft to ship freight to international destinations.[58] It has established Cargo Village at Shahjalal International Airport where the cargo is packaged and labelled before being loaded onto its aircraft.[59]

While the air cargo industry in Bangladesh grew by 16.5% in the fiscal year 2003–04, Biman's cargo operations remained stagnant when private operators such as Bismillah Airlines, Best Aviation and Air Bangladesh produced a 108% growth from the previous year. The private operators increased their share of the cargo market by 10.6% and were responsible for handling 24% of the total 99,000 tonnes of cargo at the expense of both Biman and foreign airlines which saw a reduction in their shares by 4.6% and 6% respectively. Foreign airlines handled 47% of the total cargo with Biman taking on the remaining 29%.[60]

As with its passenger service and management, corruption has also been rife at Biman Cargo. An investigation in 2004 uncovered irregularities in a number of Biman's Middle East operations which deprived the government of millions of dollars in revenue. Biman officials in Dubai were found to have been "extending special privileges" to the main freight handler in exchange for bribes.[61] Smuggling of foreign currency and gold bars is reported to have taken place at the Biman Cargo Village by Biman and CAAB employees. A number of arrests were made but the perpetrators evaded punishment through lack of evidence and pressure from the CAAB union.[62]


Biman has air services agreements with 43 countries, but only operates its routes to 16, leaving room for expansion for which it lacks aircraft.[63] The airline operates flights to several destinations in the Middle East, some destinations in South and South East Asia and two destinations in Europe—Rome and London. Foreign airlines are encroaching on Biman's routes, particularly the lucrative London–Dhaka route, on which traditionally only Biman and British Airways—before it cancelled this route in 2009—[64] have operated direct flights.[41] In 2005, Air India commenced a route which permitted flights between London and Dhaka without requiring a transit flight which has occupied the space freed up by Biman when it reduced London–Dhaka flights.[41][65] New airlines are also hoping to cash in on Biman's shortfall: United Airways and Royal Bengal Airlines are two such airlines launched by expatriate British–Bangladeshis with an aim to provide direct flights between London and Dhaka.[66][67]

New York and Manchester

From 1993 to 2006, Biman operated flights to John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York, from Dhaka via Brussels.[68] New York was Biman's farthest and most prestigious destination and was kept running despite heavy financial losses on each flight in order to maintain a landing slot in the US which, if cancelled, could be difficult to regain.[69]

To curb the losses, Biman reduced the service to one flight per week and re-routed it through Manchester Airport, UK, capitalising on travel demands from the expatriate Bangladeshi community in the north of England. On 8 April 2006, Biman's inaugural flight to Manchester landed at Manchester Airport en route to JFK.[70] However, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) had placed the CAAB into Category 2 (does not meet International Civil Aviation Organization standards) according to its International Aviation Safety Assessment Program,[71] which placed additional restrictions on the country's airlines when flying to the US. A former CAAB assistant director made scathing remarks about the CAAB in an opinion article in the Aviatour, a monthly travel and tourism supplement of Bangladeshi news magazine Weekly Holiday.[72] For Biman, this meant that it could continue flying to the US, but could not expand or make changes to its routes such as changing the transit from Brussels to Manchester. The FAA fined Biman for breaching its rules, and flights to New York were again re-routed through Brussels.[73]

Previously, the FAA had warned Biman to replace its ageing DC-10s by December 2005. According to experts, these aircraft did not have the necessary equipment for safely crossing the Atlantic.[74][75] On 13 May 2006, the FAA refused permission for Biman flight BG011 (Dhaka–Dubai–Brussels–JFK) to enter its airspace, citing safety concerns over the ailing DC–10 aircraft being used on the route.[76] The flight was diverted to Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport in Canada, where the passengers were provided with alternative airline options to complete their journey.[77] Canadian authorities inspected the aircraft and gave it a clean bill of health after which the aircraft returned to Dhaka without any passengers. The FAA eventually admitted it was mistaken and apologised for the error.[78][79]

The incident put an end to the route, which had been losing US$80,000 per flight, owing to its use of obsolete DC–10s.[80] Biman decided to axe the route along with a number of other regional and domestic routes to curb the huge losses being incurred each month.[81] However, in October 2007, Biman was directed by the then caretaker government to resume flights to New York. Biman was given until 25 October 2008 (extended from an earlier deadline of 23 March 2008) to resume flights to the airport by the JFK airport authority, after which it would have lost the landing slot permanently.[82] Biman is planning to resume Dhaka–Manchester–New York flights in the first quarter of 2010 using a leased Boeing 777–200ER. The relevant clearances have been obtained from the UK government following a review of the ASA between Bangladesh and the UK.[83]

