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Life Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown.
.Biological classification, or scientific classification in biology, is a method by which biologists group and categorize organisms by biological type, such as genus or species.^ Prior to Linnaeus, biologists had established random categories of classification, such as the category of genus for a group of species.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternative methods for the biological classification of rivers.
  • BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.clallam.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A program that focuses on the scientific study of the relationships and interactions of small-scale biological systems, such as organisms, to each other, to complex and whole systems, and to the physical and other non-biological aspects of their environments.
  • AutoAdvisor - Programs - Biological and Biomedical Sciences 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC vcc.asu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Biological classification is a form of scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.^ Scientific classification belongs to the science of taxonomy or biological systematics.

^ Scientific classification belongs to the science of taxonomy or biological systematics .
  • Scientific classification - Wild India 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.wildindia.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Scientific classification | Dictionary | goliathus.cz 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.goliathus.cz [Source type: Reference]

^ Biological classification is a form of scientific taxonomy , but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy , which lacks scientific basis.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern biological classification has its root in the work of Carolus Linnaeus, who grouped species according to shared physical characteristics.^ III. Classification Methods Print section Grouping organisms according to shared characteristics is not a simple task, and scientists often disagree about the best way to classify organisms.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern taxonomic classification, based on the natural concepts and system of the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus , has progressed steadily since the 18th century, modified by advances in knowledge of morphology, evolution, and genetics.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Participants will be expected to work on a group research project as well as specialize in the collection and proper handling and curation of a specific group of organisms.
  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These groupings have since been revised to improve consistency with the Darwinian principle of common descent.^ After Darwin ( 3 ), they knew the ordering principle to be shared descent from an ever more limited number of common ancestors ( Fig.
  • Phylogenetic Classification and the Universal Tree 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC cas.bellarmine.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Yet since these earlier stem groups are by definition less derived, explaining them will be considerably easier than explaining the origin of the Cambrian animals de novo .
  • CSC - Intelligent Design: The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.discovery.org [Source type: Academic]

.Molecular phylogenetics, which uses DNA sequences as data, has driven many recent revisions and is likely to continue to do so.^ Finally, we used an algorithm specially designed for compressing DNA sequences.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Compression-based classification of biological sequences and structures via the Universal Similarity Metric: experimental assessment 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the annotation profile is in a binary categorical scale, kappa statistics is more suitable than the Pearson correlation, which is typically used for continuous, non-categorical data.
  • Genome Biology | Full text | DAVID Gene Functional Classification Tool: A novel biological module-centric algorithm to functionally analyze large gene list 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Students will use the methods learned to construct caldograms and phylogenetic relationships from a variety of data sets, and learn how to use data in resolving phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships.
  • Biological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.lehman.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Biological classification belongs to the science of biological systematics.^ Scientific classification belongs to the science of taxonomy or biological systematics.

^ The science, laws, or principles of classification; systematics.
  • New Page 1 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.nashua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientific classification belongs to the science of taxonomy or biological systematics .
  • Scientific classification - Wild India 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.wildindia.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Scientific classification | Dictionary | goliathus.cz 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.goliathus.cz [Source type: Reference]

Contents

Early systems

Ancient through medieval times

.Current systems of classifying forms of life descend from the thought presented by the Greek philosopher Aristotle, who published in his metaphysical works the first known classification of everything whatsoever, or "being". This is the scheme that gave such words as 'substance', 'species' and 'genus' and was retained in modified and less general form by Linnaeus.^ Current systems of classifying forms of life descend from the thought presented by the Greek philosopher Aristotle , who published in his metaphysical and logical works the first known classification of everything whatsoever, or "being".
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the scheme that gave such words as 'substance', 'species' and 'genus' and was retained in modified and less general form by Linnaeus .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ray rejected the system of dichotomous division by which species were classified according to a pre-conceived, either/or type system, and instead classified plants according to similarities and differences that emerged from observation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aristotle also studied animals and classified them according to method of reproduction, as did Linnaeus later with plants.^ Microscopic study of plant and animal tissues.
  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Aristotle also studied animals and classified them according to method of reproduction, as did Linnaeus later with plants.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Science > Animals > Animal Science Classifying Animals The inventor of modern scientific classification was Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) a Swedish botanist who classified and described more than 4,400 species of animals and 7,700 species of plants.
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0776195.html 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aristotle's animal classification was eventually made obsolete by additional knowledge and was forgotten.^ Aristotle's animal classification was eventually made obsolete by additional knowledge and was forgotten.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without blood, a classification that roughly corresponds to the division between vertebrates and invertebrates used in contemporary classification schemes.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The philosophical classification is in brief as follows:[1] Primary substance is the individual being; for example, Peter, Paul, etc.^ The philosophical classification is in brief as follows: [ 1 ] Primary substance is the individual being; for example, Peter, Paul, etc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secondary substance is a predicate that can properly or characteristically be said of a class of primary substances; for example, man of Peter, Paul, etc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The characteristic must not be merely in the individual; for example, being skilled in grammar.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Secondary substance is a predicate that can properly or characteristically be said of a class of primary substances; for example, man of Peter, Paul, etc.^ The most characteristic thing that can be said of Peter is that Peter is a man.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secondary substance is a predicate that can properly or characteristically be said of a class of primary substances; for example, man of Peter, Paul, etc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The philosophical classification is in brief as follows: [ 1 ] Primary substance is the individual being; for example, Peter, Paul, etc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The characteristic must not be merely in the individual; for example, being skilled in grammar.^ The characteristic must not be merely in the individual; for example, being skilled in grammar.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only examples are provided for this level; Dominance Types must be developed by individual users of the classification.
  • NPWRC :: Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The philosophical classification is in brief as follows: [ 1 ] Primary substance is the individual being; for example, Peter, Paul, etc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Grammatical skill leaves most of Peter out and therefore is not characteristic of him.^ Grammatical skill leaves most of Peter out and therefore is not characteristic of him.
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^ The most characteristic thing that can be said of Peter is that Peter is a man.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly man (all of mankind) is not in Peter; rather, he is in man.^ Similarly man (all of mankind) is not in Peter; rather, he is in man.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Species is the secondary substance that is most proper to its individuals.^ Species is the secondary substance that is most proper to its individuals.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The secondary substance that distinguishes one species from another within a genus is the specific difference.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This assumption is most plausible at extensive spatial scales where the broad distributions of many individual species and communities are determined largely by physiological limitations imposed by the environment.
  • The New Zealand Marine Environment Classification - 3 Approach to New Zealand Marine Environment Classification [Ministry for the Environment] 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.mfe.govt.nz [Source type: Academic]

