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Escherichia coli Tree fern
Goliath beetle Gazelle
Biology deals with the study of the many varieties of living organisms (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle
.Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.^ Structure, functions, life history, classification, habits and distribution of insects.

^ Trends in the evolution of structure and function in the vertebrates.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Biology BIOLOGY The classical definition of Biology is: Biology is the science of life.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines.^ In addition to the breadth of disciplines within biology, there are numerous applications of biological knowledge in many other disciplines.
  • Biology Undergraduate Degree 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ksu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Parasitology is a subject area that crosses many biological disciplines, and concepts in parasitology can be applied to any field of science.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

Among the most important topics are five unifying principles that can be said to be the fundamental axioms of modern biology:[2]
  1. Cells are the basic unit of life
  2. New species and inherited traits are the product of evolution
  3. Genes are the basic unit of heredity
  4. Living organisms consume and transform energy
  5. An organism will regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable and constant condition.
.Subdisciplines of biology are recognized on the basis of the scale at which organisms are studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life; molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules; cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues, organs, and organ systems of an organism; and ecology examines how various organisms interrelate with their environment.^ Organization and function of nervous systems emphasizing cellular and molecular mechanisms.

^ Organs and organ systems function together to provide homeostasis in organisms.
  • Science - Biology Core 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.uen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Biology is related to Physics and Chemistry.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Contents

History

Ernst Haeckel's Tree of Life (1879)
.The term biology in its modern sense appears to have been introduced independently by Karl Friedrich Burdach (1800), Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (Biologie oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur, 1802), and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (Hydrogéologie, 1802).^ In either 1802 or 1809, Jean Baptiste Lamarck published his theory of evolution.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][5] It was inspired by the Greek word βίος, bios, "life" and the suffix -λογία, -logia, "study of."
.Although biology in its modern form is a relatively recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times.^ Since that time, the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution was developed based on the theories of Darwin, Mendel, Malthus, Lyell, Oparin, and many others, including more recent work in genetics , geology , paleontology , and animal behavior.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Including study material, revision notes and exam papers for Cells and cell biology, Organs and systems, Organisms and environments, Genes and genetics.
  • Examstutor.com - a GCSE Biology and A level biology resource for students and teachers of A level biology, and other biology courses. Including study material, revision notes and exam papers for Cells and cell biology, Organs and systems, Organisms and environments, Genes and genetics. Suitable for students preparing for OCR, Edexcel and AQA examinations. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.examstutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern molecular studies on model systems have revealed a remarkable degree of conservation of genes and proteins involved in development between even distantly related organisms, contributing to a new awareness of the relatedness of all species.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

.Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indian subcontinent, and China.^ In order to understand Aristotle's distinctive approach to the study of living things, it is imperative to situate it within his natural philosophy and his philosophy of science.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Themistius and Spontaneous Generation in Aristotle's Metaphysics ,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy , 24: 183-208.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece.^ R. Jones Biology 324b - Biology of the algae and cyanobacteria An introduction to these important groups of plants which, though often considered a nuisance, are also one of the world's important natural resources.
  • Academic Calendar - Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.trentu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Modern biological research demands an interdisciplinary approach to address the most important problems.
  • PhD Programs - Biology - Stanford University School of Medicine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biosciences.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These sequences allowed researchers to examine genes and transcripts on an entire phylogenetic framework simultaneously, and will assist studies in most areas of biology.
  • Biological sciences : Web focuses : Nature 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[6] .While the formal study of medicine dates back to Hippocrates, it was Aristotle who contributed most extensively to the development of biology.^ Botany is a branch of biology and is the scientific study of plant life and development.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

^ These sequences allowed researchers to examine genes and transcripts on an entire phylogenetic framework simultaneously, and will assist studies in most areas of biology.
  • Biological sciences : Web focuses : Nature 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aristotle , one of Platos most famous pupils, lived from 343 to 322 BC, and contributed much to what we now consider to be in the realm of biology.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Especially important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, and later more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life.^ Since that time, the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution was developed based on the theories of Darwin, Mendel, Malthus, Lyell, Oparin, and many others, including more recent work in genetics , geology , paleontology , and animal behavior.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ D. Lasenby, E. Nol and staff Biology 204 - Biology of invertebrates An introduction to the diversity of invertebrate animals emphasizing their evolutionary relationships and focusing on functional, behavioral and ecological aspects of their biology.
  • Academic Calendar - Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.trentu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Works such as Parts of Animals or Generation of Animals , on the other hand, seek to establish the reason why—the cause—of the fact.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, Theophrastus, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to botany, even into the Middle Ages.^ Aristotle , one of Platos most famous pupils, lived from 343 to 322 BC, and contributed much to what we now consider to be in the realm of biology.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are dozens of books on even the most abstruse subjects, and you just have to keep looking around before you find the ones that are ideal for you at a given moment.
  • Category Theory and Biology | The n-Category Café 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC golem.ph.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Significant advances in the study and development of biology were promoted through the efforts of such Muslim physicians as the Afro-Arab scholar al-Jahiz (781–869) in zoology,[7] the Kurdish biologist Al-Dinawari (828–896) in botany,[8] and the Persian physician Rhazes (865–925) in anatomy and physiology.^ Botany is a branch of biology and is the scientific study of plant life and development.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

^ This program offers a flexible but rigorous plan of study in the plant and animal sciences for students interested in ecology, natural history, conservation, and population biology; students interested in entomology, botany, or zoology may also find this concentration appropriate.
  • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chair: Robert L. Morris Department home page: http://wheatoncollege.edu/Acad/Biology Biologists study living systems at different levels of organization.

These philosophers elaborated on, expanded, and improved the Greek biological theories and systematics. .Medicine was especially well studied by Islamic scholars working in Greek philosopher traditions, while natural history drew heavily on Aristotelian thought, especially in upholding a fixed hierarchy of life.^ INDEPENDENT STUDY Well qualified majors are urged to participate in independent studies, honors work, or undergraduate research.

^ Offered: A. BIOL 444 Natural History of Birds (5) NW Field, lecture, and laboratory study of birds framed in biological theory rather than taxonomy.

^ The Greek philosophers were common people (not part of any religious or governmental order, sect, or bureaucracy) who desired to understand nature.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Biology began to quickly develop and grow with Antony van Leeuwenhoek's dramatic improvement of the microscope.^ How-To: Glass-sphere microscope after van Leeuwenhoek .
  • Make: Online: Biology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe sperm cells and with his very primitive microscope, thought he saw tiny body parts in the sperm.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was then that scholars discovered spermatozoa, bacteria, infusoria and the sheer strangeness and diversity of microscopic life.^ Microbiology is the study of life and organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye which include bacteria, viruses, prions, microscopic fungi and protists.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

.Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and built the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining.^ Heller's laboratory is interested in questions about the function of sleep and circadian rhythms, and that has led to investigations of the role of sleep and rhythms on learning.
  • PhD Programs - Biology - Stanford University School of Medicine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biosciences.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[9]
Advances in microscopy also had a profound impact on biological thinking itself. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell. .In 1838 and 1839, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the ideas that (1) the basic unit of organisms is the cell and (2) that individual cells have all the characteristics of life, although they opposed the idea that (3) all cells come from the division of other cells.^ Cells are the smallest living things, the basic units of organization of all organisms.

^ All graduate students are encouraged to enroll each semester, although no more then 2 units are applicable to the MS degree.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ All majors and graduate students are encouraged to enroll each semester, although no more than 2 units are applicable to the biology major.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, by the 1860s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory.^ It is true most known prokaryotes are bacteria, however, scientists have recent knowledge that prokaryotic life is represented by two more distinct domains.

^ For what is not haphazard but rather for the sake of something is in fact present most of all in the works of nature; the end for the sake of which takes the place of the good.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UCI biologist featured on National Geographic Channel A provocative new theory suggests that all life -- including humans -- descended from viruses.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

[10]
.Meanwhile, taxonomy and classification became a focus in the study of natural history.^ His introduction of systematic classification into botany and more widely provided the foundations on which all subsequent natural history has been built.
  • Biological sciences : Web focuses : Nature 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A survey of the major invertebrate phyla emphasizing classification, morphology, natural history, evolution, and behavior.
  • BIOLOGY 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Every year, a professor from Liberty University takes his Advanced Creation Studies biology class to the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History to check out the opposition.
  • biology (kottke.org) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Carolus Linnaeus published a basic taxonomy for the natural world in 1735 (variations of which have been in use ever since), and in the 1750s introduced scientific names for all his species.^ Open to all students interested in biology whether intending to major in the biological sciences, enroll in preprofessional programs, or fulfill a Natural World requirement.

^ Products and Services include all of the specialized apparatus, equipment, services and other things that scientific researchers, teachers, and engineers working in the field of Biology need in the course of their work.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

^ In the real world, there is obviously no variation or change, nor need for any, because all the organisms there, the Types , are perfect.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, treated species as artificial categories and living forms as malleable—even suggesting the possibility of common descent. .Though he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought; his work would influence the evolutionary theories of both Lamarck and Darwin.^ Principles of evolution and evolutionary thought.

^ Evolutionary history of the earth and various theories of evolution.

^ Evolution, population genetics, molecular evolution, history of evolutionary thought.

[12]
.Serious evolutionary thinking originated with the works of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.^ In either 1802 or 1809, Jean Baptiste Lamarck published his theory of evolution.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it was the British naturalist Charles Darwin, combining the biogeographical approach of Humboldt, the uniformitarian geology of Lyell, Thomas Malthus's writings on population growth, and his own morphological expertise, that created a more successful evolutionary theory based on natural selection; similar evidence led Alfred Russel Wallace to independently reach the same conclusions.^ Since that time, the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution was developed based on the theories of Darwin, Mendel, Malthus, Lyell, Oparin, and many others, including more recent work in genetics , geology , paleontology , and animal behavior.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another naturalist, Alfred Russell Wallace , was independently working on a theory that was essentially the same as Darwins, and decided to give a presentation on his ideas at an upcoming scientific meeting.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a second line of evidence, quite independent of these programmatic statements, which leads to the same conclusion.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.The discovery of the physical representation of heredity came along with evolutionary principles and population genetics.^ The areas of emphasis in this program are: systematics, evolution, population genetics, and behavior of organisms; community, population, reproductive, behavioral, physiological, and evolutionary ecology; taxonomy, biodiversity, and biogeography.
  • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Principles of population genetics, population ecology, and evolution in plants and animals.

^ Evolution, population genetics, molecular evolution, history of evolutionary thought.

.In the 1940s and early 1950s, experiments pointed to DNA as the component of chromosomes that held genes.^ They will bind to either DNA or RNA stretches on chromosomes or RNA blocking gene expression and/or translation.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research points to learning-related genes as a contributor to autism and suggests that early intervention in children can help fix genetic defects .
  • Biology: News & Videos about Biology - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.A focus on new model organisms such as viruses and bacteria, along with the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA in 1953, marked the transition to the era of molecular genetics.^ Microbiology is the study of life and organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye which include bacteria, viruses, prions, microscopic fungi and protists.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

^ T.R. Matthews Biology 205a - Introduction to genetics This course will develop a basic understanding of genetics: Mendelian inheritance, chromosome structure, genetic recombination, mutation, the structure of DNA, the nature of genes, and current topics in genetics will be investigated using examples from plants, animals, insects, bacteria, fungi and viruses.
  • Academic Calendar - Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.trentu.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Modern molecular studies on model systems have revealed a remarkable degree of conservation of genes and proteins involved in development between even distantly related organisms, contributing to a new awareness of the relatedness of all species.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

.From the 1950s to present times, biology has been vastly extended in the molecular domain.^ Weekly discussions of past and current scientific literature in cell, molecular, and/or developmental biology, review of the state of the field, and presentation of research results.