Hajj flights

The annual Islamic pilgrimage to Makkah Al Mukarramah for the Hajj is undertaken by thousands of Bangladesh's predominantly Muslim population. Biman has been the sole Bangladeshi airline permitted by the government to provide flights for pilgrims to King Abdulaziz International Airport, Jeddah. Every year, the commencement of these flights is inaugurated by high ranking government officials including, at times, the Prime Minister.[84][85]

In 2002, the government opened the service to private operator Air Bangladesh. The initial private flights were plagued with delays, with both outgoing and return flights postponed for as long as nine days, which caused the Bangladesh government to return the Hajj flights' monopoly to Biman.[85]

Biman's handling of Hajj flights has also been beset with troubles. In 2005, the State Minister for Civil Aviation and Tourism resigned after complaints that he set fares too high.[86] In 2006, Biman took the unprecedented step of removing the business–class seats from its dedicated Hajj flights to accommodate more economy-class passengers.[87] Procedural irregularities by the Hajj agencies delayed the confirmation of pilgrims' visas, and Biman had to cancel 19 flights owing to lack of sufficient passengers. Once the situation was resolved, Biman was then unable to offer the required number of flights to cope with the backlog of passengers.[88][89]

In June 2007, the caretaker government approved a three-year Hajj policy aiming to alleviate the problems encountered during the previous two years. Hajj flights would also begin leaving from Bangladesh's two other international airports, Shah Amanat International Airport and Osmani International Airport.[90] Biman put out a tender for the wet lease of two aircraft for additional Hajj flights and reached an agreement with Phuket Air. However, the deal fell through in August 2007 after Phuket Air demanded advance payment of 30% instead of the previously agreed 10%.[91] Ausban Aeronautical Services of Australia was selected next, following a re-tender, to fill the gap left by Phuket Air.[92]


A vintage Douglas Dakota and Douglas DC-3 were the first aircraft in Biman's fleet.[15] Domestic operations commenced with the acquisition of four Fokker F27 aircraft flying passengers to Chittagong and Sylhet from its base in Dhaka. Shortly afterwards, a Boeing 707, chartered from British Caledonian, joined the airline's fleet, allowing Biman to begin international flights. In 1983, Biman purchased three Douglas DC-10 aircraft from Singapore Airlines to provide services on its long haul routes.[7][15]

For over two decades, the DC–10–30s were Biman's sole widebody airliner and served it well with no notable mechanical problems, a marked contrast to its domestic operations, operated with Fokker F28 and BAe ATPs, which were routinely out of service owing to various problems. In one incident, a government minister deboarded a flight and travelled by road when he learned that the aircraft was a BAe ATP.[93] In January 2003, Biman leased two Boeing 737-300s which were used on domestic and regional routes for one and a half years.[94] These acted as a replacement for the BAe ATPs.

During the mid 90s, Biman switched its airliner of choice for long-haul routes to the Airbus series of aircraft. Two new Airbus A310s joined Biman's fleet in 1996 followed by one more in 2000. It has nevertheless maintained its ailing DC–10 fleet which has been banned by several countries (notably the US) for safety concerns. The airline maintains its own ancillary and maintenance facilities at Shahjalal International Airport, where it carries out all maintenance work on F28s, and C-Checks on DC–10–30s and A310–300s.[95]


Biman Bangladesh Airlines fleet includes the following aircraft (at 14 March 2010):[47][96]

Biman Bangladesh Airlines Fleet
Aircraft In Fleet Orders Options Passengers Notes Livery
C Y Total New Old
Airbus A310-324 1 0 0 25 198 221 0 1
Airbus A310-325 2 0 0 25 198 221 1 1
Boeing 737-800 2 2 2 0 177 177 Entry into service: 2010 (1) & 2015 (2)
Replacing: Fokker F28
2 0
Boeing 747-200 1 0 0 0 542 542 Leased from Kabo Air 0 1
Boeing 777-200ER 1 2 0 30 293 323 Deliveries: March 2010 (1), late 2010 (1)
Leased from EuroAtlantic Airways
1 0
Boeing 777-300ER 0 4 4 TBA 463 Entry into service: 2011 (2), 2013 (2)
Replacing: McDonnell Douglas DC-10
0 0
Boeing 787-8 0 4 4 TBA 294 Entry into service: 2019-2020
Replacing: McDonnell Douglas DC-10
0 0
Fokker F28 Mk4000 3 0 0 0 80 80 Exit from service: 2010-2015
Replacement aircraft: Boeing 737-800. Plans to be phased out by Mid-End 2010
0 3
McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 5 0 0 0 314 314 Exit from service: 2012-2015
Replacement aircraft: Boeing 777-300ER and Boeing 787
0 5
Total 15 12 10 Last updated: 18 March 2010 4 11