.The most characteristic thing that can be said of Peter is that Peter is a man.^ The most characteristic thing that can be said of Peter is that Peter is a man.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most characteristic definition contains the species and the next most general genus: man is a rational animal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grammatical skill leaves most of Peter out and therefore is not characteristic of him.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An identity is being postulated: "man" is equal to all its individuals and only those individuals.^ An identity is being postulated: "man" is equal to all its individuals and only those individuals.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, they are only a subset of the eukaryotes; those are all in the kingdom of animals.
  • View topic - What biological classification system are you using? 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.home-school.com [Source type: General]

^ After completing an alpha taxonomy of the group, and all the types have been seen, only then can names be assigned to individual entities.
  • Biological Nomenclature - Delprete: Commentary 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.diversityoflife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Members of a species differ only in number but are totally the same type.^ Members of a species differ only in number but are totally the same type.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Database with hundreds of links to collections and compiled lists of different animal, plant, and microbe species, (living and fossil) by type, country, and other searches.
  • Biological and Paleontological Classification of Life (Phylogenetic Systematics) Links , Educational Resources for K-16 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.uky.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ray rejected the system of dichotomous division by which species were classified according to a pre-conceived, either/or type system, and instead classified plants according to similarities and differences that emerged from observation.
  • Scientific classification - Wikinfo 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Genus is a secondary substance less characteristic of and more general than the species; for example, man is an animal, but not all animals are men.^ Kin selection theory predicts that animals are more likely to behave altruistically towards their relatives than towards unrelated members of their species.
  • Biological Altruism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It should be clear that humans are more genetically diverse than many mammalian species.

^ A sample is called positive if more bacteria than the threshold are detected in it and is called a negative if less than the threshold is detected in the sample.
  • Apparatus and method for the detection and classification of articles using flow cytometry techniques - Patent 4661913 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is clear that a genus contains species.^ It is clear that a genus contains species.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family usually contains more than one genus, and each genus usually includes more than one species.
  • GAWW: Classification of Animals 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC dromus.nhm.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most characteristic definition contains the species and the next most general genus: man is a rational animal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is no limit to the number of Aristotelian genera that might be found to contain the species.^ There is no limit to the number of Aristotelian genera that might be found to contain the species.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are a limited number of biotopes for which no species at all are recorded in 20% of the core biotope records.
  • Biological tables 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.jncc.gov.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As there are only a limited number of chemical synonyms in the database, searching via the CAS number is the most effective search method.

.Aristotle does not structure the genera into phylum, class, etc., as the Linnaean classification does.^ Aristotle does not structure the genera into phylum , class, etc., as the Linnaean classification does.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the classification of animals, bacteria, protists (unicellular organisms, such as amoebas, with characteristics of both plants and animals), and fungi, classes are grouped into phyla ( see Phylum), while plant classes are grouped into divisions.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This classification scheme segregated the interaction inequalities into five classes as shown in Table 3 , generating a network with five rules of genetic interaction (consider these as edge types).
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Maximal Extraction of Biological Information from Genetic Interaction Data 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.The secondary substance that distinguishes one species from another within a genus is the specific difference.^ The secondary substance that distinguishes one species from another within a genus is the specific difference.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scientific names, i.e., genus and species are composed of Latin words or latinized words derived from Greek or less often from another language.
  • F.A.Q. page 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.fishbabies.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 18% of the exons were identified as tissue-specifically skipped in one of sixteen different tissues at four stringency levels.
  • DSpace@MIT : Tissue-specific classification of alternatively spliced human exons 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC dspace.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Man can thus be comprehended as the sum of specific differences (the "differentiae" of biology) in less and less general categories.^ Man can thus be comprehended as the sum of specific differences (the "differentiae" of biology) in less and less general categories.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indented terms represent more specific aspects of the subject or aspects of the subject to which a number different from the general number has been assigned.
  • NLM Classification: Index Introduction 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Genus is a secondary substance less characteristic of and more general than the species; for example, man is an animal, but not all animals are men.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This sum is the definition; for example, man is an animate, sensate, rational substance.^ This sum is the definition; for example, man is an animate, sensate, rational substance.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most characteristic definition contains the species and the next most general genus: man is a rational animal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genus is a secondary substance less characteristic of and more general than the species; for example, man is an animal, but not all animals are men.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most characteristic definition contains the species and the next most general genus: man is a rational animal.^ It is clear that a genus contains species.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most characteristic definition contains the species and the next most general genus: man is a rational animal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If man is a rational animal, then rationality is not a property of animals.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Definition is thus based on the unity problem: the species is but one yet has many differentiae.^ Definition is thus based on the unity problem: the species is but one yet has many differentiae.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some genera (plural) only have one species but the vast majority of them have many.
  • Gerbil Classification | eGerbil 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.egerbil.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sequence analysis problems usually come with large numbers of examples and one may wish to combine many kernels representing many possibly important features.
  • Learning Interpretable SVMs for Biological Sequence Classification 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Learning Interpretable SVMs for Biological Sequence Classification 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.The very top genera are the categories.^ The very top genera are the categories .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are ten: one of substance and nine of "accidents", universals that must be "in" a substance.^ There are ten: one of substance and nine of "accidents", universals that must be "in" a substance.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A further implication of this interpretation is that one should not expect that there is any universal classification of genetic interactions into rules.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Maximal Extraction of Biological Information from Genetic Interaction Data 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.Substances exist by themselves; accidents are only in them: quantity, quality, etc.^ Substances exist by themselves; accidents are only in them: quantity, quality, etc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is no higher category, "being", because of the following problem, which was only solved in the Middle Ages by Thomas Aquinas: a specific difference is not characteristic of its genus.^ There is no higher category, "being", because of the following problem, which was only solved in the Middle Ages by Thomas Aquinas : a specific difference is not characteristic of its genus.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you select Family or Genus, this report may load slowly since there are many terms in these categories.
  • Classification | USDA PLANTS 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC plants.usda.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The secondary substance that distinguishes one species from another within a genus is the specific difference.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If man is a rational animal, then rationality is not a property of animals.^ If man is a rational animal, then rationality is not a property of animals.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most characteristic definition contains the species and the next most general genus: man is a rational animal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Substance therefore cannot be a kind of being because it can have no specific difference, which would have to be non-being.^ Substance therefore cannot be a kind of being because it can have no specific difference, which would have to be non -being.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The secondary substance that distinguishes one species from another within a genus is the specific difference.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Streptomycin affects certain bacterial ribosomes, and therefore, inhibits protein production, but we have a different kind of ribosome, so it doesn't inhibit our ribosomes.
  • View topic - What biological classification system are you using? 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.home-school.com [Source type: General]

.The problem of being occupied the attention of scholastics during the time of the Middle Ages.^ The problem of being occupied the attention of scholastics during the time of the Middle Ages.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no higher category, "being", because of the following problem, which was only solved in the Middle Ages by Thomas Aquinas : a specific difference is not characteristic of its genus.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The solution of St. Thomas, termed the analogy of being, established the field of ontology, which received the better part of the publicity and also drew the line between philosophy and experimental science. .The latter rose in the Renaissance from practical technique.^ The latter rose in the Renaissance from practical technique.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Linnaeus, a classical scholar, combined the two on the threshold of the neo-classicist revival now called the Age of Enlightenment.

