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Bipolar disorder
Classification and external resources

Many people involved with the arts, such as Vincent van Gogh, are believed to have suffered from bipolar disorder
ICD-10 F31.
ICD-9 296.80
OMIM 125480 309200
DiseasesDB 7812
MedlinePlus 001528
eMedicine med/229
MeSH D001714
.Bipolar disorder or manic–depressive disorder (also referred to as bipolar affective disorder or manic depression) is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a category of mood disorders defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood.^ Category : Mood disorders Printable version .
  • Bipolar disorder - Psych Central's Wiki 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC wiki.psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For more information on bipolar disorder .
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have a loved one with bipolar disorder and other disorders?
  • 10 Secrets to Supporting Someone with Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tobipolardisorderinfo.com [Source type: General]

.These moods are clinically referred to as mania or, if milder, hypomania.^ The clinical presentations of this disorder are broad and include mania, hypomania and psychosis.
  • Management of Bipolar Disorder - September 15, 2000 - American Family Physician 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ McElroy SL, Keck PE Jr, Pope HG Jr, et al: Clinical and research implications for the diagnosis of dysphoric or mixed mania or hypomania.

^ To meet the criteria for mania, at least 3 of these symptoms must pers ist for at least a week, 4 if the mood is only irritability.

.Individuals who experience manic episodes also commonly experience depressive episodes or symptoms, or mixed episodes in which features of both mania and depression are present at the same time.^ Mania or manic episodes.

^ Treating a manic or depressive episode .
  • Bipolar Disorder (manic depression) 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.rcpsych.ac.uk [Source type: General]
  • Bipolar Disorder (manic depression) 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.rcpsych.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ The mixed state is where you are both manic and depressed.

[1] .These episodes are usually separated by periods of "normal" mood, but in some individuals, depression and mania may rapidly alternate, known as rapid cycling.^ These episodes are usual ly, but not always, interspersed with periods of depression.

^ Bipolar disorder involves periods of excitability (mania) alternating with periods of depression .
  • Bipolar Disorder - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mania and mixed depressive episodes .
  • Bipolar Disorder (manic depression) 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.rcpsych.ac.uk [Source type: General]
  • Bipolar Disorder (manic depression) 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.rcpsych.ac.uk [Source type: General]

.Extreme manic episodes can sometimes lead to psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations.^ Sometimes, a person with severe episodes of mania or depression has psychotic symptoms too, such as hallucinations or delusions.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patients, aged 13 to 25, were selected on the basis of being at ultra-high risk for developing a psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia, based on early symptoms.
  • Alltop - Top Bipolar Disorder News 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC bipolar.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Psychosis Psychotic symptoms (e.g., delusions, hallucinations) are commonly seen during episodes of either mania or depression but are more common in the former, appearing in over one-half of manic episodes ( 41 ).

.The disorder has been subdivided into bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymia, and other types, based on the nature and severity of mood episodes experienced; the range is often described as the bipolar spectrum.^ Have a loved one with bipolar disorder and other disorders?
  • 10 Secrets to Supporting Someone with Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tobipolardisorderinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ Cyclothymia is a mild form of bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder are based on the specific type of bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Data from the United States on lifetime prevalence varies, but indicates a rate of around 1% for Bipolar I, 0.5–1% for Bipolar II or cyclothymia, and 2–5% for subthreshold cases meeting some, but not all, criteria.^ Studies indicate differences in lifetime prevalence estimates for bipolar I, bipolar II, and subthreshold bipolar disorders: 1.0% for bipolar I disorder, 1.1% for bipolar II disorder, and 2.4-4.7% for subthreshold bipolar disorders.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The lifelong prevalence of bipolar disorder in the United States has been noted to range from 1-1.6%.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many studies indicate that lithium works better for controlling manic states, and that lamotrigine works better for bipolar depression.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

.The onset of full symptoms generally occurs in late adolescence or young adulthood.^ The classic symptoms of mania, including racing thoughts, pressured speech, hypersexuality, and grandiosity, more often match the presentation of bipolar disorder in late adolescence.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Despite Kraepelin's early observation and description of childhood-onset and adolescent-onset bipolar disorders, the controversy about diagnosing bipolar disorder in young persons persists.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adolescence through the early 20s is the peak age of onset: about 25% of first episodes occur before age 20.

.Diagnosis is based on the person's self-reported experiences, as well as observed behavior.^ The information is based on personal experience.
  • Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]
  • Bipolar Facts - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]
  • Understanding Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, delays in getting the correct diagnosis and treatment make a person more likely to experience personal, social, and work-related problems.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because bipolar I varies from person to person, there are more specific subcategories of diagnosis based on your particular signs and symptoms.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Episodes of abnormality are associated with distress and disruption, and an elevated risk of suicide, especially during depressive episodes.^ Mood changes of this nature are associated with distress and disruption, and a relatively high risk of suicide .
  • Bipolar disorder - Psych Central's Wiki 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC wiki.psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mixed episode: The depressed phases put the patient at risk for suicide.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suicide is a very real risk during both mania and depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.In some cases it can be a devastating long-lasting disorder; in others it has also been associated with creativity, goal striving and positive achievements; there is significant evidence to suggest that many people with creative talents have also suffered from some form of bipolar disorder (for more information, see list of people affected by bipolar disorder).^ For more information on bipolar disorder .
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bipolar disorder also affects family members.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Have a loved one with bipolar disorder and other disorders?
  • 10 Secrets to Supporting Someone with Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tobipolardisorderinfo.com [Source type: General]

[2]
.Genetic factors contribute substantially to the likelihood of developing bipolar disorder, and environmental factors are also implicated.^ Bipolar disorder has a number of contributing factors, including genetic, biochemical, psychodynamic, and environmental elements.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the development of the disorder is strongly influenced by genetic risk factors.

^ Genetic and familial factors seem to be highly important in the development of bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Bipolar disorder is often treated with mood stabilizer medications, and sometimes other psychiatric drugs.^ Other illnesses can make it hard to diagnose and treat bipolar disorder.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medication is the key to stabilizing bipolar disorder.
  • Management of Bipolar Disorder - September 15, 2000 - American Family Physician 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mood stabilizers are most the commonly prescribed medications for bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar disorder 11 September 2009 10:010 UTC cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Psychotherapy also has a role, often when there has been some recovery of stability. .In serious cases in which there is a risk of harm to oneself or others involuntary commitment may be used; these cases generally involve severe manic episodes with dangerous behavior or depressive episodes with suicidal ideation.^ Bipolar I may also include episodes of depression or dysthymia in between the manic episodes.

^ Patients who are manic or depressed may attempt suicide or homicide.
  • Management of Bipolar Disorder - September 15, 2000 - American Family Physician 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Just like suicidal depression, uncontrollable manic episodes can be dangerous to the patient.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

.There are widespread problems with social stigma, stereotypes and prejudice against individuals with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder.^ Are there different types of bipolar disorder?
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ There was a significant delay in diagnosis and treatment of patients with bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder and Suicide -- Neurotransmitter.net 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This manual is NOT and I repeat NOT for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • 10 Secrets to Supporting Someone with Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tobipolardisorderinfo.com [Source type: General]

[3] .People with bipolar disorder exhibiting psychotic symptoms can sometimes be misdiagnosed as having schizophrenia, another serious mental illness.^ People with bipolar disorder should monitor their physical and mental health.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ADHD has symptoms that overlap with bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ What can people with bipolar disorder expect from treatment?
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.The current term "bipolar disorder" is of fairly recent origin and refers to the cycling between high and low episodes (poles).^ Bipolar disorder can be severe and long-term, or it can be mild with infrequent episodes.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rapid cycling bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ With bipolar disorder , you alternate between episodes of depression and mania .
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

.A relationship between mania and melancholia had long been observed, although the basis of the current conceptualisation can be traced back to French psychiatrists in the 1850s.^ The idea of a relationship between mania and melancholia can be traced back to at least the 2nd century AD .
  • Bipolar disorder - Psych Central's Wiki 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC wiki.psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The earliest written descriptions of a relationship between mania and melancholia are attributed to Aretaeus of Cappadocia .
  • Bipolar disorder - Psych Central's Wiki 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC wiki.psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The contemporary psychiatric conceptualisation of manic-depressive illness is typically traced back to the 1850s .
  • Bipolar disorder - Psych Central's Wiki 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC wiki.psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.The term "manic-depressive illness" or psychosis was coined by German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin in the late nineteenth century, originally referring to all kinds of mood disorder.^ A story of bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness).
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I do know that like manic-depression, it is a mood disorder.
  • Is manic-depression a disease to be cured? - Straight Dope Message Board 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is also called manic-depressive disorder.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

.German psychiatrist Karl Leonhard split the classification again in 1957, employing the terms unipolar disorder (major depressive disorder) and bipolar disorder.^ Depressive Disorder The Treatment of Bipolar Disorder The treatments of bipolar disorder are dicussed.
  • Understanding Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder is 1 percent, which compares to a lifetime prevalence of 6 percent for unipolar depression.
  • Management of Bipolar Disorder - September 15, 2000 - American Family Physician 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Depression and bipolar disorder.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Signs and symptoms

.Bipolar disorder is a condition in which people experience abnormally elevated (manic or hypomanic) and abnormally depressed states for periods of time in a way that interferes with functioning.^ Many people with manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder, are living happy and fulfilling lives.

^ Some people with bipolar disorder experience hypomania.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What can people with bipolar disorder expect from treatment?
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bipolar disorder has been estimated to afflict more than 5 million Americans—about 1 out of every 45 adults.^ Between 1 - 2 million Americans may suffer from bipolar disorder.

^ For more information on bipolar disorder .
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia than with bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] .It is equally prevalent in men and women, and is found across all cultures and ethnic groups.^ Men and women are equally affected.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Bipolar disorder has roughly equal prevalence across different cultures.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ May 2007 THYROID DISEASE Thyroid Disease Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is remarkably common & about 4 to 5 times more women than men will suffer from it, particularly in the over 40 age group.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

[6] .Not everyone's symptoms are the same, and there is no blood test to confirm the disorder.^ There are no symptoms and no problems.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No laboratory study can be used to confirm the diagnosis of bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unfortunately, there are no standardized tests to measure friendship skills as there are for language skills, motor development, and cognitive abilities.
  • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

.Researchers postulate that bipolar disorder may be caused by chemical imbalances in the brain.^ These chemicals cause an imbalance in how the brain works.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Bipolar disorder results from an imbalance of chemicals in the brain and not from anyone's fault.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No single cause may ever be found for bipolar disorder.

.Bipolar disorder can appear to be unipolar depression.^ The lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder is 1 percent, which compares to a lifetime prevalence of 6 percent for unipolar depression.
  • Management of Bipolar Disorder - September 15, 2000 - American Family Physician 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Depression and bipolar disorder.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Affective disorder * Bipolar disorder * Depression * Mania .

.Diagnosing bipolar disorder is often difficult, even for mental health professionals.^ People with bipolar disorder should monitor their physical and mental health.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or is bipolar disorder difficult to diagnose and even harder to treat?

^ How is bipolar disorder diagnosed?
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.What distinguishes bipolar disorder from unipolar depression is that the affected person experiences states of mania and depression.^ Bipolar disorder also affects family members.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ This is my experience with the bipolar mixed state in persons with bipolar disorder.

^ Bipolar disorder involves periods of excitability (mania) alternating with periods of depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Often bipolar is inconsistent among patients because some people feel depressed more often than not and experience little mania whereas others experience predominantly manic symptoms.^ Some people with bipolar disorder experience hypomania.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike people with bipolar disorder, people who have unipolar depression do not experience mania.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder that causes symptoms of both mania and depression in patients.
  • Bipolar Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

Depressive episode

.Signs and symptoms of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder include persistent feelings of sadness, anxiety, guilt, anger, isolation, or hopelessness; disturbances in sleep and appetite; fatigue and loss of interest in usually enjoyable activities; problems concentrating; loneliness, self-loathing, apathy or indifference; depersonalization; loss of interest in sexual activity; shyness or social anxiety; irritability, chronic pain (with or without a known cause); lack of motivation; and morbid suicidal ideation.^ Bipolar Disorder Symptoms Common Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder A list of the most common symptoms of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder.
  • Bi Polar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ What are the symptoms of bipolar disorder?
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bipolar Facts Bipolar Disorder: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Information on bipolar disorder.
  • Bi Polar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[7] .In severe cases, the individual may become psychotic, a condition also known as severe bipolar depression with psychotic features.^ Our preliminary findings suggest that ketoconazole may be useful in some patients with bipolar depression.
  • Treatment-resistant Bipolar Disorder 16 September 2009 11:57 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Children with bipolar disorder show a higher incidence of psychotic features than older adolescents or adults.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a psychopathology that affects approximately 1% of the population.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

Manic episode

.Mania is generally characterized by a distinct period of an elevated, expansive, or irritable mood state.^ Criteria for a hypomanic episode A hypomanic episode is a distinct period of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood that lasts at least four days, and is different from the usual nondepressed mood.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The individual has a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood lasting at least 1 week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary).
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Criteria for a manic episode A manic episode is a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood that lasts at least one week (or less than a week if hospitalization is necessary).
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.People commonly experience an increase in energy and a decreased need for sleep.^ I wish that I could write more today but I have no energy and desperately need to sleep.

^ Behavioral therapy focuses on behaviours that can increase or decrease stress and on ways to increase pleasurable experiences that may help improve depressive symptoms.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Here are some symptoms someone with mania may experience:  Inability to sleep, and lack of need to sleep.

.A person's speech may be pressured, with thoughts experienced as racing.^ The classic symptoms of mania, including racing thoughts, pressured speech, hypersexuality, and grandiosity, more often match the presentation of bipolar disorder in late adolescence.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The symptoms of mania include a decreased need for sleep, pressured speech, increased libido, reckless behavior without regard for consequences, grandiosity, and severe thought disturbances, which may or may not include psychosis.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mania may also include a decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts or a sense that thoughts are out of control, rapid and often pressured speech, increased goal-directed activities or projects, hypersexuality, reckless behaviors and risk-taking, and delusions of grandeur.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Attention span is low and a person in a manic state may be easily distracted.^ On the other side of the spectrum, when Norepinephrine is at a very high level, their state is a manic state and their level of Acetylcholine is very low.
  • Manic Depression: An Overview 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this state a person may experience depression and mania several times in the same day.

^ Children or adolescents with manic-depressive illness may be inappropriately diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

.Judgment may become impaired; sufferers may go on spending sprees or engage in behavior that is quite abnormal for them.^ Being ready to answer them may reserve time to go over any points you want to spend more time on.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ More often, however, the distorted thinking and impaired judgment that are characteristic of manic episodes can lead to dangerous behavior, including the following: A person may spend money with abandon, causing financial ruin in some cases.

^ An abnormal behavioral episode may be designated a bipolar disorder after the frequency and type of abnormal mood are considered.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.They may indulge in substance abuse, particularly alcohol or other depressants, cocaine or other stimulants, or sleeping pills.^ The doctor may ask about alcohol and drug abuse and may ask to talk to close friends and family members in order to better understand symptoms and the events during mania or depressive episodes.
  • What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar Symptoms And Treatments 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Benzodiazepines and alcohol (which produce withdrawal), caffeine, stimulants, exposure to bright light, and sleep deprivation during excited phases should be avoided.
  • Treatment-resistant Bipolar Disorder 16 September 2009 11:57 UTC www.psycom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ You can also help others by writing down your symptoms so they too can let you know if they suspect you may be entering a zone.

.Their behavior may become aggressive, intolerant or intrusive.^ When it comes to young children they may even become very aggressive.

^ Patients do not manifest their negative behaviors (such as spending sprees or even becoming verbally or physically aggressive) in a vacuum.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]

.People may feel out of control or unstoppable.^ The person feels well and in control - but may not see the consequences of his or her behaviour and may react angrily if confronted.

^ People in a mixed state may feel very sad or hopeless while feeling extremely energized.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I cannot describe the feeling of terror that I felt of being totally out of control.

.People may feel they have been "chosen," are "on a special mission," or other grandiose or delusional ideas.^ Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Electroconvulsive therapy can be effective for people who have episodes of severe depression or feel suicidal or people who haven't seen improvements in their symptoms despite other treatment.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ You can also help others by writing down your symptoms so they too can let you know if they suspect you may be entering a zone.

^ They may also exhibit other impulsive behavior such as: reckless driving, promiscuous sex, gambling, travel, high-risk business ventures, etc.
  • 10 Secrets to Supporting Someone with Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tobipolardisorderinfo.com [Source type: General]

.Sexual drive may increase.^ The patient may show an increase in intensity in goal-directed activities, which are related to social behavior, sexual activity, work or school.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Libido often increases and the person may form sexual relationships without considering the consequences.

.At more extreme phases of bipolar I, a person in a manic state can begin to experience psychosis, or a break with reality, where thinking is affected along with mood.^ The manic state is in sharp contrast to the depressive phase of bipolar patients.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Manic Depression Bipolar Disorder, Two Extreme Cycles in One Maddening Disease This article looks into the nightmare of bipolar from the patient's view and is written by the spouse of a bipolar patient.
  • Understanding Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Likewise, screens for the more subtle forms of psychosis, such as paranoid or delusional states, in addition to screens for overt psychosis, such as observing the patient responding to unseen others or other non–reality-based internal stimuli, are explored.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Many people in a manic state experience severe anxiety and are very irritable (to the point of rage), while others are euphoric and grandiose.^ There are some people who have one or more manic or mixed episodes in a very long time, and these people are categorized in Bipolar 1.