^ Weekly presentation by participants of classical literature, current literature, and research in the molecular biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, and genetics of Drosophila.

The DNA code was cracked by Har Gobind Khorana, Robert W. Holley and Marshall Warren Nirenberg after DNA was proven to contain codons. .Finally, the Human Genome Project was launched in 1990 with the goal of mapping the general human genome.^ Human genome map for sale on eBay .
  • Biology: News & Videos about Biology - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Systems biology and Human Genome Project .

^ It took the Human Genome Project $3 billion and 13 years to map the first genome and reduce it to a chemical code six billion letters long.
  • Biology: News & Videos about Biology - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

This project was essentially completed in 2003, with further analysis still being published. .The Human Genome Project was the first step in a globalized effort to incorporate accumulated knowledge of biology into a functional, molecular definition of the human body and the bodies of other organisms.^ The phrase "lowest practical taxonomic level" is typically used to indicate that organisms have been keyed as specifically as possible, given the present body of knowledge.
  • Biological Integrity and the Index of Biological Integrity 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.cbr.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, genome, biology, cell, biochemistry, molecular, genetics, microbiology, biomedical engineering, statistics, biostatistics, bioinformatics Abstract of Award .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For admission to most health profession schools, it is typically recommended or required that specific biology courses be incorporated into the B.A. or B.S. degree.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

Foundations of modern biology

.Much of modern biology can be encompassed within five unifying principles: cell theory, evolution, genetics, homeostasis, and energy.^ Since that time, the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution was developed based on the theories of Darwin, Mendel, Malthus, Lyell, Oparin, and many others, including more recent work in genetics , geology , paleontology , and animal behavior.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biotechnology Cancer Development Drug discovery Evolution & Ecology Genetics Immunology Medical research Methods & Protocols Microbiology Molecular cell biology Neuroscience Pharmacology Systems biology Physical sciences .
  • Biological sciences : Web focuses : Nature 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, genome, biology, cell, biochemistry, molecular, genetics, microbiology, biomedical engineering, statistics, biostatistics, bioinformatics Abstract of Award .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

[2]

Cell theory

Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green)
.Cell theory states that the cell is the fundamental unit of life, and that all living things are composed of one or more cells or the secreted products of those cells (e.g.^ All graduate students are encouraged to enroll each semester, although no more then 2 units are applicable to the MS degree.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ All majors and graduate students are encouraged to enroll each semester, although no more than 2 units are applicable to the biology major.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduces the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of inheritance, and discusses the cellular and molecular processes and principles shared by living organisms.

shells). .All cells arise from other cells through cell division.^ Other topics include organelle function, the cytoskeleton, cell division and intracellular transport.

^ Cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell.

.In multicellular organisms, every cell in the organism's body derives ultimately from a single cell in a fertilized egg.^ He was able to show that an undifferentiated, single-celled egg grows into a many-celled embryo in which the cells all have different functions.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The development of an organism or tissue from an egg, seed, spore or other type of progenitor cell is the subject of developmental biology.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

^ "In the case of human cells' invading the germ line, the chimeric animals might then carry human eggs and sperm, and in mating could therefore generate a fertilized human egg.
  • biology (kottke.org) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cell is also considered to be the basic unit in many pathological processes.^ Introduces the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of inheritance, and discusses the cellular and molecular processes and principles shared by living organisms.

^ Cells are the smallest living things, the basic units of organization of all organisms.

[14] .Additionally, the phenomenon of energy flow occurs in cells in processes that are part of the function known as metabolism.^ Although metabolic and membrane transport processes occur under non-equilibrium conditions, they are studied experimentally at chemical equilibrium.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurobiology is the branch of biology that studies the cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

^ Biological chemistry, cell structure and function, energy transformation, and molecular genetics.

.Finally, cells contain hereditary information (DNA) which is passed from cell to cell during cell division.^ While DNA is the storage of hereditary information, proteins and RNA are its agents, accessing and executing the genetic programs.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

Evolution

Natural selection of a population for dark coloration.
.A central organizing concept in biology is that life changes and develops through evolution, and that all life-forms known have a common origin.^ Introduction The last fifty years have completely changed the way biological and medical researchers can study and understand life, its development from conception to death, susceptibility to infectious and inherited diseases, in short, the molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As in his discussion of parts, he moves through the various blooded kinds and then discusses generation in bloodless kinds and from identifying the universals common to all members of a group to identifying the peculiarities of more specific kinds.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Botany is a branch of biology and is the scientific study of plant life and development.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

.Introduced into the scientific lexicon by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck in 1809,[15] Charles Darwin established evolution fifty years later as a viable theory by articulating its driving force: natural selection.^ In either 1802 or 1809, Jean Baptiste Lamarck published his theory of evolution.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it strange that every time I go into my bathroom and look at the box of tissues sitting on the shelf, I see Charles Darwin looking back at me?
  • biology (kottke.org) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sites opposing the Theory of Evolution may be submitted to sub-categories of Science: Anomalies and Alternative Science such as Criticism of Darwinism or Creationism .
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

[16][17] .(Alfred Russel Wallace is recognized as the co-discoverer of this concept as he helped research and experiment with the concept of evolution.^ Avise's research on mitochondrial DNA helped create the discipline of phylogeography, and his broader contributions to numerous aspects of molecular ecology, evolution and conservation are also widely recognized.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Another naturalist, Alfred Russell Wallace , was independently working on a theory that was essentially the same as Darwins, and decided to give a presentation on his ideas at an upcoming scientific meeting.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ University of Colorado at Boulder REU Site: Undergraduate Research in Behavior, Ecology and Evolution Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Boulder, CO 80309 .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

)[18] .Evolution is now used to explain the great variations of life found on Earth.^ A broad examination of the patterns and processes involved in the evolution of life on earth.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A fundamental but elusive step in the early evolution of life on Earth has been replicated in a laboratory.
  • Biology | Wired Science | Wired.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evolutionary history of the earth and various theories of evolution.

.Darwin theorized that species and breeds developed through the processes of natural selection and artificial selection or selective breeding.^ This process is called natural selection, and it causes useful traits to become more common.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

^ Topics include the basics of evolutionary genetics, natural selection, adaptation, speciation, the origins of biological diversity, evolution in modern society and the conflict between evolution and creationism.

^ The theory of evolution by natural selection was first proposed by Charles Darwin in his book “On the Origin of Species”, written in 1859.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

[19] .Genetic drift was embraced as an additional mechanism of evolutionary development in the modern synthesis of the theory.^ Since that time, the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution was developed based on the theories of Darwin, Mendel, Malthus, Lyell, Oparin, and many others, including more recent work in genetics , geology , paleontology , and animal behavior.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From this he developed a theory of genetics that refuted the pangene/homunculus idea and enabled people to predict the outcome of a genetic cross if the genes of the parents were known.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evolutionary theory is the underpinning of sections on organismal structure and evolution, comparative development and reproduction of organisms, and organismic form and physiology.

[20]
.The evolutionary history of the species—which describes the characteristics of the various species from which it descended—together with its genealogical relationship to every other species is known as its phylogeny.^ We are exploring how environmental variation affects life history traits, population structure and dynamics, and species interactions in ecological and evolutionary time, using Lepidoptera.
  • Stanford University Department of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Evolutionary history of the earth and various theories of evolution.

^ Molecular analysis of Hackenberg's bees, performed by the other of us (Cox-Foster), also revealed surprising levels of viral infections of various known types.
  • biology (kottke.org) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Widely varied approaches to biology generate information about phylogeny.^ NW Explores a current controversial topic in biology, stressing information needed by the general public to make informed personal, political, and ethical decisions relating to this topic.

^ Teaching and research activities of the Division of Biology generate part time jobs for about 100 undergraduate students.
  • Biology Undergraduate Degree 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ksu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He begins with a wide generalization about all birds, followed by a ‘more and less’ correlation between the size of the bird and the rate of development.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These include the comparisons of DNA sequences conducted within molecular biology or genomics, and comparisons of fossils or other records of ancient organisms in paleontology.^ Topics include DNA sequencing and systematics, fingerprinting approaches in behavioral ecology, and adaptive evolution at the molecular level.

^ Comparative molecular biology of DNA insertion by bacteriophage lambda and its relatives, analyzing the organization of the biotin operon in Escherichia coli, and the genetic control of related pathways.
  • Stanford University Department of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, prokaryotic biology, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, cellular biology, ecology, genomics, bioinformatics Abstract of Award .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

[21] .Biologists organize and analyze evolutionary relationships through various methods, including phylogenetics, phenetics, and cladistics.^ The researchers come from various academic backgrounds, including developmental & cell biology, math, biological chemistry, computer science, and ecology & evolutionary biology.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

(For a summary of major events in the evolution of life as currently understood by biologists, see evolutionary timeline.)
.The theory of evolution postulates that all organisms on the Earth, both living and extinct, have descended from a common ancestor or an ancestral gene pool.^ It says that the Earth is very old, and living organisms came from others by a process of slow change.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Needless to say, this sparked much controversy because it was a challenge to all prevalent theories on the age of the Earth (so now Usshers wrong, too?
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evolutionary history of the earth and various theories of evolution.

.This last universal common ancestor of all organisms is believed to have appeared about 3.5 billion years ago.^ University of California, Irvine • Irvine, CA 92697 (949) 824-5011 © 2007 The Regents of the University of California All Rights Reserved Last Updated: January 13, 2010 .
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Then, using the term ‘generally’ to signal what he is about to do, he identifies a differentia that all these groups have in common, and which is coextensive with these three organs—inhaling and exhaling air.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As in his discussion of parts, he moves through the various blooded kinds and then discusses generation in bloodless kinds and from identifying the universals common to all members of a group to identifying the peculiarities of more specific kinds.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .Biologists generally regard the universality of the genetic code as definitive evidence in favor of the theory of universal common descent for all bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes (see: origin of life).^ As in his discussion of parts, he moves through the various blooded kinds and then discusses generation in bloodless kinds and from identifying the universals common to all members of a group to identifying the peculiarities of more specific kinds.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These definitions and principles form the basis of causal explanations of all the other universal truths within the domain of study.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Education Requirements (see University GER listing.

[23]

Genetics

A Punnett square depicting a cross between two pea plants heterozygous for purple (B) and white (b) blossoms
.Genes are the primary units of inheritance in all organisms.^ Introduces the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of inheritance, and discusses the cellular and molecular processes and principles shared by living organisms.

.A gene is a unit of heredity and corresponds to a region of DNA that influences the form or function of an organism in specific ways.^ Topics will include basic molecular genetic mechanisms, recombinant DNA technology, the organization and function of the cell nucleus, and the molecular control of gene expression.

^ Drugs that interfere with DNA function by chemically modifying specific nucleotides are Mitomycin C, Cisplatin, and Anthramycin.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of hydrogen bonds and thus the thermodynamic stability of a DNA double helix is directly related to its GC content, i.e., the percentage of GC pairs in DNA. Chromosomal regions with high GC content correlate with the presence of functional genes.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

.All organisms, from bacteria to animals, share the same basic machinery that copies and translates DNA into proteins.^ They will help create an environment in which basic research can be translated into treatments for a wide variety of human diseases and disorders.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Another thing Linnaeus did was an attempt to organize all known organisms into a taxonomic hierarchy which he invented.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earlier work showed "they could insert DNA into cells to make them behave like digital circuits [and] perform basic mathematical logic.
  • biology (kottke.org) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cells transcribe a DNA gene into an RNA version of the gene, and a ribosome then translates the RNA into a protein, a sequence of amino acids.^ Gene structure and function at the level of DNA, RNA, and protein interactions.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemistry of molecules and macromolecules, cell structure and function, metabolism including respiration and photosynthesis, cell division, DNA structure and replication, transcription, translation, regulation of gene expression and recombinant DNA technology.

