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.The formal system of naming species is called binomial nomenclature (especially in botany,[1] but also used by zoologists[2]), binominal nomenclature (since 1953,[3] the technically correct form in zoology[4]), or binary nomenclature.^ The biological sciences established a “binomial nomenclature,” as the formal and preferred systems of naming biological organisms.
  • Biological Names - University at Buffalo Libraries 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC library.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Publishes Species Plantarum.  Binomial nomenclature for plants begins to be used.

^ Species names in phylogenetic nomenclature .

.The essence of it is that each species name is in (modern scientific) Latin and has two parts, so that it is popularly known as the Latin name of the species, although this terminology is avoided by biologists and philologists, who prefer the term scientific name.^ The binomial nomenclature is what a species' scientific name is.

^ Species 2 nd part of name.
  • Classifying Today.09.ClassificationNotes#3 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ A scientific name (of a species, etc.
  • poly- + (Greek: many, much; too many, too much, excessive; abnormal). 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC wordinfo.info [Source type: Reference]

.Instead of using the full seven-category system (kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus-species) in naming an organism, Carl von Linne chose to use a two-word naming system.^ From most specific to most general we have: species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom.

^ The genus name is Homo and the species is sapiens .
  • Binomial Nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC biology.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Carl von Linne .
  • binomial nomenclature - Discussion. Who is binomial nomenclature? What is binomial nomenclature? Where is binomial nomenclature? Definition of binomial nomenclature. Meaning of binomial nomenclature. 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: General]

.He adopted the binomial nomenclature scheme, using only the genus name and the specific name or epithet which together form the species name.^ Canis -- genus name familiaris -- specific epithet Canis familiaris -- scientific species name .

^ Publishes Species Plantarum.  Binomial nomenclature for plants begins to be used.

^ Species names in phylogenetic nomenclature .

.For example, humans belong to genus Homo and their specific name is sapiens.^ The genus name is Homo and the species is sapiens .
  • Binomial Nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC biology.about.com [Source type: General]

^ For instance, humans are known generically by their scientific names as, Homo sapiens (genus Homo, species sapiens).
  • Biological Names - University at Buffalo Libraries 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC library.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Scientific species name for humans: Homo sapiens 2.

.Humans as a species are thus classified as Homo sapiens.^ Humans are then as a species classified by Linnaeus as Homo sapiens .
  • Binomial nomenclature - Fossil Wiki, the paleontology wiki 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC fossil.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The genus name is Homo and the species is sapiens .
  • Binomial Nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC biology.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Scientific species name for humans: Homo sapiens 2.

.The first letter of the first name, the genus, is always capitalized, while that of the second is not, even when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place.^ The genus name is written first (always Capitalized).
  • Classification 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC dvbiology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Classification Information 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.kent.k12.wa.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When written, the first letter is always capitalised.
  • Keeping Marsupials : Keeping and Breeding Marsupials in Captivity, Maintaining Injured and Orphaned Wildlife in Captivity, Animal Husbandry, Australian Marsupials, Australian Mammals, Marsupial Conservation 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.marsupialsociety.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The genus name is always capitalized and underlined or italicized.
  • orchid, orchids,names 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.clanorchids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conventionally, all names of genera and lower taxa are always italicised, while family names and higher taxa are printed in plain text.^ Genus and species names are always italicized when printed; the names of other taxa (families, etc.
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/sci/A0857381.html 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: Reference]
  • classification Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about classification 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rank-based names of higher taxa .
  • Principles of nomenclature of zoological taxa 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.bio.pu.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Conventionally, all names of genera and lower taxa are always italicised, while family names and higher taxa are printed in plain text.
  • what is binomial nomenclature give an example - Class science Question Answer - Extramarks Ask Explore Answer 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.extramarks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Species can be divided into a further rank, giving rise to a trinomial name or trinomen for a subspecies.^ Species can be divided into a further rank , giving rise to a trinomial name or trinomen for a subspecies .
  • what is binomial nomenclature give an example - Class science Question Answer - Extramarks Ask Explore Answer 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.extramarks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kingdoms are further divided into subgroups.
  • More Info on Classification Schemes 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC dev.nsta.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Species can be divided into a further rank, giving rise to a trinomial name or trinomen for a subspecies.
  • what is binomial nomenclature give an example - Class science Question Answer - Extramarks Ask Explore Answer 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.extramarks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

Karl von Linne or Carl von Linné or Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778), a Swedish botanist, invented the modern system of binomial nomenclature.
.The adoption of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) who attempted to describe the entire known natural world and gave every species (mineral, plant, or animal) a two-part name.^ Publishes Species Plantarum.  Binomial nomenclature for plants begins to be used.