^ Many studies indicate that lithium works better for controlling manic states, and that lamotrigine works better for bipolar depression.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is often an afterthought for many people, but it is very important for many people to choose a new mattress so that they can sleep as well as possible.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

.In order to be diagnosed with mania according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (commonly referred to as the DSM) a person must experience this state of elevated or irritable mood, as well as other symptoms, for at least one week, less if hospitalization is required.^ Have a loved one with bipolar disorder and other disorders?
  • 10 Secrets to Supporting Someone with Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tobipolardisorderinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ This is my experience with the bipolar mixed state in persons with bipolar disorder.

^ A manic episode is a period of an elevated or irritable mood for at least one week.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.According to the National Institute of Mental Health, "A manic episode is diagnosed if elevated mood occurs with three or more of the other symptoms most of the day, nearly every day, for 1 week or longer.^ A manic episode is a period of an elevated or irritable mood for at least one week.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the National Institute of Mental Health, people who have a siblin...
  • Bipolar Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ National Institute of Mental Health; 1980-1985.
  • Stigma & Mental Illness 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC www.priory.com [Source type: Academic]

.If the mood is irritable, four additional symptoms must be present."^ Children and adolescents The prevalence of bipolar disorder in a community sample of children and adolescents was 1%; an additional 5.7% had mood symptoms that met criteria for bipolar disorder not otherwise specified ( 124 ).

^ Some of the difficulty arises in recognizing atypical symptoms, including irritability, tantrums, physical aggression, and other behavioral problems, such as expressions of mood disruptions.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Criteria for a hypomanic episode A hypomanic episode is a distinct period of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood that lasts at least four days, and is different from the usual nondepressed mood.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[9]

Hypomanic episode

.Hypomania is generally a mild to moderate level of mania, characterized by optimism, pressure of speech and activity, and decreased need for sleep.^ Mania may also include a decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts or a sense that thoughts are out of control, rapid and often pressured speech, increased goal-directed activities or projects, hypersexuality, reckless behaviors and risk-taking, and delusions of grandeur.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The classic symptoms of mania, including racing thoughts, pressured speech, hypersexuality, and grandiosity, more often match the presentation of bipolar disorder in late adolescence.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The symptoms of mania include a decreased need for sleep, pressured speech, increased libido, reckless behavior without regard for consequences, grandiosity, and severe thought disturbances, which may or may not include psychosis.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some people have increased creativity while others demonstrate poor judgment and irritability.^ Artists are often some of the most creative people around as they have the visual medium to give shape to their every dream and fantasy.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people will debate in the favor of experience while others will vouch for degrees.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people have equal numbers of manic and depressive episodes; others have mostly one type or the other.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

Others experience hypersexuality. .These persons generally have increased energy and tend to become more active than usual.^ Be more active than usual.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Talk more than usual.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ A person may spend excessive amounts of money (which they usually dont have), delve into risky ventures or increase gambling due to an increased optimism.

They do not, however, have delusions or hallucinations. .Hypomania can be difficult to diagnose because it may masquerade as mere happiness, though it carries the same risks as mania.^ I was diagnosed with both disorders at the same time, I'm also a drug user, it's so difficult to cope at the moment.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Doctors usually require this because taking only an antidepressant can increase a person's risk of switching to mania or hypomania, or of developing rapid cycling symptoms.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SAMe (pronounced Sammy) This supplement may affect levels of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, but carries with it a risk of mania.

.Hypomania may feel good to the person who experiences it.^ In families where one person has manic depressive illness, there are often other family members who have episodes of depressive illness or hypomania.

^ What most believe was a "10" after a successful diet, turns out to be only a "1" on the "feel good" scale once they experience the benefits of chelation.

^ People feel sorry for you and label it as an illness but i see it as riding storms and seeing sunsets that perhaps the average person may never see.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, even when family and friends learn to recognize the mood swings, the individual often will deny that anything is wrong.^ Mood disturbances in children and adolescents are often more difficult to recognize and diagnose than those in adults.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is not known if there is a gene for bipolar or if it is a vulnerability to severe mood swings that is passed on through families.

^ To learn more about how you can help your loved one through mood swings, see Helping a person during a manic episode .
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

[10] .Mind you, what might be called a "hypomanic event", if it not accompanied by complementary depressive episodes ("downs", etcetera), is not typically deemed as problematic whatsoever.^ You may or may not have had a major depressive episode.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Bipolar depression typically lasts 2 - 3 months -- not as long as in major depression (although left untreated some bipolar disorder episodes can last 6 - 12 months or longer).
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Call your doctor if you feel you're falling into an episode of depression or mania.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.The "problem" arises when mood changes are uncontrollable and, more importantly, volatile or "mercurial". If unaccompanied by depressive counterpart episodes or otherwise general irritability, this behavior is typically called hyperthymia, or happiness, which is of course perfectly normal.^ Women experience more depressive episodes.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Use more if mercury toxicity is profound enough to cause depression, Alzheimers or brain fog.

^ People with bipolar disorder also may be explosive and irritable during a mood episode.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Indeed, the most elementary definition of bipolar disorder is an often "violent" or "jarring" state of essentially uncontrollable oscillation between hyperthymia and dysthymia.^ Most patients with bipolar disorder fluctuate between mania an...
  • Bipolar Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Between 1 - 2 million Americans may suffer from bipolar disorder.

^ Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric illness, characterized by mood swings – from depressed moods ("low lows") to manic moods ("high highs"), with "normal" moods in between.
  • 10 Secrets to Supporting Someone with Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tobipolardisorderinfo.com [Source type: General]

Mixed affective episode

.In the context of bipolar disorder, a mixed state is a condition during which symptoms of mania and clinical depression occur simultaneously (for example, agitation, anxiety, aggressiveness or belligerence, confusion, fatigue, impulsiveness, insomnia, irritability, morbid and/or suicidal ideation, panic, paranoia, persecutory delusions, pressured speech, racing thoughts, restlessness, and rage).^ Symptoms of depression and symptoms of mania or hypomania may also occur together.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ ADHD has symptoms that overlap with bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ In 2000, the FDA approved it to treat bipolar mania and mixed states.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

[11]

Associated features

.Associated features are clinical phenomena that often accompany the disorder, but are not part of the diagnostic criteria for the disorder.^ The American Psychiatric Association has a book known as the DSM-IV, short for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

^ Diagnostic criteria for 299.80 Asperger's Disorder (AD) ", Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th ed., text revision ( DSM-IV-TR ).
  • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder are based on the specific type of bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

Cognitive functioning
.Reviews have indicated that most individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder but who are euthymic (not experiencing major depression or mania) do not show neuropsychological deficits on most tests.^ Unlike people with bipolar disorder, people who have unipolar depression do not experience mania.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depressive Disorder The Treatment of Bipolar Disorder The treatments of bipolar disorder are dicussed.
  • Understanding Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The control individuals were not diagnosed for affective disorders.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[12] .Meta-analyses have indicated, by averaging the variable findings of many studies, cognitive deficits on some measures of sustained attention, executive function and verbal memory, in terms of group averages.^ Many studies indicate that lithium works better for controlling manic states, and that lamotrigine works better for bipolar depression.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some studies are finding that maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be helpful for patients who do not respond to medications.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Functional and anatomical cortical underconnectivity in autism: evidence from an FMRI study of an executive function task and corpus callosum morphometry ".
  • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

.On some tests functioning is superior, however,[12] and sub-threshold mood states and psychiatric medications may account for some deficits.^ Some doctors speculate that, as in schizophrenia, nicotine use may be a form of self-medication because of its specific effects on the brain.

^ Therefore, an episode may be reported as a bipolar disorder with a single manic episode, with recurrent manic episodes, or by the mood state of the most recent episode (eg, depressed, mixed, hypomanic, manic).
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some studies are finding that maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be helpful for patients who do not respond to medications.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

[13][14] .A 2010 study found that "excellent performance" at school at age 15-16 was associated in males with a higher rate of developing bipolar disorder, but so was the poorest performance.^ Incidence of bipolar II disorder is higher in females than in males.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lifetime psychiatric disorders in school-aged offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring study.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ She found that 38% had been treated for bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

[15] .A 2005 study of young adult males found that poor performance on visuospatial tasks was associated with a higher rate of developing bipolar disorder, but so was high performance in arithmetic reasoning.^ This topic discusses bipolar disorder in adults.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ She found that 38% had been treated for bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Smith, Daniel and Blackwood, D. H. and Muir, W. J. (2006) Neurocognitive impairment in euthymic young adults with bipolar spectrum disorder and recurrent major depressive disorder.
  • Items where Year is 2006 -ORCA 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC orca.cardiff.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[16]
Creativity
.Bipolar disorder has been associated with people involved in the arts but it is an ongoing question as to whether many creative geniuses had bipolar disorder.^ What can people with bipolar disorder expect from treatment?
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, many people don't seek treatment for bipolar disorder.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ As many as 20% of people with bipolar disorder (1 in 5) will kill themselves.
  • Bipolar Disorder Success | 10 Secrets to Helping and Supporting Your Loved One 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bipolardisorderdvd.com [Source type: General]

[17][18][19] .Some studies have found a significant association between bipolar disorder and creativity, although it is unclear in which direction the cause lies or whether both conditions are caused by a third unknown factor; temperament has been hypothesized to be one such factor.^ Have a loved one with bipolar disorder and other disorders?
  • 10 Secrets to Supporting Someone with Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tobipolardisorderinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ No single cause may ever be found for bipolar disorder.

^ What causes bipolar disorder?
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

[20][21][22]
Goals
.A series of authors have described mania or hypomania as being related to a high motivation to achieve, ambitious goal-setting, and sometimes high achievement.^ Treatment for Bipolar Bipolar Disorder: Hypomania and Mania When you have Bipolar, sometimes expressing how you feel can be difficult to those you love.

^ Acute Mania - If hypomania is not treated, lack of sleep and high level of activity may lead to acute mania where thinking is disjointed and distorted.

^ During this cycle I am at extremes, sometimes I achieve the greatest things, only to destroy those achievements almost immediately.

.One study indicated that the pursuit of goals, encouraged by sometimes achieving them, can become emotionally dysregulated and involve the development of mania.^ One study indicated that lithium reduced the risk for suicide regardless of its effects on stabilizing mood.

^ Once you do this, your next job is to become actively involved in your care from day one.

^ Several studies have indicated that IL1 is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

[23] .Individuals may have low self-esteem and difficulties in social adjustment, however, and by definition there are periods of depression with difficulty in motivation and functioning.^ Counselling plays an important adjunctive role in the treatment of manic depression.Therapy issues include dealing with the psychosocial stressors that may precipitate or worsen manic and depressive episodes and dealing with the individual , interpersonal, social and occupational consequences of the disorder itself.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ In extremes of depression and mania, they may experience difficulty in concentrating and focusing.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The personal hygiene of individuals experiencing a depressed episode reflects their low mood, as evidenced by poor grooming, lack of shaving, and lack of washing.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[24]

Causes

.The causes of bipolar disorder likely vary between individuals.^ What causes bipolar disorder?
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ This manual is NOT and I repeat NOT for individuals with bipolar disorder.
  • 10 Secrets to Supporting Someone with Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tobipolardisorderinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ The cause of bipolar disorder is not completely understood.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

.Twin studies have been limited by relatively small sample sizes but have indicated a substantial genetic contribution, as well as environmental influence.^ Further evidence for family-genetic risk factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : patterns of comorbidity in probands and relatives in psychiatrically and pediatrically referred samples .
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic and environmental influences on the covariation between hyperactivity and conduct disturbance in juvenile twins.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies of the mutations in unrelated Fabry families have identified a variety of lesions indicating the molecular genetic heterogeneity underlying the disease.

.For Bipolar I, the (probandwise) concordance rates in modern studies have been consistently put at around 40% in monozygotic twins (same genes), compared to 0 to 10% in dizygotic twins.^ Forum for Modern Language Studies, 40 (1).

^ There have been biographical studies of earlier generations of artists and writers which show that they have 18 times the rate of suicide (as compared to the general population), 8-10 times the rate of unipolar depression, and 10-20 times the rate of bipolar depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Twin studies demonstrate a concordance of 33-90% for BPI in identical twins.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[25] .A combination of bipolar I, II and cyclothymia produced concordance rates of 42% vs 11%, with a relatively lower ratio for bipolar II that likely reflects heterogeneity.^ An analysis of the combination of intestinal MDR1 level and liver CYP3A5 genotype revealed that the tacrolimus C/D ratio was lower in the group with higher MDR1 levels regardless of CYP3A5 genotype during postoperative week 1.

^ I really liked your distinguished views between bipolar I and bipolar II. .
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Patients with bipolar II disorder and those with depressive mixed state are most likely to be misdiagnosed with unipolar depression.

.The overall heritability of the bipolar spectrum has been put at 0.71.[26] There is overlap with unipolar depression and if this is also counted in the co-twin the concordance with bipolar disorder rises to 67% (Mz) and 19% (Dz).^ Are there different types of bipolar disorder?
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Depressive Disorder The Treatment of Bipolar Disorder The treatments of bipolar disorder are dicussed.
  • Understanding Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Depression and bipolar disorder.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

[27] .The relatively low concordance between dizygotic twins brought up together suggests that shared family environmental effects are limited, although the ability to detect them has been limited by small sample sizes.^ The basic reason for this is that allele sharing among relatives in isolated populations may be exaggerated due large regions of founder chromosomes that have not been broken up by recombination.
  • Susceptability and resistance genes for bipolar affective disorder - Patent 6897022 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic and environmental influences on the covariation between hyperactivity and conduct disturbance in juvenile twins.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, a significant positive correlation between ACh responsiveness and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol status was detected.

[26]

Genetic

.Genetic studies have suggested many chromosomal regions and candidate genes appearing to relate to the development of bipolar disorder, but the results are not consistent and often not replicated.^ The study results suggest factors besides genes are also at work.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genetic studies of autistic disorder and chromosome 7 .
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ The disorder appears to result from a mutation in the gene for apoB-100.

[28] .Although the first genetic linkage finding for mania was in 1969,[29] the linkage studies have been inconsistent.^ Exploratory findings from the first 28 families (n = 247) were tested prospectively in an additional 30 families (n = 259), and the effect of confirmed findings on the linkage evidence was assessed.
  • Arch Gen Psychiatry -- Linkage of Bipolar Disorder to Chromosome 18q and the Validity of Bipolar II Disorder, November 2001, McMahon et al. 58 (11): 1025 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC archpsyc.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although I am in the depressed stage, mania is breaking my mind into fragments and I find it hard to think logical thoughts.

^ Recent genetic studies have revealed that the IL1 gene complex (IL,1 alpha, IL1, beta and IL1 receptor antagonist) was associated with schizophrenia, although contradictory findings have also been reported.

[30] .(Genetic linkage studies may be followed by fine mapping searching for the phenomenon of linkage disequilibrium with a single gene, then DNA sequencing; using this approach causative DNA base pair changes have been reported for the genes P2RX7[31] and TPH1[citation needed]).^ Searching for susceptibility genes in schizophrenia by genetic linkage analysis.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ These approaches may be vector-based, e.g.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Synapsin II has been proposed as a candidate gene for vulnerability to schizophrenia on the basis of its function and its location in a region of the genome implicated by linkage studies in families with schizophrenia.

.Recent meta-analyses of linkage studies detected either no significant genome-wide findings or, using a different methodology, only two genome-wide significant peaks, on chromosome 6q and on 8q21. Genome-wide association studies have also not brought a consistent focus — each has identified new loci, while none of the previously identified loci were replicated.^ Potential linkage for schizophrenia on chromosome 22q12-q13 : a replication study.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ Collaborative genome-wide association analysis supports a role for ANK3 and CACNA1C in bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No significant differences in the numbers of apoptotic cells were observed between the different treatment conditions.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[30] .Findings did include a single-nucleotide polymorphism in DGKH;[32] a locus in a gene-rich region of high linkage disequilibrium (LD) on chromosome 16p12;[33] and a single-nucleotide polymorphism in MYO5B.^ These data suggest that the 4 polymorphisms in the promoter region of the HL gene are in linkage disequilibrium with > /=1 as-yet-unknown functional polymorphisms in the HL gene locus with a significant effect on HL metabolism and/or enzymatic activity.

^ In the second phase of the present study, candidate gene GPR154, which is located in the phase one-linked region, was investigated in 211 families with seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that tag most haplotype variability, by the pedigree disequilibrium test.

^ To explore whether the inconsistent results in previous studies might be due to linkage disequilibrium with a polymorphism or haplotype not previously tested, we genotyped 10 additional NOS3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 25.3 kb.

[34] .A comparison of these studies, combined with a new study, suggested an association with ANK3 and CACNA1C, thought to be related to calcium and sodium voltage-gated ion channels.^ The nucleic acid molecules according to the invention may be derived from any organism encoding corresponding P2X7R ATP-gated ion channels.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A non-functional ATP-gated ion channel P2X7R is a protein which can be classified as a P2X7R protein due to structural characteristics as described above but which has lost at least one, preferably all, functional characteristics of a P2X7R protein as described above.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An identified agonist of the ATP-gated ion channel P2X7R comprising the mutation(s) and/or deletion(s) described hereinabove may be useful to reestablish the lost functionality of the P2X7R ATP-gated ion channel.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[35] .Diverse findings point strongly to heterogeneity, with different genes being implicated in different families.^ Synapsin II has been proposed as a candidate gene for vulnerability to schizophrenia on the basis of its function and its location in a region of the genome implicated by linkage studies in families with schizophrenia.

^ The association of 1 SNP of this gene with PC levels (P=0.005) strongly supports the implication of NQO1 gene in the variability of PC levels.

^ Our findings point to promoter polymorphism(s) in the ACHE gene as the dominant susceptibility factor(s) for adverse responses to exposure or to treatment with anti-AChEs.