^ In a protein, the acid-base property of amino acids is not important except for its N- and C-terminal ends, which are always charged at physiological pH values (pH = 7 to 7.5).
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

.The translation code from RNA codon to amino acid is the same for most organisms, but slightly different for some.^ There are 20 different amino acids based on their side chain chemical and physical properties.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The ligand binding difference is caused by a single amino acid substitution in the binding pocket (Asn in alpha, Ser in beta) of each receptor subtype.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During this stage, complexes, composed of an amino acid linked to tRNA, sequentially bind to the appropriate codon in mRNA by forming complementary base pairs with the tRNA anticodon.

.For example, a sequence of DNA that codes for insulin in humans will also code for insulin when inserted into other organisms, such as plants.^ Other anti-fungal and antibacterial agents induce DNA strand cleavage, such as bleomycin, anthramycin, and tomaymycin, all of which are antibacterial and antitumor drugs.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The technique for the first time blends two existing cell-handling methods to improve cell survival rates and increase the efficiency of inserting DNA into cells.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Earlier work showed "they could insert DNA into cells to make them behave like digital circuits [and] perform basic mathematical logic.
  • biology (kottke.org) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24][25]
DNA usually occurs as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. .A chromosome is an organized structure consisting of DNA and histones.^ People began to think that the DNA in the chromosomes was the genetic material, but because its chemical structure was unknown, a lot of biologists were skeptical about this idea.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The set of chromosomes in a cell and any other hereditary information found in the mitochondria, chloroplasts, or other locations is collectively known as its genome.^ Extrafloral or floral nectaries, on the other hand, are always found at the same location on a particular plant, making it easier for beneficials to locate this food source.
  • Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, genes, genetic, genomics, cell, molecular, computer science Abstract of Award Cofunded: Computer and Information Science and Engineering .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Though DNA is better known because of its storage of genetic information, RNA performs many of the trickiest operations in living cells.
  • biology (kottke.org) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is located in the cell nucleus, along with small amounts in mitochondria and chloroplasts. In prokaryotes, the DNA is held within an irregularly shaped body in the cytoplasm called the nucleoid.[26] .The genetic information in a genome is held within genes, and the complete assemblage of this information in an organism is called its genotype.^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, microbiology, genes, genetic, genomics Abstract of Award .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, genes, genetic, genomics, cell, molecular, computer science Abstract of Award Cofunded: Computer and Information Science and Engineering .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, genes, genetic, genomics, cell, molecular Abstract of Award .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

[27]

Homeostasis

.Homeostasis is the ability of an open system to regulate its internal environment to maintain stable conditions by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms.^ Developmental genetics, experimental embryology, molecular mechanisms of developmental regulation, and gene function in cell determination and cell differentiation in animal systems.

.All living organisms, whether unicellular or multicellular, exhibit homeostasis.^ An in-depth examination of energy flow through living organisms at all levels of biological organization, from molecules to populations.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.In order to maintain dynamic equilibrium and effectively carry out certain functions, a system must detect and respond to perturbations.^ This generally explains how living organism can form and maintain ordered structures - create order out of chaos - at the expense of environmental energy.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

After the detection of a perturbation, a biological system will normally respond through negative feedback. This means reducing the output or activity of an organ or system. .One example is the release of glucagon when sugar levels are too low.^ For example, the release of chemical and biological agents are most feasible during stable atmospheric conditions, with low or absent wind.
  • BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AND TERRORISM PREPAREDNESS 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.earthmountainview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Energy

.The survival of a living organism depends on the continuous input of energy.^ An in-depth examination of energy flow through living organisms at all levels of biological organization, from molecules to populations.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This generally explains how living organism can form and maintain ordered structures - create order out of chaos - at the expense of environmental energy.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

.Chemical reactions that are responsible for its structure and function are tuned to extract energy from substances that act as its food and transform them to help form new cells and sustain them.^ Over his career, Nomura has been one of the worlds leading researchers on ribosomes, which are responsible for assembling proteins that give form and function to cells.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These structures are next systematically evaluated to obtain solution sets that satisfy systems of non-linear chemical kinetic reaction flow networks in the MAP Kinase cascade cell-signaling pathway.
  • Category Theory and Biology | The n-Category Café 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC golem.ph.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transplantation helped re-form the myelin coating on damaged cells.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In this process, molecules of chemical substances that constitute food play two roles; first, they contain energy that can be transformed for biological chemical reactions; second, they develop new molecular structures made up of biomolecules.^ Biological chemistry, cell structure and function, energy transformation, and molecular genetics.

^ Introduction The last fifty years have completely changed the way biological and medical researchers can study and understand life, its development from conception to death, susceptibility to infectious and inherited diseases, in short, the molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The role of proteins in cells is three fold; catalyzing chemical reactions (enzymes); promoting structural stability and mobility (structural proteins and molecular motors), transport of molecules and signal events across biological membranes and filamentous protein structures (e.g.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

Nearly all of the energy needed for life processes originates from the Sun.[29] .Plants and other autotrophs use solar energy via a process known as photosynthesis to convert raw materials into organic molecules, such as ATP, whose bonds can be broken to release energy.^ Such an entropy driven process is well described for hydrophobic and amphipathic solutes and is known as the hydrophobic effect.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, the release of many water molecules upon complex formation into the bulk phase increases the entropy of the entire system (protein-ligand solution).
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, using the surface topology of a group of ligands that all exhibit effector quality (agonist or antagonist) can be overlapped and the contours of all molecules averaged into a union surface.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

[30] A few ecosystems, however, depend entirely on energy extracted by chemotrophs from methane, sulfides, or other non-luminal energy sources.[31]
Some of the captured energy is used to produce biomass to sustain life and provide energy for its growth and development. The majority of the rest of this energy is lost as heat and waste molecules. .The most important processes for converting the energy trapped in chemical substances into energy useful to sustain life are metabolism[32] and cellular respiration.^ Green leaves trap sunlight and use it to absorb carbon dioxide from the air and emit life-giving oxygen in its place.
  • biology (kottke.org) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the process of dissipation chemical energy is converted into chemical (ATP synthase) or mechanical energy (molecular motors).
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The scientific method and how to use it to solve important problems at work and school, and in everyday life.

[33]

Research

Structural

Schematic of typical animal cell depicting the various organelles and structures.
.Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level.^ Fundamental course work in allied sciences and mathematics prepares the student for advanced studies in cell and molecular biology.
  • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ James (pictured) studies vector-parasite interactions, mosquito molecular biology, and other aspects of insect developmental biology.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Serves as a prerequisite to advanced 400-level cell, molecular, and developmental biology courses and seminars.

[34] .This field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly with genetics and biochemistry.^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, genome, biology, cell, biochemistry, molecular, genetics, microbiology, biomedical engineering, statistics, biostatistics, bioinformatics Abstract of Award .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These are linear barriers of trees, shrubs, perennial forbs and grasses that are planted along field edges or other unused areas.
  • Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, prokaryotic biology, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, cellular biology, ecology, genomics, bioinformatics Abstract of Award .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated.^ These molecular interactions are electrostatic in nature.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Journal Title: Molecular biology of the cell.

^ Gene structure and function at the level of DNA, RNA, and protein interactions.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Cell biology studies the structural and physiological properties of cells, including their behaviors, interactions, and environment.^ It emphasizes the study of cells, cell organelles, macromolecules, and the regulation of their production and interaction.
  • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ BIOL 471 Plant Ecology (5) NW del Moral Basic concepts of plant ecology, including studies of the environment, plant-environment interactions, populations, communities, and ecosystems.

^ The department sponsors the Master of Science in Biology with concentrations in cell and molecular biology, conservation biology, ecology and systematic biology, marine biology, microbiology, and physiology and behavioral biology.
  • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This is done on both the microscopic and molecular levels, for single-celled organisms such as bacteria as well as the specialized cells in multicellular organisms such as humans.^ This concentration is designed for students preparing for future graduate work as well as for those wishing to increase their competency in the fields of cell and molecular biology.
  • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Offered: W. BIOL 462 Advanced Animal Physiology (3) NW Huey, Wenderoth Physiology at levels of organisms and behavior, organ systems, and cells -- an evolutionary and integrative perspective.

^ The results of this experiment disproved the idea of spontaneous generation for larger organisms, but people still thought microscopic organisms like algae or bacteria could arise that way.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Understanding the structure and function of cells is fundamental to all of the biological sciences.^ This paper seeks to provide some integrative tools of thought regarding biological function related to ideas of process, structure, and context.
  • Category Theory and Biology | The n-Category Café 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC golem.ph.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The researchers come from various academic backgrounds, including developmental & cell biology, math, biological chemistry, computer science, and ecology & evolutionary biology.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A very important and intriguing biological supra-molecular structure is the cell membrane - a double layer (bilayer) of phospholipids.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

.The similarities and differences between cell types are particularly relevant to molecular biology.^ Journal Title: Molecular biology of the cell.

^ Molecular cell biology.

^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, genome, biology, cell, biochemistry, molecular, genetics, microbiology, biomedical engineering, statistics, biostatistics, bioinformatics Abstract of Award .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Anatomy considers the forms of macroscopic structures such as organs and organ systems.^ Offered: SpS. BIOL 453 Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates (5) NW Comparison of the structure of vertebrate organ systems: integument, skeletal, muscle, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive, with an emphasis on evolutionary trends.

[35]
.Genetics is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms.^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, genes, genetic, genomics, cell, molecular, computer science Abstract of Award Cofunded: Computer and Information Science and Engineering .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Techniques for quantifying genetic variation, behavioral effects, and gene expression.

[36][37] .Genes encode the information necessary for synthesizing proteins, which in turn play a large role in influencing (though, in many instances, not completely determining) the final phenotype of the organism.^ This may sound like an uninteresting topic, but protein degradation plays a major role in cellular processes.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The amino acid sequence of a protein is referred to as primary structure (1°D) and largely determines the three dimensional structure (tertiary structure or 3°D) of a protein.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Role of base pair sequence Experimental evidence suggests that base pair sequence does not play a large role on the specific nature of most intercalating complexes.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

.In modern research, genetics provides important tools in the investigation of the function of a particular gene, or the analysis of genetic interactions.^ What is important is that the knowledge of the structure of a protein, which is essential for the life cycle of the virus, has been elucidated by X-ray crystallography and functional studies on related proteases, the aspartate family of proteases, has provided insight into the ligand-enzyme interaction.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, microbiology, genes, genetic, genomics Abstract of Award .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Developmental genetics, experimental embryology, molecular mechanisms of developmental regulation, and gene function in cell determination and cell differentiation in animal systems.

.Within organisms, genetic information generally is carried in chromosomes, where it is represented in the chemical structure of particular DNA molecules.^ Information stored in the structure of molecules is a function of their physical and chemical properties.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Topics include the chemical and physical basis of life; cellular structure and function; molecular and Mendelian genetics; reproduction, development, structure and function of representative plants and animals; and evolution and ecology.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Particular attention will be given to broad patterns of change over time at higher levels of structural/organismic organization.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Developmental biology studies the process by which organisms grow and develop.^ BIOL 415 Evolution and Development (3) NW Parichy, Swalla Analysis of intertwined developmental and evolutionary processes studied through evolution of developmental genes, proteins, and expression patterns in different organisms.