^ Binomial nomenclature of animals?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the binomial nomenclature of a dog 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Swedish botanist and founder of the modern classification system for plants and animals.
  • New Page 1 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.nashua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, binomial nomenclature in various forms did exist before Linnaeus, and was used by the Bauhins, who lived nearly two hundred years before Linnaeus.^ What Linnaeus did was devise a system of binomial nomenclature .
  • Biological Classification and Evolutionary Analysis 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.bio200.buffalo.edu [Source type: General]

^ In its index Linnaeus first used binomial nomenclature for species.
  • Carl Linnaeus 1707-1778 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC linnaeus.c18.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which two kingdoms did Linnaeus include in his classification of living things?
  • Flexr - Chapter Detail 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Value of Binomial Nomenclature

The value of the binomial nomenclature system derives primarily from its economy, its widespread use, and the stability of names it generally favors:
.
  • The same name can be used all over the world, in all languages, avoiding difficulties of translation.
  • Although such stability as exists is far from absolute, the procedures associated with establishing binomial nomenclature tend to favor stability.^ Uses same language (Latin) for all names .
    • Unit VII 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC lhs2.lps.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although such stability as exists is far from absolute, the procedures associated with establishing binomial nomenclature tend to favour stability.

    ^ He devised the binomial system of nomenclature (a system of naming).

    .For example, when species are transferred between genera (as not uncommonly happens as a result of new knowledge), if possible the species descriptor is kept the same.^ For example, when species are transferred between genera (as not uncommonly happens as a result of new knowledge), if possible the species descriptor is kept the same.
    • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
    • Binomial nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ For example, the phage that will infect cells of the species Escherichia coli usually will not infect cells of the species Bacillus cereus .  In some cases, phages are specific for certain subspecies, not infecting other cells of the same species but different subspecies.
    • Classification and Nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC faculty.ivytech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A consequence of these rules is that an identical name can be shared between different taxonomic concepts (for example if in a revised classification a species is subdivided, one new concept may retain the old name).
    • TCSchemaWiki - Home Page 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC tdwg.napier.ac.uk [Source type: Reference]

    Similarly if what were previously thought to be distinct species are demoted from species to a lower rank, former species names may be retained as infraspecific descriptors.
.Despite the rules favoring stability and uniqueness, in practice a single species may have several scientific names in circulation, depending largely on taxonomic point of view (see synonymy).^ Although unique, a scientific name may change.

^ A scientific name (of a species, etc.
  • poly- + (Greek: many, much; too many, too much, excessive; abnormal). 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC wordinfo.info [Source type: Reference]

^ Some common names may refer to several different species.
  • ScientificName.net. Find plant and animal scientific names 16 September 2009 3:49 UTC www.scientificname.net [Source type: Reference]

Derivation of names

.The genus name and specific descriptor may come from any source.^ The genus name and specific descriptor may come from any source.
  • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The genus is capitalized while the specific epithet name is not.
  • Classification and Nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC faculty.ivytech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The genus name comes first.
  • What�s in a Name? 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.davs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Often they are ordinary New Latin words, but they may also come from Ancient Greek, from a place, from a person (often a naturalist), a name from the local language etc.^ They must have modern language names.