Renaissance through Age of Reason

.An important advance was made by the Swiss professor, Conrad von Gesner (1516–1565).^ An important advance was made by the Swiss professor, Conrad von Gesner (1516–1565).
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.Gesner's work was a critical compilation of life known at the time.^ Gesner's work was a critical compilation of life known at the time.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The exploration of parts of the New World by Europeans produced large numbers of new plants and animals that needed descriptions and classification.^ Although this is a large number it is amenable to computing the complexity, Ψ, of every possible classification scheme.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Maximal Extraction of Biological Information from Genetic Interaction Data 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Indeed, the number of changes necessary to produce a new protein greatly exceeds the number of changes that will typically produce functional losses.
  • CSC - Intelligent Design: The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.discovery.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The histogram maps the points in the cluster into a new form, characterized by large numbers on the frequency axis, and the remaining points to the surrounding area with small values for frequency counts.
  • Apparatus and method for the detection and classification of articles using flow cytometry techniques - Patent 4661913 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The old systems made it difficult to study and locate all these new specimens within a collection and often the same plants or animals were given different names simply because there were too many species to keep track of.^ Microscopic study of plant and animal tissues.
  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Why do they have different species names?
  • Classification 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC dvbiology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The old systems made it difficult to study and locate all these new specimens within a collection and often the same plants or animals were given different names simply because there were too many species to keep track of.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A system was needed that could group these specimens together so they could be found; the binomial system was developed based on morphology with groups having similar appearances.^ A system was needed that could group these specimens together so they could be found; the binomial system was developed based on morphology with groups having similar appearances.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, many different types of genes, with or without too much sequence similarity, could be grouped into a transcription regulation class.
  • Genome Biology | Full text | DAVID Gene Functional Classification Tool: A novel biological module-centric algorithm to functionally analyze large gene list 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Animal development including gametogenesis, embryogenesis, differentiation, growth, and cellular and molecular bases of these processes.
  • Biological Sciences Courses : 2005-06 Undergraduate Catalog : University of North Texas 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Biological Sciences Courses : 2009-10 Undergraduate Catalog : University of North Texas 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • UNT Undergraduate Biological Sciences Courses 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • UNT Undergraduate Catalog Biological Sciences Courses 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the latter part of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th, careful study of animals commenced, which, directed first to familiar kinds, was gradually extended until it formed a sufficient body of knowledge to serve as an anatomical basis for classification.^ In the latter part of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th, careful study of animals commenced, which, directed first to familiar kinds, was gradually extended until it formed a sufficient body of knowledge to serve as an anatomical basis for classification.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Laboratory study of the form and function of animals.
  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the latter part of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th careful study of animals commenced, which, directed first to familiar kinds, was gradually extended until it formed a sufficient body of knowledge to serve as an anatomical basis for classification.
  • Scientific classification - Wikinfo 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: Reference]

.Advances in using this knowledge to classify living beings bear a debt to the research of medical anatomists, such as Fabricius (1537–1619), Petrus Severinus (1580–1656), William Harvey (1578–1657), and Edward Tyson (1649–1708).^ Advances in using this knowledge to classify living beings bear a debt to the research of medical anatomists, such as Fabricius (1537–1619), Petrus Severinus (1580–1656), William Harvey (1578–1657), and Edward Tyson (1649–1708).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specifying the most similar training image for any test image can be useful for manually checking the misclassified images and getting better intuition about how the images are being classified.
  • Source Code for Biology and Medicine | Full text | Wndchrm - an open source utility for biological image analysis 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.scfbm.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is in Part II where the vocabulary process becomes important as authors publishing advanced research frequently use highly specialized language.

.Advances in classification due to the work of entomologists and the first microscopists is due to the research of people like Marcello Malpighi (1628–1694), Jan Swammerdam (1637–1680), and Robert Hooke (1635–1702).^ Advances in classification due to the work of entomologists and the first microscopists is due to the research of people like Marcello Malpighi (1628–1694), Jan Swammerdam (1637–1680), and Robert Hooke (1635–1702).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lord Monboddo (1714–1799) was one of the early abstract thinkers whose works illustrate knowledge of species relationships and who foreshadowed the theory of evolution.^ Introduction to the origin and theories of evolution, diversification, radiation, and paleogeography of plants through time, with special reference to vascular plants.
  • EIU Biological Sciences Course Descriptions 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.eiu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Subsequent work in evolutionary game theory, much of it inspired by Axelrod and Hamilton's ideas, has confirmed that repeated games permit the evolution of social behaviours that cannot evolve in one-shot situations (cf.
  • Biological Altruism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Even in the case in which historical theories make claims about past causes they usually do so on the basis of preexisting knowledge of cause and effect relationships.
  • CSC - Intelligent Design: The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.discovery.org [Source type: Academic]

.Successive developments in the history of insect classification may be followed on the website[2] by clicking on succeeding works in chronological order.^ Scientists use the fossil record to learn how certain animals have changed and evolved through Earth's history, which may provide clues for classification.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to provide a more effective description of the bacteria and a more efficient classification region to discriminate the background particles, a modified principal component method may be employed.
  • Apparatus and method for the detection and classification of articles using flow cytometry techniques - Patent 4661913 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In [ 7 ] it has been shown that the following optimization problem is equivalent to (9): In order to solve (10), one may solve the following saddle point problem (Lagrangian): minimized w.r.t.
  • Learning Interpretable SVMs for Biological Sequence Classification 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Early methodists