Biman Bangladesh Airlines written in green on the right of a white symbol of a stork enclosed in a red filled circle
Biman's old logo was in use until 2010

McDonnell Douglas DC-10s and Airbus A310-300s make up most of Biman's international fleet. Fokker F28s make up the remainder of the fleet for the domestic and regional sectors.[97] Biman's fleet contains the second-last Douglas DC–10 to come off the production line (l/n 445), and only three other Airbus A310–300s were produced following Biman's purchase of two new Airbus A310s in 1996.[98] Biman's most recent additions to its fleet are two Fokker F28–4000s acquired from PBair in 2004 at a cost of US$2.91 million.[99] Both of these aircraft were built in 1977, making Biman's latest acquisitions the oldest aircraft in its fleet.[100]

The ageing fleet has made it difficult for Biman to maintain its flight schedule, as the aircraft suffer from mechanical problems, leading to flight delays and cancellations.[41][101] A number of aircraft have remained grounded owing to lack of parts as they are no longer manufactured and used parts are difficult to source.[102]

A white aircraft with Bangladesh written along the front side facing right is in a hangar being serviced
Biman's first Boeing 777-200ER being inspected in the hangar at Shahjalal International Airport, Bangladesh. (2010)

In 2000, Biman put out an request for proposal for the acquisition of four wide-bodied aircraft to replace the DC–10s, but both the fleet renewal plans and the airline's expected privatisation were shelved by the government.[103] A further attempt was made in 2005 to acquire new aircraft and plans were submitted for the purchase of ten new wide-bodied Airbus and Boeing aircraft at a total cost of US$1 billion.[104] Boeing arranged to finance the purchase provided a guarantee was given by the Bangladesh government. After bureaucratic delays and a perceived lack of commitment from the government, it lost interest and the plans were cancelled.[102] A similar attempt to purchase medium-haul aircraft for domestic service was also postponed.[105]

In March 2007, Biman put out a tender for the dry lease of two Airbus A310-300 and two Airbus A300-600 aircraft for two years.[106] The sole response to the tender came from Star Aviation of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).[107]

After Biman became a public limited company, renewed attempts were made to procure new generation aircraft to replace its ageing fleet. In November 2007, Boeing made an offer to supply Biman with four Boeing 777-200s (with options for two more) to be delivered by 2013 and four Boeing 787-8 Dreamliners (with options for two more) to be delivered by 2017 and provide similar aircraft on lease for the interim period beginning in 2009. The average price of these aircraft was quoted as US$165 million. Airbus also made an offer to supply four Airbus A320 or Airbus A330 series aircraft at a much lower price than that of Boeing. To manage the fleet in the short run, Biman again floated a tender in January 2008 to purchase/dry lease with options to purchase two used Airbus A310-300 aircraft.[108]

On 10 March 2008, Biman management unveiled its plan to procure eight Next-Generation wide-bodied aircraft from Boeing Commercial Airplanes for a total cost of US$1.26 billion. The eight aircraft include four Boeing 777-300ER with an average price of US$182.9 million per unit to be delivered in 2013 (in the months of July, August, October and December) and four yet to be launched Boeing 787-8 Dreamliners with an average price of US$133.31 million per unit to join Biman's fleet in 2017 (in July, August, October and November). The Boeing 777-300ER will have a seating capacity of 463 while the Dreamliners will have a seating capacity of 294 passengers.[108]

A white aircraft with Bangladesh written in green on the front half below the windows with a dark green colour on the tail facing right
Biman's first leased Boeing 777-200ER before its maiden commercial flight. (2010)

A memorandum of understanding was signed with Boeing in March 2008, with Biman paying US$1.54 million initial payment.[109] Of the remaining cost, US-based EXIM bank will finance 85%, while a syndication of local banks will finance the balance. For the interim period, Boeing agreed to arrange a lease of four Boeing 777-200ER aircraft to Biman with two to be delivered in 2009 and two to be delivered by 2010. Shortly after, Biman also signed a deal with Boeing to purchase two Boeing 737-800 aircraft for its domestic operations to be delivered by 2015.[110]

In 2008, Biman wet-leased a 542-seat Boeing 747-200 from Kabo Air of Nigeria for six months to operate flights to Saudi Arabia and UAE.[111] Another 512-seat Boeing 747-300 has been leased from Orient Thai Airlines.[112]

