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An Osprey

Birds of prey are birds that hunt for food primarily on the wing, using their keen senses, especially vision. They are defined as any bird that hunts other animals. Their talons and beaks tend to be relatively large, powerful and adapted for tearing and/or piercing flesh. In most cases, the females are considerably larger than the males. The term "raptor" is derived from the Latin word "rapere" (meaning to seize or take by force) and may refer informally to all birds of prey, or specifically to the diurnal group.[1] Because of their overall large size and predatory lifestyle, they face distinct conservation concerns.

Contents

Formal classification

The diurnal birds of prey are formally classified into five families (traditionally of the order Falconiformes, a classification currently in flux):

The nocturnal birds of prey - the owls - are classified separately as members of two extant families of the order Strigiformes:

The observation that otherwise unrelated bird groups may perform similar ecological roles and bear striking morphological similarities to one another is explained largely by the idea of convergent evolution.

The common names for various birds of prey are based on structure but many of the traditional names do not reflect the evolutionary relationships between the groups.

Variations in shape and size
  • Eagles tend to be large birds with long, broad wings and massive feet. Booted eagles have legs and feet feathered to the toes and build very large stick nests.
  • Ospreys -- a single species found worldwide -- specializes in fish, and builds large stick nests.
  • Kites have long wings and relatively weak legs. They spend much of their time soaring. They will take live vertebrate prey but mostly feed on insects or even carrion.
  • The true Hawks are medium-sized birds of prey that usually belong to the genus Accipiter (see below). They are mainly woodland birds that hunt by sudden dashes from a concealed perch. They usually have long tails for tight steering.
  • Buzzards are medium-large raptors with robust bodies and broad wings, or, alternatively, any bird of the genus Buteo (also commonly known as "hawks" in North America).
  • Harriers are large, slender hawk-like birds with long tails and long thin legs. Most use a combination of keen eyesight and hearing to hunt small vertebrates, gliding on their long broad wings and circling low over grasslands and marshes.
  • Vultures are carrion-eating raptors of two distinct biological families, each occurring in only the Eastern Hemisphere (Accipitridae) or the Western (Cathartidae). Members of both groups have heads either partly or fully devoid of feathers.
  • Falcons are small to medium-size birds of prey with long pointed wings. Unlike most other raptors, they belong to the Falconidae, rather than the Accipitridae. Many are particularly swift flyers. Instead of building their own nests, falcons appropriate old nests of other birds, but sometimes they lay their eggs on cliff ledges or in tree hollows. Caracaras are a distinct subgroup of the Falconidae unique to the New World, and most common in the Neotropics - their broad wings, naked faces and appetites of a generalist suggest some level of convergence with either the Buteos or the vulturine birds, or both.
  • Owls are variable-sized, typically night-specialized hunting birds. They fly silently and have very acute senses of hearing and low-light vision.

Notes

  1. ^ Brown, Leslie (1997). Birds of Prey. Chancellor Press. ISBN 185152732X. 

References

  • Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. [Version 2007-04-05.] A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union. Accessed 2007-04-10.

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Birds of prey are birds that hunt for food primarily on the wing, using their keen senses, especially vision. They are defined as birds that primarily hunt vertebrates, including other birds. Their talons and beaks tend to be relatively large, powerful and adapted for tearing and/or piercing flesh. In most cases, the females are considerably larger than the males. The term "raptor" is derived from the Latin word "rapere" (meaning to seize or take by force) and may refer informally to all birds of prey, or specifically to the diurnal group.[1] Because of their overall large size and predatory lifestyle, they face distinct conservation concerns.

Contents

Formal classification

]] The diurnal birds of prey are formally classified into five families (traditionally of the order Falconiformes, a classification currently[vague] in flux):

The nocturnal birds of prey - the owls - are classified separately as members of two extant families of the order Strigiformes:

The observation that otherwise unrelated bird groups may perform similar ecological roles and bear striking morphological similarities to one another is explained largely by the idea of convergent evolution.

The common names for various birds of prey are based on structure but many of the traditional names do not reflect the evolutionary relationships between the groups.

  • Eagles tend to be large birds with long, broad wings and massive feet. Booted Eagles have legs and feet feathered to the toes and build very large stick nests.
  • Ospreys, a single species found worldwide that specializes in catching fish, and builds large stick nests.
  • Kites have long wings and relatively weak legs. They spend much of their time soaring. They will take live vertebrate prey but mostly feed on insects or even carrion.
  • The true Hawks are medium-sized birds of prey that usually belong to the genus Accipiter (see below). They are mainly woodland birds that hunt by sudden dashes from a concealed perch. They usually have long tails for tight steering.
  • Buzzards are medium-large raptors with robust bodies and broad wings, or, alternatively, any bird of the genus Buteo (also commonly known as "hawks" in North America).
  • Harriers are large, slender hawk-like birds with long tails and long thin legs. Most use a combination of keen eyesight and hearing to hunt small vertebrates, gliding on their long broad wings and circling low over grasslands and marshes.
  • Vultures are carrion-eating raptors of two distinct biological families, each occurring in only the Eastern Hemisphere (Accipitridae) or the Western (Cathartidae). Members of both groups have heads either partly or fully devoid of feathers.
  • Falcons are small to medium-size birds of prey with long pointed wings. Unlike most other raptors, they belong to the Falconidae, rather than the Accipitridae. Many are particularly swift flyers. Instead of building their own nests, falcons appropriate old nests of other birds, but sometimes they lay their eggs on cliff ledges or in tree hollows. Caracaras are a distinct subgroup of the Falconidae unique to the New World, and most common in the Neotropics - their broad wings, naked faces and appetites of a generalist suggest some level of convergence with either the Buteos or the vulturine birds, or both.
  • Owls are variable-sized, typically night-specialized hunting birds. They fly with extremely little audible turbulance due to special feather structure and have particularly acute hearing.