[36] .Numerous specific studies find various specific links.^ X-linked non specific mental retardation (MRX) linkage studies in 25 unrelated famililes : the European XLMR consortium.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ July 2007 A person who is dealing with specific goals of writing a study may need to have various research paper ideas.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Given the various loci mentioned in the above studies (e.g., links to chromosomes 5, 6, 12, 13, 15, 18, 21), a definite genetic link for affective diseases remains to be found.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[37][38][39][40][41] .Advanced paternal age has been linked to a somewhat increased chance of bipolar disorder in offspring, consistent with a hypothesis of increased new genetic mutations.^ Genetic research on bipolar disorder is being helped by advances in technology.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one aspect, the present invention provides genetically based methods and kits for determining a genotype associated with an increased or decreased susceptibility to familial bipolar affective disorder in a family affected by bipolar affective disorder.
  • Susceptability and resistance genes for bipolar affective disorder - Patent 6897022 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is increased psychopathology in children who have at least one biologic parent with bipolar I or bipolar II disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[42] .A review seeking to identify the more consistent findings suggested several genes related to serotonin (SLC6A4 and TPH2), dopamine (DRD4 and SLC6A3), glutamate (DAOA and DTNBP1), and cell growth and/or maintenance pathways (NRG1, DISC1 and BDNF), although noting a high risk of false positives in the published literature.^ This is followed by induction of genes known to mediate cell death and repression of growth/survival-related genes.

^ This study traces the evolutionary pathways of the apolipoprotein B gene in the low risk Chinese and high risk Asian Indians in relation to coronary artery disease (CAD).

^ Thus, our results suggest the existence of at least one more major breast cancer-susceptibility gene.

.It was also suggested that individual genes are likely to have only a small effect and to be involved in some aspect related to the disorder (and a broad range of "normal" human behavior) rather than the disorder per se.^ Rather, it is likely that many different genes and a person's environment are involved.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But genes are not the only risk factor for bipolar disorder.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To date, the two silencer elements and possibly also the HNF-1-like element are the only functional elements defined in the CYP2C11 gene, and it is conceivable that induction of the gene involves derepression of the silencer elements.

[43]

Childhood precursors

.Some limited long-term studies indicate that children who later receive a diagnosis of bipolar disorder may show subtle early traits such as subthreshold cyclical mood abnormalities, full major depressive episodes, and possibly ADHD with mood fluctuation.^ People with bipolar disorder also may be explosive and irritable during a mood episode.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bipolar depression typically lasts 2 - 3 months -- not as long as in major depression (although left untreated some bipolar disorder episodes can last 6 - 12 months or longer).

^ Early signs of a mood episode differ from person to person and are different for mood elevations and depressions.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

There may be hypersensitivity and irritability. .There is some disagreement whether the experiences are necessarily fluctuating or may be chronic.^ Here are some symptoms someone with mania may experience:  Inability to sleep, and lack of need to sleep.

^ There are just some things that can only be learnt through experience, with no amount of preparation adequate.
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^ May 2007 There can always be debate about the importance of work experience against academic qualification.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

[44] .A history of stimulant use in childhood is found in high numbers of bipolar patients and has been found to cause an earlier onset of bipolar disorder and a worse clinical course, independent of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.^ The risk of suicide in patients with bipolar disorders.
  • Stigma & Mental Illness 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC www.priory.com [Source type: Academic]

^ She found that 38% had been treated for bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Causes: No single cause may ever be found for bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]

[45][46][47]

Life events and experiences

.Evidence suggests that environmental factors play a significant role in the development and course of bipolar disorder, and that individual psychosocial variables may interact with genetic dispositions.^ Garrett A, Chang K. The role of the amygdala in bipolar disorder development.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of course, your mileage may vary.
  • Lexapro User Reviews at Drugs.com 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ What are the risk factors for bipolar disorder?
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .There is fairly consistent evidence from prospective studies that recent life events and interpersonal relationships contribute to the likelihood of onsets and recurrences of bipolar mood episodes, as they do for onsets and recurrences of unipolar depression.^ Smith, Daniel and Blackwood, D. H. and Muir, W. J. (2006) Neurocognitive impairment in euthymic young adults with bipolar spectrum disorder and recurrent major depressive disorder.
  • Items where Year is 2006 -ORCA 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC orca.cardiff.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ There have been biographical studies of earlier generations of artists and writers which show that they have 18 times the rate of suicide (as compared to the general population), 8-10 times the rate of unipolar depression, and 10-20 times the rate of bipolar depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There are some people who have one or more manic or mixed episodes in a very long time, and these people are categorized in Bipolar 1.

[48] .There have been repeated findings that between a third and a half of adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder report traumatic/abusive experiences in childhood, which is associated on average with earlier onset, a worse course, and more co-occurring disorders such as PTSD.^ For more information on bipolar disorder .
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and social phobia, also co-occur often among people with bipolar disorder.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was diagnosed with a form of bipolar disorder after … .
  • Alltop - Top Bipolar Disorder News 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC bipolar.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[49] .The total number of reported stressful events in childhood is higher in those with an adult diagnosis of bipolar spectrum disorder compared to those without, particularly events stemming from a harsh environment rather than from the child's own behavior.^ This topic discusses bipolar disorder in adults.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Incidence of bipolar II disorder is higher in females than in males.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the Child and Adolescent bipolar Foundation, diagnosis of bipolar disorder is done with...
  • Bipolar Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[50] .Early experiences of adversity and conflict are likely to make subsequent developmental challenges in adolescence more difficult, and are likely a potentiating factor in those at risk of developing bipolar disorder.^ But genes are not the only risk factor for bipolar disorder.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more information on bipolar disorder .
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The risk of suicide in patients with bipolar disorders.
  • Stigma & Mental Illness 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC www.priory.com [Source type: Academic]

[44]

Neural processes

Hyperintensities (bright areas on MRI scans above) are 2.5 times more likely to occur in bipolar disorder
.Researchers hypothesize that abnormalities in the structure and/or function of certain brain circuits could underlie bipolar and other mood disorders.^ Have a loved one with bipolar disorder and other disorders?
  • 10 Secrets to Supporting Someone with Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tobipolardisorderinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ Bipolar disorder and other mood disorders are increasingly understood in the context of neurochemical imbalances in the brain.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a research paper on bipolar disorder and the genders.

.Some studies have found anatomical differences in areas such as the amygdala,[51] prefrontal cortex[52] and hippocampus.^ Nevertheless, two 2000 studies found no differences in drop-out rates between the two agents.

^ One small 2001 study found an association between the presence of lesions (small damaged areas) in specific areas of the brain and a poor response to medication.

^ Some imaging studies show how the brains of people with bipolar disorder may differ from the brains of healthy people or people with other mental disorders.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, despite 25 years of research involving more than 7,000 MRI scans, studies continue to report conflicting findings and there remains considerable debate over the neuroscientific findings.^ The research goal is to find out what causes juvenile-onset bipolar disorder so that more effective treatments can be developed.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brains of patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have revealed structural abnormalities in the hippocampus, there are differences.

^ When it becomes an issue of preference to which software is more applicable however, there can be some conflict between the various...
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Two fairly consistent abnormalities found in a meta-analysis of 98 MRI or CT neuroimaging studies were that groups with bipolar disorder had lateral ventricles which were on average 17% larger than control groups, and were 2.5 times more likely to have deep white matter hyperintensities.^ For more information on bipolar disorder .
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia than with bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ She found that 38% had been treated for bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Given the size of the meta-analysis, it was concluded that the relatively small number of significant findings was perhaps surprising, and that there may be genuinely limited structural change in bipolar disorder, or perhaps heterogeneity has obscured other differences.^ Have a loved one with bipolar disorder and other disorders?
  • 10 Secrets to Supporting Someone with Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC tobipolardisorderinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ Other disorders that may occur along with bipolar disorder include: 5 .
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Are there different types of bipolar disorder?
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

.In addition, it was noted that averaged associations found at the level of multiple studies may not exist for an individual.^ In addition to drugs, other factors may affect lithium levels, including the following: Seasonal change.

^ Further association studies using CLUMP were performed on samples that contain more case and control individuals.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The association studies using SNPs in P2X7, P2X4, and CaMKK2 reveal associations significant at level of about 5% or less.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[53]
.The "kindling" theory asserts that people who are genetically predisposed toward bipolar disorder can experience a series of stressful events,[54] each of which lowers the threshold at which mood changes occur.^ Some people with bipolar disorder experience hypomania.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What can people with bipolar disorder expect from treatment?
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been theorized that people with bipolar disorder will be affected by the genetic makeup.

.Eventually, a mood episode can start (and become recurrent) by itself.^ Therefore, an episode may be reported as a bipolar disorder with a single manic episode, with recurrent manic episodes, or by the mood state of the most recent episode (eg, depressed, mixed, hypomanic, manic).
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recognize The Symptoms Of Your Disorder If you educate yourself about your disease, you will become the best person to help when you start to experience a manic or depressive episode.

^ Watchful waiting may be enough if a mood episode has just started and you are taking proper medicines.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

.There is evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) abnormalities in bipolar disorder due to stress.^ Are there different types of bipolar disorder?
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Is there a correlation of bipolar disorder with creativity?
  • Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]
  • Bipolar Facts - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]
  • Understanding Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ There are different types of bipolar disorders and that is bipolar type 1 and then bipolar type 2.

[55]
Recent research in Japan hypothesizes that dysfunctional mitochondria in the brain may play a role [56]
.Other recent research implicates issues with a sodium ATPase pump,[57] causing cyclical periods of poor neuron firing (depression) and hyper sensitive neuron firing (mania).^ Intriguing Alternative Treatments for Bipolar Disorder and Depression In recent years much research has been done on alternative treatments for bipolar disorder and depression.

^ Bipolar disorder causes periods of abnormally high (manic) mood followed by periods of abnormally low mood (depression).
  • Bipolar Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Ect Bipolar Disorder/Manic Depression: History, Symptoms, Effects and Treatments This is a research paper that provides a basic overview of the symptoms of and issues surrounding bipolar disorder.

.This may only apply for type one, but type two apparently results from a large confluence of factors.^ Patients with one type may develop another.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The results suggest that VEGF is a major angiogenesis factor in NSCLC but that other factors beside ras mutations may influence tumor vascularity in these tumors.

^ The affected person may not mind the mania or may be in denial of the disease, and since it only lasts a few hours, no one else may even notice.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Melatonin activity

.It has been suggested that a hypersensitivity of the melatonin receptors in the eye could be a reliable indicator of bipolar disorder, in studies called a trait marker, as it is not dependent on state (mood, time, etc).^ Mood Disorder The Treatment of Bipolar Disorder The treatments of bipolar disorder are dicussed.

^ Bipolar Facts Bipolar Disorder Through the Eyes of Virginia Woolf This article examines the case of Virginia Woolf, a famous author whose bipolar illness actually help to make her one of the greatest female writers of her time.

^ Mood Disorder Study Reveals Today's Youths Are More Likely to Have Bipolar Disorder According to a new study published in the September issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, youths today are more likely to have bipolar disorder than they were in the past.
  • Understanding Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.In small studies, patients diagnosed as bipolar reliably showed a melatonin-receptor hypersensitivity to light during sleep, causing a rapid drop in sleeptime melatonin levels compared to controls.^ A double-blind placebo-controlled study of lamotrigine monotherapy in outpatients with bipolar I depression.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many studies indicate that lithium works better for controlling manic states, and that lamotrigine works better for bipolar depression.

^ In contrast, compared to controls, mice infused with P2X7R specific siRNA showed a significant increase in passive behaviour, which is construed as depressive-like behaviour (FIG. 14).
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[58] .Another study showed that drug-free, recovered, bipolar patients exhibited no hypersensitivity to light.^ With approximately two percent of the adult population suffering from bipolar disorder, many wonder how many of these mental health patients exhibited symptoms in childhood.
  • Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]
  • Bipolar Facts - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]
  • Understanding Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ A procedure called repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may be effective for depression and is being studied for patients with bipolar disorder.

^ A 2000 study reported that bipolar disorder patients had varying degrees of problems in short- and with long-term memory, speed of information processing, and mental flexibility.

[59] .It has also been shown in humans that valproic acid, a mood stabilizer, increases transcription of melatonin receptors[60] and decreases eye melatonin-receptor sensitivity in healthy volunteers[61] while low-dose lithium, another mood stabilizer, in healthy volunteers, decreases sensitivity to light when sleeping, but doesn't alter melatonin synthesis.^ The standard first-line mood stabilizers are lithium and valproate.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mood stabilizers (lithium, valproate, carbazepine) are the core of prevention.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ For all three mood stabilizers, blood tests are used to determine the correct dose and to monitor safety.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

[62] .The extent to which melatonin alterations may be a cause or effect of bipolar disorder are not fully known.^ Causes: No single cause may ever be found for bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No single cause may ever be found for bipolar disorder.

^ What causes bipolar disorder?
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

Psychological processes

.Psychological studies of bipolar disorder have examined the development of a wide range of both the core symptoms of psychomotor activation and related clusterings of depression/anxiety, increased hedonic tone, irritability/aggression and sometimes psychosis.^ Symptoms of Bipolar Disease Bipolar Disorder A study of Bipolar disorder which includes treatment and managing the disorder.

^ Psychological Disorder Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder is treatable.

^ Depressive symptoms in those with bipolar disorder tend to vary.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

The existing evidence has been described as patchy in terms of quality but converging in a consistent manner. .The findings suggest that the period leading up to mania is often characterized by depression and anxiety at first, with isolated sub-clinical symptoms of mania such as increased energy and racing thoughts.^ Depression, also known as unipolar affective disorder, is characterized by a combination of symptoms such as lowered mood, loss of energy, loss of interest, feeling of physical illness, poor concentration, altered appetite, altered sleep and a slowing down of physical and mental functions resulting in a relentless feeling of hopelessness, helplessness, guilt, and anxiety.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Behav Genet 1995, 25 : 537-544 THAPAR A, MCGUFFIN P. Anxiety and depressive symptoms in childhood -A genetic study of comorbidity.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypomania Understanding Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder that consists of periods in a state of depression or the opposite, mania.

.The latter increase and lead to increased activity levels, the more so if there is disruption in circadian rhythms or goal attainment events.^ This could lead to a relative increase in shorter exon 2 transcripts, which may be more efficiently translated than exon 1 transcripts.

^ An increase in intensity in goal-directed activities occurs, which is related to social behavior, sexual activity, work, school, or combinations.

^ Individuals whose genotype predicted increased 5-HT transporter activity may be more susceptible to depressive changes in response to transient 5-HT perturbations.

.There is some indication that once mania has begun to develop, social stressors, including criticism from significant others, can further contribute.^ With mania, either euphoria or irritability may mark the phase, and there are significant negative effects (such as sexual recklessness, excessive impulse shopping, sudden traveling) on a patients' social life, work, or both.

^ On the other, you have events that contribute to mania and related upswings.

^ However, they revealed a significant association between the NR4A2 gene haplotype and alcohol dependence, indicating that 2q22-q23 including the NR4A2 gene locus is a possible genomic region contributing to genetic susceptibility to alcohol dependence.

.There are also indications that individuals may hold certain beliefs about themselves, their internal states, and their social world (including striving to meet high standards despite it causing distress) that may make them vulnerable during changing mood states in the face of relevant life events.^ High doses may cause seizures.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Simultaneously, with the change in eating pattern, PWS individuals show significant maladaptive behavioural and emotional characteristics including temper tantrums, inappropriate social behaviour, automutilation (skin picking), stubbornness, mood lability, impulsivity, argumentativeness, anxiety and obsessive compulsive symptoms [67,68].
  • Microdeletions and molecular genetics : from clinical phenotype to behavioural phenotype 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC atlasgeneticsoncology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This does not point out that such products don't work, its just that "misdiagnosis" of the root cause may qualify us to certain solutions that were not ...
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, subtle frontal-temporal and subcortical difficulties in some individuals, related to planning, emotional regulation and attentional control, may play a role.^ Counselling plays an important adjunctive role in the treatment of manic depression.Therapy issues include dealing with the psychosocial stressors that may precipitate or worsen manic and depressive episodes and dealing with the individual , interpersonal, social and occupational consequences of the disorder itself.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ The EEG patterns seen in AS are very characteristic and are seen in patients with and without seizures and may play an important diagnostic role in the appropriate clinical context [74].
  • Microdeletions and molecular genetics : from clinical phenotype to behavioural phenotype 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC atlasgeneticsoncology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ OBJECTIVE: To test whether ghrelin variants could play a role in modulating some aspects of the obese phenotype during childhood.

.Symptoms are often subthreshold and likely continuous with normal experience.^ I often described this experience like trying to hold onto a tiger by the tail…a wonderful, scary adventure…an out of control- but exhilirating rush of emotions.
  • Harnessing Entrepreneurial Manic-Depression: Making the Rollercoaster Work for You 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.Once (hypo)mania has developed, there is an overall increase in activation levels and impulsivity.^ There was a correlation between increasing tumor vascularity and VEGF immunostaining score, but there was no correlation between either of them with the activation of the ras oncogene.

.Negative social reactions or advice may be taken less notice of, and a person may be more caught up in their own thoughts and interpretations, often along a theme of feeling criticised.^ People feel sorry for you and label it as an illness but i see it as riding storms and seeing sunsets that perhaps the average person may never see.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, if you have a young man in your home, you will also notice that they may end up wetting the bed more and more often.

^ The classic symptoms of mania, including racing thoughts, pressured speech, hypersexuality, and grandiosity, more often match the presentation of bipolar disorder in late adolescence.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.There is some suggestion that the mood variation in bipolar disorder may not be cyclical as often assumed, nor completely random, but results from a complex interaction between internal and external variables unfolding over time; there is mixed evidence as to whether relevant life events are found more often in early than later episodes.^ Between 1 - 2 million Americans may suffer from bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People with bipolar disorder also may be explosive and irritable during a mood episode.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more information on bipolar disorder .
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Many sufferers report inexplicably varied cyclical patterns, however.^ The software is built with many feratures such as payment reminder, various reports, a very simple interface for adding income and expenses etc.