^ Latin genus and species names are in Latin language.
  • Classifying Today.09.ClassificationNotes#3 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The scientific name must be in Greek or Latin language.
  • PinkMonkey.com Biology Study Guide - 13.4 Binomial Nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.pinkmonkey.com [Source type: General]
  • the unity and diversity of life 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC lisacruz2.tripod.com [Source type: Reference]

.In fact, taxonomists come up with specific descriptors from a variety of sources, including in-jokes and puns.^ In fact, the people who come up with these names sometime use specific descriptors from a variety of sources, including jokes and puns.
  • Who gave the binomial nomenclature? - Yahoo! Answers 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, taxonomists come up with specific descriptors from a variety of sources, including inside-jokes and puns.
  • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Binomial nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Beneficials in the garden & landscape: Value of Scientific Names 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The genus name and specific descriptor may come from any source.
  • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, names are always treated grammatically as if they were a Latin phrase.^ However, names are always treated grammatically as if they were a Latin phrase.
  • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, names are always treated grammatically as if they were a Latin sentence.

^ Scientific names are treated grammatically as if they were a Latin phrase.
  • Beneficials in the garden & landscape: Value of Scientific Names 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.There is a list of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names.^ There is a separate list of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names.

^ Today, we continue to use both Latin and Greek for scientific names.

^ However, many of the words used for names are not really Latin.
  • ENY-731/IN661: Scientific Nomenclature: What's in a Name? 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Family names are often derived from a common genus within the family.^ Taxa above the genus level are often given names derived from the type genus.
  • Order (biology) - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Order (biology)? What is Order (biology)? Where is Order (biology)? Definition of Order (biology). Meaning of Order (biology). 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Common names are often not physically accurate .
  • Animal Nomenclature: Understanding how Taxonomists Assign Animals Scientific Names 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC zoology.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family names are often derived from a common genus within the family.
  • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Binomial nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Beneficials in the garden & landscape: Value of Scientific Names 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The genus name must be unique inside each kingdom.^ For animals, genus names must be unique f.
  • Chapter 10 - Classification and Phylogeny 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC biology.fullerton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The genus name must be unique inside each kingdom (i.e., Animal Kingdom or Plant Kingdom).
  • Beneficials in the garden & landscape: Value of Scientific Names 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The genus name must be unique inside each group of life.
  • Who gave the binomial nomenclature? - Yahoo! Answers 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.It is normally a noun in its Latin grammar.^ It is normally a noun in its Latin grammar.
  • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

The specific descriptor is also a Latin word but it can be grammatically any of various forms including these:
.
  • Another noun nominative form in apposition with the genus (the words do not necessarily agree in gender), for example, the lion Panthera leo.
  • A noun genitive (possessive) form made up from a person's surname, as in the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsonii, the shrub Magnolia hodgsonii, or the Olive-backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni.^ For example, Canis lupus or Anthus hodgsoni .

    ^ As an example, in the cat family, the genus Panthera is coupled with the species leo to form Panthera leo, the Lion.
    • scientific classification [Archive] - Not Addicted Forums 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC forums.notaddicted.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For example, Canis lupus or Anthus hodgsoni.
    • Systematics of the Daltoniaceae 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.biology.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Here, the person named is not usually (if ever) the person who names the species; for example Anthus hodgsoni was named by Charles Wallace Richmond, in honour of Hodgson.
  • A noun genitive form made up from a place name, as with Latimeria chalumnae ("of Chalumna")
  • A common noun genitive form (singular or plural) as in the bacterium Escherichia coli.^ For example, Canis lupus or Anthus hodgsoni .

    ^ The type species of genus Escherichia is E. coli .

    ^ Sometimes, they are named after the location where the species was discovered or for the person who discovered them.
    • Poster: Bats of Arizona - Suggested High School Activities 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.azgfd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This is common in parasites, as in Xenos vesparum where vesparum simply means "of the wasps"
  • An ordinary Latin or New Latin adjective, as in the house sparrow Passer domesticus where domesticus ("domestic") simply means "associated with the house" (or "houses")
Specific descriptors are commonly reused in different genera (as is shown by examples of hodgsonii above)

Codes of nomenclature

.From the mid nineteenth century onwards it became ever more apparent that a body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names.^ From the mid nineteenth century onwards it became ever more apparent that a body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names.
  • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Binomial nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The binomial system of naming living organisms was developed by the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus in the mid 18th century.