.Since late in the 15th century, a number of authors had become concerned with what they called methodus, (method).^ Since late in the 15th century, a number of authors had become concerned with what they called methodus, (method).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By method authors mean an arrangement of minerals, plants, and animals according to the principles of logical division.^ By method authors mean an arrangement of minerals, plants, and animals according to the principles of logical division.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ray rejected the system of dichotomous division by which species were classified according to a pre-conceived, either/or type system, and instead classified plants according to similarities and differences that emerged from observation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Andrea Caesalpino (1519–1603) in his De plantis libri XVI (1583) proposed the first methodical arrangement of plants.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term Methodists was coined by Carolus Linnaeus in his Bibliotheca Botanica to denote the authors who care about the principles of classification (in contrast to the mere collectors who are concerned primarily with the description of plants paying little or no attention to their arrangement into genera, etc).^ The term Methodists was coined by Carolus Linnaeus in his Bibliotheca Botanica to denote the authors who care about the principles of classification (in contrast to the mere collectors who are concerned primarily with the description of plants paying little or no attention to their arrangement into genera, etc).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his Philosophia Botanica (1751) Linnaeus took every effort to improve the composition and reduce the length of the many-worded names by abolishing unnecessary rhetorics, introducing new descriptive terms and defining their meaning with an unprecedented precision.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name of any taxon may be followed by the "authority" for the name, that is, the name of the author who first published a valid description of it.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Important early Methodists were Italian philosopher, physician, and botanist Andrea Caesalpino, English naturalist John Ray, German physician and botanist Augustus Quirinus Rivinus, and French physician, botanist, and traveller Joseph Pitton de Tournefort.^ Important early Methodists were Italian philosopher, physician, and botanist Andrea Caesalpino , English naturalist John Ray , German physician and botanist Augustus Quirinus Rivinus , and French physician, botanist, and traveller Joseph Pitton de Tournefort .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Augustus Quirinus Rivinus (1652–1723), in his classification of plants based on the characters of the flower , introduced the category of order (corresponding to the "higher" genera of John Ray and Andrea Caesalpino).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Andrea Caesalpino (1519–1603) in his De plantis libri XVI (1583) proposed the first methodical arrangement of plants.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Andrea Caesalpino (1519–1603) in his De plantis libri XVI (1583) proposed the first methodical arrangement of plants.^ Andrea Caesalpino (1519–1603) in his De plantis libri XVI (1583) proposed the first methodical arrangement of plants.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sixteenth-century Italian botanist Andrea Cesalpino was the first scientist to classify plants primarily according to structural characteristics, such as their fruits and seeds.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His method of naming plant species resembled that of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On the basis of the structure of trunk and fructification he divided plants into fifteen "higher genera".
.John Ray (1627–1705) was an English naturalist who published important works on plants, animals, and natural theology.^ In the 17th century, English naturalist John Ray was the first to apply the character weighting method to structural features in animals.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A program that focuses on the scientific study of the health effects associated with exposure to toxic chemicals and systems occurring in the natural, work, and living environments; the management of environmental toxins and toxicity; and the development of protections for humans, animals, and plants.
  • AutoAdvisor - Programs - Biological and Biomedical Sciences 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC vcc.asu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The approach he took to the classification of plants in his Historia Plantarum was an important step towards modern taxonomy.^ The approach he took to the classification of plants in his Historia Plantarum was an important step towards modern taxonomy.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Identification, classification and phylogeny of vascular plants; principles of taxonomy.
  • Department of Biological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.biology.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Principles of plant taxonomy, including history and systems of classification and nomenclature, the use of dichotomous keys, and general herbarium techniques.
  • Environmental and Biological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.troy.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Ray rejected the system of dichotomous division by which species were classified according to a pre-conceived, either/or type system, and instead classified plants according to similarities and differences that emerged from observation.^ Ray rejected the system of dichotomous division by which species were classified according to a pre-conceived, either/or type system, and instead classified plants according to similarities and differences that emerged from observation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taxonomy (from Greek taxis meaning arrangement or division and nomos meaning law) is the science of classification according to a pre-determined system, with the resulting catalog used to provide a conceptual framework for discussion, analysis, or information retrieval.
  • Systematics (Scientific Names) 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.nbii.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, many different types of genes, with or without too much sequence similarity, could be grouped into a transcription regulation class.
  • Genome Biology | Full text | DAVID Gene Functional Classification Tool: A novel biological module-centric algorithm to functionally analyze large gene list 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

.Both Caesalpino and Ray used traditional plant names and thus, the name of a plant did not reflect its taxonomic position (e.g.^ The name can reflect the country or origin of a plant.

^ Both Caesalpino and Ray used traditional plant names and thus, the name of a plant did not reflect its taxonomic position (e.g.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, using only common names, the Pocket Gopher can be confused with a turtle as well as with the amphibians known as salamanders (Order Caudata).
  • GAWW: Classification of Animals 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC dromus.nhm.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

even though the apple and the peach belonged to different ."higher genera" of John Ray's methodus, both retained their traditional names Malus and Malus Persica respectively).^ John Ray's methodus , both retained their traditional names Malus and Malus Persica respectively).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Augustus Quirinus Rivinus (1652–1723), in his classification of plants based on the characters of the flower , introduced the category of order (corresponding to the "higher" genera of John Ray and Andrea Caesalpino).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Caesalpino and Ray used traditional plant names and thus, the name of a plant did not reflect its taxonomic position (e.g.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A further step was taken by Rivinus and Pitton de Tournefort who made genus a distinct rank within taxonomic hierarchy and introduced the practice of naming the plants according to their genera.^ His method of naming plant species resembled that of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genera and taxa above the rank of genus: M-R .
  • Risk group classification (prokaryotes): European Community classification 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.bacterio.cict.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ Genera and taxa above the rank of genus: D-L .
  • Risk group classification (prokaryotes): European Community classification 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.bacterio.cict.fr [Source type: Academic]

.Augustus Quirinus Rivinus (1652–1723), in his classification of plants based on the characters of the flower, introduced the category of order (corresponding to the "higher" genera of John Ray and Andrea Caesalpino).^ Augustus Quirinus Rivinus (1652–1723), in his classification of plants based on the characters of the flower , introduced the category of order (corresponding to the "higher" genera of John Ray and Andrea Caesalpino).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Important early Methodists were Italian philosopher, physician, and botanist Andrea Caesalpino , English naturalist John Ray , German physician and botanist Augustus Quirinus Rivinus , and French physician, botanist, and traveller Joseph Pitton de Tournefort .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Andrea Caesalpino (1519–1603) in his De plantis libri XVI (1583) proposed the first methodical arrangement of plants.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was the first to abolish the ancient division of plants into herbs and trees and insisted that the true method of division should be based on the parts of the fructification alone.^ He was the first to abolish the ancient division of plants into herbs and trees and insisted that the true method of division should be based on the parts of the fructification alone.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A novel agglomeration method to classify a gene list into functionally related groups based on the functional similarity scores .
  • Genome Biology | Full text | DAVID Gene Functional Classification Tool: A novel biological module-centric algorithm to functionally analyze large gene list 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Then, a DAVID agglomeration method was developed to group related genes or terms into functional groups (biological modules) based on the similarity distances measure.
  • Genome Biology | Full text | DAVID Gene Functional Classification Tool: A novel biological module-centric algorithm to functionally analyze large gene list 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

.Rivinus extensively used dichotomous keys to define both orders and genera.^ Laboratory study emphasizing plant identification by use of dichotomous keys and recognition to the generic and family levels.
  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We conducted extensive experiments to evaluate our algorithm by using both synthetic and real network datasets.
  • DIMACS Workshop on Clustering Problems in Biological Networks 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC dimacs.rutgers.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Principles of plant taxonomy, including history and systems of classification and nomenclature, the use of dichotomous keys, and general herbarium techniques.
  • Environmental and Biological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.troy.edu [Source type: Academic]

.His method of naming plant species resembled that of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort.^ His method of naming plant species resembled that of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Coca, the species name, is the common name of the plant.