[63]

Diagnosis

.Diagnosis is based on the self-reported experiences of an individual as well as abnormalities in behavior reported by family members, friends or co-workers, followed by secondary signs observed by a psychiatrist, nurse, social worker, clinical psychologist or other clinician in a clinical assessment.^ Clinical psychologists, clinical social workers and nurse specialists can also diagnose and provide counselling and psychotherapy.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Family members and friends can help by: .
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Mental health specialists, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, or mental health counselors Health maintenance organizations Community mental health centers Hospital psychiatry departments and outpatient clinics Mental health programs at universities or medical schools State hospital outpatient clinics Family services, social agencies, or clergy Peer support groups Private clinics and facilities Employee assistance programs Local medical and/or psychiatric societies.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are lists of criteria for someone to be so diagnosed.^ The AACP also advises that there are currently no established criteria for diagnosing bipolar disorder in preschoolers.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

.These depend on both the presence and duration of certain signs and symptoms.^ Given that risk can depend both on susceptibility and protective alleles, it is desirable to have means to determine the presence or absence of both types of alleles associated with bipolar affective disorder.
  • Susceptability and resistance genes for bipolar affective disorder - Patent 6897022 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ACh-induced venodilation was mediated by muscarinic receptors and abolished in the presence of both acetylsalicylic acid and L-NMMA suggesting dependence on endothelium.

^ Any patient with bipolar disorder who takes antidepressants and who develops symptoms of hypomania should stop taking these drugs, because hypomania is often a sign of impending mania.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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.Assessment is usually done on an outpatient basis; admission to an inpatient facility is considered if there is a risk to oneself or others.^ This is because, in general, there are probably few other zones of the body we consider to be more si...
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While there are many people who have a decided preference for other more sophisticated alcoholic drinks, beer can be considered as a fun beverage.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are those birthdays that are considered milestones like 21st 30th 40th and others.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

.The most widely used criteria for diagnosing bipolar disorder are from the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the current version being DSM-IV-TR, and the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, currently the ICD-10. The latter criteria are typically used in Europe and other regions while the DSM criteria are used in the USA and other regions, as well as prevailing in research studies.^ People with bipolar disorder should monitor their physical and mental health.
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Filed in Mental Health Update under bipolar disorder .

^ Other health professionals who can diagnose bipolar disorder include: .
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

.An initial assessment may include a physical exam by a physician.^ Medicines that may be used for initial treatment include: .
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ It includes an interview with a health professional, a physical exam, and written or verbal tests.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

.Although there are no biological tests which confirm bipolar disorder, tests may be carried out to exclude medical illnesses such as hypo- or hyperthyroidism, metabolic disturbance, a systemic infection or chronic disease, and syphilis or HIV infection.^ Medications for bipolar disorder include: .
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ There are no lab tests for it.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ To confirm the presence of different tests are carried out.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

.An EEG may be used to exclude epilepsy, and a CT scan of the head to exclude brain lesions.^ Some experts speculate that, as in schizophrenia, nicotine use may be a form of self-medication because of its specific effects on the brain.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Some doctors speculate that, as in schizophrenia, nicotine use may be a form of self-medication because of its specific effects on the brain.

^ One study that used brain scans before and after ECT found no evidence of cell damage.

.Investigations are not generally repeated for relapse unless there is a specific medical indication.^ June 2007 In general, anxiety disorders are treated with medication, specific types of psychotherapy, or both.14 Treatment choices depend on the problem and the person's preference.
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^ Intensive psychotherapy in combination with medication can help improve depression outcomes, indicates a 2007 study in the Archives of General Psychiatry .
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If you are trying to get a job, there are laws that prevent your potential employer from asking you if you have a disability and inquiring about your medical history unless you volunteer that information.

.There are several other mental disorders which may involve similar symptoms to bipolar disorder.^ What are the symptoms of bipolar disorder?
  • NIMH · Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other disorders that may occur along with bipolar disorder include: 5 .
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Are there different types of bipolar disorder?
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

.These include schizophrenia,[64] schizoaffective disorder, drug intoxication, brief drug-induced psychosis, schizophreniform disorder and borderline personality disorder.^ Schizoaffective Disorder - the person has symptoms of mood disorder and also has some symptoms of schizophrenia.

^ Remission The Psychological Problems of Ivan the Terrible Ivan the Terrible might have suffered from bipolar disorder, borderline personality, paranoid personality disorder, anti-social personality disorder, substance use disorder and sadistic attitudes.
  • Bi Polar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Schizophrenia•related and affective personality disorder traits in relatives of probands with schizo•phrenia and personality disorders.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

.Both borderline personality and bipolar disorder can involve what are referred to as "mood swings". In bipolar disorder, the term refers to the cyclic episodes of elevated and depressed mood which generally last weeks or months.^ Early signs of a mood episode differ from person to person and are different for mood elevations and depressions.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder that causes symptoms of both mania and depression in patients.
  • Bipolar Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Bipolar disorder is a relatively common disorder characterized by extreme swings in mood.

.The term in borderline personality refers to the marked lability and reactivity of mood, known as emotional dysregulation, due to response to external psychosocial and intrapsychic stressors; these may arise or subside suddenly and dramatically and last for seconds, minutes, hours or days.^ Exercise 20 minutes a day for mood -- and an hour for fat-burning.

^ It was a super fast thing and only lasted for a super short second, but it would occur at random times throughout the day.
  • Lexapro User Reviews at Drugs.com 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Mood swings can shift rapidly from mania to depression over the course of several days or hours.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

.A bipolar depression is generally more pervasive with sleep, appetite disturbance and nonreactive mood, whereas the mood in dysthymia of borderline personality remains markedly reactive and sleep disturbance not acute.^ Mood Disorder Study Reveals Today's Youths Are More Likely to Have Bipolar Disorder According to a new study published in the September issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, youths today are more likely to have bipolar disorder than they were in the past.
  • Understanding Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Bipolar disorder is an illness that causes extreme mood changes from manic episodes of very high energy to the extreme lows of depression .
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ As I got to know him, I realised his condition was a little more complicated than your garden variety anxiety: he is diagnosed with manic-depression, also known as bipolar disorder.

[65] .Some hold that borderline personality disorder represents a subthreshold form of mood disorder,[66][67] while others maintain the distinctness, though noting they often coexist.^ Schizoaffective Disorder - the person has symptoms of mood disorder and also has some symptoms of schizophrenia.

^ However, when it comes to bipolar disorder it is something that affects a child similarly, but they cannot help their mood swings.

^ Other important forms of depression are premenstrual dysphoric disorder and seasonal affective disorder.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[68][69]

Clinical scales

.The Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS)[70] was developed by Ronald Pies, MD and was later refined and tested by S. Nassir Ghaemi, MD, MPH and colleagues.^ Ghaemi SN, Ko JY, Goodwin FK. "Cade's disease" and beyond: misdiagnosis, antidepressant use, and a proposed definition for bipolar spectrum disorder.
  • Stigma & Mental Illness 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC www.priory.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Screening tests can let you know if your baby does not have this chromosomal disorder, while later diagnostic tests can confirm that the fetus does, in fact, have Down syndrome.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bipolar spectrum disorders frequently go unrecognized and untreated, which results in health and psychosocial problems later on.

The BSDS arose from Pies's experience as a psychopharmacology consultant, where he was frequently called on to manage cases of "treatment-resistant depression." There are 19 question items and two sections on the English version of the BSDS. The scale was validated in its original version and demonstrated a high sensitivity.[71]

Criteria and subtypes

.There is no clear consensus as to how many types of bipolar disorder exist.^ Types of bipolar disorder .
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Are there different types of bipolar disorder?
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ There are many approaches to treating this disorder.

[72] .In DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10, bipolar disorder is conceptualized as a spectrum of disorders occurring on a continuum.^ Bipolar Facts Rare Bipolar Disorder Types: IV, V and VI Based on the work from Gerald Klerman, three types of bipolar disorder not included in the DSM-IV-TR. This article also looks at the lesser-recognized Hagop Akiskal's concept of the bipolar disorder types.
  • Understanding Bipolar Disorder - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Smith, Daniel and Blackwood, D. H. and Muir, W. J. (2006) Neurocognitive impairment in euthymic young adults with bipolar spectrum disorder and recurrent major depressive disorder.
  • Items where Year is 2006 -ORCA 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC orca.cardiff.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Evaluation and comparison of psychometric instruments for pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders in four age groups.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

The DSM-IV-TR lists three specific subtypes:[73]
Bipolar I disorder
One or more manic episodes. .Subcategories specify whether there has been more than one episode, and the type of the most recent episode.^ It can be made of more than one type, depending on the preference of a company, as l...
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are some people who have one or more manic or mixed episodes in a very long time, and these people are categorized in Bipolar 1.

^ In families where one person has manic depressive illness, there are often other family members who have episodes of depressive illness or hypomania.

[74] .A depressive or hypomanic episode is not required for diagnosis, but it frequently occurs.^ Therefore, an episode may be reported as a bipolar disorder with a single manic episode, with recurrent manic episodes, or by the mood state of the most recent episode (eg, depressed, mixed, hypomanic, manic).
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When onset occurs at younger ages, the initial episodes are more likely to be depressive.

^ In Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder, a person has at least four episodes per year, in any combination of manic, hypomanic, mixed, or depressive episodes.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

Bipolar II disorder
No manic episodes, but one or more hypomanic episodes and one or more .major depressive episode.^ Bipolar depression typically lasts 2 - 3 months -- not as long as in major depression (although left untreated some bipolar disorder episodes can last 6 - 12 months or longer).
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most recently in a manic episode with at least one previous major depressive episode, manic episode, or mixed episode 4.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bipolar depressive episodes tend to develop more gradually than do those caused by major depression.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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[75] .However, a Bipolar II diagnosis is not a guarantee that they will not eventually suffer from such an episode in the future.^ A family history of manic-depressive illness may make a doctor suspicious, but a diagnosis of bipolar disorder cannot be established until a manic or hypomanic episode has occurred.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Bipolar II - the person has episodes of hypomania which generally do not disrupt normal activities.

^ Subsequently, Bipolar II is characterized as the presence or history of one or more major depressive episodes and at least one hypomanic episode, without a precedence of a manic or mixed episode.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.March 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Hypomanic episodes do not go to the full extremes of mania (i.e., do not usually cause severe social or occupational impairment, and are without psychosis), and this can make Bipolar II more difficult to diagnose, since the hypomanic episodes may simply appear as a period of successful high productivity and is reported less frequently than a distressing, crippling depression.^ Bipolar depressive episodes develop more gradually than those caused by major depression.

^ Bipolar depressive episodes tend to develop more gradually than do those caused by major depression.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ I had been at the extremes emotionally for so long anything less than that was simply not registered.
  • Is manic-depression a disease to be cured? - Straight Dope Message Board 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

Cyclothymia
A history of hypomanic episodes with periods of depression that do not meet criteria for .major depressive episodes.^ Depression (major depressive episode) .
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Bipolar depression typically lasts 2 - 3 months -- not as long as in major depression (although left untreated some bipolar disorder episodes can last 6 - 12 months or longer).
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Bipolar depressive episodes develop more gradually than those caused by major depression.

[76] .There is a low-grade cycling of mood which appears to the observer as a personality trait, and interferes with functioning.^ There is a fundamental, archetypal type of brain architecture that results in swings between poles in relation to moods, personality traits and capabilities.

^ Thoughts are slower, mood is low and there may be feelings of sadness and emptiness.

^ A person fluctuates between high mood mania and low mood depression.

.Bipolar Disorder NOS (Not Otherwise Specified) is a catchall category, diagnosed when the disorder does not fall within a specific subtype.^ How is bipolar disorder diagnosed?
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ I have been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder now for 6 years or so.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bipolar disorder is hard to diagnose.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

[77] .It can still significantly impair and adversely affect the quality of life of the patient.^ Fear of falling in the elderly has a detrimental affect on the quality of life, BMJ 320 (2000), 241-6.
  • Eubios News in Bioethics & Biotechnology 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC eubios.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Although it isn't life-threatening, it will significantly reduce your cat's quality of life.
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^ The mission of the organization is to "eradicate mental illness and improve the quality of life of those affected by these diseases."
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

.The Bipolar I and II categories have specifiers that indicate the presentation and course of the disorder.^ As in epilepsy, the more episodes a bipolar disorder patient experiences early in the course of the disease, the more frequent and severe later episodes will be.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bipolar disorder is more prevalent than was previously thought, but this illness, particularly bipolar disorder II, is still poorly recognized in the family-practice setting.

^ There is another form of bipolar disorder doctors call bipolar II disorder .

.For example, the "with full interepisode recovery" specifier applies if there was full remission between the two most recent episodes.^ Therefore, an episode may be reported as a bipolar disorder with a single manic episode, with recurrent manic episodes, or by the mood state of the most recent episode (eg, depressed, mixed, hypomanic, manic).
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ April 2009 There are two personal principles on the vicious cycle that most marriages undergo.
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^ Most recently in a manic episode with at least one previous major depressive episode, manic episode, or mixed episode 4.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

[78]

Rapid cycling

.Most people who meet criteria for bipolar disorder experience a number of episodes, on average 0.4 to 0.7 per year, lasting three to six months.^ Who is affected by bipolar disorder?
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Bipolar disorder that does not meet one the above criteria is classified as Bipolar Disorder NOS. .

^ The disorder lasts at least 2 years, with single episodes persisting for more than 2 months.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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[79][80]
.Rapid cycling, however, is a coarse specifier that may be applied to any of the above subtypes.^ The mood swings are the same as with other types of bipolar, but the frequency of mood swings distinguishes rapid-cycling bipolar disorder from the other subtypes.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ (Valproate may be better in patients with multiple manic episodes, mixed episodes, and rapid cycling.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The first step in treating rapid cycling is to try to identify and resolve other factors, such as drug abuse or hypothyroidism, which may have caused this condition.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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.It is defined as having four or more episodes per year and is found in a significant fraction of individuals with bipolar disorder.^ I have been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder now for 6 years or so.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She found that 38% had been treated for bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For more information, see: Bipolar disorder: Preventing manic episodes .
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

.The definition of rapid cycling most frequently cited in the literature (including the DSM) is that of Dunner and Fieve: at least four major depressive, manic, hypomanic or mixed episodes are required to have occurred during a 12-month period.^ In Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder, a person has at least four episodes per year, in any combination of manic, hypomanic, mixed, or depressive episodes.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Lithium is effective for most hypomanic and manic episodes.

^ Most recently in a manic episode with at least one previous major depressive episode, manic episode, or mixed episode 4.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

[81] .There are references that describe very rapid (ultra-rapid) or extremely rapid[82] (ultra-ultra or ultradian) cycling.^ There are very different when it comes to how extreme the person is.

^ Bipolar disorder affects both sexes equally, but there is a higher incidence of rapid cycling, mixed states, and cyclothymia in women.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are different approaches: Mixed states and rapid cycling tend to be more resistant to lithium, and so valproate in combination with other agents is a reasonable choice.

.One definition of ultra-ultra rapid cycling is defining distinct shifts in mood within a 24-to-48-hour period.^ Mood swings can shift rapidly from mania to depression over the course of several days or hours.

^ The mood swings are the same as with other types of bipolar, but the frequency of mood swings distinguishes rapid-cycling bipolar disorder from the other subtypes.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Your submission will be posted on this site along with our response within 12 to 24 hours.
  • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

Challenges

.The experiences and behaviors involved in bipolar disorder are often not understood by individuals or recognized by mental health professionals, so diagnosis may sometimes be delayed for 10 years or more.^ Filed in Mental Health Update under bipolar disorder .

^ Other health professionals who can diagnose bipolar disorder include: .
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Read more from this blogger: Bipolar Disorder .

[83] .That treatment lag is apparently not decreasing, even though there is now increased public awareness of this mental health condition in popular magazines and health websites.^ The past weeks of illness has made me so aware that the Mental Health System is completely inadequate to deal with immediate support for sufferers of Mental Illness.

^ There is no urgency concerning mental health problems, if I become ill I cannot expect urgent support.

^ There are few drawbacks though, one should be aware before takin...
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Despite this increased focus, individuals are still commonly misdiagnosed.^ Despite the popular disgust for this treatment, ECT is still used in patients with psychiatric disorders that have not responded to other therapies, most commonly major depression and bipolar disorder.

[84] .An individual may appear simply depressed when they are seen by a health professional.^ Individuals whose genotype predicted increased 5-HT transporter activity may be more susceptible to depressive changes in response to transient 5-HT perturbations.

^ Loved ones must also care for themselves or they may also follow a path to severe depression.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They may be useful in patients whose depression does not respond to lithium.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

.This can result in misdiagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder and harmful treatments.^ Patients with bipolar disorder swing between major depressive, mixed, hypomanic, and manic episodes.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A controlled family history of prepubertal major depressive disorder.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ Bipolar Disorder I. Bipolar disorder I is characterized by at least one manic episode, with or without major depression, that lasts for at least 7 days.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

.Screening tools such as the Hypomanic Check List Questionnaire (HCL-32)[85] have been developed to assist the quite often difficult detection of Bipolar II disorders.^ Garrett A, Chang K. The role of the amygdala in bipolar disorder development.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (Such deficiencies were not observed in patients with nonpsychotic bipolar disorder or unipolar depression.

^ Benazzi F. Bipolar disorder -- focus on bipolar II disorder and mixed depression.