^ The binomial system of naming organisms was developed by the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus in the mid 18th century.
  • What's In A Name? 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.woodrow.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the course of time these became Nomenclature Codes governing the naming of animals (ICZN), plants (incl.^ A designated representative for a plant or animal name.
  • Biological Nomenclature, Use and Misuse on the Internet 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.dave-cushman.net [Source type: Reference]

^ International code of nomenclature of cultivated plants.
  • Feature Article 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC tgc.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Geneticists have found genes for big tomatoes - Seed Savers Exchange Forum 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC forums.seedsavers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are two codes for naming plants: .
  • Botanic Nomenclature/Resources - WikiEducator 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.wikieducator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fungi, cyanobacteria) (ICBN), and bacteria (incl.^ Fungi , cyanobacteria ) ( ICBN ), bacteria ( ICNB ) and viruses ( ICTV ).
  • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Protista , including protozoans and some algae ; Monera , comprising the prokaryotic bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae); and Fungi .
  • classification Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about classification 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi , cyanobacteria) ( ICBN ), bacteria ( ICNB ) and viruses.

Archaea) (ICNB). .Virus names are governed by a taxonomic code, which determines taxa as well as names (ICTV).^ The rules for the naming of these groups are governed by an internationally accepted Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
  • A Primer on Plant Nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.emmitsburg.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How organisms are named is governed by international agreements such as the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN), the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB).
  • Biology | Population Biology 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.sisppi.org [Source type: Academic]
  • The GenetiBlog » Blog Archive » Biology 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.genetibase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The current Code contains 90 articles governing the status of names and a number of recommendations for authors and editors of scientific publications.
  • Principles of nomenclature of zoological taxa 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.bio.pu.ru [Source type: Original source]

These codes differ in certain ways, e.g.:
.
  • The ICBN, the plant Code does not allow tautonyms, whereas the ICZN, the animal Code does.
  • The starting points, the time from which these Codes are in effect (retroactively), vary from group to group.^ For example, the ICBN , the plant Code does not allow tautonyms, whereas the ICZN , the animal Code does allow tautonymy.

    ^ For example, the ICBN , the plant Code does not allow tautonyms , whereas the ICZN , the animal Code does.
    • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In the course of time these became Nomenclature Codes governing the naming of animals ( ICZN ), plants (incl.
    • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
    • Binomial nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Reference]

    In botany the starting point will often be in 1753 (the year Carl Linnaeus first published Species Plantarum), in zoology in 1758. Bacteriology started anew, with a starting point on 1980-01-01.[5]
.A BioCode has been suggested to replace several codes, although implementation is not in sight.^ A BioCode has been suggested to replace several codes, although implementation is not in sight.
  • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Binomial nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Reference]

.There is also a code in development for naming clades, called the PhyloCode.^ There are two codes for naming plants: .
  • Botanic Nomenclature/Resources - WikiEducator 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.wikieducator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hence, naming species requires different rules than naming clades (PC proponents intend to regulate species naming with a separate code, a so called Species Code; see Laurin et al., 2005 ).
  • Are the Linnean and Phylogenetic Nomenclatural Systems Combinable? Recommendations for Biological Nomenclature -- Kuntner and Agnarsson 55 (5): 774 -- Systematic Biology 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nomenclatural codes which have been developed over the past 150 years, have become formal and internationally accepted (although mandated), and now govern all aspects for naming organisms.
  • Biological Nomenclature - Reveal: Solutions to Biological Nomenclature 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.diversityoflife.org [Source type: Original source]

Rules

Although the fine detail differs, there are certain aspects which are universally adopted:
.
  • As the words "binomial", "binominal" and "binary" all signify, the scientific name of each species is formed by the combination of two words, which are in a modern form of Latin:
    1. the genus name (also called the generic name).
    2. a second word identifying the species within that genus, for which the technical term varies, as follows:
      • a general term for the word identifying the species is the specific descriptor
      • in zoology, the word identifying the species is called the specific name
      • in botany, the word identifying the species is called the specific epithet
  • Species names are usually typeset in italics; for example, Homo sapiens.^ Binomial classification in its simplest form is a way of naming a species by means of two names both in Latin.
    • scientific classification [Archive] - Not Addicted Forums 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC forums.notaddicted.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Specific names of plants (and all other organisms) use a first word, the Genus , and a more specific second name, the species .
    • UF/IFAS Okeechobee Extension Service | Carl Linnaeus, Father of Botanical Names 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC okeechobee.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Scientific names are Latin or Latinized forms of other languages.