^ Important early Methodists were Italian philosopher, physician, and botanist Andrea Caesalpino , English naturalist John Ray , German physician and botanist Augustus Quirinus Rivinus , and French physician, botanist, and traveller Joseph Pitton de Tournefort .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The names of all plants belonging to the same genus should begin with the same word (generic name).^ The names of all plants belonging to the same genus should begin with the same word (generic name).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The generic name is often the first level of taxonomic organisation, simply because all species that are thought to be closely related are placed together in a genus.
  • Gerbil Classification | eGerbil 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.egerbil.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scientific names, i.e., genus and species are composed of Latin words or latinized words derived from Greek or less often from another language.
  • F.A.Q. page 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.fishbabies.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the genera containing more than one species the first species was named with generic name only, while the second, etc were named with a combination of the generic name and a modifier (differentia specifica).^ Notice that the first part of the name (Genus) is capitalized and the second (Species) name is not.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name of each species is given a generic name and also a specific name.
  • Gerbil Classification | eGerbil 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.egerbil.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the genera containing more than one species the first species was named with generic name only, while the second, etc were named with a combination of the generic name and a modifier ( differentia specifica ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656–1708) introduced an even more sophisticated hierarchy of class, section, genus, and species.^ His method of naming plant species resembled that of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656–1708) introduced an even more sophisticated hierarchy of class, section, genus, and species.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Important early Methodists were Italian philosopher, physician, and botanist Andrea Caesalpino , English naturalist John Ray , German physician and botanist Augustus Quirinus Rivinus , and French physician, botanist, and traveller Joseph Pitton de Tournefort .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was the first to use consistently the uniformly composed species names that consisted of a generic name and a many-worded diagnostic phrase differentia specifica. Unlike Rivinus, he used differentiae with all species of polytypic genera.^ The name of each species is given a generic name and also a specific name.
  • Gerbil Classification | eGerbil 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.egerbil.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As one would be readily use up existing Latin names following the rules of priority, soon the vast majority of Latin names would be exhausted and one could turn to a more formulated set of randomly generated letters and/or numbers all Latinized!
  • Nomenclature vs. Systems of Classification 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC mailman.nhm.ku.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The generic name is often the first level of taxonomic organisation, simply because all species that are thought to be closely related are placed together in a genus.
  • Gerbil Classification | eGerbil 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.egerbil.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Modern systems

Linnaean

.Carolus Linnaeus' great work, the Systema Naturae (1st ed.^ Linnaeus was the first to formalize the use of higher taxa in his book Systema Naturae (1735), establishing the standard hierarchy taxonomy still in use today.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1735), ran through twelve editions during his lifetime. .In this work, nature was divided into three kingdoms: mineral, vegetable and animal.^ In this work, nature was divided into three kingdoms: mineral, vegetable and animal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He divided animals into three groups based on where they lived; land, water, or air and he divided plants into three groups based on differences in their stems.
  • Classification 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC dvbiology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (The Monerans were divided into the domains of Bacteria and Archaea, and the other 4 kingdoms were grouped into the Eukarya.
  • View topic - What biological classification system are you using? 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.home-school.com [Source type: General]

.Linnaeus used five ranks: class, order, genus, species, and variety.^ Linnaeus used five ranks: class, order, genus, species, and variety.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this Web Site the fishes are divided into Phylum, Class, Superorder, Order, sometimes Sub Order, sometimes Super Family, Family, sometimes Sub-Family, sometimes Tribe, Genus, Species, sometimes Sub-Species and the Describer, the last name of the person who first described the species in a published paper.
  • F.A.Q. page 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.fishbabies.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We evaluate biological diversity at various taxonomic levels, including class, order, family, genus, species, subspecies, and--for purposes of Endangered Species Act implementation--distinct population segment.
  • 601 FW 3, Biological Integrity, Diversity, and EnvironmentalHealth, Fish and Wildlife Service Manual: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.fws.gov [Source type: Academic]

.He abandoned long descriptive names of classes and orders and two-word generic names (e.^ He abandoned long descriptive names of classes and orders and two-word generic names (e.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the first to use consistently the uniformly composed species names that consisted of a generic name and a many-worded diagnostic phrase differentia specifica.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You should also note that though an animal will generally share its genus, family, order and class names etc.
  • The Earth Life Web, Introduction to the Classification of Insects 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.earthlife.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