.However, there is also a long-standing issue in the research literature as to whether a categorical classificatory divide between unipolar and bipolar depression is actually valid, or whether it is more accurate to talk of a continuum involving dimensions of depression and mania.^ There have been biographical studies of earlier generations of artists and writers which show that they have 18 times the rate of suicide (as compared to the general population), 8-10 times the rate of unipolar depression, and 10-20 times the rate of bipolar depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There are some people who have one or more manic or mixed episodes in a very long time, and these people are categorized in Bipolar 1.

^ Bipolar depression typically lasts 2 - 3 months -- not as long as in major depression (although left untreated some bipolar disorder episodes can last 6 - 12 months or longer).
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

[86][87]
.It has been noted that the bipolar disorder diagnosis is officially characterised in historical terms such that, technically, anyone with a history of (hypo)mania and depression has bipolar disorder whatever their current or future functioning and vulnerability.^ Neither the author nor the Publisher assumes any responsibility or liability whatsoever on the behalf of any purchaser or reader of these Bipolar disorder - Manic Depression materials.

^ However, imaging tests do not currently play a role in diagnosing bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This neurotransmitter probably plays an important role in bipolar disorder as well as other conditions for which ECT is sometimes recommended, including delusional depression.

.This has been described as "an ethical and methodological issue", as it means no one can be considered as being recovered (only "in remission") from bipolar disorder according to the official criteria.^ Bipolar disorder is something that can only be controlled.

^ It's not an easy issue, and no one said it was.
  • Is manic-depression a disease to be cured? - Straight Dope Message Board 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bipolar disorder that does not meet one the above criteria is classified as Bipolar Disorder NOS. .

.This is considered especially problematic given that brief hypomanic episodes are widespread among people generally and not necessarily associated with dysfunction.^ May 2009 For most people, especially those who do not consider themselves financially wealthy, the decision to buy diamond jewelry is a major one.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People with bipolar disorder—men more often than women—may have substance abuse problems, especially during manic episodes.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ People with bipolar II have more depressive episodes than hypomanic episodes.
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

[12]
.Flux is the fundamental nature of bipolar disorder.^ Mood variations in bipolar disorder are not predictable, so it is sometimes difficult to tell if a patient is responding to treatment or naturally emerging from a bipolar phase.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An imbalance in naturally occurring brain chemicals called neurotransmitters seems to play a significant role in bipolar disorder and other mood disorders.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[88] .Individuals with the illness have continual changes in energy, mood, thought, sleep, and activity.^ Changes in mood, sleep, or energy .
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Bipolar disorder is an illness that causes extreme mood changes from manic episodes of very high energy to the extreme lows of depression .
  • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ The severity of the mood swings and the way they disrupt normal activities distinguish clinical mood episodes from ordinary mood changes.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

.The diagnostic subtypes of bipolar disorder are thus static descriptions—snapshots, perhaps—of an illness in continual flux, with a great diversity of symptoms and varying degrees of severity.^ Great post on bipolar disorder and boundaries.

^ Depressive symptoms in those with bipolar disorder tend to vary.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Bipolar disorder is classified according to symptom severity as bipolar disorder I, bipolar disorder II, and cyclothymic disorder.

.Individuals may stay in one subtype, or change into another, over the course of their illness.^ Individuals may stay in one subtype or change into another over the course of their illness.
  • Bipolar disorder - Depression Wiki 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC depression.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals may stay in one subtype, or change into another, over the course of their illness.
  • Bipolar disorder - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder - Psych Central's Wiki 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC wiki.psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Evidence suggest that environmental factors play a significant role in the development and course of Bipolar Disorder, and that individual psychosocial variables may interact with genetic dispositions.

[89] .The DSM-V, to be published in 2013, will likely include further and more accurate sub-typing (Akiskal and Ghaemi, 2006).^ Overall cases were more likely to carry two copies of the wild-type NQO1 allele compared with controls (odds ratio, 1.79; P = 0.002).

^ Examples of the types of labels which can be used in the present invention include inter alia, fluorochromes (like fluorescein, rhodamine, Texas Red, etc.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The diagnosis of bipolar disorder can be complicated by coexisting psychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.^ Obsessive-Compulsive disorder or phobia ?
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ These overlapping conditions can complicate diagnosis.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the DXS7 locus.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

.Substance abuse may predate the appearance of bipolar symptoms, further complicating the diagnosis.^ Drug abuse may itself be a symptom of bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Psychotherapy may also be necessary to resolve substance abuse problems, common in older children with bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ A family history of manic-depressive illness may make a doctor suspicious, but a diagnosis of bipolar disorder cannot be established until a manic or hypomanic episode has occurred.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

.A careful longitudinal analysis of symptoms and episodes, enriched if possible by discussions with friends and family members, is crucial to establishing a valid treatment plan where these comorbidities exist.^ Take a family member or friend along, if possible.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Contact a family member or friend.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ With your permission, family members or close friends may be asked to provide information about your symptoms and possible episodes of mania or depression.
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[90]
.The diagnosis of bipolar disorder in children is particularly challenging, and controversial.^ Treatment guidelines for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Children with bipolar disorder show a higher incidence of psychotic features than older adolescents or adults.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is increased psychopathology in children who have at least one biologic parent with bipolar I or bipolar II disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some who show some bipolar symptoms tend to have a rapid-cycling or mixed-cycling pattern that may not meet DSM-IV criteria.^ Recently the DSM-IV has added criteria for other categories of bipolar disorder, including rapid cycling bipolar disorder.

^ There are some people who have one or more manic or mixed episodes in a very long time, and these people are categorized in Bipolar 1.

^ The usual pattern of bipolar disorder is one of increasing intensity and duration of symptoms that progresses slowly over many years.

[91] .In addition, it can be difficult to distinguish between age-appropriate restlessness, the fidgeting of children with ADHD, and the purposeful busy activity of mania.^ However, other means to distinguish between the bipolar illness genotypes may be used, such as but not limited to, antigenicity, specificity, or activity of encoded proteins or fragments.
  • Susceptability and resistance genes for bipolar affective disorder - Patent 6897022 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ADHD was more common in children and adolescents with childhood-onset mania than in patients with adolescent-onset mania.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ADHD and bipolar disorder often cause inattention and distractibility, and the two disorders may be difficult to distinguish, particularly in children.

[92] .Further complicating the diagnosis, is that abused or traumatized children can seem to have bipolar disorder when they are actually reacting to horrors in their lives.^ Many people live with bipolar disorder.

^ Living with bipolar disorder.

^ However, when it comes to bipolar disorder it is something that affects a child similarly, but they cannot help their mood swings.

[93]
.In the elderly, recognition and treatment of bipolar disorder may be complicated by the presence of dementia or the side effects of medications being taken for other conditions.^ Changes in medication side effects .
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Other side effects include: .
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Channel Management System- Washington, DC 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.georgetownuniversityhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unfortunately, the medications do not cure bipolar disorder.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

[94] .As yet there is very little evidence-based research to guide management of bipolar in the elderly as opposed to adults in general.^ There are some people who have one or more manic or mixed episodes in a very long time, and these people are categorized in Bipolar 1.

^ Baron-Cohen S, Jolliffe T. Another advanced test of theory of mind: evidence from very high functioning adults with autism or Asperger disorder.
  • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Its very strange that there are 5 billion people in this world yet I cannot make contact with one single person today.

Management

.There are a number of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic techniques used to treat Bipolar Disorder.^ There are many approaches to treating this disorder.

^ There are lot of people who are using who are not getting treated for their bipolar disorder.

^ She found that 38% had been treated for bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Individuals may use self-help and pursue a personal recovery journey.^ As used herein, “family member” refers to an individual's consanguineous grandparent, parent, child, or sibling although a more distant blood-relative may be used.
  • Susceptability and resistance genes for bipolar affective disorder - Patent 6897022 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ July 2009 What if I told you that it may be possible to help your child's ADHD without using potentially risky drug therapy?
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ May 2009 Personality tests used by career counsellors aim at identifying the main drivers in the character of an individual, such us introversion or sensitivity, in order to recommend studies or occupations that match particular traits.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hospitalization may be required especially with the manic episodes present in bipolar I. This can be voluntary or (if mental health legislation allows and varying state-to-state regulations in the USA) involuntary (called civil or involuntary commitment).^ There are some people who have one or more manic or mixed episodes in a very long time, and these people are categorized in Bipolar 1.

^ It is very rarely used, and it is usually used when a person with bipolar disorder is placed in a mental hospital.

^ Many studies indicate that lithium works better for controlling manic states, and that lamotrigine works better for bipolar depression.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
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.Long-term inpatient stays are now less common due to deinstitutionalization, although can still occur.^ Bipolar depression does not typically last as long as major depression (although left untreated some bipolar disorder episodes can still last six to 12 months).

^ Although imperfect, it is also an effective long-term drug for many patients with other bipolar subtypes.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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[95] .Following (or in lieu of) a hospital admission, support services available can include drop-in centers, visits from members of a community mental health team or Assertive Community Treatment team, supported employment and patient-led support groups, intensive outpatient programs.^ Recommendations for supporting the patient include: .
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Support groups are an invaluable part of treatment.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ The past weeks of illness has made me so aware that the Mental Health System is completely inadequate to deal with immediate support for sufferers of Mental Illness.

These are sometimes referred to partial-inpatient programs.[96]

Psychosocial

.Psychotherapy is aimed at alleviating core symptoms, recognizing episode triggers, reducing negative expressed emotion in relationships, recognizing prodromal symptoms before full-blown recurrence, and, practicing the factors that lead to maintenance of remission[97] Cognitive behavioural therapy, family-focused therapy, and psychoeducation have the most evidence for efficacy in regard to relapse prevention, while interpersonal and social rhythm therapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy appear the most effective in regard to residual depressive symptoms.^ They can help reduce symptoms and prevent relapse.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A HAM-D score of 10 or below is regarded as remission of the depressive symptoms.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Graham P. Cognitive behaviour therapy for children and families.
  • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most studies have been based only on bipolar I, however, and treatment during the acute phase can be a particular challenge.^ West AE, Henry DB, Pavuluri MN. Maintenance model of integrated psychosocial treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder: A pilot feasibility study.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These are especially common if high doses and a combination of medicines are needed during the acute phase of treatment.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ The only way bipolar patients can survive their depressed phases, oftentimes, is to unleash their despondency through some creative work.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

[98] .Some clinicians emphasize the need to talk with individuals experiencing mania, to develop a therapeutic alliance in support of recovery.^ Here are some symptoms someone with mania may experience:  Inability to sleep, and lack of need to sleep.

^ Some individuals internalize their reaction with self-blame and low self-esteem, whereas others externalize their reaction, becoming critical of others and developing an arrogant and intolerant personality.
  • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The computer support market has rapidly developed and the need for cheaper, but equally efficient services has emerged.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

[99]

Medication

Sodium valproate is a common mood stabilizer
.The mainstay of treatment is a mood stabilizer medication such as lithium carbonate or lamotrigine.^ Mood stabilizing drugs are the mainstay medications for bipolar disorder.

^ Like lithium treatment, these treatments are often used as mood stabilizers.

^ Lithium is the standard mood stabilizer.

[100][101] .Lamotrigine has been found to be best for preventing depressions, while lithium is the only drug proven to reduce suicide in bipolar patients.^ The risk of suicide in patients with bipolar disorders.
  • Stigma & Mental Illness 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC www.priory.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the June 2000 issue of Neurology, Thomas J. Guttoso Jr., MD, studied the effect of Neurontin on a handful of patients and found that the drug "reduced the frequency of hot flashes by about 87%" in the six patients he studied.

^ Symbyax was the first drug to be specifically approved for treatment of bipolar depression.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

.These two drugs comprise several unrelated compounds which have been shown to be effective in preventing relapses of manic, or in the one case, depressive episodes.^ Some anticonvulsant drugs have been shown to prevent manic and depressive episodes from recurring.

^ Manic episodes last at least one week; major depressive episodes last at least two weeks.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ In many cases, these patients have also experienced one or more major depressive episodes.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

.The first known and "gold standard" mood stabilizer is lithium,[102] while almost as widely used is sodium valproate,[103] also used as an anticonvulsant.^ The standard first-line mood stabilizers are lithium and valproate.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The currently available standard mood stabilizers are lithium and valproate.

^ Like lithium treatment, these treatments are often used as mood stabilizers.

.Other anticonvulsants used in bipolar disorder include carbamazepine, reportedly more effective in rapid cycling bipolar disorder, and lamotrigine, which is the first anticonvulsant shown to be of benefit in bipolar depression.^ Lamotrigine is an alternative treatment for rapid cycling.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Rapid cycling can occur with any type of bipolar disorder.

^ Read more from this blogger: Bipolar Disorder .

[104]
.Treatment of the agitation in acute manic episodes has often required the use of atypical antipsychotic medications, such as quetiapine, olanzapine and chlorpromazine.^ Two types of medications are used for insomnia and agitation during a manic episode: .
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Olanzapine was the first atypical antipsychotic approved for treatment of bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bipolar disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ "Use of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of autistic disorder".
  • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

.More recently, olanzapine and quetiapine have been approved as effective monotherapy for the maintenance of bipolar disorder.^ Lamotrigine (Lamictal) is approved for maintenance treatment of adults with bipolar I disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Read more from this blogger: Bipolar Disorder .

^ Olanzapine was the first atypical antipsychotic approved for treatment of bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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[105] .A head-to-head randomized control trial in 2005 has also shown olanzapine monotherapy to be as effective and safe as lithium in prophylaxis.^ Kau, Chung How and Harzer, W and Miotti, F and Richmond, S (2004) Extractions as a form of interception in the developing dentition: a randomized controlled trial.

^ Smith LA, Cornelius V, Warnock A, Bell A, Young AH. Effectiveness of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics in the maintenance phase of bipolar disorder: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Price, Patricia Elaine and Chawla, M. and Laidler, P. and Goodwin, R. (2006) Imiquimod 5% cream monotherapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ (Bowen's disease): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
  • Items where Year is 2006 -ORCA 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC orca.cardiff.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]
  • Browse by Type -ORCA 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC orca.cardiff.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[106]
.The use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder has been debated, with some studies reporting a worse outcome with their use triggering manic, hypomanic or mixed episodes, especially if no mood stabiliser is used.^ Selecting a mood stabilizer for an acute manic episode .
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Antidepressants are sometimes used for depressive episodes in bipolar disorder, but their use is controversial.

^ Therefore, an episode may be reported as a bipolar disorder with a single manic episode, with recurrent manic episodes, or by the mood state of the most recent episode (eg, depressed, mixed, hypomanic, manic).
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, most mood stabilizers are of limited effectiveness in depressive episodes.^ The most important types of medication used to control the symptoms of bipolar disorder are mood stabilizers .
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Olanzapine was approved in 2000 for acute manic episode and it may even be effective for depression, although large studies are needed to confirm use in this.

^ Therefore, an episode may be reported as a bipolar disorder with a single manic episode, with recurrent manic episodes, or by the mood state of the most recent episode (eg, depressed, mixed, hypomanic, manic).
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Rapid cycling can be induced or made worse by antidepressants, unless there is adjunctive treatment with a mood stabilizer.^ Lamotrigine is an alternative treatment for rapid cycling.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Effectiveness of adjunctive antidepressant treatment for bipolar depression.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Rapid cycling between manic and depressive poles has been treated with antidepressants, but experts now believe they should also be avoided or used with caution.

[107][108] .One large-scale study found that depression in bipolar disorder responds no better to an antidepressant with mood stabilizer than it does to a mood stabilizer alone.^ Bipolar disorder that does not meet one the above criteria is classified as Bipolar Disorder NOS. .

^ She found that 38% had been treated for bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They are also used to treat bipolar disorder alone or in combination with the mood stabilizers that treat mania.

[109] .Recent research indicates that triacetyluridine may help improve symptoms of bipolar disorder.^ Research indicates that consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids found in oily fish, such as mackerel, sardines, salmon, and bluefish, may help reduce the symptoms of a variety of psychiatric illnesses, including bipolar disorder.

^ Some research indicates that consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids found in oily fish (such as mackerel, sardines, salmon, and bluefish) may help reduce the symptoms of a variety of mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Between 1 - 2 million Americans may suffer from bipolar disorder.

[110]Clinical studies have shown that .Omega 3 fatty acids may have beneficial effects on bipolar disorder.^ Omega-3 fatty Acids.

^ Montgomery P, Richardson AJ. Omega-3 fatty acids for bipolar disorder.

^ Between 1 - 2 million Americans may suffer from bipolar disorder.

[111]
.Also, topiramate is an anticonvulsant often prescribed as a mood stabilizer.^ Other drugs that have mood stabilizing properties include some agents known as atypical antipsychotics (e.g., risperidone and olanzapine) and other anti-seizure agents (e.g., carbamazepine and topiramate.

^ Lithium Often referred to as a mood stabilizer, this treatment is often the gold standard for patients first diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

^ For people who have bipolar disorder, antidepressant drugs may cause hypomania or mania, therefore antidepressant drugs are often taken with a mood stabiliser such as lithium.

.It is an off-label use when used to treat bipolar disorder.^ She found that 38% had been treated for bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lithium has been used for years for bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ It is very rarely used, and it is usually used when a person with bipolar disorder is placed in a mental hospital.

.Unfortunately, its usefulness is likely minimal and side effects, such as significant cognitive impairment, undermine its efficacy (Kushner, et al.^ One such possible undesired, adverse or negative side effect is the formation of pores in the cell membrane of treated cells which ultimatively leads to apoptosis.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Most pose some risk for extrapyramidal side effects (Parkinson's disease-like symptoms), but in general only in high doses and not to the extent of the older antipsychotics.