    Generally the binomial should be printed in a font different from that used in the normal text; for example, "Several more Homo sapiens were discovered." When handwritten, they should be underlined; for example, Homo sapiens. .Each name should be underlined individually.
  • The genus name is always written with an initial capital letter.
  • In current usage, the specific name is never written with an initial capital.^ The genus name is written first (always Capitalized).
    • Classification 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC dvbiology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Each name should be underlined individually.
    • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The species name is written second (never capitalized).
    • Classification 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC dvbiology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [6][7]
For example, the entire tiger species is Panthera tigris
.
  • Some older works, on the other hand, wrote some specific names with an initial capital, principally those derived from proper nouns, e.g. Berberis Darwinii[8]
  • There are several terms for this two-part species name; these include binomen (plural binomina), binomial <name>, binominal <name>, and species name.
  • All taxa at ranks above species have a name composed of one word only, a "uninominal name".
  • The first level subdivisions within a species, termed subspecies, are each given a name with three parts: these are the two forming the species name, plus a third part (the subspecific name) which identifies the subspecies within the species.^ Specific names of plants (and all other organisms) use a first word, the Genus , and a more specific second name, the species .
    • UF/IFAS Okeechobee Extension Service | Carl Linnaeus, Father of Botanical Names 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC okeechobee.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Taxa above the genus level are often given names derived from the type genus.
    • Order (biology) - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Order (biology)? What is Order (biology)? Where is Order (biology)? Definition of Order (biology). Meaning of Order (biology). 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ All the individuals in a given species are not identical .
    • Scientific Plant Names, Oregon State Univ., LANDSCAPE PLANTS 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: Reference]

    .This is called trinomial nomenclature, and is written differently in zoology and botany.^ This is called trinomial nomenclature , and is written differently in zoology and botany.
    • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Practices for assigning subspecies or variety status vary widely between different fields such as botany, zoology, bacteriology and others.
    • ENY-731/IN661: Scientific Nomenclature: What's in a Name? 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Wikipedia: Scientific classification Wikipedia: Binomial nomenclature Wikipedia: Binomen Wikipedia: Trinomial nomenclature Wikipedia: Trinomen Wikipedia: Taxon Wikipedia: Rank (zoology) Wikipedia: Rank (botany) Wikipedia: Cultivars Wikipedia: Varieties Wikipedia: Sub-varieties Wikipedia: forms Wikipedia: Synonyms How to read a taxobox Taxonomic codes .
    • species · Microformats Wiki 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC microformats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [9] .For example:
    • Two of the subspecies of Olive-backed Pipit are Anthus hodgsoni berezowskii and Anthus hodgsoni hodgsoni
    • The Bengal tiger is Panthera tigris tigris and the Siberian tiger Panthera tigris altaica
    • The tree European Elder is Sambucus nigra subsp.^ For example, Canis lupus or Anthus hodgsoni .

      ^ American Black Elder is Sambucus nigra subsp.
      • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

      ^ For example: Two of the subspecies of Olive-backed Pipit are Anthus hodgsoni berezowskii and Anthus hodgsoni hodgsoni The Bengal Tiger is Panthera tigris tigris and the Siberian Tiger Panthera tigris altaica The tree European Black Elder is Sambucus nigra subsp.
      • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

      .nigra and the American Black Elder is Sambucus nigra subsp.^ American Black Elder is Sambucus nigra subsp.
      • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

      ^ For example: Two of the subspecies of Olive-backed Pipit are Anthus hodgsoni berezowskii and Anthus hodgsoni hodgsoni The Bengal Tiger is Panthera tigris tigris and the Siberian Tiger Panthera tigris altaica The tree European Black Elder is Sambucus nigra subsp.
      • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

