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A family planning centre in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.
.Birth control is a regimen of one or more actions, devices, sexual practices, or medications followed in order to deliberately prevent or reduce the likelihood of pregnancy or childbirth[1].^ As with hormonal birth control , the end result is to prevent pregnancy.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What's wrong w/ practicing birth control nowadays?
  • Cafferty File: Tell Jack how you really feel Blog Archive - Mandatory population control to fight global warming? « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC caffertyfile.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Birth control is any method used to prevent pregnancy.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are three main routes to preventing or ending pregnancy: the prevention of fertilization of the ovum by sperm cells ("contraception"), the prevention of implantation of the blastocyst ("contragestion"), and the chemical or surgical induction or abortion of the developing embryo or, later, fetus.^ Generally, there are three stages of pregnancy...
  • Understanding Different Types of Birth Control Methods 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mdhealthnetwork.org [Source type: General]

^ Anti-abortion groups argue that by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg, it destroys a fetus.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A contraceptive method that prevents fertilization by preventing the contact between the sperm and egg.
  • Family Planning Council, Birth Control Methods, www.familyplanning.org 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.familyplanning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In common usage, term "contraception" is often used for both contraception and contragestion.^ The term emergency contraception is often used instead of contragestion.
  • What Is Contraception? What Is Birth Control? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bone mineral density during long-term use of the progestagen contraceptive implant Implanon compared to a non-hormonal method of contraception.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, lack of commitment to using the method every time that intercourse occurs, whether a couple are experienced users or not, often leads to contraceptive failure.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

.Birth control is commonly used as part of family planning.^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Birth control and family planning."
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abortion is birth control, plan and simple.

.The history of birth control began with the discovery of the connection between coitus and pregnancy.^ If an unplanned pregnancy would seriously impact your plans for the future, choose a birth control method that is highly effective.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A medical, social and legal history of birth control with ancient and foreign cultural references and lengthy section on the folklore of birth control.
  • 82.06.03: The History of Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The age-old practice of refusing to hold males at all responsible for their acts informs the birth control, teen pregnancy and abortion debates.
  • The Contraception Failure | | AlterNet 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.The oldest forms of birth control included coitus interruptus, pessaries, and the ingestion of herbs that were believed to be contraceptive or abortifacient.^ The only forms of birth control are condoms and...
  • WikiAnswers - Birth Control Questions including "What is pre-cum" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ A spermicide is a form of birth control.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Withdrawal is a form of birth control.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earliest record of birth control use is an ancient Egyptian set of instructions on creating a contraceptive pessary.^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a condom breaks or if birth control was not used, emergency contraception is an option.
  • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anyone use natural birth control?

.Different methods of birth control have varying characteristics.^ There are many methods of birth control .
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Advantages of the various methods of birth control have to be listed according to the method of contraception.
  • DoctorNDTV: Health Information on Birth control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC doctor.ndtv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unendorsed Methods of Birth control .
  • UCSB SexInfoOnline - Contraception 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.soc.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Condoms, for example, are the only methods that provide significant protection from sexually transmitted diseases.^ How can I prevent sexually transmitted diseases?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also do not protect against all sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
  • Sex Education - Contraception 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.motherschoice.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This provides NO protection from ANY sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
  • Sex Education - Contraception 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.motherschoice.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cultural and religious attitudes on birth control vary significantly.^ Religious leaders here think having babies is a religous freedom and don't even support birth control!
  • Cafferty File: Tell Jack how you really feel Blog Archive - Mandatory population control to fight global warming? « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC caffertyfile.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But U.S. pharmaceutical companies do not seem to want to invest significantly in male birth control research.
  • Birth Control - World Population Awareness 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other people choose to use various methods of birth control.
  • Understanding Different Types of Birth Control Methods 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mdhealthnetwork.org [Source type: General]