^ The effects of P2X7R inhibition on depressive-like behaviour was assessed 24 hours and 48 hours after infusion of siRNA, control or vehicle according to the standard test paradigm, the Porsolt's forced swim test (Porsolt et al., Arch.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.2006 Bipolar Disorders 8; Chengappa, et al.^ Moreover, other genetic studies have found associations between PLA2G1B gene and bipolar affective disorder (Dawson et al., Psychiatr.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Wilens et al (2008) implicated smoking as a potential causal element in patients with bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, genetic mapping on an isolated population of the central valley of Costa Rica suggests a locus for severe bipolar disorder at chromosome 18q22-q23 (Freimer et al., Nature Genetics 12 (1996), 436-441).
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

2006 J Clin Psych; 6).
.When medication causes a reduction in symptoms or complete remission, it is important for someone with a bipolar disorder to understand they should continue to take the medicine.^ Unfortunately, the medications do not cure bipolar disorder.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ It is important that patients discuss with their doctor any other medications they are taking.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ You can treat bipolar disorder by taking medications and by going to therapy.

.This can be complicated, as effective treatment may result in the reduction of manic symptoms and/or the medicine can be mood blunting or sedative, resulting in the person feeling they are stifled or that the medicine isn't working.^ Since proper diagnosis is essential for effective treatment, see someone who is knowledgeable about manic depression.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ They may offer, for example, to change your work assignments or hours to help you during episodes or while you seek treatment for your condition.

^ Therefore, an episode may be reported as a bipolar disorder with a single manic episode, with recurrent manic episodes, or by the mood state of the most recent episode (eg, depressed, mixed, hypomanic, manic).
  • Bipolar Disorder: eMedicine Pediatrics: Developmental and Behavioral 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Either way, relapse is likely to occur if the medicine is discontinued.

Prognosis

.For many individuals with bipolar disorder a good prognosis results from good treatment, which, in turn, results from an accurate diagnosis.^ Bipolar disorder treatment .

^ Many people live with bipolar disorder.

^ Description: An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]

.Because bipolar disorder can have a high rate of both under-diagnosis and misdiagnosis[citation needed], it is often difficult for individuals with the condition to receive timely and competent treatment.^ This invention relates to the field of diagnosis and treatment of bipolar affective disorders.
  • Susceptability and resistance genes for bipolar affective disorder - Patent 6897022 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bipolar disorder treatment .

^ Description: An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]

.Bipolar disorder can be a severely disabling medical condition.^ Unfortunately, the medications do not cure bipolar disorder.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

^ Bipolar disorder medication .

^ As I got to know him, I realised his condition was a little more complicated than your garden variety anxiety: he is diagnosed with manic-depression, also known as bipolar disorder.

.However, many individuals with bipolar disorder can live full and satisfying lives.^ Many people live with bipolar disorder.

^ There are many people living normal lives that have bipolar disorder .

^ Many new and promising treatments are being developed and with the right treatment most should be able to lead full and productive lives.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

Quite often, medication is needed to enable this. .Persons with bipolar disorder may have periods of normal or near normal functioning between episodes.^ Between 1 - 2 million Americans may suffer from bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is very rarely used, and it is usually used when a person with bipolar disorder is placed in a mental hospital.

^ As in epilepsy, the more episodes a bipolar disorder patient experiences early in the course of the disease, the more frequent and severe later episodes will be.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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[112]
.Ultimately one's prognosis depends on many factors, several of which are within the control of the individual.^ There are so many factors to take into account depending on your skill level, preference, and even body type.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Please note, though, that it can be very difficult to perceive one's real situation, or judge how severe a disorder is, from within the throes of a manic or depressive state.
  • Is manic-depression a disease to be cured? - Straight Dope Message Board 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If overdose occurs, drugs should be stopped immediately and one or more of the following steps taken, depending on the severity: .
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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.Such factors may include: the right medicines, with the right dose of each; comprehensive knowledge of the disease and its effects; a positive relationship with a competent medical doctor and therapist; and good physical health, which includes exercise, nutrition, and a regulated stress level.^ Yet another theory posits that the benefits of ECT stem from its effects on dopamine levels.

^ Because lithium is eliminated from the body by the kidneys, any drugs or dietary factors that slow the kidneys' actions may increase lithium blood levels and should be used with great caution.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ It is notoriously hard to get manic-depressives to stay on their medication because when they feel good, they feel that they don't need the medicine.
  • Is manic-depression a disease to be cured? - Straight Dope Message Board 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are obviously other factors that lead to a good prognosis as well, such as being very aware of small changes in one's energy, mood, sleep and eating behaviors, as well as having a plan in conjunction with one's doctor for how to manage subtle changes that might indicate the beginning of a mood swing.^ Being so aware is disturbing and energy draining.

^ But there are other effects as well.

^ Changes in mood, sleep, or energy .
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

.Some people find that keeping a log of their moods can assist them in predicting changes.^ For some people finding the right one can be a bit tough because there are so many to choose from and many different types as well.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Diet change strategies: When You Crave A Good Feeling Some moods trigger food cravings -- and vice versa.

^ SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) Syndrome - some people have distinct mood swings at particular seasons of the year.

[113]

Functioning

.A recent 20-year prospective study on bipolar I and II found that functioning varied over time along a spectrum from good to fair to poor.^ Synapsin II has been proposed as a candidate gene for vulnerability to schizophrenia on the basis of its function and its location in a region of the genome implicated by linkage studies in families with schizophrenia.

^ We recently reported positive association of synapsin II with schizophrenia in a case-control study (Chen et al.

^ In one study, patients who stopped taking it increased their risk of suicide in the first year 20 fold.

.During periods of major depression or mania (in BPI), functioning was on average poor, with depression being more persistently associated with disability than mania.^ During mania my mind is bursting with manic energy, today during the depression phase I suffer a lack of mind energy.

^ Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depression, is characterized by mood swings between periods of mania (i.e.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition to mania and depression, there are persistent psychotic symptoms (hallucinations or delusions) during times when mood symptoms are under control.
  • support group depression and anxiety bipolar 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.andrews.edu [Source type: General]

.Functioning between episodes was on average good — more or less normal.^ The differences between statistics in exon 13 (T3 less significant) can be explained by the involvement of more than one genotype of haplotypes in the disease.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A bipolar disorder patient averages 8 to 10 manic or depressive episodes over a lifetime, but some people experience more and some fewer episodes.

^ However, bipolar II patients have a more chronic course, significantly more depressive episodes, and shorter periods of being well between episodes than patients with type I have.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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.Subthreshold symptoms were generally still substantially impairing, however, except for hypomania (below or above threshold) which was associated with improved functioning.^ Other studies demonstrate similarly improved patient outcomes associated with minimal delay between the onset of psychiatric symptoms and the inception of treatment (50,51).
  • Stigma & Mental Illness 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC www.priory.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, any patient on antidepressants who develops symptoms of hypomania should stop taking these drugs, since hypomania is often a sign of impending mania.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ However, I still "function."
  • Is manic-depression a disease to be cured? - Straight Dope Message Board 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

[114]
.Another study confirmed the seriousness of the disorder as "the standardized all-cause mortality ratio among patients with BD is increased approximately two-fold."^ Finally, gene profiling of freshly isolated MM patient cells validates our in vitro MM cell line data, confirming an in vivo relevance of these studies.

^ MCP-1 antigen levels increased approximately 100-fold in doxorubicin-treated H69 cells.

^ Alcohol dependence is a highly prevalent disorder that is associated with serious morbidity and mortality.

.Bipolar disorder is currently regarded "as possibly the most costly category of mental disorders in the United States."^ The United States has been a frontrunner in this regard.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is very rarely used, and it is usually used when a person with bipolar disorder is placed in a mental hospital.

^ However, imaging tests do not currently play a role in diagnosing bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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.Episodes of abnormality are associated with distress and disruption, and an elevated risk of suicide, especially during depressive episodes.^ Mood changes of this nature are associated with distress and disruption, and a relatively high risk of suicide .
  • Bipolar disorder - Psych Central's Wiki 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC wiki.psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mixed episode: The depressed phases put the patient at risk for suicide.
  • Bipolar Affective Disorder: eMedicine Psychiatry 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suicide is a very real risk during both mania and depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[115]

Recovery

.A naturalistic study from first admission for mania or mixed episode (representing the hospitalized and therefore most severe cases) found that 50% achieved syndromal recovery (no longer meeting criteria for the diagnosis) within six weeks and 98% within two years.^ Several studies have found no additional benefits from antidepressants.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Without ECT, those patients spent an average of almost half a year in the hospital, suffering at least three episodes annually.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Both diagnosis and treatment are difficult in such cases, since substance abuse is often a method of self-treatment, and withdrawal can produce symptoms of mania or severe depression.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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.72% achieved symptomatic recovery (no symptoms at all) and 43% achieved functional recovery (regaining of prior occupational and residential status).^ In our analyses, individuals having a psychiatric diagnosis other than BPI, as well as those having psychiatric symptoms but no diagnosis, were classified as “unknown category” for affected status.
  • Susceptability and resistance genes for bipolar affective disorder - Patent 6897022 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, 40% went on to experience a new episode of mania or depression within 2 years of syndromal recovery, and 19% switched phases without recovery.^ Many patients experience mixed mania, or a mixed state, in which both mania and depression coexist for at least 7 days.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Mania is more likely to occur in the summer and depressive episodes from October through May (which is different from seasonal affective disorder, a depressive disorder that only occurs in darker months).

^ The doctor should take a careful and complete history of any and all episodes of depression, mania, or both.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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[116] .Many therapists treat individuals with Bipolar I and II by helping them identify the return of symptoms, and actions that will prevent symptoms from getting worse.^ In addition to medical treatments, psychologic therapies and sleep management are also extremely critical components of bipolar disorder treatments to reduce bipolar disorder symptoms and to help the patient manage and even prevent relapse.

^ The usual pattern of bipolar disorder is one of increasing intensity and duration of symptoms that progresses slowly over many years.

^ The results of these tests may eventually help identify bipolar disorder and test the effectiveness of various treatments.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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[117]

Recurrence

The following behaviors can lead to depressive or manic recurrence:[citation needed]
.
  • Discontinuing or lowering one's dose of medication.
  • Being under- or over-medicated.^ I've been under the care of a psychiatric adolescent ward for about 5 months now, this is one of the medications I have tried more recently.
    • Lexapro User Reviews at Drugs.com 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

    .Generally, taking a lower dosage of a mood stabilizer can lead to relapse into mania.^ There are people who take at least 900 mgs of lithium; however, you may end up taking lower doses so that you can get the stabilizer in your mood swings.

    ^ It may take several weeks for a mood stabilizer to take effect, and other drugs may be needed.
    • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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    ^ They are also used to treat bipolar disorder alone or in combination with the mood stabilizers that treat mania.

    .Taking a lower dosage of an antidepressant may cause the patient to relapse into depression, while higher doses can cause destabilization into mixed-states or mania.
  • An inconsistent sleep schedule can aggravate symptoms.^ Many studies indicate that antidepressants may cause patients to “switch” to a manic state.

    ^ High doses may cause seizures.
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    ^ Many patients, in fact, experience mixed mania, or a mixed state, in which both mania and depression occur.

    Too much sleep can be an indicator that depression is returning. .It has been found that too little sleep can lead to mixed states/mania.
  • Caffeine can cause destabilization of mood toward irritability, dysphoria, and mania.^ In 2000, the FDA approved it to treat bipolar mania and mixed states.
    • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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    ^ Many patients experience mixed mania, or a mixed state, in which both mania and depression coexist for at least 7 days.
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    ^ Patients with mixed mania, and possibly when it is marked by irritability and paranoia, are also at particular risk.

    .Anecdotal evidence seems to suggest that lower dosages of caffeine can have effects ranging from anti-depressant to mania-inducing.
  • Inadequate stress management and poor lifestyle choices.^ We suggest that hMLH1 and hMSH3 genes could be involved in lung tumorigenesis through dosage effect in cellular functions other than replication error correction.

    ^ MI for treatement, i'm in stress, depression and anger management.
    • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ CBZ has similar effects as VPA. That is, CBZ is also an anticonvulsant that alleviates the symptoms of mania, and possibly depression.
    • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    If unmedicated, excessive stress can cause the individual to relapse. .Medication raises the stress threshold somewhat, but too much stress still causes relapse.
  • Often bipolar individuals are subject to self-medication, the most common drugs being alcohol, diazepam/sleeping tablets and marijuana.^ In addition to medical treatments, psychologic therapies and sleep management are also extremely critical components of bipolar disorder treatments to reduce bipolar disorder symptoms and to help the patient manage and even prevent relapse.

    ^ ADHD and bipolar disorder often cause inattention and distractibility, and the two disorders may be difficult to distinguish, particularly in children.
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    ^ Alternative Bipolar Medications Bipolar is considered as a major disorder that can greatly affect an individual and his family.

    .Studies show that tobacco smoking induces a calming effect on most bipolar people, and a very high percentage suffering from the prolonged use.^ There are some people who have one or more manic or mixed episodes in a very long time, and these people are categorized in Bipolar 1.

    ^ It is very rarely used, and it is usually used when a person with bipolar disorder is placed in a mental hospital.

    ^ People have been dealing with bipolar disease since the existence of man and there are many famous people who have suffered from bipolar disease, as well as many historic icons.

    [118]
.Recurrence can be managed by the sufferer with the help of a close friend, based on the occurrence of idiosyncratic prodromal events.^ A stress assessment based on our knowledge of Aspergers will help the clinician determine what are the natural and idiosyncratic stressors for the client [46].
  • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

[119] .This theorizes that a close friend could notice which moods, activities, behaviours, thinking processes, or thoughts typically occur at the outset of bipolar episodes.^ Bipolar depression typically lasts 2 - 3 months -- not as long as in major depression (although left untreated some bipolar disorder episodes can last 6 - 12 months or longer).
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ A family history of manic-depressive illness may make a doctor suspicious, but a diagnosis of bipolar disorder cannot be established until a manic or hypomanic episode has occurred.
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^ Bipolar II - the person has episodes of hypomania which generally do not disrupt normal activities.

.They can then take planned steps to slow or reverse the onset of illness, or take action to prevent the episode from being damaging.^ The Medical Services did not believe that depression, or attempted suicide was an illness and they certainly did not want to take time looking after such people.

^ Unfortunately, actions that support a bipolar disorder patient may not be intuitive, and they take their toll.
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^ They do take some planning to make sure that they go off without any glitches.
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[120]

Morbidity

According to an article in Psychiatric Times by McIntyre et al.,
"Mortality studies have documented an increase in all-cause mortality in patients with BD (Bipolar Disorder). A newly established and rapidly growing database indicates that mortality due to chronic medical disorders (eg, cardiovascular disease) is the single largest cause of premature and excess deaths in BD. The standardized mortality ratio from suicide in BD is estimated to be approximately 18 to 25, further emphasizing the lethality of the disorder."[121]
.Most people with bipolar disorder never attempt suicide or complete it.^ Never heard of a car with bipolar disorder.

^ People who have bipolar disorder are highly at risk for suicide.

^ Many people live with bipolar disorder.

.The annual average suicide rate in males and females with diagnosed bipolar disorder is 0.4%.^ I have been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder now for 6 years or so.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As I got to know him, I realised his condition was a little more complicated than your garden variety anxiety: he is diagnosed with manic-depression, also known as bipolar disorder.

^ However, imaging tests do not currently play a role in diagnosing bipolar disorder.
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.This is 10 to more than 20 times that of the general population.^ There have been biographical studies of earlier generations of artists and writers which show that they have 18 times the rate of suicide (as compared to the general population), 8-10 times the rate of unipolar depression, and 10-20 times the rate of bipolar depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The risk of serious skin reactions is 10 times higher for patients of Asian ancestry than Caucasians.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Though there are many promotional products available that starts with a price lower than 0.20 pounds to that cost more than 100 ...
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[122]
.Bipolar disorder can cause suicidal ideation that leads to suicidal, especially during mixed states such as dysphoric mania and agitated depression.^ In 2000, the FDA approved it to treat bipolar mania and mixed states.
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^ Mixed mania (also called mixed episodes or dysphoric mania) are manic episodes that also have a depressive component.
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^ Benazzi F. Bipolar disorder -- focus on bipolar II disorder and mixed depression.

[123] .Persons suffering from Bipolar II have high rates of suicide compared to persons suffering from other mental health conditions, including Major Depression.^ There have been biographical studies of earlier generations of artists and writers which show that they have 18 times the rate of suicide (as compared to the general population), 8-10 times the rate of unipolar depression, and 10-20 times the rate of bipolar depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is very rarely used, and it is usually used when a person with bipolar disorder is placed in a mental hospital.

^ In families where one person has manic depressive illness, there are often other family members who have episodes of depressive illness or hypomania.

.Major Depressive episodes are part of the Bipolar II experience, and there is evidence that sufferers of this disorder spend proportionally much more of their life in the depressive phase of the illness than their counterparts with Bipolar I Disorder (Akiskal & Kessler, 2007).^ There is another form of bipolar disorder doctors call bipolar II disorder .

^ Depression is a part of bipolar and can be a huge part of bipolar.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bipolar depressive episodes tend to develop more gradually than do those caused by major depression.
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Epidemiology

Disability-adjusted life year for bipolar disorder per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.
     no data      less than 180      180–186      186–190      190–195      195–200      200–205      205–210      210–215      215–220      220–225      225–230      230–235
.The lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder type I, which includes at least a lifetime manic episode, has generally been estimated at 2%.^ Bipolar Disorder Type I. Bipolar disorder type I is characterized by at least one manic episode, with or without major depression.

^ A typical bipolar disorder patient averages 8 - 10 manic or depressive episodes over a lifetime.
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^ There are different types of bipolar disorders and that is bipolar type 1 and then bipolar type 2.