      .canadensis
  • In scholarly texts, the main entry for the binomial is followed by the abbreviated (in botany) or full (in zoology) surname of the scientific authority – the scientist who first published the classification.^ In scholarly texts, the main entry for the binomial is followed by the abbreviated (botany) or full (zoology) surname of the scientist who first published the classification.
    • Systematics of the Daltoniaceae 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.biology.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The scientific name should generally be written in full when it is first used or when several species from the same genus are being listed or discussed in the same paper or report.
    • Systematics of the Daltoniaceae 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.biology.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Credit for authorship of names will be given to the person who first publishes it with an accurate and recognizable description of the organism.
    • Biological Classification and Evolutionary Analysis 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.bio200.buffalo.edu [Source type: General]

    If in the original description the species was assigned to a different genus from that to which it is assigned today, the abbreviation or name of the describer and the description date are set in parentheses.
For example: (plant) .Amaranthus retroflexus L., and (animal) Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) – the latter was described by Linneus as Fringilla domestica.^ For example: Amaranthus retroflexus L. or Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) - the latter was originally described as member of the genus Fringilla, hence the parentheses.
  • Systematics of the Daltoniaceae 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.biology.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example: Amaranthus retroflexus L. or Passer domesticus ( Linnaeus , 1758) — the latter was originally described as member of the genus Fringilla , hence the parentheses.
  • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The first two have been described as new species (Peralta et al., 2005) from Perú, while the latter two had already been named by Linnaeus (1753) and MacBride (1962) respectively.
  • Feature Article 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC tgc.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

  • When used with a common name, the scientific name often follows in parentheses, although this varies with publication.
For example: "The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is decreasing in Europe".
.
  • The scientific name should generally be written in full.^ The scientific name should generally be written in full.
    • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A scientific name should generally be written in full when first cited or used.
    • Beneficials in the garden & landscape: Value of Scientific Names 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The scientific name should generally be written in full when it is first used or when several species from the same genus are being listed or discussed in the same paper or report.
    • Systematics of the Daltoniaceae 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.biology.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The exception to this is when several species from the same genus are being listed or discussed in the same paper or report, or the same species is mentioned repeatedly; in that case the genus is written in full when it is first used, but may then be abbreviated to an initial (and period) for successive species names; for example, a list of members of the genus Canis might be written: "Canis lupus, C. aureus, C. simensis". In rare cases, this abbreviated form has spread to more general use; for example, the bacterium Escherichia coli is often referred to as just E. coli, and Tyrannosaurus rex is perhaps even better known simply as T. rex, these two both often appearing in this form even where they are not part of any list of species of the same genus.
  • The abbreviation "sp." is used when the actual specific name cannot or need not be specified. The abbreviation "spp." (plural) indicates "several species". These are not italicised (or underlined).
For example: "Canis sp." means "an unspecified species of the genus Canis", while "Canis spp." means "two or more species of the genus Canis".
.
  • Easily confused with the foregoing usage is the abbreviation "ssp."^ Easily confused with the former is the abbreviation "ssp."
    • Systematics of the Daltoniaceae 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.biology.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Easily confused with the foregoing usage is the abbreviation "ssp."
    • Binomial nomenclature encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

    (zoology) or "subsp." .(botany), indicating an unspecified subspecies (see also trinomen, ternary name).^ Today, nomenclature is regulated by Nomenclature Codes , which allows names divided into ranks; see rank (botany) and rank (zoology) .
    • What is Scientific Classification? 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After 1930 the Code does not allow these indications and in addition it demands that a type species (see later) be proposed for each new genus name.

    ^ Trinomial names sometimes used to indicate geographic subspecies .
    • Chapter 10 - Classification and Phylogeny 2 February 2010 14:41 UTC biology.fullerton.edu [Source type: Reference]

    In the same way the plurals of these are "sspp." or "subspp."
  • The abbreviation "cf." is used when the identification is not confirmed.
For example "Corvus cf. splendens" indicates "a bird similar to the House Crow but not certainly identified as this species".
  • Mycology uses the same system as in botany.