g. .Bursa pastoris) still used by his immediate predecessors (Rivinus and Pitton de Tournefort) and replaced them with single-word names, provided genera with detailed diagnoses (characteres naturales), and reduced numerous varieties to their species, thus saving botany from the chaos of new forms produced by horticulturalists.^ His method of naming plant species resembled that of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike Rivinus, he used differentiae with all species of polytypic genera.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bursa pastoris ) still used by his immediate predecessors (Rivinus and Pitton de Tournefort) and replaced them with single-word names, provided genera with detailed diagnoses ( characteres naturales ), and reduced numerous varieties to their species, thus saving botany from the chaos of new forms produced by horticulturalists .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Linnaeus is best known for his introduction of the method still used to formulate the scientific name of every species.^ Linnaeus is best known for his introduction of the method still used to formulate the scientific name of every species.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late 1740s Linnaeus began to use a parallel system of naming species with nomina trivialia.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His method of naming plant species resembled that of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before Linnaeus, long many-worded names (composed of a generic name and a differentia specifica) had been used, but as these names gave a description of the species, they were not fixed.^ He was the first to use consistently the uniformly composed species names that consisted of a generic name and a many-worded diagnostic phrase differentia specifica.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He abandoned long descriptive names of classes and orders and two-word generic names (e.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why do they have different species names?
  • Classification 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC dvbiology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his Philosophia Botanica (1751) Linnaeus took every effort to improve the composition and reduce the length of the many-worded names by abolishing unnecessary rhetorics, introducing new descriptive terms and defining their meaning with an unprecedented precision.^ In his Philosophia Botanica (1751) Linnaeus took every effort to improve the composition and reduce the length of the many-worded names by abolishing unnecessary rhetorics, introducing new descriptive terms and defining their meaning with an unprecedented precision.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Carolus Linnaeus was the first person to name many plants, the L. for Linnaeus is very common in plant scientific names.
  • Classification 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC dvbiology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the first to use consistently the uniformly composed species names that consisted of a generic name and a many-worded diagnostic phrase differentia specifica.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the late 1740s Linnaeus began to use a parallel system of naming species with nomina trivialia. Nomen triviale, a trivial name, was a single- or two-word epithet placed on the margin of the page next to the many-worded "scientific" name.^ In the late 1740s Linnaeus began to use a parallel system of naming species with nomina trivialia.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nomen triviale , a trivial name, was a single- or two-word epithet placed on the margin of the page next to the many-worded "scientific" name.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the years many species have come to be known by several scientific names.
  • Gerbil Classification | eGerbil 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.egerbil.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only rules Linnaeus applied to them was that the trivial names should be short, unique within a given genus, and that they should not be changed.^ The only rules Linnaeus applied to them was that the trivial names should be short, unique within a given genus, and that they should not be changed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accordingly, on this model, morphological change should occur in larger, more discrete intervals than it would given a traditional neo-Darwinian understanding.
  • CSC - Intelligent Design: The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.discovery.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Together, the Genus and species name refer to only one plant, and they are used to identify that particular plant.
  • Classification of Plants 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC theseedsite.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Linnaeus consistently applied nomina trivialia to the species of plants in Species Plantarum (1st edn.^ Linnaeus consistently applied nomina trivialia to the species of plants in Species Plantarum (1st edn.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Species Plantarum and the 10th edn.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late 1740s Linnaeus began to use a parallel system of naming species with nomina trivialia.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.1753) and to the species of animals in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae (1758).^ It wasn?t until the 10th edition of his work published in 1758 that it was accepted by international consent and even today the process is still not finished.
  • A Biological Guide To Extraterrestrials 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Systemae Naturae, sive regna tria naturae, systematics proposita per classes, ordines, genera & species .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Systema Naturae (1758).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By consistently using these specific epithets, Linnaeus separated nomenclature from taxonomy.^ By consistently using these specific epithets, Linnaeus separated nomenclature from taxonomy.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These recent definitions use the wellness model, in which health and disease are viewed as 2 separate dimensions.
  • Preventing Chronic Disease: January 2010: 09_0124 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Principles of plant taxonomy, including history and systems of classification and nomenclature, the use of dichotomous keys, and general herbarium techniques.
  • Environmental and Biological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.troy.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Even though the parallel use of nomina trivialia and many-worded descriptive names continued until late in the eighteenth century, it was gradually replaced by the practice of using shorter proper names combined of the generic name and the trivial name of the species.^ In the late 1740s Linnaeus began to use a parallel system of naming species with nomina trivialia.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though the parallel use of nomina trivialia and many-worded descriptive names continued until late in the eighteenth century, it was gradually replaced by the practice of using shorter proper names combined of the generic name and the trivial name of the species.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his Philosophia Botanica (1751) Linnaeus took every effort to improve the composition and reduce the length of the many-worded names by abolishing unnecessary rhetorics, introducing new descriptive terms and defining their meaning with an unprecedented precision.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the nineteenth century, this new practice was codified in the first Rules and Laws of Nomenclature, and the 1st edn. of Species Plantarum and the 10th edn. of .Systema Naturae were chosen as starting points for the Botanical and Zoological Nomenclature respectively.^ Systema Naturae were chosen as starting points for the Botanical and Zoological Nomenclature respectively.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This convention for naming species is referred to as binomial nomenclature.^ A combination of specific and generic names together make up the binomial system which is the basis of biological nomenclature.
  • A Biological Guide To Extraterrestrials 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In zoological nomenclature, the genus and species names may be identical; the gorilla, for example, is Gorilla gorilla.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Order Family Genus Species Scientific name Common name Binomial nomenclature Authority .
  • Classification 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC dvbiology.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, nomenclature is regulated by Nomenclature Codes, which allows names divided into taxonomic ranks.^ He was the first to use adaptation to habitat to divide birds into such groups as aquatic birds, wading birds, birds of prey, perching birds, and land birds, categories still used informally today.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Taxonomic ranks

.There are 8 main taxonomic ranks: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.^ Main article: Taxonomic rank There are 8 main taxonomic ranks : domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kingdom; Animalides, Phylum; Chordatides, Class; Mammalides, Order and Family not yet classifiable.
  • A Biological Guide To Extraterrestrials 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kingdom; Animalides, Phylum, Class, Order and Family not yet classifiable.
  • A Biological Guide To Extraterrestrials 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.rense.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are slightly different ranks for zoology and for botany, including subdivisions such as tribe.^ There are slightly different ranks for zoology and for botany, including subdivisions such as tribe .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The system for assigning authorities is slightly different in different branches of biology: see author citation (botany) and author citation (zoology) .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Special topics to be selected from areas such as botany, genetics, microbiology, or zoology.
  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: Academic]

Evolutionary

.Whereas Linnaeus classified for ease of identification, it is now generally accepted that classification should reflect the Darwinian principle of common descent.^ These groupings since have been revised to improve consistency with the Darwinian principle of common descent.
  • Cat (Felis catus) in Biological Classification 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.catrealm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prerequisite: Credit or registration for credit in BIOS 380L. The general principles of parasitology: the morphology, life history, and classification of parasites, and their host relationships.
  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After Darwin ( 3 ), they knew the ordering principle to be shared descent from an ever more limited number of common ancestors ( Fig.
  • Phylogenetic Classification and the Universal Tree 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC cas.bellarmine.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Since the 1960s a trend called cladistic taxonomy (or cladistics or cladism) has emerged, arranging taxa in an evolutionary tree.^ Cladists use the fossil record, molecular genetics, and other techniques to create an evolutionary tree called a cladogram.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If a taxon includes all the descendants of some ancestral form, it is called monophyletic, as opposed to paraphyletic. .Other groups are called polyphyletic.^ To see this, imagine that some members of a group of Vervet monkeys give alarm calls when they see predators, but others do not.
  • Biological Altruism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A new formal code of nomenclature, the International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature, or PhyloCode for short, is currently under development, intended to deal with names of clades.^ The international codes of nomenclature .
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES- Content Outline 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.eolss.net [Source type: Academic]

^ We are currently developing the second release which includes these additional data, and new data collected since 2001.
  • GEOHAB - Marine Geological and Biological Habitat Mapping 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC geohab.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fish biomass estimates traditionally used in stock assessments have not been available for rockfish in British Columbia but new assessment approaches are currently being developed.
  • GEOHAB - Marine Geological and Biological Habitat Mapping 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC geohab.org [Source type: Academic]