[124] .A reanalysis of data from the National Epidemiological Catchment Area survey in the United States, however, suggested that 0.8 percent experience a manic episode at least once (the diagnostic threshold for bipolar I) and 0.5 a hypomanic episode (the diagnostic threshold for bipolar II or cyclothymia).^ There are some people who have one or more manic or mixed episodes in a very long time, and these people are categorized in Bipolar 1.

^ As in epilepsy, the more episodes a bipolar disorder patient experiences early in the course of the disease, the more frequent and severe later episodes will be.
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^ The key factors that distinguish bipolar disorder from schizophrenia are the following: The presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes can often help distinguish bipolar disorder from schizophrenia.

.Including sub-threshold diagnostic criteria, such as one or two symptoms over a short time-period, an additional 5.1 percent of the population, adding up to a total of 6.4 percent, were classed as having a bipolar spectrum disorder.^ Some observations on having bipolar disorder.

^ Two are bipolar, and one is on the high-functioning end of the autistic spectrum.

^ Bipolar disorder that does not meet one the above criteria is classified as Bipolar Disorder NOS. .

[125] .A more recent analysis of data from a second US National Comorbidity Survey found that 1% met lifetime prevalence criteria for bipolar 1, 1.1% for bipolar II, and 2.4% for subthreshold symptoms.^ Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey replication.
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^ Bipolar disorder is more prevalent than was previously thought, but this illness, particularly bipolar disorder II, is still poorly recognized in the family-practice setting.

^ Individuals with bipolar disorder have an average of 30% more of a vital class of signal-sending brain cells, according to new data.

[126] There are conceptual and methodological limitations and variations in the findings. .Prevalence studies of bipolar disorder are typically carried out by lay interviewers who follow fully structured/fixed interview schemes; responses to single items from such interviews may suffer limited validity.^ Between 1 - 2 million Americans may suffer from bipolar disorder.
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^ No single cause may ever be found for bipolar disorder.
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^ This does not point out that such products don't work, its just that "misdiagnosis" of the root cause may qualify us to certain solutions that were not ...
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.In addition, diagnosis and prevalence rates are dependent on whether a categorical or spectrum approach is used.^ In addition, the sensitivity of the computer search can be modified to determine whether any particular match is categorized as exact or similar.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Concerns have arisen about the potential for both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis.[127]
.Late adolescence and early adulthood are peak years for the onset of bipolar disorder.^ I have been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder now for 6 years or so.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lithium has been used for years for bipolar disorder.
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^ As in epilepsy, the more episodes a bipolar disorder patient experiences early in the course of the disease, the more frequent and severe later episodes will be.
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[128][129] .These are critical periods in a young adult's social and vocational development, and they can be severely disrupted.^ From the lungs the adolescent parasites ascend to the glottis, are swallowed, and reach the upper part of the small intestine where they develop into full grown adults.

^ We have generated mice heterozygous for a targeted inactivating allele of Lkb1 and found that they develop severe gastrointestinal polyposis.

^ Children who lose a parent early in life also appear to be more likely to develop bipolar disorder when they become adults.

.Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are currently classified as separate disorders.^ Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a psychopathology that affects approximately 1% of the population.
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^ As I got to know him, I realised his condition was a little more complicated than your garden variety anxiety: he is diagnosed with manic-depression, also known as bipolar disorder.

^ Neither the author nor the Publisher assumes any responsibility or liability whatsoever on the behalf of any purchaser or reader of these Bipolar disorder - Manic Depression materials.

Some researchers increasingly view them as part of an overlapping spectrum that also includes anxiety and psychosis. .According to Hagop Akiskal, M.D., at the one end of the spectrum is bipolar type schizoaffective disorder, and at the other end is recurrent unipolar depression, with the anxiety disorders present across the spectrum.^ Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disease that can be unpredictable.

^ Affective disorders include among others, depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder.
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^ There are different types of bipolar disorders and that is bipolar type 1 and then bipolar type 2.

.Also included in this view is premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postpartum depression, and postpartum psychosis.^ Other important forms of depression are premenstrual dysphoric disorder and seasonal affective disorder.
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^ This neurotransmitter probably plays an important role in bipolar disorder as well as other conditions for which ECT is sometimes recommended, including delusional depression.

^ Strongyloides stercoralis is the causative agent in many disorders including manic depression, and migraine headaches.

.This view helps to explain why many people who have the illness do not have first-degree relatives with clear-cut "bipolar disorder", but who have family members with a history of these other disorders.^ Genetic causes, since many people with bipolar disorder have family members with a history of mental illness or bipolar disorder.

^ Bipolar disorder can also appear for the first time in people over the age of forty.

^ People who have bipolar disorder are highly at risk for suicide.

Children

.In professional classifications such as the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) [130] or the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD)[131] bipolar disorder is classified with adult onset disorders.^ The American Psychiatric Association has a book known as the DSM-IV, short for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

^ Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disease that can be unpredictable.

^ According to researchers at Columbia University in New York, in their report, Lyme disease: a neuropsychiatric illness , they state that “A broad range of psychiatric reactions have been associated with Lyme disease including paranoia, dementia, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, panic attacks, major depression, anorexia nervosa, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

.However, as far back as the 1920s, Kraepelin [132] showed in a retrospective study of 900 manic-depressive adults that 0.4% had onset of symptoms before the age of ten.^ Many studies indicate that lithium works better for controlling manic states, and that lamotrigine works better for bipolar depression.
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^ Behav Genet 1995, 25 : 537-544 THAPAR A, MCGUFFIN P. Anxiety and depressive symptoms in childhood -A genetic study of comorbidity.
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^ Olanzapine was approved in 2000 for acute manic episode and it may even be effective for depression, although large studies are needed to confirm use in this.

.In a cohort of bipolar disordered adults, Loranger and Levine [133] retrospectively evaluated 200 adult bipolar patients and found that 0.5% had onset between the ages of five and nine.^ She found that 38% had been treated for bipolar disorder.
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^ Smith, Daniel and Blackwood, D. H. and Muir, W. J. (2006) Neurocognitive impairment in euthymic young adults with bipolar spectrum disorder and recurrent major depressive disorder.
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^ Between 1 - 2 million Americans may suffer from bipolar disorder.

.In a study of 898 adults with bipolar disorder, Goodwin and Jamison [134] found that 0.3% had onset before age 10. This literature supported the existence of childhood onset mania, but also indicated that it may be rare.^ She found that 38% had been treated for bipolar disorder.
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^ Causes: No single cause may ever be found for bipolar disorder.
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^ No single cause may ever be found for bipolar disorder.

.This idea was supported by a review of 28 papers by Anthony and Scott[135], which suggested that childhood bipolar disorder was uncommon.^ Affected-sib-pair analyses reveal support of prior evidence for a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder, on 21q.
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^ Fine mapping supports previous linkage evidence for a bipolar disorder susceptibility locus on 13q32.
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^ In fact, a 2001 study suggests that children who experience major depression during childhood may be at significantly higher risk for developing bipolar disorder in adulthood.

.In these papers, only three of 60 cases (5%) of purported childhood bipolar disorder met their criteria for bipolar disorder.^ Bipolar disorder is something that can only be controlled.

^ The AACP also advises that there are currently no established criteria for diagnosing bipolar disorder in preschoolers.
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^ Neither the author nor the Publisher assumes any responsibility or liability whatsoever on the behalf of any purchaser or reader of these Bipolar disorder - Manic Depression materials.

.However, Anthony and Scott's criteria differed from those currently in use, so the applicability of this work to current views of bipolar disorder is uncertain.^ There are different types of bipolar disorders and that is bipolar type 1 and then bipolar type 2.

^ Lithium has been used for years for bipolar disorder.
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^ I started taking Depakote for bipolar disorder, and it might be working.

.Population and community studies using DSM criteria show that about 1% of youth may have bipolar disorder [136][137].^ A family study using DSM-III criteria.
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^ Comments on a study about brain size and bipolar disorder.

^ Lithium has been used for years for bipolar disorder.
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.Studies in clinics using these criteria show that up to 20% of youth referred to psychiatric clinics have bipolar disorder [138][139][140].^ Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder often show up in the same family.
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^ Lithium has been used for years for bipolar disorder.
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^ There have been biographical studies of earlier generations of artists and writers which show that they have 18 times the rate of suicide (as compared to the general population), 8-10 times the rate of unipolar depression, and 10-20 times the rate of bipolar depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

Many of these children required hospitalization due to the severity of their disorder [141][142]
.Because of these diagnostic uncertainties, the validity of an early-onset form of bipolar disorder had been debated in the late 20th century.^ Neither the author nor the Publisher assumes any responsibility or liability whatsoever on the behalf of any purchaser or reader of these Bipolar disorder - Manic Depression materials.

^ As in epilepsy, the more episodes a bipolar disorder patient experiences early in the course of the disease, the more frequent and severe later episodes will be.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Am J Psychiatry 1992, 149 : 1563-7 KUTCHER S, MARTON P. Affective disorders in first-degree relatives of adolscent onset bipolars, unipolars, and normal controls.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

.However, since that time, systematic reviews of diagnostic, genetic, neurobiological, treatment and longitudinal research studies [143][144][145][146] have concluded that this disorder can be validly diagnosed in children and adolescents.^ Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ However, imaging tests do not currently play a role in diagnosing bipolar disorder.
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^ Am J Med Genet 1998, 81 : 282-9 KAY DWK, LEIGH D. The natural history, treatment and prognosis of anorexia nervosa based on a study of 38 patients.
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This consensus of the scientific community is also seen in the appearance of practice parameters for the disorder from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry[147]
.Findings indicate that the number of American [children] and [adolescents] treated for bipolar disorder increased 40-fold from 1994 to 2003, and continues to increase.^ Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.
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^ She found that 38% had been treated for bipolar disorder.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The number of children diagnosed with bipolar disorder has increased dramatically during the past decade.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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.The data suggest that doctors had been more aggressively applying the diagnosis to children, rather than that the incidence of the disorder has increased.^ As I got to know him, I realised his condition was a little more complicated than your garden variety anxiety: he is diagnosed with manic-depression, also known as bipolar disorder.

^ Bipolar disorder is more prevalent than was previously thought, but this illness, particularly bipolar disorder II, is still poorly recognized in the family-practice setting.

^ If you have bipolar disorder, a doctor may have a better explanation than your friends and family.

The study calculated the number of psychiatric visits increased from 20,000 in 1994 to 800,000 in 2003, or 1% of the [population] under age 20.[148]
The reasons for this increase in diagnosis are unclear. .On the one hand, the recent consensus from the scientific community (see above) will have educated clinicians about the nature of the disorder and the methods for diagnosis and treatment in children.^ Moreover, also the embodiments relating to the uses of and methods for treating affective disorders described herein apply to the use of tenidap or a derivative thereof for treating affective disorders or the corresponding method of treatment, mutatis mutandis.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patents 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If you object so strenuously to the "medicalization" of bipolar disorder and its treatment, then what do you suggest should be done about it?
  • Is manic-depression a disease to be cured? - Straight Dope Message Board 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The author recommends that as soon as the youngster or adult has the diagnosis of Aspergers, the clinician needs to carefully and authoritatively explain the nature of the disorder to their family, but the youngster also must receive a personal explanation.
  • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

That, in turn, should increase the rate of diagnosis. .On the other hand, assumptions regarding behavior, particularly in regard to the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder, ADHD, and conduct disorder in children and adolescents, may also play a role.^ In addition, many children with bipolar disorder also have behavioral and developmental disorders.
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^ I stood shaking as the other children played.

^ Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.
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Another factor is that the "consensus" regarding the diagnosis in the pediatric age group seems to apply only to the USA. The British National Institute on Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines on bipolar disorder in 2006 [149] specifically described the broadened criteria used in the USA to diagnose bipolar disorder in children as suitable "only for research" and "were not convinced that evidence currently exists to support the everyday clinical use of (pediatric bipolar phenotype) diagnoses" which increase the "risk that medicines may be used to inappropriately treat a bipolar diathesis that does not exist."(p526). A 2002 German survey [150] of 251 child and adolescent psychiatrists (average 15 years clinical experience) found only 8% had ever diagnosed a pre-pubertal case of bipolar disorder in their careers. .A similar survey of 199 child & adolescent psychiatrists (av 15 years clinical experience) in Australia and New Zealand [151] also found much lower rates of diagnosis than in the USA and a consensus that bipolar disorder was overdiagnosed in children and youth in the USA. Concerns about overdiagnosis in the USA have also been expressed by American child & adolescent psychiatrists [152][153][154][155] and a series of essays in the book "Bipolar children: Cutting-edge controversy, insights and research" [156] highlight several controversies and suggest the science still lacks consensus with regard to bipolar disorder diagnosis in the pediatric age group.^ Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ I have been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder now for 6 years or so.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In my clinical experience shoplifting is often associated with bipolar disorder.

.Although accurately diagnosing all disorders in children is important, for bipolar disorder, it is critical.^ I have been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder now for 6 years or so.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As I got to know him, I realised his condition was a little more complicated than your garden variety anxiety: he is diagnosed with manic-depression, also known as bipolar disorder.

^ However, imaging tests do not currently play a role in diagnosing bipolar disorder.

.On the one hand, the antipsychotic drugs sometimes prescribed for the treatment of bipolar disorder may increase risk to health including heart problems, diabetes, liver failure, and death.^ All atypical antipsychotics increase the risk for diabetes.
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Olanzapine was the first atypical antipsychotic approved for treatment of bipolar disorder.

^ An increased risk for diabetes.

[157] .On the other hand, bipolar disorder is a very disabling disorder which leads to many impairments in children, including cognitive impairment[158][159][160], psychiatric hospitalization[139][140][161][162][163], psychosis [139][140][162][163] and suicide.^ It is very rarely used, and it is usually used when a person with bipolar disorder is placed in a mental hospital.

^ WHAT ARE ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY AND OTHER PROCEDURES FOR BIPOLAR DISORDER? .

^ While lithium treatment has proved to be a godsend for many of the 2 million Americans with bipolar disorder, it is not without its downside.

[164] .Thus, physicians, parents and patients need to weight the potential risks and benefits when treating this disorder.^ Parents should consider the potential risks and benefits of treatment for their children.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Genetic variation in COMT is associated with AD+P, and thus appears to contribute to psychosis risk across disorders.

^ In spite of the obvious need for professional help, access to medical therapies is not always available for patients with bipolar disorder.

[165]

Older age

.There is a relative lack of knowledge about bipolar disorder in late life.^ There are different types of bipolar disorders and that is bipolar type 1 and then bipolar type 2.

^ Am J Psychiatry 1992, 149 : 1563-7 KUTCHER S, MARTON P. Affective disorders in first-degree relatives of adolscent onset bipolars, unipolars, and normal controls.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ Regardless of how you feel about Patrick Kennedy's politics, he has helped others with bipolar disorder with his candid admissions.

.There is evidence that it becomes less prevalent with age but nevertheless accounts for a similar percentage of psychiatric admissions; that older bipolar patients had first experienced symptoms at a later age; that later onset of mania is associated with more neurologic impairment; that substance abuse is considerably less common in older groups; and that there is probably a greater degree of variation in presentation and course, for instance individuals may develop new-onset mania associated with vascular changes, or become manic only after recurrent depressive episodes, or may have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder at an early age and still meet criteria.^ As in epilepsy, the more episodes a bipolar disorder patient experiences early in the course of the disease, the more frequent and severe later episodes will be.
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Depressive symptoms in those with bipolar disorder tend to vary.
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^ A patient who doctors diagnose as having bipolar disorder typically describes experiencing full symptoms of depression during depressive episodes and full mania during manic episodes disorder.

.There is also some weak evidence that mania is less intense and there is a higher prevalence of mixed episodes, although there may be a reduced response to treatment.^ Although there are some characteristics that ...
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bipolar depression typically lasts 2 - 3 months -- not as long as in major depression (although left untreated some bipolar disorder episodes can last 6 - 12 months or longer).
  • Alegent; Omaha - Bipolar disorder. Manic depression Highlights: Drug Approval In... 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.alegent.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ And although there's been an official statement from Google that it's not an update but rather some slight changes the name remained i...
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.Overall there are likely more similarities than differences from younger adults.^ July 2008 There are many like you for whom a mobile phone is more like a style statement that just a phoning device.
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^ They give comfort more preference than style and design; generally, wedding rings for men are simpler than women’s rings, though there are...
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^ However, while there was an approximately equal distribution of subjects homozygous for each allele in the Caucasian population, subjects homozygous for the UGT2B7*1 allele were over 10-fold more prevalent than UGT2B7*2 homozygotes in Japanese.

[166]

History

.Varying moods and energy levels have been a part of the human experience since time immemorial.^ August 2009 Money is the support system of man since time immemorial.
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^ Modulation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels by different human dopamine D4 receptor variants.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ My point: With experience and time, the curve gets less extreme and your emotions more level.
  • Harnessing Entrepreneurial Manic-Depression: Making the Rollercoaster Work for You 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.The words "melancholia" (an old word for depression) and "mania" have their etymologies in Ancient Greek.^ Depression has been something that in mythology was even affecting the Greek gods when it was known as melancholia, which meant black and bile.

^ I sat in the chair motionless and cried and cried, mania and depression had destroyed my mind and I could not communicate one word.

.The word melancholia is derived from melas/μελας, meaning "black", and chole/χολη, meaning "bile" or "gall",[167] indicative of the term's origins in pre-Hippocratic humoral theories.^ Seizing or sequestering is easy to visualize once you understand that "chelation" is derived from the Greek root word "chele" which means "claw."