See also

References

  1. ^ INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE online.
  2. ^ Diane Schmidt and George H. Bell, Guide to reference and information sources in the zoological sciences, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003, ISBN 1563089777, p. 4.
  3. ^ The International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature, INTERNATIONAL BULLETIN OF BACTERIOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE AND TAXONOMY, Volume 6 No. 1 January 15, 1956 pp. 43-46.
  4. ^ International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature we site.
  5. ^ Sneath, P. H. A.. "A short history of the Bacteriological Code". http://www.the-icsp.org/misc/Code_history.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-29. 
  6. ^ Heather Silyn-Roberts (2000). Writing for Science and Engineering: Papers, Presentation. pp. 198. ISBN 0750646365. http://books.google.com/books?id=hVUU7Gq8QskC&lpg=PA198&ots=ZfKJlIi2wd&dq=species%20epithet%20capitalize&pg=PA198#v=onepage&q=species%20epithet%20capitalize&f=false. 
  7. ^ "Recommendation 60F". International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, Vienna Code. 2006. pp. 60F.1. http://ibot.sav.sk/icbn/frameset/0065Ch7OaGoNSec1a60.htm#recF. 
  8. ^ Charles F. Sturm, Timothy A. Pearce, Ángel Valdés (editors) (2006). The Mollusks: A Guide to Their Study, Collection, and Preservation. pp. 147. ISBN 1581129300. http://books.google.com/books?id=-NbmHx93s8gC&lpg=PA147&ots=DqxqYpdRTL&dq=species%20epithet%20capitalize&pg=PA147#v=onepage&q=chapter%2010&f=false. 
  9. ^ Frank A. Bisby, Plant Names in Botanical Databases, Plant Taxonomic Database Standards No. 3, Version 1.00, December 1994, Published for the International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases for Plant Sciences (TDWG) by the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh

External links


Simple English

File:Carolus Linnaeus by Hendrik Hollander
A painting of Carolus Linnaeus wearing the clothing of Lapland, made by Hendrick Hollander in 1853.

In biology, binomial nomenclature is how species are named. As the word "binomial" suggests, the name of a species is made by using two words: the genus name and the species description. Binomial nomenclature means "two-name description".

Contents

History

The person who created this system for use was Swedish botanist and physician Carolluss Linnaeus (17071778) who tried to find names for all things in the natural world and gave every species (mineral, vegetable or animal) a two-part name. This kind of naming had been used before Linnaeus, but before Linnaeus, hardly anybody used binomial nomenclature. After Linnaeus, almost everybody did.

Value of binomial nomenclature

The value of the binomial nomenclature is that it is easy to identify species with just two words. Also, those two words can be used all over the world, in all languages, and the name does not change based on country or time.

Rules of nomenclature

Many rules have been made to make binomial nomenclature more easy to understand and use. There are now several codes and books full of information on how to organize these names.

  • Scientific names are printed in italics, such as Homo sapiens. When handwritten they should be underlined.
  • The first term (genus name / generic name) is always capitalized,but the second name never is.
For example, Canis lupus means wolf or Anthus hodgsoni. Some older books may have both capitalized.
  • In science books, the article for the name is followed by the last name of the person who found the species.
For example: Amaranthus retroflexus L. or Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) - the latter was originally described as member of the genus Fringilla, hence the parentheses.
  • When used with a common name, the scientific name usually follows in parentheses.
For example, "The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is decreasing in Europe."
  • The scientific name should be written in full when it is first used or when several species from the same genus are being written at the same time. It can be shortened later.

There is still discussion between scientists on how to improve binomial nomenclature.

Where names come from

The names may come from any source whatsoever. Often they are Latin words, but they may also come from Ancient Greek, from a place, from a person, a name from a local language, etc. In fact, the people who come up with these names sometime use specific descriptors from a variety of sources, including jokes and puns.

The names are always treated grammatically as if they were a Latin sentence. This is why the name of a species is sometimes called its "Latin name," but scientists like calling these names scientific names.

The genus name must be unique inside each group of life. Species names are reused, and are sometimes given a third name which is a noun.

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 03, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Binomial nomenclature, which are similar to those in the above article.








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