^ Recent studies indicate that development of epithelial cell polarity is a multistage process requiring instructive extracellular cues (eg.
  • Stanford University Department of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Principles and techniques for studying fungi and allied organisms, including the development of laboratory culture, identification, and field work on terrestrial and aquatic fungi.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Originating in embryology, modern developmental biology studies the genetic control of cell growth, differentiation, and "morphogenesis," which is the process that progressively gives rise to tissues, organs, and anatomy.^ Developmental genetics, experimental embryology, molecular mechanisms of developmental regulation, and gene function in cell determination and cell differentiation in animal systems.

^ Developmental & cell biology office staff win K-EARTH 101 contest Staff in the Department of Developmental & Cell Biology got a visit from K-EARTH 101 Friday, Nov.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, genome, biology, cell, biochemistry, molecular, genetics, microbiology, biomedical engineering, statistics, biostatistics, bioinformatics Abstract of Award .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Model organisms for developmental biology include the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans,[38] the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster,[39] the zebrafish Danio rerio[40], the mouse Mus musculus,[41], and the weed Arabidopsis thaliana.^ BIOL 411 Developmental Biology (4) NW Embryology and subsequent development of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, including Xenopus, mammals, chicks, Drosophila, echinoderms.

^ Another physicist Seymour Benzer [BS Brooklyn, PhD Purdue] who made his mark in biology [E coli and fruit flies] recently died.
  • Category Theory and Biology | The n-Category Café 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC golem.ph.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weekly presentation by participants of classical literature, current literature, and research in the molecular biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, and genetics of Drosophila.

[42][43] .(A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in that organism will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.^ There are a number of features in this passage that are common throughout the Historia Animalium and provide insight into its methods and aims.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The trick works because pollinators, which in most cases means the honeybee, concentrate foraging on a particular species into a narrow time-window.
  • biology (kottke.org) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is important is that the knowledge of the structure of a protein, which is essential for the life cycle of the virus, has been elucidated by X-ray crystallography and functional studies on related proteases, the aspartate family of proteases, has provided insight into the ligand-enzyme interaction.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

)[44]

Physiological

.Physiology studies the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes of living organisms by attempting to understand how all of the structures function as a whole.^ All play important roles in the physiology and structure of organisms.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduction The last fifty years have completely changed the way biological and medical researchers can study and understand life, its development from conception to death, susceptibility to infectious and inherited diseases, in short, the molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An overview of general stages and mechanisms of development, experimental approaches used to study developmental processes, and genetic and environmental influences that govern development.

.The theme of "structure to function" is central to biology.^ An overview of plant biology, with focus on structure, function, reproduction, and evolution.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Journal Abbreviation: Gene Categories: [ Molecular Biology ] [ Recombination, Genetic ] Language(s): English NLM Notes: "An international journal focusing on gene cloning and gene structure and function."

.Physiological studies have traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology, but some principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied.^ Animal physiology, plant development and physiology.

^ These definitions and principles form the basis of causal explanations of all the other universal truths within the domain of study.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I mean the sort of thing that results by dividing animals into the wingless and the winged, and winged into tame and wild, or pale and dark.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells can also apply to human cells.^ This course relates fundamental knowledge about human anatomy and physiology to current issues.
  • BIOLOGY 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Examples will range from one-celled organisms to humans.
  • BIOLOGY 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human species. .Plant physiology borrows techniques from both research fields.^ Weekly discussions of past and current scientific literature in physiology, reviews of the state of the field, and presentation of research results.

.Physiology studies how for example nervous, immune, endocrine, respiratory, and circulatory systems, function and interact.^ Study of the physiology of organs and organ systems in vertebrates.

^ BIOL 460 Mammalian Physiology (3) NW Principles of mammalian physiology with special emphasis on the cardiac, respiratory, renal systems taught at the organ and organ systems level.

^ Developmental biology, self-renewal, homing and functions of the cells that make up blood-forming and immune systems.
  • Stanford University Department of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The study of these systems is shared with medically oriented disciplines such as neurology and immunology.^ The breakdown of these systems has been associated with types of blindness, kidney disease, birth defects and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Systems biologists take this idea a step further by focusing on the complex networks of interactions that take place among these components, and they try to understand the functions of such networks.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

Evolutionary

.Evolutionary research is concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, and includes scientists from many taxonomically-oriented disciplines.^ Again, researchers did not yet understand what chromosomes were, but they did note that as a result of meiosis, each egg or sperm cell formed had half as many chromosomes as the original cell.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Includes theoretical background as well as aspects that range from the molecular and cellular basis to the ecological and evolutionary implications of biological rhythms.

^ With a shiny new Ph.D, young scientists are well-trained to conduct original research, interact with the public and teach, but very poorly trained for the economic reality they are about to face.
  • Salary Stories: Marine Biologist Salary: Becoming a Marine Biologist 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC blogs.payscale.com [Source type: General]

.For example, it generally involves scientists who have special training in particular organisms such as mammalogy, ornithology, botany, or herpetology, but use those organisms as systems to answer general questions about evolution.^ To answer this question, you need a concept of the goal to be achieved, and Aristotle developed such a concept in his Prior and Posterior Analytics (henceforth abbreviated as APr .
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A multidisciplinary team of 20 scientists will attempt to answer questions such as: Why do between 4 and 8 percent of all babies born have birth defects?
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The complexity of living organism is achieved not only by the number of different proteins or molecules in general, but by their use as small multi-subunit complexes.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

.Evolutionary biology is partly based on paleontology, which uses the fossil record to answer questions about the mode and tempo of evolution,[45] and partly on the developments in areas such as population genetics[46] and evolutionary theory.^ Developing evolutionary theory from mechanistic viewpoints.
  • Stanford University Department of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Since that time, the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution was developed based on the theories of Darwin, Mendel, Malthus, Lyell, Oparin, and many others, including more recent work in genetics , geology , paleontology , and animal behavior.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are exploring how environmental variation affects life history traits, population structure and dynamics, and species interactions in ecological and evolutionary time, using Lepidoptera.
  • Stanford University Department of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the 1980s, developmental biology re-entered evolutionary biology from its initial exclusion from the modern synthesis through the study of evolutionary developmental biology.^ Application of previously studied theory through supervised instructional work experience in biology.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The researchers come from various academic backgrounds, including developmental & cell biology, math, biological chemistry, computer science, and ecology & evolutionary biology.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ James (pictured) studies vector-parasite interactions, mosquito molecular biology, and other aspects of insect developmental biology.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

[47] .Related fields which are often considered part of evolutionary biology are phylogenetics, systematics, and taxonomy.^ Serves as gateway to 400-level courses and seminars in evolution, population genetics, sociobiology, conservation biology, phylogenetics, and systematics.

^ More » News Contact Related topics: Science & Technology , Biology , Evolutionary Biology April 30, 2007 – 11:38 a.m.
  • Zot!Wire: News Briefs from UC Irvine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.zotwire.uci.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We study the relationship between evolutionary biology and ecology using a combination of theoretical ecology and field studies.
  • Stanford University Department of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

Systematics

Bacteria Archaea Eucaryota Aquifex Thermotoga Cytophaga Bacteroides Bacteroides-Cytophaga Planctomyces Cyanobacteria Proteobacteria Spirochetes Gram-positive bacteria Green filantous bacteria Pyrodicticum Thermoproteus Thermococcus celer Methanococcus Methanobacterium Methanosarcina Halophiles Entamoebae Slime mold Animal Fungus Plant Ciliate Flagellate Trichomonad Microsporidia Diplomonad
.
A phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes as described initially by Carl Woese.
^ For them, then, their religious beliefs and their scientific thought/knowledge were all the same, and not two separate things like they are for most of us.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, it showed that all samples (CCD and healthy) had eight different bacteria that had been described in two previous studies from other parts of the world.
  • biology (kottke.org) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trees constructed with other genes are generally similar, although they may place some early-branching groups very differently, presumably owing to rapid rRNA evolution.^ In other instances the beneficials may not exist in numbers sufficient to control pest populations during the time when pest populations generally increase.
  • Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We need only understand that very different sequences can provide similar 3-D structures because water solubility depends only on the distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues, but not on other chemical properties.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The 3-D folds of these three proteases are very similar, although there sequences are not identical, although they are evolutionarily related.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

The exact relationships of the three domains are still being debated.
.Multiple speciation events create a tree structured system of relationships between species.^ This can obviously lead to complex surface structures or binding motifs, specially for large contact surfaces such as found between proteins, where one protein is the 'ligand' and the other the 'receptor'.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A study of the structure and organization of the cell with a special emphasis on the genetic regulation of the cell division cycle, the genetic basis of cancer, and the role of the genes in the immune system.

.The role of systematics is to study these relationships and thus the differences and similarities between species and groups of species.^ By examining the differences between the DNA in our bodies and that in other organisms, we can tell when our species diverged from chimps, apes, and even primordial fish.
  • Make: Online: Biology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ Modeling structures of ligands in different ways and superimposing different structures with similar affinity exposes the critical fragment or overall similarity of these fragments.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A study of the structure and organization of the cell with a special emphasis on the genetic regulation of the cell division cycle, the genetic basis of cancer, and the role of the genes in the immune system.

[48] .However, systematics was an active field of research long before evolutionary thinking was common.^ Weekly discussions of past and current scientific literature in evolution and/or systematics, reviews of the state of the field, and presentation of research results.

[49] .The classification, taxonomy, and nomenclature of biological organisms is administered by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, and International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria for animals, plants, and bacteria, respectively.^ An introduction to the principles and practices of plant taxonomy, including approaches to classification, data analysis, and a survey of vascular plant families in the California flora.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ His refinements of the systems of animal and plant classification have profoundly influenced the course of biological thought ever since.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Analysis of basic principles of animal and plant physiology, with emphasis on cellular processes that mediate organismic processes.

.The classification of viruses, viroids, prions, and all other sub-viral agents that demonstrate biological characteristics is conducted by the International Code of Virus classification and nomenclature.^ Other anti-fungal and antibacterial agents induce DNA strand cleavage, such as bleomycin, anthramycin, and tomaymycin, all of which are antibacterial and antitumor drugs.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Viruses: their characteristics, classification, genetics, and host-parasite interactions, including methods of disease prevention, control, and applications in biotechnology.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

[50][51][52][53] However, several other viral classification systems do exist.
.Traditionally, living things have been divided into five kingdoms: Monera; Protista; Fungi; Plantae; Animalia.^ I mean the sort of thing that results by dividing animals into the wingless and the winged, and winged into tame and wild, or pale and dark.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54]
However, many scientists now consider this five-kingdom system outdated. .Modern alternative classification systems generally begin with the three-domain system: Archaea (originally Archaebacteria); Bacteria (originally Eubacteria); Eukaryota (including protists, fungi, plants, and animals)[55] These domains reflect whether the cells have nuclei or not, as well as differences in the chemical composition of the cell exteriors.^ Examples will be selected from plants, animals, fungi, protists, bacteria, and viruses.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These structures are next systematically evaluated to obtain solution sets that satisfy systems of non-linear chemical kinetic reaction flow networks in the MAP Kinase cascade cell-signaling pathway.
  • Category Theory and Biology | The n-Category Café 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC golem.ph.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are left, then, to ponder what it was about the investigation of animals that led Aristotle to take a methodological distinction regarding stages of investigation and reify it in methodologically distinct treatises devoted to these different stages.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55]
Further, each kingdom is broken down recursively until each species is separately classified. .The order is: Domain; Kingdom; Phylum; Class; Order; Family; Genus; Species.^ Class Order Family Genus (pl.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The levels in this hierarchy, in order are: Kingdom Phylum (pl.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is also a series of intracellular parasites that are "on the edge of life"[56] in terms of metabolic activity, meaning that many scientists do not actually classify these structures as alive, due to their lack of at least one or more of the fundamental functions by which life is defined.^ Structure, functions, life history, classification, habits and distribution of insects.