Within the humoral theories, mania was viewed as arising from an excess of yellow bile, or a mixture of black and yellow bile. The linguistic origins of mania, however, are not so clear-cut. .Several etymologies are proposed by the Roman physician Caelius Aurelianus, including the Greek word ‘ania’, meaning to produce great mental anguish, and ‘manos’, meaning relaxed or loose, which would contextually approximate to an excessive relaxing of the mind or soul (Angst and Marneros 2001).^ It also means mental anguish and that is really how we got the words depressing and manic.

^ A perfect song touches your soul and relaxes your mind completely.
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^ I want to explain this place I am in, a place in my mind that I have never experienced before, but words don't describe, don't have meaning.

.There are at least five other candidates, and part of the confusion surrounding the exact etymology of the word mania is its varied usage in the pre-Hippocratic poetry and mythologies (Angst and Marneros 2001).^ November 2008 If like most of the other people you also give preference to driving then there are various things that you should take into consideration.
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^ I use this word, as there are no other words to describe the feelings and thoughts that I have experienced during the past weeks.

^ There are some people who give preference to companies with good reputation which provide good packages whereas there are many other people who pre...
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Society and culture

Cultural references

.Kay Redfield Jamison is a clinical psychologist and Professor of Psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, who profiled her own bipolar disorder in her 1995 memoir An Unquiet Mind,[168] and argued for a connection between bipolar disorder and artistic creativity in her 1993 book, Touched with Fire.^ The connection between Semantic Pragmatic Disorder...
  • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

^ She is a psychologist who writes about her own manic depression and the relationship between manic depression and creativity.
  • Is manic-depression a disease to be cured? - Straight Dope Message Board 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Between 1 - 2 million Americans may suffer from bipolar disorder.

[169]
Several films portrayed characters with traits suggestive of the diagnosis which have been the subject of discussion by psychiatrists and film experts alike. The 1993 film Mr. Jones is a notable example, with Richard Gere playing a person who swings from a manic episode into a depressive phase and back again, spending time in a psychiatric hospital and displaying many of the features of the syndrome.[170] .Allie Fox, the character played by Harrison Ford in the 1986 movie The Mosquito Coast, displays some features including recklessness, grandiosity, increased goal-directed activity and mood lability, as well as some paranoia.^ Careful however, as this supplement may interact with some of the more commonly prescribed mood stabilizers including Depakene.

^ On the plus side they have an increase in goal oriented activities but who knows how long that will last?
  • Is manic-depression a disease to be cured? - Straight Dope Message Board 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The symptoms are: inflated self-esteem or grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, more talkative than usual, flight of ideas or racing thoughts, distractibility, psychomotor agitation or an increase in goal-directed activity, excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that may have negative consequences.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

[171]
.In the progressive metal band Dream Theater song Six Degrees of Inner Turbulence from the album of the same name, the lyrics of the first movement, About to Crash, describes a girl with bipolar disorder.^ Am J Psychiatry 1992, 149 : 1563-7 KUTCHER S, MARTON P. Affective disorders in first-degree relatives of adolscent onset bipolars, unipolars, and normal controls.
  • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ Regardless of how you feel about Patrick Kennedy's politics, he has helped others with bipolar disorder with his candid admissions.

^ I finally found a clue that might help me and others about the Bipolar Disorder Creative Genius.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

Tom Wilkinson portrayed a manic depressive lawyer in Tony Gilroy's film Michael Clayton. Matt Damon portrays a manic depressive whistleblower and FBI informant in the Steven Soderbergh film The Informant!. In the film, Mark Whitacre, the character played by Matt Damon, displays bizarre behavior including recklessness and grandiosity.
.Next to Normal, a rock musical debuted off-Broadway in 2008 before going on to play in Arlington, VA and eventually, in April 2009, on Broadway.^ November 2008 It was about a year ago and we were going through our routine as normal at the fitness center.
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^ November 2008 In this fast-paced age of technology and information, taking the time to learn a musical instrument might seem next to impossible.
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^ April 2008 If you are interested in buying real estate in Costa Rica, there are several ways that you can go about doing so.
  • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Its story concerns a mother who struggles with worsening bipolar disorder and the effect that her illness has on her family.^ In families where one person has manic depressive illness, there are often other family members who have episodes of depressive illness or hypomania.

^ Genetic causes, since many people with bipolar disorder have family members with a history of mental illness or bipolar disorder.

^ Alternative Bipolar Medications Bipolar is considered as a major disorder that can greatly affect an individual and his family.

.In the Australian TV drama Stingers, Gary Sweet played the role of Detective Luke Harris from season six, portraying him as having bipolar disorder and showing how his paranoia interfered with his work.^ Some observations on having bipolar disorder.

^ A sweet story, with a bipolar disorder twist.

^ I started taking Depakote for bipolar disorder, and it might be working.

.As research for the role Sweet visited a psychiatrist to learn about manic depressive illness.^ My illness of Manic Depression has taken over my mind it controls every thought every feeling.

^ In families where one person has manic depressive illness, there are often other family members who have episodes of depressive illness or hypomania.

^ Complaining about the "medicalization" of manic depression is no different from complaining about the "medicalization" of cancer.
  • Is manic-depression a disease to be cured? - Straight Dope Message Board 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

He said that he left the sessions convinced he had the condition.
.TV specials, for example the BBC's The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive,[172] MTV's True Life: I'm Bipolar, talk shows, and public radio shows, and the greater willingness of public figures to discuss their own bipolar disorder, have focused on psychiatric conditions thereby raising public awareness.^ Bipolar has stages, stages of manic and depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike unipolar disorder, also known as major affective disorder or depression, bipolar disorder is characterized by vacillating between periods of elation (either mania or hypomania) and depression.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Many studies indicate that lithium works better for controlling manic states, and that lamotrigine works better for bipolar depression.

.On April 7, 2009, the nighttime drama 90210 on the CW network, aired a special episode where one of the characters, Silver, was diagnosed with bipolar disorder.^ I have been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder now for 6 years or so.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There are some people who have one or more manic or mixed episodes in a very long time, and these people are categorized in Bipolar 1.

^ As I got to know him, I realised his condition was a little more complicated than your garden variety anxiety: he is diagnosed with manic-depression, also known as bipolar disorder.

.A PSA aired after the episode, directing teens and young adults with questions or concerns about mood disorders to the Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation website for information, and to chat with other teens [173].^ As in epilepsy, the more episodes a bipolar disorder patient experiences early in the course of the disease, the more frequent and severe later episodes will be.
  • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bipolar depression typically lasts 2 - 3 months -- not as long as in major depression (although left untreated some bipolar disorder episodes can last 6 - 12 months or longer).

^ Regardless of how you feel about Patrick Kennedy's politics, he has helped others with bipolar disorder with his candid admissions.

.Recently Stacey Slater from the popular BBC soap EastEnders has begun to show signs of bipolar disorder; her mother Jean Slater also has bipolar disorder.^ Some studies have recently shown that inositol may acually help treat certain problems like bipolar disorder, depression, and panic disorder.

^ Until recently, lithium was the only drug approved for treating bipolar disorder in children (age 12 years and older).

^ Recently, a genome-wide search in a homogenous population found in the Saguenay/Lac-St-Jean region of Quebec suggests the presence of a major locus for bipolar disorder on chromosome 12q23-q24 (Morissette et al., Am.
  • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
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[174]
.In Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, Elliot Stabler's daughter, Kathleen Stabler, is diagnosed with bipolar disorder.^ I have been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder now for 6 years or so.
  • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As I got to know him, I realised his condition was a little more complicated than your garden variety anxiety: he is diagnosed with manic-depression, also known as bipolar disorder.

^ However, imaging tests do not currently play a role in diagnosing bipolar disorder.

.It is later revealed that his mother, Bernadette, also suffered the same disorder, but chose not to take medication for it.^ Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may benefit adolescents with bipolar I disorder who suffer severe episodes of mania or depression and who have not been helped by medication.

^ As to whether someone should take medication for bipolar disorder, it is pretty much up to the individual unless the patient is involuntarily hospitalized and as a result must take medication.
  • Is manic-depression a disease to be cured? - Straight Dope Message Board 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I guess if you want to live as a suffering artist and your condition is mild, I suppose it's up to you to take your medication.
  • Is manic-depression a disease to be cured? - Straight Dope Message Board 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

References

  1. ^ Basco, Monica Ramirez, The Bipolar Workbook: Tools for Controlling Your Mood Swings, ISBN 1-59385-162-6, 2006. p.viii
  2. ^ http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165032702004627
  3. ^ http://www.mental-health-matters.com/articles/article.php?artID=1176
  4. ^ http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/bipolar-disorder/what-are-the-symptoms-of-bipolar-disorder.shtml
  5. ^ Kessler, RC; Chiu, WT; Demler, O; Merikangas, KR; Walters, EE (2005). "Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)". Arch Gen Psychiat 6 (6): 617–27. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617. PMID 15939839. http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/62/6/617. 
  6. ^ Frederick K Goodwin and Kay R Jamison.Manic-Depressive Illness Chapter 7, "Epidemiology". Oxford University Press, 1990. ISBN 0195039343.
  7. ^ "Bipolar Disorder: Signs and symptoms". Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bipolar-disorder/DS00356/DSECTION=2. 
  8. ^ NIMH · Bipolar Disorder · Complete Publication
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Cited texts

  • Goodwin FK, Jamison KR (1990). .Manic-Depressive Illness.^ My illness of Manic Depression has taken over my mind it controls every thought every feeling.

    ^ In families where one person has manic depressive illness, there are often other family members who have episodes of depressive illness or hypomania.

    ^ Manic depressive illness and tyrosine hydroxylase gene : linkage heterogeneity and association.
    • http://ist.inserm.fr/basisrapports/troubles_mentaux/chap4.htm 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC ist.inserm.fr [Source type: Academic]

    .New York: Oxford University Press.^ Transfection of the cells is performed using standard cell transfection methods, see for example, Joyner, “Gene Targeting: A Practical Approach”, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.
    • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • Items where Year is 2006 -ORCA 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC orca.cardiff.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Plenum Press; 1998;p.
    • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-19-503934-3.
     
  • Goodwin FK, Jamison KR (2007). .Manic-Depressive Illness: Bipolar Disorders and Recurrent Depression, 2nd Edition.^ My illness of Manic Depression has taken over my mind it controls every thought every feeling.

    ^ Many studies indicate that lithium works better for controlling manic states, and that lamotrigine works better for bipolar depression.

    ^ In families where one person has manic depressive illness, there are often other family members who have episodes of depressive illness or hypomania.

    .New York: Oxford University Press.^ Transfection of the cells is performed using standard cell transfection methods, see for example, Joyner, “Gene Targeting: A Practical Approach”, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.
    • MEANS AND METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING AND TREATING AFFECTIVE DISORDERS - Patent Application 20080057504 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • Items where Year is 2006 -ORCA 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC orca.cardiff.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Plenum Press; 1998;p.
    • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-19-513579-2.
     

Further reading

Other contemporary first-person accounts on this subject include
  • Simon, Lizzie. .2002. Detour: My Bipolar Road Trip in 4-D.^ Detour: My Bipolar Road Trip in 4-D .
    • Bipolar disorder - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Bipolar disorder - Psych Central's Wiki 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC wiki.psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Detour: My Bipolar Road Trip in 4 D - Lizzie Simon Paperback, Washington Square Press, 2003, 224 pages.
    • Books about Bipolar Disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bpso.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Detour: My Bipolar Road Trip in 4-D by Lizzie Simon .
    • Bipolar disorder - Depression Wiki 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC depression.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    .New York: Simon and Schuster.^ Peter Kramer M.D. (Simon and Schuster, New York 2002) 2003 reprint: ISBN 0743446607 Electroboy: A Memoir of Mania by Andy Behrman .
    • Bipolar disorder - Depression Wiki 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC depression.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Simon & Schuster, 1981 Endler, Norman.
    • Manic Depression: An Overview 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
    • www.patientcenters.com -- Bipolar Disorders Center -- Resources 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.patientcenters.com [Source type: News]

    .ISBN 0-7434-4659-3.
  • Behrman, Andy.^ ISBN 0-7434-4659-3 .
    • Bipolar disorder - Psych Central's Wiki 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC wiki.psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Peter Kramer M.D. (Simon and Schuster, New York 2002) 2003 reprint: ISBN 0743446607 Electroboy: A Memoir of Mania by Andy Behrman .
    • Bipolar disorder - Depression Wiki 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC depression.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    .2002. Electroboy: A Memoir of Mania.^ Electroboy: A Memoir of Mania .
    • Bipolar disorder - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Bipolar disorder - Psych Central's Wiki 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC wiki.psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Peter Kramer M.D. (Simon and Schuster, New York 2002) 2003 reprint: ISBN 0743446607 Electroboy: A Memoir of Mania by Andy Behrman .
    • Bipolar disorder - Depression Wiki 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC depression.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Electroboy : A Memoir of Mania .
    • Bipolar Disorder 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC talentdevelop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Random House, 2002. ISBN 0-375-50358-7.
  • Lovelace, David.^ The New York Regional Mormon Singles Halloween Dance Larry David on Happiness — and Sex Would You Read Jenny Sanford's Book?
    • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Clapham, David Frederick (2002) Housing Pathways - A Post Modern Analytical Framework.

    ^ New York: Viking; 2002;.
    • My Aspergers Child: Aspergers: Behavioral Interventions 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.myaspergerschild.com [Source type: Academic]

    .2008. Scattershot: My Bipolar Family.^ I have also lost my family due to being bipolar.
    • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hello, I have been reading all of comments from my Bipolar family.
    • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hey there, many members of my family have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder, including myself, and I aint ashamed.

    New York: Dutton Adult, 2008. ISBN 0-525-95078-8.
To find out more about how to deal with bipolar first-hand or how friends and family can deal with it, see:
  • Berk, Lesley (March 5, 2009). Living with Bipolar. Vermilion. ISBN 9780091924256. 
For readings regarding bipolar disorder in children, see:
  • Raeburn, Paul. .2004. Acquainted with the Night: A Parent's Quest to Understand Depression and Bipolar Disorder in His Children.
  • Earley, Pete.^ Depressive Disorder Thoughts on Bipolar Disorder My view is that bipolar disorder is a form of diabetes of the brain.

    ^ In both cases of bipolar disorder, people have severe depressions that are usually recurrent.
    • Families for Depression Awareness 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.familyaware.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bipolar disorder is an illness that causes extreme mood changes from manic episodes of very high energy to the extreme lows of depression .
    • Health Information 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: General]

    Crazy. .2006. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.^ New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
    • Bipolar disorder - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Bipolar disorder - Psych Central's Wiki 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC wiki.psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ October 2006 The tasty food and the inviting aroma of the delicacies are a sure shot that can be found in the best steakhouse in New York.
    • Submit articles or find free articles 22 September 2009 12:20 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Putnam Publishing Group, 1998.
    • www.patientcenters.com -- Bipolar Disorders Center -- Resources 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.patientcenters.com [Source type: News]

    ISBN 0-399-15313-6. A father's account of his son's bipolar disorder.
Classic works on this subject include
  • Kraepelin, Emil. .1921. Manic-depressive Insanity and Paranoia ISBN 0-405-07441-7 (English translation of the original German from the earlier eighth edition of Kraepelin's textbook — now outdated, but a work of major historical importance).
  • Mind Over Mood: Cognitive Treatment Therapy Manual for Clients by Christine Padesky, Dennis Greenberger.^ My illness of Manic Depression has taken over my mind it controls every thought every feeling.

    ^ Many studies indicate that lithium works better for controlling manic states, and that lamotrigine works better for bipolar depression.
    • Bipolar disorder 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Most recently in a manic episode with at least one previous major depressive episode, manic episode, or mixed episode 4.
    • Bipolar Disorder and the Creative Genius | Serendip's Exchange 9 February 2010 13:013 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-89862-128-3

External links


Simple English

Bipolar Disorder is a term from psychiatry. It is also called manic depression because people who have this disease are sometimes manic and at other times have depression. It is a kind of mental illness.

Contents

Symptoms

Sometimes, a person can experience something called mania. Mania is when a person's brain goes into a high-energy state. The other extreme is a low-energy state that is depression. "Bipolar" literally means "two poles" or two extremes in how much energy the brain has. When in a high-energy state, mania can cause extreme emotions such as panic attacks or extreme happiness such as euphoria.

When a person with Bipolar Disorder is manic, they might not think as hard about the choices that they make, and sometimes may do things like give things to people, or spend lots of money. This is because during a manic episode, a lot of people start to believe things that are not really true, or get confused about what's real and what's made up. People can also become aggressive and possibly violent while manic, but this only happens in very, very bad cases, so it's not as common as some people think.

Mania

There are a few things that a lot of people start to believe when they have manic episodes. Sometimes, they might think they have lots and lots of money, when they really do not. Other times, the person who has a manic episode might think that people they knew are alive, even though the truth is that these people have died. Every person is different, so it's important to remember that these things do not happen to all people with Bipolar Disorder.

Treatment

Like most mental illnesses, there are ways to treat Bipolar Disorder. Sometimes taking medicine or getting therapy can make it easier to control. The same treatments and medicines do not work for everyone, and it is not rare for people to have manic episodes when they stop taking their medicine because they feel like they can control their disorder. Things like this can make Bipolar Disorder a difficult illness to live with, but when people are educated about it, it is not quite as hard.

Manic Depression

Bipolar Disorder used to be called Manic Depression. This was because the two symptoms were mania and depression. Now psychiatrists and psychotherapists (doctors who specialize in mental illnesses) think bipolar disorder is one illness in its own right, not a combination of two other illnesses, and have developed new treatments and "coping strategies" (plans to live more easily with bipolar disorder)

Other websites

  • BipolArt - Living proof of why "bipolars" are so creative. A fantastic collection of drawings, paintings, inkings, photographs, music, etc by artists who share this illness
  • Allpsych


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 06, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bipolar disorder, which are similar to those in the above article.








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