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Biplot: Wikis


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Biplots are a type of graph used in statistics. A biplot allows information on both samples and variables of a data matrix to be displayed graphically. Samples are displayed as points while variables are displayed either as vectors, linear axes or nonlinear trajectories. In the case of categorical variables, category level points may be used to represent the levels of a categorical variable. A generalised biplot displays information on both continuous and categorical variables.

The biplot was introduced by Gabriel (1971). Gower and Hand (1996) wrote a monograph. Yan and Kang (2003) describe various methods to visualize and interpret a biplot.


  • Gabriel, K.R. (1971). "The biplot graphic display of matrices with application to principal component analysis". Biometrika 58 (3): 453–467.  
  • Gower, J.C., Hand, D.J, 1996. Biplots. Chapman & Hall, London, UK. ISBN 0412716305
  • Yan, W., Kang, M.S. 2003. GGE Biplot Analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. ISBN 0849313384
  • Vicente-Villardón, J.L.; Galindo M.P., Blázquez-Zaballos, A. (2006). Logistic Biplots. In: Multiple correspondence analysis and related methods. Greenacre M.; Blasius, J. (Eds) Chapman & Hall/CRC Press. Boca de Raton. USA. 608 p. ISBN 1584886285
  • Demey JR, JL Vicente-Villardón, MP Galindo-Villardón, AY Zambrano. 2008. Identifying molecular markers associated with classification of genotypes by External Logistic Biplots. Bioinformatics. 24(24):2832-2838


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