^ The self-assembly properties of small, amphipathic molecules is utilized to design novel, supra-molecular structures with defined functional properties.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The ligand itself may have flexibility of structural parts outside the DNA binding site and may contain more than one intercalating sidechain: .
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

They are classified as viruses, viroids, prions, or satellites.
.The scientific name of an organism is generated from its genus and species.^ Note that the genus name (the first name) is always capitalized, but the species name (the second one) never is.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He gets credit for our present-day classification scheme and the system of two-part scientific names for organisms, thus has been given the nickname, The Father of Taxonomy.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, humans would be listed as Homo sapiens.^ For example: Homo sapiens is the scientific name for humans.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some recent research on the wrist bones of the so-called hobbit skeleton suggests that Flores man is an ancestor of modern humans and not just diseased homo sapiens.
  • biology (kottke.org) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Homo would be the genus and sapiens is the species. .Whenever writing the scientific name of an organism, it is proper to capitalize the first letter in the genus and put all of the species in lowercase.^ Note that the genus name (the first name) is always capitalized, but the species name (the second one) never is.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our current technical terms genus and species are Latin translations of Greek words first used by Aristotle.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may thus serve as a proper scientific explanandum , and ‘broad-leafed’ can serve to identify a kind, all and only the members of which lose their leaves.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Additionally, the entire term would be italicized or underlined.[57][58]
.The dominant classification system is called Linnaean taxonomy, which includes ranks and binomial nomenclature.^ His classification system included what he called the Scala naturae , the scale of nature.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He gets credit for our present-day classification scheme and the system of two-part scientific names for organisms, thus has been given the nickname, The Father of Taxonomy.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

How organisms are named is governed by international agreements such as the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN), the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB).
.A merging draft, BioCode, was published in 1997 in an attempt to standardize nomenclature in these three areas, but has yet to be formally adopted.^ Because different areas of research have studied different kinds of proteins, more than one nomenclature for these small ligand molecules are used.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

[59] The BioCode draft has received little attention since 1997; its originally planned implementation date of January 1, 2000, has passed unnoticed. .However, a 2004 paper concerning the cyanobacteria does advocate a future adoption of a BioCode and interim steps consisting of reducing the differences between the codes.^ However, much more research is needed to study the complex interactions between different crops and their pest and predator complexes.
  • Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

[60] The International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN) remains outside the BioCode.

Ecology

.Ecology studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their environment.^ Integrates techniques developed by taxonomists, paleontologists, geologists, evolutionists, ecologists, and biogeographers to elucidate relationships between geographical distributions and continental drift, ecological interactions, climate, and dispersal abilities of organisms.

^ BIOL 423 Marine Physiological Ecology (3) NW Carrington Explores how physiology and local environment interact to influence distribution and abundance of marine organisms in a variety of habitats (rocky shore, salt marsh, coral reef), and how physiological adaptations develop.

^ BIOL 471 Plant Ecology (5) NW del Moral Basic concepts of plant ecology, including studies of the environment, plant-environment interactions, populations, communities, and ecosystems.

[61] .The habitat of an organism can be described as the local abiotic factors such as climate and ecology, in addition to the other organisms and biotic factors that share its environment.^ BIOL 447 The Greening of the Earth: Influence of Plants on the Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems (3) NW Stromberg Examines the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems focusing on how abiotic factors such as climate change have shaped the evolution of vegetation on earth, and how the evolution of vegetation has influenced the evolution of animals.

^ An analysis of the interactions of organisms with each other and the physical environment.
  • BIOLOGY 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What he does say is that the environment does select various changes that have occurred, in that these (spontaneous) changes make the organism more or less able to cope with various factors in the environment.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .One reason that biological systems can be difficult to study is that so many different interactions with other organisms and the environment are possible, even on the smallest of scales.^ An analysis of the interactions of organisms with each other and the physical environment.
  • BIOLOGY 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The course includes one week of on-campus study followed by one week of field and lab work at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research.
  • BIOLOGY 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ BIOL 471 Plant Ecology (5) NW del Moral Basic concepts of plant ecology, including studies of the environment, plant-environment interactions, populations, communities, and ecosystems.

A microscopic bacterium responding to a local sugar gradient is responding to its environment as much as a lion is responding to its environment when it searches for food in the African savanna. For any given species, behaviors can be co-operative, aggressive, parasitic or symbiotic. .Matters become more complex when two or more different species interact in an ecosystem.^ For reasons that will become clear, the relationship between the books of the Historia Animalium dealing with generation and On the Generation of Animals is somewhat more complex.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, much more research is needed to study the complex interactions between different crops and their pest and predator complexes.
  • Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Complexity and self-assembly have become important paradigms in modern biology and thus discussed here in some more detail.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

Studies of this type are within the province of ecology.
.Ecological systems are studied at several different levels, from individuals and populations to ecosystems and the biosphere.^ Ecological process is examined at individual, community, and ecosystem levels.
  • BIOLOGY 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Biogeographic processes are examined at individual, community and ecosystem levels.
  • BIOLOGY 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A study of environmental science emphasizing the impact that an increasing human population has on the biosphere.
  • BIOLOGY 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The term population biology is often used interchangeably with population ecology, although population biology is more frequently used when studying diseases, viruses, and microbes, while population ecology is more commonly when studying plants and animals.^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, ecology, taxonomy, animal behavior, and environmental microbiology Abstract of Award .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Serves as a prerequisite to 400-level courses and senior seminars in ecology, population and conservation biology.

^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, molecular biology, biotechnology, genomics of animals, microbes, plants Comments: Phone: (515) 294-6202 Fax: (515) 294-2401 reu@iastate.edu Abstract of Award .
  • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

As can be surmised, ecology is a science that draws on several disciplines.
.Ethology studies animal behavior (particularly that of social animals such as primates and canids), and is sometimes considered a branch of zoology.^ Studies in animal social behavior.

^ By contrast, Aristotle considered the investigation of living things, and especially animals, central to the theoretical study of nature.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Laboratory studies of animal behavior including a student research project using live animals.

.Ethologists have been particularly concerned with the evolution of behavior and the understanding of behavior in terms of the theory of natural selection.^ Vertebrate evolution and natural history stressing the relationships of anatomy, ecology, physiology and behavior to one another.

^ In the course of evolution,two of the strongest selective forces in nature,light and sex, have left their mark on living organisms.
  • Stanford University Department of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Evolution of complex genetic systems that can undergo both natural selection and recombination.
  • Stanford University Department of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In one sense, the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin, whose book, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, influenced many ethologists.^ In the first book of On the Parts of Animals , then, we have a systematic philosophy of biology, which in many respects seems to provide what is missing in the Analytics regarding the application of its program to the study of living nature.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather, one should try to take animals by kinds, following the lead of the many in demarcating a bird kind and a fish kind.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]
.Biogeography studies the spatial distribution of organisms on the Earth,[64] focusing on topics like plate tectonics, climate change, dispersal and migration, and cladistics.^ Integrates techniques developed by taxonomists, paleontologists, geologists, evolutionists, ecologists, and biogeographers to elucidate relationships between geographical distributions and continental drift, ecological interactions, climate, and dispersal abilities of organisms.

^ BIOL 447 The Greening of the Earth: Influence of Plants on the Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems (3) NW Stromberg Examines the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems focusing on how abiotic factors such as climate change have shaped the evolution of vegetation on earth, and how the evolution of vegetation has influenced the evolution of animals.

^ The effects of a changing earth on species distribution and extinction will be assessed.
  • BIOLOGY 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

Branches of biology

These are the main branches of biology:[65][66]
.
  • Agriculture - study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications
  • Anatomy - the study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans
  • Astrobiology- the study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.^ Ecological and evolutionary community assembly, with emphasis on historical contingency in community structure, ecosystem functioning, biological invasion and ecological restoration, using experimental, theoretical and comparative methods involving bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.
    • Stanford University Department of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These definitions and principles form the basis of causal explanations of all the other universal truths within the domain of study.
    • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Emphasis is on flowering plants, but a survey of all plant and plant-like organisms, both modern and extinct, is included.
    • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Also known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy.
  • Biochemistry - the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level
  • Bioengineering - the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology.
  • Bioinformatics - the use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data
  • Biomechanics - often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through artificial limbs, etc.
  • Biophysics - the study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences
  • Biotechnology - a new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification
  • Botany - the study of plants
  • Cell biology - the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell.
  • Conservation Biology - the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
  • Cryobiology - the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings.
  • Developmental biology - the study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure.
  • Ecology - the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment.
  • Embryology - the study of the development of embryo (from fecondation to birth).^ General aspects of human genetics are included.
    • BIOLOGY 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An overview of general stages and mechanisms of development, experimental approaches used to study developmental processes, and genetic and environmental influences that govern development.

    ^ It is especially appropriate for students anticipating a career in biotechnology or biomedical research.

    See also topobiology.
  • Environmental Biology - the study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity
  • Epidemiology - a major component of public health research, it is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations
  • Ethology - the study of animal behavior.
  • Genetics - the study of genes and heredity.
  • Histology - the study of cells and tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy.
  • Marine Biology - the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings.
  • Microbiology - the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things
  • Molecular Biology - the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry
  • Neurobiology - the study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology, even pathology
  • Oceanography - the study of the ocean, including ocean life, environment, geography, weather, and other aspects influencing the ocean.
  • Population biology - study of the populations of organisms - most often referred as ecology, or used to point out biology adaptations, biology events sum up
  • Population ecology - the study of populations of organisms, including how they increase and go extinct (dynamics
  • Paleontology - the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life
  • Pharmacology - the study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines.
  • Physiology - the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms
  • Phytopathology - the study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology)
  • Virology - the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents

See also

Notes and References

  1. ^ Based on definition from Aquarena Wetlands Project glossary of terms.
  2. ^ a b Avila, Vernon L. (1995). Biology: Investigating life on earth. Boston: Jones and Bartlett. pp. 11–18. ISBN 0-86720-942-9. 
  3. ^ Life Science, Weber State Museum of Natural Science
  4. ^ Junker Geschichte der Biologie, p8.
  5. ^ Coleman, Biology in the Nineteenth Century, pp 1–2.
  6. ^ Magner, A History of the Life Sciences
  7. ^ Mehmet Bayrakdar, "Al-Jahiz And the Rise of Biological Evolutionism", The Islamic Quarterly, Third Quarter, 1983, London.
  8. ^ Fahd, Toufic. "Botany and agriculture". p. 815. , in Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 3, Routledge, ISBN 0415124107 
  9. ^ Magner, A History of the Life Sciences, pp 133–144
  10. ^ Sapp, Genesis, chapter 7; Coleman, Biology in the Nineteenth Century, chapters 2
  11. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, chapter 4
  12. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, chapter 7
  13. ^ Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, chapter 10: "Darwin's evidence for evolution and common descent"; and chapter 11: "The causation of evolution: natural selection"; Larson, Evolution, chapter 3
  14. ^ Mazzarello, P (1999). "A unifying concept: the history of cell theory". Nature Cell Biology 1 (1): E13–E15. doi:10.1038/8964. PMID 10559875. 
  15. ^ Packard, Alpheus Spring (1901). Lamarck, the founder of Evolution: his life and work with translations of his writings on organic evolution. New York: Longmans, Green.. ISBN 0405125623. 
  16. ^ The Complete Works of Darwin Online - Biography. darwin-online.org.uk. Retrieved on 2006-12-15
    Dobzhansky 1973
  17. ^ As Darwinian scholar Joseph Carroll of the University of Missouri–St. Louis puts it in his introduction to a modern reprint of Darwin's work: "The Origin of Species has special claims on our attention. It is one of the two or three most significant works of all time—one of those works that fundamentally and permanently alter our vision of the world....It is argued with a singularly rigorous consistency but it is also eloquent, imaginatively evocative, and rhetorically compelling." Carroll, Joseph, ed (2003). On the origin of species by means of natural selection. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview. p. 15. ISBN 1551113376. 
  18. ^ Shermer p. 149.
  19. ^ Darwin, Charles (1859). On the Origin of Species, 1st, John Murray
  20. ^ Simpson, George Gaylord (1967). The Meaning of Evolution (Second ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 0300009526. 
  21. ^ Phylogeny on bio-medicine.org
  22. ^ De Duve, Christian (2002). Life Evolving: Molecules, Mind, and Meaning. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 44. ISBN 0195156056. 
  23. ^ Futuyma, DJ (2005). Evolution. Sinauer Associates. ISBN 978-0878931873. OCLC 57638368 62621622 57311264 57638368 62621622. 
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  31. ^ Katrina Edwards. Microbiology of a Sediment Pond and the Underlying Young, Cold, Hydrologically Active Ridge Flank. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
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  44. ^ Fields S, Johnston M (Mar 2005). "Cell biology. Whither model organism research?". Science 307 (5717): 1885–6. doi:10.1126/science.1108872. PMID 15790833. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/307/5717/1885. 
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  48. ^ Neill, Campbell (1996). Biology; Fourth edition. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. p. G-21 (Glossary). ISBN 0-8053-1940-9. 
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  66. ^ Biology on bellaonline.com

Further reading

  • Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, A, Lewis, J, Raff, M, Roberts, K & Walter, P (2002). .Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.^ This concentration is designed for students preparing for future graduate work as well as for those wishing to increase their competency in the fields of cell and molecular biology.
    • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Research Topics/Keywords: biology, genome, biology, cell, biochemistry, molecular, genetics, microbiology, biomedical engineering, statistics, biostatistics, bioinformatics Abstract of Award .
    • US NSF - REU - List Result 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nsf.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The department sponsors the Master of Science in Biology with concentrations in cell and molecular biology, conservation biology, ecology and systematic biology, marine biology, microbiology, and physiology and behavioral biology.
    • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ). Garland. ISBN 978-0815332183. OCLC 48122761 57023651 69932405 145080076 48122761 57023651 69932405.
     
  • Begon, Michael; Townsend, CR & Harper, JL (2005). Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems (4th ed.). Blackwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1405111171. OCLC 57675855 62131207 57639896 57675855 62131207. 
  • Campbell, Neil (2004). Biology (7th ed.). Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8053-7146-X. OCLC 71890442. 
  • Colinvaux, Paul (1979). Why Big Fierce Animals are Rare: An Ecologist's Perspective (reissue ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691023646. OCLC 24132192 10081738 24132192. 
  • Hoagland, Mahlon (2001). The Way Life Works (reprint ed.). Jones and Bartlett Publishers inc. ISBN 076371688X. OCLC 45487537 223090105 45487537. 
  • Janovy, John Jr. (2004). On Becoming a Biologist (2nd ed.). Bison Books. ISBN 0803276206. OCLC 56964280 55138571 56964280. 
  • Johnson, George B. (2005). Biology, Visualizing Life. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. ISBN 0-03-016723-X. OCLC 36306648. 
  • Tobin, Allan; Dusheck, Jennie (2005). Asking About Life (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-40653X. 

External links

Journal links

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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Please help develop this page
This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ A simple user interface allows you to see and learn about microscopic cell structure, the cell cycle and the various steps involved in mitosis and meiosis.
  • Filebasket - Education › Biology programs- Free Downloads at Filebasket 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC filebasket.drn.digitalriver.com [Source type: General]

^ And if our sole purpose in life is to assist others, how do you give back to a community in need without skills?

^ It’s a delight to see the curiosity on children’s faces and how excited they were to learn about how they can help the environment.

.To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects.^ Can you help me on things in my project on becoming a marine biologist?
  • Salary Stories: Marine Biologist Salary: Becoming a Marine Biologist 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC blogs.payscale.com [Source type: General]

^ I currently volunteer my time at various organizations and I really enjoy the feeling you get after helping someone – it’s like no other.

.This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Biology" as an educational resource.^ Human Growth and Development pulls together information from leading experts in a variety of fields to create a one-volume resource on the human growth stages, ...more on ebook "Human Growth and Development..."
  • Download Life Sciences - Biology - Developmental Biology ebooks at Diesel eBook store 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.diesel-ebooks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Practical applications of biology include the development of pharmaceuticals, the practice of medicine, and the scientific bases for understanding the history and complexity of the environment and the need for its protection.
  • Biology | Yale College Programs of Study 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Techniques for finding library and information resources in the life sciences.
  • SSU Catalog 2004-06 :: Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Academic]

However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects. .You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.^ Help " Email " is the e-mail address you used when you registered.
  • biology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Open the www.cnn.com home page and look for links to the information you want.
  • Biology: News & Videos about Biology - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Use the navigation bar above to find the link you are looking for.
  • Biology: News & Videos about Biology - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

Wikipedia-logo.png Run a search on Biology at Wikipedia.
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See also


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

BIOLOGY (Gr. f31os, life). .The biological sciences are those which deal with the phenomena manifested by living matter; and though it is customary and convenient to group apart such of these phenomena as are termed mental, and such of them as are exhibited by men in society, under the heads of psychology and sociology, yet it must be allowed that no natural boundary separates the subject matter of the latter sciences from that of biology.^ Biological waste must not be allowed to accumulate.
  • Environmental Health & Safety | UConn 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.ehs.uconn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rob Carlson on synthetic biology: THE ECONOMIST Rob Carlson states: innovators are necessary to create solutions to pressing problems – and these innovators often work with or come from interest groups such as DIYbio.
  • DIYbio 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC diybio.org [Source type: General]

^ Biological theories ; in crime (law): Theories of causation ) electricity ( in biophysics (science): Historical background ) human intelligence ( in human intelligence (psychology): Biological theories ) use of .
  • biology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.Psychology is inseparably linked with physiology; and the phases of social life exhibited by animals other than man, which sometimes curiously foreshadow human policy, fall strictly within the province of the biologist.^ Morphology, physiology, and life histories of the worm parasites of humans and other animals.

^ Includes: origin and nature of life, from simplest single-celled forms to complex plants and animals and human beings.
  • Biology Course Descriptions 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.stchas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Of course, we can also argue that this same ingenuity has enhanced human life to the point that human life, and all other life on earth, is threatened.
  • The Biological Basis of Human Behavior 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, the biological sciences are sharply marked off from the abiological, or those which treat of the phenomena manifested by not-living matter, in so far as the properties of living matter distinguish it absolutely from all other kinds of things, and as the present state of knowledge furnishes us with no link between the living and the not-living.^ View all Biological Sciences titles...
  • Biological Sciences 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.jbpub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Biological scientists, all other .
  • Biological Scientists 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is from those individuals and therefore species that all living things are descended.
  • The Biological Basis of Human Behavior 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These distinctive properties of living matter are i.^ Namely, our understanding of the properties of matter which allow it to have bulk states that behave in ways typical of living things.
  • Category Theory and Biology | The n-Category Café 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC golem.ph.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its chemical composition - containing, as it invariably does, one or more forms of a complex compound of carbon, hydrogen, pro- oxygen and nitrogen, the so-called protein or albumin The perties of (which has never yet been obtained except as a pro living duct of living bodies), united with a large proportion matter. of water, and forming the chief constituent of a substance which, in its primary unmodified state, is known as protoplasm. 2. Its universal disintegration and waste by oxidation; and its concomitant reintegration by the intussusception of new matter. A process of waste resulting from the decomposition of the molecules of the protoplasm, in virtue of which they break up into more highly oxidated products, which cease to form any part of the living body, is a constant concomitant of life.^ Compounds that have not Carbon in their structure are known as Inorganic Compounds ; for example, a molecule of water, which is formed by an atom of Oxygen and two of Hydrogen (H 2 O).
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From these 25 elements, four elements, Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen, are present in the 97% of the molecules of life.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Atoms are the structural units of all existing matter forms in the known Universe.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is reason to believe that carbonic acid is always one of these waste products, while the others contain the remainder of the carbon, the nitrogen, the hydrogen and the other elements which may enter into the composition of the protoplasm.^ While these theories have yet to be proven one way or the other, they certainly influence how we approach mental illness treatment and recovery.
  • Biological Components of Personality in Personality Synopsis at ALLPSYCHOnline 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC allpsych.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another reason for the instinctive religious impulse may be that people are able to put themselves in other peoples' minds, to think about how another person might be feeling or thinking: .
  • biology (kottke.org) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some may also work in industry where they evaluate the safety of new drugs, food products, cosmetics, or other chemicals.
  • Biological Sciences Careers 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.bio.mtu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The new matter taken in to make good this constant loss is either a ready-formed protoplasmic material, supplied by some other living being, or it consists of the elements of protoplasm, united together in simpler combinations, which consequently have to be built up into protoplasm by the agency of the living matter itself.^ Now technology has progressed and other scientists have developed the six-kingdom model (as seen below) which is currently being published in new biology textbooks.

^ We've built a suite of editing tools, so Topix users can make sure all the stories that matter get the attention they deserve.
  • Biology News - Topix 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ When a biological waste pick-up is desired, submit a biowaste pickup/supply delivery form on our web site.
  • Environmental Health & Safety | UConn 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.ehs.uconn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In either case, the addition of molecules to those which already existed takes place, not at the surface of the living mass, but by interposition between the existing molecules of the latter.^ As is the case for nucleic acids, antimicrobial activity of potential novel drugs may include those interfering with binding of pathogenic microorganisms to host cell surfaces.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Much of the work of marine biology centers on molecular biology, the study of the biochemical processes that take place inside living cells.
  • Biological Scientists 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Students who already have mathematics preparation equivalent to MATH 115a or b or higher are encouraged to take additional mathematics, such as MATH 120a or b, 222a or b, or 225a or b.
  • Biology | Yale College Programs of Study 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

.If the processes of disintegration and of reconstruction which characterize life balance one another, the size of the mass of living matter remains stationary, while, if the reconstructive process is the more rapid, the living body grows. But the increase of size which constitutes growth is the result of a process of molecular intussusception, and therefore differs altogether from the process of growth by accretion, which may be observed in crystals and is effected purely by the external addition of new matter - so that, in the well-known aphorism of Linnaeus, the word "grow" as applied to stones signifies a totally different process from what is called "growth" in plants and animals.^ The study of biology gives us a deeper understanding of ourselves and our world – the structure and function of plants and animals, the evolution and diversity of living organisms and the cellular processes of life.
  • Hamilton College - Academics - Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hamilton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ BIOL 370 Plant Physiology (W2) Study of the essential plant processes with emphasis on mineral nutrition, water relations, photosynthesis, hormones, and the influence of external factors.
  • Hendrix College | Biology Course Descriptions 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hendrix.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Robert Rosen's viewpoint was quite different from this: he saw life as a dynamic, relational pattern in categories of metabolic-repair ( open ) systems characterized by flows-relational/material, energetic and informational processes- perhaps closer to the injunction by Heraclitus of ``panta rhei"-everything flows , but with the very important addition that life flows in a uniquely complex relational pattern that is observed only in living systems, thus perhaps uniquely defining Life as a special, super-complex process ([ 8 ].
  • PlanetMath: mathematical biology and theoretical biophysics 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC planetmath.org [Source type: Academic]

.3. Its tendency to undergo cyclical changes. In the ordinary course of nature, all living matter proceeds from pre-existing living matter, a portion of the latter being detached and acquiring an independent existence.^ These microorganisms are important in their effect on the health and well being of all living creatures, including humans, and they are the key to the biological revolution in genetic engineering.
  • SDSU Biology and Microbiology Program 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC arweb.sdsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Life only proceeds from life, the living beings cannot be originated from inert matter.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All these changes alter the niches, the environmental conditions under which the life in those niches live.
  • The Biological Basis of Human Behavior 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new form takes on the characters of that from which it arose; exhibits the same power of propagating itself by means of an offshoot; and, sooner or later, like its predecessor, ceases to live, and is resolved into more highly oxidated compounds of its elements.^ Of the latter works, some are based on original research, while others contain many new and accurate observations which today are becoming more and more highly appreciated by scientists.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Biology also investigate the environmental factors that surround the living beings; and, by means of conservationism, it seeks for more effective ways to understand the variations or new conditions of the environment that can threaten the existence of living beings on our planet.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These compounds then combined to form simple molecules and more complex molecules containing carbon-carbon bonds, including the amino acids glycine and alanine.