Linnaean ranks will be optional under the PhyloCode, which is intended to coexist with the current, rank-based codes.
Domains are a relatively new grouping. .The three-domain system was first invented in 1990, but not generally accepted until later.^ In such cases, natural selection cannot contribute to the process of information generation until after the information necessary to build the requisite system of proteins has arisen.
  • CSC - Intelligent Design: The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.discovery.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The first group consists of three state-of-the-art tools for general purpose compression.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Compression-based classification of biological sequences and structures via the Universal Similarity Metric: experimental assessment 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.Now, the majority of biologists accept the domain system, but a large minority use the five-kingdom method.^ May not be used to satisfy major or minor requirements in chemistry.
  • Biological Sciences Courses : 2005-06 Undergraduate Catalog : University of North Texas 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Biological Sciences Courses : 2009-10 Undergraduate Catalog : University of North Texas 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • UNT Undergraduate Biological Sciences Courses 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • UNT Undergraduate Catalog Biological Sciences Courses 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The old five kingdom system of classification disappeared from college texts a number of years ago, but I suspect that it is still being taught in some high schools, and I don't know what you have in the resources that you are using.
  • View topic - What biological classification system are you using? 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.home-school.com [Source type: General]

^ May not be used to satisfy area, major, or minor requirements, except the biology (teaching) major and minor.
  • Department of Biological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.biology.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

.One main characteristic of the three-domain method is the separation of Archaea and Bacteria, previously grouped into the single kingdom Bacteria (a kingdom also sometimes called Monera).^ The detection of bacteria in urine involves a complex problem in which it is known only that one or two or three bacteria types is most likely to be encountered.
  • Apparatus and method for the detection and classification of articles using flow cytometry techniques - Patent 4661913 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Without prior knowledge, the tool is able to classify genes into three functional gene groups.
  • Genome Biology | Full text | DAVID Gene Functional Classification Tool: A novel biological module-centric algorithm to functionally analyze large gene list 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A novel agglomeration method to classify a gene list into functionally related groups based on the functional similarity scores .
  • Genome Biology | Full text | DAVID Gene Functional Classification Tool: A novel biological module-centric algorithm to functionally analyze large gene list 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

.Consequently, the three domains of life are conceptualized as Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota (comprising the nuclei-bearing eukaryotes).^ The distinct and cohesive nature of each of its three "domains" (Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya) and the branching pattern of hundreds of subordinate taxa (kingdoms and lower divisions) within each domain are supported by SSU rRNA sequences.
  • Phylogenetic Classification and the Universal Tree 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC cas.bellarmine.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In some continental margin ecosystems they dominate life almost exclusively, generating a great diversity of bacteria, archaea and some single cell eukaryotes.
  • GEOHAB - Marine Geological and Biological Habitat Mapping 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC geohab.org [Source type: Academic]

[3] .A small minority of scientists add Archaea as a sixth kingdom, but do not accept the domain method.^ Some scientists go on to group kingdoms into domains.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (The Monerans were divided into the domains of Bacteria and Archaea, and the other 4 kingdoms were grouped into the Eukarya.
  • View topic - What biological classification system are you using? 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.home-school.com [Source type: General]

^ These differences are sufficient in most schemes, to place the Archaea into a separate kingdom or domain.

.Thomas Cavalier-Smith, who has published extensively on the classification of protists, has recently proposed that the Neomura, the clade that groups together the Archaea and Eukarya, would have evolved from Bacteria, more precisely from Actinobacteria.^ As described above, the features having smaller variances are expected to be more important in discriminating bacteria from nonbacteria and should be weighted more heavily in arriving at detection and classification decisions.
  • Apparatus and method for the detection and classification of articles using flow cytometry techniques - Patent 4661913 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There have recently been proposals to restrict its use to a more cladistically sound definition, summarized by The Definition of the Taxon Tetrapoda .
  • Biological Diversity 9 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to provide a more effective description of the bacteria and a more efficient classification region to discriminate the background particles, a modified principal component method may be employed.
  • Apparatus and method for the detection and classification of articles using flow cytometry techniques - Patent 4661913 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Linnaeus
1735[4]
2 kingdoms
Haeckel
1866[5]
3 kingdoms
Chatton
1925[6][7]
2 empires
Copeland
1938[8][9]
4 kingdoms
Whittaker
1969[10]
5 kingdoms
Woese et al.
1977[11][12]
6 kingdoms
Woese et al.
1990[13]
3 domains
(not treated) Protista Prokaryota Monera Monera Eubacteria Bacteria
Archaebacteria Archaea
Eukaryota Protista Protista Protista Eukarya
Vegetabilia Plantae Fungi Fungi
Plantae Plantae Plantae
Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia

Authorities (author citation)

.The name of any taxon may be followed by the "authority" for the name, that is, the name of the author who first published a valid description of it.^ The first word is the genus name, and the second word is usually an adjective describing the organism, its geographic location, or the person who discovered it.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These names are frequently abbreviated: the abbreviation "L." is universally accepted for Linnaeus, and in botany there is a regulated list of standard abbreviations (see list of botanists by author abbreviation).^ There are only two practical ways of recording these data: as lists of numbers and using a pictorial representation.
  • Apparatus and method for the detection and classification of articles using flow cytometry techniques - Patent 4661913 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This was quantified by computing the frequency of each interaction rule in a given network, then taking the standard deviation σ F of the list of frequencies.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Maximal Extraction of Biological Information from Genetic Interaction Data 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.The system for assigning authorities is slightly different in different branches of biology: see author citation (botany) and author citation (zoology).^ However, the comparison of repeated surveys with slightly different systems also has its value.
  • GEOHAB - Marine Geological and Biological Habitat Mapping 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC geohab.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Specific titles vary but may include microbiology, molecular biology, physiology/neuroscience, ecology/environmental science, botany and zoology.
  • Biological Sciences Courses : 2005-06 Undergraduate Catalog : University of North Texas 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • UNT Undergraduate Catalog Biological Sciences Courses 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, it is standard that if a name or placement has been changed since the original description, the first authority's name is placed in parentheses and the authority for the new name or placement may be placed after it (usually only in botany).^ Scientists continue to uncover new evidence from the fossil record, molecular biology, or other fields that may change an organism's place in the classification hierarchy.
  • 101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com 19 September 2009 2:42 UTC www.101science.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ACAENITINAE No substantial changes since Townes (1971) except for the description of a new genus ( Asperpunctatus Wang, 1989) and the abolition of tribes (Wahl & Gauld, 1998).