In 2009, Biman signed a deal with EuroAtlantic Airways to lease two Boeing 777–200ERs to cover the interim period before delivery of the first Boeing 777–300ERs in 2011. One of these aircraft will be used to resume Dhaka – Manchester – New York flights while the other will be utilised on European services. The first of these aircraft was delivered in January 2010, featuring a new livery which was unveiled in November 2009. Biman have confirmed orders for 10 aircraft from Boeing, including four 777-300ER, four 787-8 and two 737-800, along with 10 purchase rights.[113][114]


The wholly-owned subsidiary Biman Flight Catering Centre (BFCC) was set up in 1989 to provide in-flight meals. It is one of Biman's profitable operations, supplying food to British Airways, Qatar Airways, Dragonair, Uzbekistan Airways and Iran Air, along with casual orders from other airlines operating into Bangladesh.[115] The BFCC consumes 90% of the eggs and chicken from the Biman Poultry Complex, another profit-making subsidiary of Biman formed in 1976 and put into operation in November 1980 to rear poultry at farms in Dhaka.[115][116] Bird flu was detected at one of the farms in March 2007, and many of the birds were culled.[117] This was the first incident of bird flu in Bangladesh.[118]

Incidents and accidents

  • 10 February 1972: The first accident occurred less than a month after starting operations. All five crew members were killed when the Douglas DC-3 crashed near Dhaka during a test flight.[16]
  • 18 November 1979: A Fokker F27 being used for flight training landed in a field near Savar Bazar after the engines caught fire and cut out following a stall test at 8,000 feet (2,400 m). The aircraft was written off.[16]
  • 3 April 1980: A Boeing 707 taking off for a scheduled international flight from Singapore (Paya Lebar Airport–Dhaka) lost power just after the landing gear retracted. The aircraft had reached an altitude of about 100 feet (30 m) and fell back to the runway. All four engines had apparently flamed out, although it was also deemed possible that the takeoff was aborted too late. The aircraft was written off.[16]
  • 4 August 1984: A flight from Chittagong to Dhaka crashed near Dhaka, killing all 49 people on board. Captain Kaniz Fatema Roksana, the airline's first female pilot, made two attempts to land in reduced visibility but could not find the runway. On the third attempt the Fokker F–27 crashed in swamps 1,640 feet (500 m) short of the runway.[20]
  • 22 December 1997: Flight BG609 from Dhaka to Sylhet made a belly landing on paddy fields 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) short of Osmani International Airport in heavy fog. Seventeen of the eighty-nine people on board were injured. The Fokker F28 was written off.[119][120]
  • 11 January 2000: The Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS) of India issued a circular to warn Bangladeshi authorities of a possible hijack attempt on a Bangladeshi aircraft.[121][122] Eleven passengers carrying Iranian passports boarding a flight from Kolkata to Dhaka were detained by police in Kolkata on suspicion of the hijack attempt,[123] but were released a few hours later with a hunt ensuing for eight unidentified Afghan nationals.[124]
  • 8 October 2004: Flight BG601 from Dhaka to Sylhet landed far down the 9,000 feet (2,700 m) runway at Osmani International Airport in heavy rain and overshot the end by 150 feet (46 m), coming to rest in a ditch 15 feet (4.6 m) deep. The Fokker F28's forward fuselage was heavily damaged and the plane was written off. All 79 passengers (including a number of VIPs from the Bangladesh government) escaped with minor injuries except the captain, Shahana Begum, who broke an arm.[119][125] The body of the damaged plane was sold for BDT 1.1 million to Western Grill Air Corporation, which converted it into a restaurant sited at Ashulia, Dhaka.[126][127]
  • 1 July 2005: Flight BG048 from Dubai via Chittagong to Dhaka skidded off runway 23 onto the grass at Shah Amanat International Airport while landing during heavy rain. The right-hand undercarriage of the McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 caught fire. Ten passengers were injured while exiting the aircraft.[128] An enquiry found no faults with the aircraft and put the blame for the accident on the inefficiency of the pilot, whose employment was later terminated.[129]
  • 26 September 2005: 5,500 staff and 150 pilots at Biman went on strike, shutting down the largest international airport in Bangladesh, when the president of the Bangladesh Airlines Pilots Association was served a retirement notice.[130] The strike, lasting nine hours, stranded more than 1,000 passengers at Shahjalal International Airport, which is also maintained by Biman.[131]
  • 12 March 2007: Flight BG006 from London via Dubai to Dhaka was crippled while accelerating down the runway of Dubai International Airport, as the nose gear of the Airbus A310–300 collapsed.[132] The aircraft came to rest at the end of the runway and was evacuated, but closed the only active runway and forced the airport to close for eight hours while authorities inspected the runway. Fourteen people suffered minor injuries[133] and the aircraft written off.[134]


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