.Thus an individual living body is not only constantly changing its substance, but its size and form are undergoing continual modifications, the end of which is the death and decay of that individual; the continuation of the kind being secured by the detachment of portions which tend to run through the same cycle of forms as the parent.^ Cytotechnologists evaluate prepared microscope slides to detect changes in body tissues and individual cells that may be important in the early diagnosis of cancer and other diseases.
  • Biological Sciences Careers 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.bio.mtu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ When threatened, an animal undergoes several physiological changes that have become genetically hardwired into the animal's body.
  • The Biological Basis of Human Behavior 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life only proceeds from life, the living beings cannot be originated from inert matter.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No forms of matter which are either not living, or have not been derived from living matter, exhibit these three properties, nor any approach to the remarkable phenomena defined under the second and third heads.^ We use a combination of approaches to study these questions: live-cell microscopy, molecular biology, genetics, and biochemistry.
  • Department of Biology: Indiana University Bloomington 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bio.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ All these changes alter the niches, the environmental conditions under which the life in those niches live.
  • The Biological Basis of Human Behavior 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A poison is defined as any substance that causes a harmful effect, either by accident or design, when administered to a living organism.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

.But in addition to these distinctive characters, living matter has some other peculiarities, the chief of which are the dependence of all its activities upon moisture and upon heat, within a limited range of temperature, and the fact that it usually possesses a certain structure or organization.^ These relationships include physiological responses of individuals, structure and dynamics of populations, interactions among species, organization of biological communities, and processing of energy and matter in ecosystems.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

^ BACK TO TOP^^ CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING BEINGS: ORGANIZATION: The living beings present a functional and structural organization.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some companies may conduct a portion of their research and development in other lower-wage countries, further limiting employment growth.
  • Biological Scientists 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: Academic]

.As has been said, a large proportion of water enters into the composition of all living matter; a certain amount of drying arrests vital activity, and the complete abstraction The properties of living matter are intimately related to temperature.^ Namely, our understanding of the properties of matter which allow it to have bulk states that behave in ways typical of living things.
  • Category Theory and Biology | The n-Category Café 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC golem.ph.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its five chapters pursue this purpose, discussing the appropriate level of generality for such studies, the modes of causality and of necessity to be used in biological explanations, the relation of form to matter in living things, the proper method of division for this subject matter, the means of identifying kinds and their activities at the proper level of abstraction, and much more.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both physiology and bionomics not only describe and compare, but also inquire into the proximate causes of the various activities, and are thus intimately related to physics and chemistry, and at the same time are of paramount importance for the philosophy of life and of plant and animal activity.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Not only does exposure to heat sufficient to coagulate protein matter destroy life, by demolishing Life con- the molecular structure upon which life depends; but ditioned all vital activity, all phenomena of nutritive growth, by tern' movement and reproduction are possible only be- perature. tween certain limits of temperature.^ Principles of Biology I, fall, 4(3-3) Emphasizes molecular biology, cell chemistry, cell structure and function, physiology, growth and development and genetics.

^ BIOL 428 Plant Physiology (4) Major biological activities of higher plants with emphasis on water relations, mineral nutrition, metabolism, growth and development.
  • University of Evansville : Department of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.evansville.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Life only proceeds from life, the living beings cannot be originated from inert matter.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These limits may be set down as from a little above the freezing point of water to a little below the boiling point.^ These classes may set you ahead of the pack.

^ Abilities to shift gene expression adaptively in response to environmental change vary among species and may be critical in setting tolerance limits.
  • PhD Programs - Biology - Stanford University School of Medicine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biosciences.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is to be noted, however, that these limits apply to the living matter itself, and many of the apparent exceptions are due to cases in which the living matter is enclosed in protective wrappings capable of resisting heat and cold.^ Some authors include more characteristics of living beings, but due to many biologists consider that virus are living beings, I prefer to describe the minimum requirements for any being to be considered alive.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in every case morphology concerns itself only with structure, in so far as this is a definite arrangement of matter.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many low organisms, such as the spores of bacteria, the thick, non-conducting wall may preserve the living protoplasm from subjection to external temperatures below freezing point, or above boiling point, but all the evidence goes to show that applications of such cold or heat, if prolonged or arranged so as to penetrate to the living matter, destroy life.^ Microbiology is the study of life and organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye which include bacteria, viruses, prions, microscopic fungi and protists.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

^ For a source of DNA: Anything with living cells or cells preserved by freezing such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, fungi, meat from the butcher shop (a frozen cow tongue works great!
  • Make: Online: Biology Archives 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course, we can also argue that this same ingenuity has enhanced human life to the point that human life, and all other life on earth, is threatened.
  • The Biological Basis of Human Behavior 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In warm-blooded animals, such as birds and mammals, protective mechanisms for the regulation of temperature enable them to endure exposure to extreme heat or cold, but in such cases the actually living cells do not appreciably rise or fall in temperature.^ Faculty of the Center collaborate on such broad problems as the molecular biology and cell growth regulation of tumor cells and normal cells, the mechanism of action of anticancer drugs and tumor immunology.
  • Biology Undergraduate Degree 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ksu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Such strategies as hibernation, of course, require genes that alter the animal's physiology to slow heartbeat, lower body temperature, and otherwise decrease its metabolism.
  • The Biological Basis of Human Behavior 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NuGard First Response Protective Clothing are lightweight coveralls, jackets, and pants that provide protection from heat and flame while keeping the wearers body temperature constant.
  • Biology on R&D Magazine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.rdmag.com [Source type: News]

A variation of a very few degrees in the blood itself produces death.
.Recent investigations point to the conclusion that the immediate cause of the arrest of vitality, in the first place, and of its destruction, in the second, is the coagulation of certain substances in the protoplasm, and that the latter contains various coagulable matters, which solidify at different temperatures.^ What processes cause the C/N/P of organic matter produced in the euphotic zone to differ from the metabolic C/N/P ratio of waters in the underlying twilight zone?

^ The first and second atom from the aromatic ring in the linker is never a tetrahedral carbon (no torsion angle flexibility; see point 6) .
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ His works, "De historiâ animalium", "De partibus animalium", and "De generatione animalium", contain the first scientific attempt to classify animals and to explain their various biological and physiological functions.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And it remains to be seen, how far the death of any form of living matter, at a given temperature, depends on the destruction of its fundamental substance at that heat, and how far death is brought about by the coagulation of merely accessory compounds.^ The transference of energy, its storage and its function in the living beings depend on substances and chemical reactions.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No matter how they combined the ingredients — a sugar, a phosphate, and one of four different nitrogenous molecules, or nucleobases — ribonucleotides just wouldn’t form.
  • Biology | Wired Science | Wired.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The remaining elements compose only the 3% of the living matter, being the most important Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium and Sulfur.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may be safely said of all those living things which are large enough to enable us to trust the evidence of microscopes, that they are heterogeneous optically, and that their different parts, and especially the surface layer, as Life and contrasted with the interior, differh sicall and organiza- P Y ?^ Continues in all living things .

^ Biology is the study of all living things.

^ It is from those individuals and therefore species that all living things are descended.
  • The Biological Basis of Human Behavior 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Y Lion.
chemically; while, in most living things, mere hetero geneity is exchanged for a definite structure, whereby the body is distinguished into visibly different parts, which possess different powers or functions. .Living things which present this visible structure are said to be organized; and so widely does organization obtain among living beings, that organized and living are not unfrequently used as if they were terms of co-extensive applicability.^ BACK TO TOP^^ CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING BEINGS: ORGANIZATION: The living beings present a functional and structural organization.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biologists learn how living things work, how they interact with one another, and how they evolve.
  • AIBS Careers | Careers in the Biological Sciences 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.aibs.org [Source type: Academic]
  • University of North Carolina Wilmington - The Career Center - Explore and Research Careers 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.uncwil.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Then, viruses are non-living organic structures, as it is a molecule of sugar, but they are close-related to living beings, so much by their origin as by the way through they affect to living beings.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This, however, is not exactly accurate, if it be thereby implied that all living things have a visible organization, as there are numerous forms of living matter of which it cannot properly be said that they possess either a definite structure or permanently specialized organs: though, doubtless, the simplest particle of living matter must possess a highly complex molecular structure, which is far beyond the reach of vision.^ It is from those individuals and therefore species that all living things are descended.
  • The Biological Basis of Human Behavior 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The basic structure of DNA is the same in all living things.
  • Science - Biology Core 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.uen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All living things are constituted by cells.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The broad distinctions which, as a matter of fact, exist between every known form of living substance and every other component of the material world, justify the separation of the biological sciences from all others.^ Atoms are the structural units of all existing matter forms in the known Universe.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biological scientists, all other .
  • Biological Scientists 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The concept was later extended to include any biological system from the cell to the entire biosphere, all the areas of the Earth inhabited by living things.
  • biology -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.But it must not be supposed that the differences between living and not-living matter are such as to justify the assumption that the forces at work in the one are different from those which are to be met with in the other.^ Return Home "Biologists help us to understand the world in which we live and work to address issues of both personal well-being to those of worldwide concern."
  • Biology | Florida Southern College 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The radical difference between Hebrew thought and that of just about all other civilizations of that time was that their God transcended nature, and was not a part of it.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A course designed to meet the unusual needs of individuals in special programs such as the Science Institute for school teachers and those working toward licensure.
  • BIOLOGY 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Considered apart from the phenomena of consciousness, the phenomena of life are all dependent upon the working of the same physical and chemical forces as those which are active in the rest of the world.^ Details: ...tasks, with an emphasis on electrochemical reactions and sampling, testing, measuring, recording and analyzing results in biological, chemical, physical and life sciences.
  • Biological Engineering Careers in the United States (EnvironmentalChemistry.com) 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC environmentalchemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, we can also argue that this same ingenuity has enhanced human life to the point that human life, and all other life on earth, is threatened.
  • The Biological Basis of Human Behavior 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both properties are directly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of the solvent of life - water.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

.It may be convenient to use the terms "vitality" and "vital force" to denote the causes of certain great groups of natural operations, as we employ the names of "electricity" and "electrical force" to denote others; but it ceases to be proper to do so, if such a name implies the absurd assumption that "electricity" and "vitality" are entities playing the part of efficient causes of electrical or vital phenomena.^ Inquiry is an integral part of the learning experience and may be used in both traditional class problems and laboratory experiences.