^ When the linear transformation is performed with only scale-factor changes of the coordinates, W may be a diagonal matrix with only the elements on the main diagonal being nonzero.
  • Apparatus and method for the detection and classification of articles using flow cytometry techniques - Patent 4661913 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Globally Unique Identifiers for Names

.There is a movement within the biodiversity informatics community to provide Globally Unique Identifiers in the form of Life Science Identifiers (LSID) for all biological names.^ Practical experience in the curation and management of biological collections in the Museum of Life Sciences.
  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It will also suggest the need to explore other possible causal factors for the origin of form and information during the evolution of life and will examine some other possibilities that have been proposed.
  • CSC - Intelligent Design: The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.discovery.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Extraction of all the biological information inherent in large-scale genetic interaction datasets remains a significant challenge for systems biology.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Maximal Extraction of Biological Information from Genetic Interaction Data 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.This would allow authors to cite names unambiguously in electronic media and reduce the significance of errors in the spelling of names or the abbreviation of authority names.^ This would allow authors to cite names unambiguously in electronic media and reduce the significance of errors in the spelling of names or the abbreviation of authority names.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name of any taxon may be followed by the "authority" for the name, that is, the name of the author who first published a valid description of it.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These names are frequently abbreviated: the abbreviation "L." is universally accepted for Linnaeus, and in botany there is a regulated list of standard abbreviations (see list of botanists by author abbreviation ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Three large nomenclatural databases (referred to as nomenclators) have already begun this process, these are Index Fungorum, International Plant Names Index and Zoo Bank. .Other databases, that publish taxonomic rather than nomenclatural data, have also started using LSIDs to identify taxa.^ Other databases, that publish taxonomic rather than nomenclatural data, have also started using LSIDs to identify taxa .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the annotation profile is in a binary categorical scale, kappa statistics is more suitable than the Pearson correlation, which is typically used for continuous, non-categorical data.
  • Genome Biology | Full text | DAVID Gene Functional Classification Tool: A novel biological module-centric algorithm to functionally analyze large gene list 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The apparatus of claim 31 wherein said histogram is capable of identifying a cluster of interest in response to the application of a frequency threshold to the histogram data such that all frequency counts greater than the threshold are mapped into the cluster and all other frequency counts are mapped into a background region.
  • Apparatus and method for the detection and classification of articles using flow cytometry techniques - Patent 4661913 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

The key example of this is Catalogue of Life. .The next step in integration will be when these taxonomic databases include references to the nomenclatural databases using LSIDs.^ The next step in integration will be when these taxonomic databases include references to the nomenclatural databases using LSIDs.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three large nomenclatural databases (referred to as nomenclators) have already begun this process, these are Index Fungorum , International Plant Names Index and Zoo Bank .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other databases, that publish taxonomic rather than nomenclatural data, have also started using LSIDs to identify taxa .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

  1. ^ Categories Section 5 and Metaphysics Book 6, but the terms are used in many places throughout the writings of Aristotle.
  2. ^ "Nomina Circumscribentia Insectorum". http://www.insecta.bio.pu.ru. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  3. ^ See especially pp. 45, 78 and 555 of Joel Cracraft and Michael J. Donaghue, eds. (2004). Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ C. Linnaeus (1735). Systemae Naturae, sive regna tria naturae, systematics proposita per classes, ordines, genera & species. 
  5. ^ E. Haeckel (1866). Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. Reimer, Berlin. 
  6. ^ É. Chatton (1925). "Pansporella perplexa. Réflexions sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires". Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool 10-VII: 1–84. 
  7. ^ É. Chatton (1937). Titres et Travaux Scientifiques (1906–1937). Sette, Sottano, Italy. 
  8. ^ H. Copeland (1938). "The kingdoms of organisms". Quarterly review of biology 13: 383–420. doi:10.1086/394568. 
  9. ^ H. F. Copeland (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books. 
  10. ^ Whittaker RH (January 1969). "New concepts of kingdoms of organisms". Science 163 (863): 150–60. doi:10.1126/science.163.3863.150. PMID 5762760. 
  11. ^ C. R. Woese, W. E. Balch, L. J. Magrum, G. E. Fox and R. S. Wolfe (August 1977). "An ancient divergence among the bacteria". Journal of Molecular Evolution 9 (4): 305–311. doi:10.1007/BF01796092. PMID 408502. 
  12. ^ Woese CR, Fox GE (November 1977). "Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74 (11): 5088–90. PMID 270744. 
  13. ^ Woese C, Kandler O, Wheelis M (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87 (12): 4576–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576. PMID 2112744. PMC 54159. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/87/12/4576. 

Bibliography

  • Atran, S. (1990). Cognitive foundations of natural history: towards an anthropology of science. .Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge University Press.
    • PLoS ONE: Estimation of Relevant Variables on High-Dimensional Biological Patterns Using Iterated Weighted Kernel Functions 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    • CSC - Intelligent Design: The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.discovery.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge University Press; 1997.
    • BioMed Central | Full text | Compression-based classification of biological sequences and structures via the Universal Similarity Metric: experimental assessment 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    xii+360 pages. ISBN 0521372933, 0521372933.
     
  • Larson, J. L. (1971). Reason and experience. The representation of Natural Order in the work of Carl von Linne. .Berkeley, California: University of California Press.^ Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, 1519 Addison St., Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050, USA .
    • Source Code for Biology and Medicine | Full text | Wndchrm - an open source utility for biological image analysis 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.scfbm.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ This University of California Berkeley Museum of Paleontology site offers excellent information about the evolution and diversity of various animal groups.
    • Biological Diversity 9 10 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    VII+171 pages.
     
  • Schuh, R. T. and A. V. Z. Brower. (2009). Biological Systematics: principles and applications (2nd edn.) Cornell University Press xiii+311 pages. ISBN 978-0-8014-4799-0

Simple English

Biological classification is how biologists group and categorise extinct and living species of organisms. It is based upon scientific evidence. That evidence comes from two main sources: comparative anatomy (including the anatomy of fossils), and molecular evolution (sequence analysis).

Modern classification has its root in the work of Carolus Linnaeus, who grouped species according to shared physical characteristics. These groupings have since been revised to improve consistency with the Darwinian principle of common descent. Molecular evolution studies, which use DNA sequence analysis as data, has driven many recent revisions, and will to continue to do so. Biological classification is a product of taxonomy.

classification is good

Terminations of names

Taxa above the genus level are often given names based on the type genus, with a standard termination. The terminations used in forming these names depend on the kingdom, and sometimes the phylum and class, as set out in the table below.

Rank Plants Algae Fungi Animals
Division/Phylum -phyta -mycota
Subdivision/Subphylum -phytina -mycotina
Class -opsida -phyceae -mycetes
Subclass -idae -phycidae -mycetidae
Superorder -anae
Order -ales
Suborder -ineae
Infraorder -aria
Superfamily -acea -oidea
Family -aceae -idae
Subfamily -oideae -inae
Tribe/Infrafamily -eae -ini
Subtribe -inae -ina

Other pages


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 03, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Biological classification, which are similar to those in the above article.








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