Notes

  1. ^ Brown, Leslie (1997). Birds of Prey. Chancellor Press. ISBN 185152732X. 

References

  • Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. [Version 2007-04-05.] A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union. Accessed 2007-04-10.

See also

External links


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Birds of prey article)

From BibleWiki


While few clean birds are named in the Old Testament (see Poultry), there are given in Lev. xi. (13-19) and Deut. xiv. (12-21) two parallel lists of birds of prey, the former passage mentioning twenty, and the latter twenty-one. The generic name for raptorial birds is "'ayiṭ" (Gen 15:11; Isa 18:6; Jer 12:9; Ezek 39:4; Job 28:7; Isa 46:11 [a metaphor]). This large number of names, as also the frequent allusions in metaphors and proverbial expressions to the habits of birds, shows that, though forbidden as food, they were nevertheless objects of close observation and contemplation. They were also cherished, it seems, for the beauty of their plumage (1 Kg 10:22) and as pets for children (Job 40:29; comp. Baruch iii. 17). Appreciation of their cry is indicated in Ps 10412, and Eccl 12:4.

The Talmud, noting that "le-mino" (after its kind) follows the names of four of the unclean birds in the Pentateuchal lists, and identifying "ayyah" with "dayyah," assumes twenty-four unclean birds are intended; and adds: "There are in the East a hundred unclean birds, all of the hawk species" ("min ayyah"; Ḥul. 63b). Some of the birds of prey were trained to the service of man, the hawk, e.g., to pursue other birds (Shab. 94a). The claws of the griffin, the wings of the osprey, and the eggs of the ostrich were made into vessels (Ḥul. 25b; Rashi ad loc.; Kelim xvii. 14). Eggshells were used as receptacles for lamp-oil (Shab. 29b).

Bibliography: Tristram, Nat. Hist. p. 168; Lewysohn, Z. T. p. 159.

This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.
Facts about Birds of preyRDF feed

Simple English

Birds of Prey
File:Wild
Australasian Osprey
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Orders
at Combe Martin Wildlife and Dinosaur Park, North Devon, England]]

Birds of prey (also called raptors) are birds that mainly use their claws (called talons) to hunt for food. They cannot be classified into one natural family or group. The behaviour showed multiple times in different groups. This is known as convergent evolution.

Contents

Different groups

Those bird of prey that are active during the day (diurnal) are classified as follows (All: Falconiformes)

  • Accipitridae: Hawks, Eagles, Buzzards, Harriers, Kites and Old World vultures
  • Pandionidae: Osprey (sometimes classified as subfamily Pandioninae of the previous family)

  • Sagittariidae: Secretary-bird
  • Falconidae: Falcons and Caracaras

Nocturnal birds of prey - the owls - are classified separately, considered to be members of two families of the order Strigiformes:

  • Strigidae (typical owls)
  • Tytonidae (barn and bay owls)

The New World vultures are usually also regarded as birds of prey, although they may not be closely related to the other groups. some raptors use their beak a lot too but it is very precious and not as virousios as their claws

Raptor names

  • Eagles are large birds with long, broad wings and massive legs. Booted eagles have feathered legs and build large stick nests.
  • Kites have long wings and weak legs. They spend much of their time soaring. They will take live prey but mostly feed on carrion.
  • Falcons are small to medium sized birds of prey with long pointed wings. Unlike most other raptors, they belong to the Falconidae rather than the Accipitridae. Many are particularly swift flyers. Instead of building their own nests, falcons appropriate old nests of other birds but sometimes they lay their eggs on cliff ledges or in tree hollows.
  • Owls are variable-sized nocturnal hunting birds. They fly soundlessly and have very acute senses of hearing and sight.
  • Harriers are large, slender hawk-like birds with long tails and long thin legs. Most hunt by gliding and circling low over grasslands and marshes on their long broad wings.
  • Hawks are medium-sized birds of prey that usually belong to the genus Accipiter (but see below). They are mainly woodland birds that hunt by sudden dashes from a concealed perch. They usually have long tails.
  • Buzzards are raptors with a robust body and broad wings, or, alternatively, any bird of the genus Buteo (also commonly known as Hawks in North America).
  • Vultures are carrion-eating raptors, found in both the Old and New World. They usually have heads which are bare of feathers.

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