^ This plan may or may not be part of a larger conservation plan that addresses other resource needs such as water quality and soil erosion.
  • Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is only once Aristotle begins to distinguish differences among, say, uniform parts that various groupings of animals play an important role in organizing the discussion.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A mass of living protoplasm is simply a molecular machine of great complexity, the total results of the working of which, or its vital phenomena, depend - on the one hand, Life con- of this water is absolutely incompatible with either moister by a ctual or potential life.^ As a result of this development a great number of daughter-sciences have sprung into existence, each commanding its own more or less distinct field of research, and all united again to approach more and more the nature of life and to give us a clearer and more comprehensive idea of the variety and causes of vital phenomena.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biochemists do most of their work in biotechnology, which involves understanding the complex chemistry of life.
  • Biological Scientists 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Both properties are directly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of the solvent of life - water.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

.But many of the simpler P Y ler P forms of life may undergo desiccation to such an extent as to arrest their vital manifestations and convert them into the semblance of not-living matter, and yet remain potentially alive.^ Through their explorations into the inner workings of tiny cells or entire ecosystems, biologists examine living organisms in all their various and complex forms in search of the processes that govern our existence and drive life on Earth.
  • Biology | Florida Southern College 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.flsouthern.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Life only proceeds from life, the living beings cannot be originated from inert matter.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again, researchers did not yet understand what chromosomes were, but they did note that as a result of meiosis, each egg or sperm cell formed had half as many chromosomes as the original cell.
  • History of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That is to say, on being duly moistened they return to life again.^ Living things' structures are built with organic compounds; this is to say with carbon based molecules: BACK TO TOP^^ CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Living beings are constituted by matter.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And this revivification may take place after months, or even years, of arrested life.^ Students who place out of general chemistry should take organic chemistry during their freshman year.
  • Biology | Yale College Programs of Study 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The soil on Mars may contain microbial life, according to a new interpretation of data first collected more than 30 years ago.
  • Biology: News & Videos about Biology - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Some of these agents may remain viable in the environment for weeks or months after an attack, for others their effectiveness may degrade over weeks or even hours.
  • BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AND TERRORISM PREPAREDNESS 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.earthmountainview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

6
upon its construction, and, on the other, upon the energy supplied to it; and to speak of ."vitality" as anything but the name of a series of operations is as if one should talk of the "horologity" of a clock.^ Just as one who discusses the parts or equipment of anything should not be thought of as doing so in order to draw attention to the matter, nor for the sake of the matter, but rather in order to draw attention to the overall shape (e.g.
  • Aristotle's Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The properties described by an operational definition should be publicly accessible so that one or more persons –other than the person that defined the concept- can measure it or test it independently at will, for themselves.
  • Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Living matter, or protoplasm and the products of its metamorphosis, may be regarded under four aspects: r.^ An organism, be it plant or animal, may be considered under a threefold aspect: either in its structure, or in its functions, or in its development.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has a certain external and internal form, the latter being more usually called structure; 2. It occupies a certain position in space and in time; 3. It is the subject of the operation of certain forces in virtue of which it undergoes internal changes, modifies external objects, and is modified by them; and 4. Its form, place and powers are the effects of certain causes.^ A second and more important reason is the ability to manipulate this information by virtue of changing the structures of macromolecules - proteins, nucleic acids, or polysaccharides.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The stable form of DNA is a dimer and its tertiary structure the right handed double helix, called B-DNA, or Watson&Crick double helix, named after their co-discoverers.
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As a rule, agonists induce structure destabilization, while antagonists merely bind , but do not affect the protein structure (or trigger a conformational change that locks a protein in its inactive position).
  • Molecular interaction in biological systems - Abstracts 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.whatislife.com [Source type: Academic]

In correspondence with these four aspects of its subject, biology is logically divisible into four chief subdivisions - I. Morphology; II. Distribution; III. Physiology; IV.
.Various accidental circumstances, however, have brought it about that the actual distribution of scientific work does not correspond with the logical subdivisions of biology.^ Products and Services include all of the specialized apparatus, equipment, services and other things that scientific researchers, teachers, and engineers working in the field of Biology need in the course of their work.
  • Open Directory - Science:Biology 11 September 2009 23:34 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: General]

^ Importantly, we not only learn information about these molecules and how they work, but we actually have the training and tools to alter them.

^ Now Macaulay has brought the same approach to The Way We Work , a book about the human body.
  • Biology | GeekDad | Wired.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.The difference in technical methods and the historical evolution of teaching posts (for in all civilized countries the progress of biological knowledge has been very closely associated with the existence of institutions for the diffusion of knowledge and for professional education) have been the chief contributory causes to this practical confusion.^ Posting activity graph on biological evolution : .
  • Biological evolution - forum post review | BoardReader 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC boardreader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biological evolution - forum post review .
  • Biological evolution - forum post review | BoardReader 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC boardreader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Details: ...opportunity for a licensed Professional Engineer knowledgeable of biological industrial wastewater treatment processes and systems design...technical background coupled with practical experience with biological wastewater treatment in refineries, chemical plants and......
  • Biological Engineering Careers in the United States (EnvironmentalChemistry.com) 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC environmentalchemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Details of the morphology of plants will be found in the articles relating to the chief groups of plants, those of animals in the corresponding articles on groups of animals, while the classification of animals adopted in this work will be found in the article ZOOLOGY.^ Addresses the physical environment and the physiological adaptations organisms have evolved to exploit it, population dynamics, interactions between species populations, biogeography and environmental issues, especially those that relate to the impact of humans on the ecology of natural populations of plants and animals.
  • University of Evansville : Department of Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.evansville.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As its title indicates, the work is essentially a system of classification, comprising all the minerals, plants, and animals known in Linnæus' time, arranged according to classes, genera, and species.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Takes an analytical approach, and appropriate bacterial, animal, or plant viruses will be chosen to address various questions related to the above phenomena.
  • The Catholic University of America - Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.cua.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Distribution is treated of under ZOOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION, PLANKTON, PALAEONTOLOGY and PLANTS: Distribution. PHYSIOLOGY and its allied articles deal with the subject generally and in relation to man, while the special physiology of plants is dealt with in a section of the article PLANTS. Aetiology is treated of under the heading EVOLUTION. But practical necessity has given rise to the existence of many other divisions; see CYTOLOGY, for the structure of cells; EMBRYOLOGY, for the development of individual organisms; HEREDITY and REPRODUCTION, for the relations between parents and offspring.^ Other changes in an organism can develop over time.
  • The Biological Basis of Human Behavior 11 September 2009 22:51 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Relate reproductive isolation to speciation.
  • Science - Biology Core 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.uen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Evolutionary theory is the underpinning of sections on organismal structure and evolution, comparative development and reproduction of organisms, and organismic form and physiology.

(T. H. H.; P. C. M.)


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
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Bookshelves
.Biology | Computer Science | Computer Software | Education | Health science | History | Humanities | Language and Literature | Languages | Law | Mathematics | Natural Sciences | Physics | Programming Languages | Social Sciences | Study Guides | Misc.^ Students in the Master of Science in Biology: Concentration in Marine Biology program follow the requirements of the M.S. in Biology with specific coursework selected upon advisement.
  • SFSU Bulletin 2009/10--Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The curriculum , faculty research interests , and interdepartmental and multidisciplinary programs each demonstrate our commitment to integration in biology and among the sciences.
  • Home - Biology - Vassar College 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.vassar.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Concordia University's biology program prides itself in preparing students for careers in science-related fields.
  • Biology - Department of Math & Sciences - College of Theology, Arts and Sciences - Concordia University 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cu-portland.edu [Source type: Academic]

| Wikibooks Help
Biology
CORE SUBFIELDSBotany Development stage: 50% (as of 27 August 2003)AnatomyBiochemistryBioinformatics (Computational Biology)Cell BiologyEcologyEvolutionary BiologyGeneticsGenetic InformationMicrobiologyMolecular BiologyPaleontologyPathologyOTHER GENERAL FIELDSBIOLOGY COURSESAP Biology Development stage: 50% (as of 27 August 2003)IB BiologyA-level BiologyGCSE BiologyFEATURED BOOKSAnimal BehaviorEntomologyHistologyHuman AnatomyInvertebrate ZoologyIntroduction to PaleoanthropologyProteomicsOTHER TOPICSDichotomous KeyThe Descent of Man
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Human Physiology Cover Thumb.png .Human Physiology explains, system by system, the workings of your body.^ BIOL 233: Human Anatomy & Physiology II 4 Credits A systematic approach to the study of the human body continues in the second half of this yearlong course with an emphasis on the endocrine, lymphatic, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.
  • The Catholic University of America - Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biology.cua.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Virtual Body - Discover how various bodily functions work, such as your brain, heart, skeleton and digestive system.
  • BIOLOGY HOMEWORK HELP 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.indianchild.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research on human exercise physiology focuses on the effects of body temperature on physical conditioning and performance.
  • PhD Programs - Biology - Stanford University School of Medicine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC biosciences.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is intended as an understandable undergraduate-level guide to how the body systems function at a cellular level and how they work together to maintain a favorable environment for your cells.^ Cellular Senescence How do cells age?
  • AFAR: Biology of Aging Home Page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC websites.afar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Life science research looks at many specific biological problems: identifying causes of cancer, discovering ways of combating autoimmune diseases and improving our understanding of how cells function and communicate.
  • The University of Toledo : Academic Program : 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.utoledo.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Biology (Access Excellence) Provides lesson plans in a variety of areas from the cellular level on up to how bodies function.
  • Awesome Library - Materials Search - Lesson Plans - Biology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.awesomelibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

.You and your class are invited to use and improve this book!^ All notes included on website are given in class - you are welcome to print them out for your own use.
  • Biology1 & 1A - Student Resources 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biologycorner.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Those of you who are registering for classes using the online registration will have to do so in 3 steps.
  • College of the Siskiyous - Biology Department 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.siskiyous.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Desired Job Title: Desired Location: First Name: Last Name: Email Address: Choose Password: Upload Your Resume: We use your resume to improve your search results.
  • Biologist Jobs | Trovix 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.trovix.com [Source type: News]
  • Biologist Jobs in Missouri | Trovix 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.trovix.com [Source type: Academic]

See also: Wikibooks:Natural sciences bookshelf#Ecology
See also: Wikibooks:Social sciences bookshelf#Anthropology
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Simple English

Biology is the science of life and living things, like plants, animals, fungi (such as mushrooms), and bacteria. People who study biology are called biologists. Biology looks at how animals and other organisms behave and work, and what they are like. Biology also studies how organisms react with each other and the environment. It has existed as a science for about 200 years, and was preceded by natural history. Biology has many research fields and branches. Like all sciences, biology uses the scientific method. This means that biologists must be able to show evidence for their ideas, and that other biologists must be able to test the ideas for themselves.

Biology attempts to answer questions like these: "What are the characteristics of this living thing?" (comparative anatomy); "How should we group living things?" (classification, taxonomy); "What does this living thing do?" (behaviour, growth); "How does inheritance work? (genetics); "What has been the history of life?" (palaeontology). How do organisms relate to their environment? (ecology). All modern biology is influenced by evolution.

Branches of biology

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 05, 2010

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