Contents

History

"And the villain still pursues her." Satirical Victorian era postcard
.Probably the oldest methods of contraception (aside from avoiding vaginal intercourse) are coitus interruptus, lactational, certain barrier methods, herbal methods (emmenagogues, and abortifacients).^ Johnson CA. Vaginal barrier contraceptive methods.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a barrier contraceptive method.
  • Family Planning Council, Birth Control Methods, www.familyplanning.org 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.familyplanning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are widespread in several countries, such as Peru, where the rhythm method is popular, and Turkey, where coitus interruptus is prevalent.
  • POPULATION EXPLOSION - A PROBLEM TO SURVIVAL OF HUMAN EXISTENCE 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Russia, to facilitate social equality between men and women, birth control was made readily available.^ Today, there are many choices of birth control for women and men.
  • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any other types of birth control are for women.
  • WikiAnswers - Birth Control Questions including "What is pre-cum" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Which birth control methods are available.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aleksandra Kollontai (1872-1952) was the commissar for public welfare during this time, she promoted birth control education for adults as well.^ Another method of birth control should be used during this time.

^ The best method of birth control is one that protects you every time you have sex.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Countries who do not practice birth control because of relligious beliefs or lack of education need to understand the full ramifications of their breeding.
  • Cafferty File: Tell Jack how you really feel Blog Archive - Mandatory population control to fight global warming? « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC caffertyfile.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When it came to birth control in France, women were working for reproductive rights and they helped end the nation's ban on birth control in 1965. Finally in 1970, in Catholic Italy, feminists won the right to gain access to birth control information.^ For women, it works right away.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you first start birth control pills they do not work right away.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What birth control is best for black women?
  • Birth Control Forum - Topix 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

[2]
.Much earlier than this, satirical English author Daniel Defoe wrote Conjugal Lewdness.^ Recent analyses of earlier studies on PID risk found the actual risk to be much lower than those initial reports.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This claims too much, and places inordinate importance on individual acts of sexual intercourse, rather than the larger integrity of the conjugal bond.
  • Contraception: A Symposium 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Read an article that discussed a disease that can cause bone loss at a much earlier age than we expect.
  • Birth Control - DrDonnica.com - The First Name in Women's Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.drdonnica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The full original title of this 1727 essay was "Conjugal Lewdness or, Matrimonial Whoredom", though he was later asked to rename it for the sake of propriety. .The modified title became "A Treatise Concerning the Use and Abuse of the Marriage Bed". The essay dealt primarily with contraception, comparing it directly with infanticide.^ Although there is concern about the physical failure of male condoms, slippage because of improper use is the most frequent cause of contraceptive failure.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of contraceptives, like the birth control pill and later abortion, became widespread among Catholic laity.” .

^ Almost 18,000 British Columbia women used emergency contraception in 2002, compared with an average of 8,800 in 1999, when non-prescription sales began.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Defoe accomplished this through anecdotes, such as a conversation between two women in which the right-minded chides the other for asking for "recipes" that might prevent pregnancy.^ Pregnancy is prevented as it is with other hormonal methods.
  • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intercourse is a normal part of married life through the whole life of the partners in a marriage and is normally engaged in without any distinct purpose other than to have it, just as such a part of married life.
  • Anscombe on contraception and chastity 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC cavehill.uwi.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1995 more women between the ages of 15 and 44 relied on tubal ligation to prevent pregnancy than OCs.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the essay, he further referred to contraception as "the diabolical practice of attempting to prevent childbearing by physical preparations."^ Ready access to emergency contraception has likely prevented hundreds of abortions and Health Canada is preparing to make the "morning-after pill" available without a prescription.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Coitus interruptus (withdrawal of the penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation) probably predates any other form of birth control.^ Withdrawal, or "pulling out", is not an effective form of birth control.
  • Birth Control - OrganizedWisdom Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC organizedwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Coitus interruptus involves withdrawal of the entire penis from the vagina before ejaculation.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Coitus interruptus is the withdrawal of the penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation.
  • Birth Control and Family Planning Health Information - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment - NY Times Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is not a particularly reliable method of contraception, as few men have the self-control to correctly practice the method at every single act of sexual intercourse.^ An emergency contraceptive method used after sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy.
  • Family Planning Council, Birth Control Methods, www.familyplanning.org 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.familyplanning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Birth Control Practices employed by couples that permit sexual intercourse with reduced likelihood of conception and birth.
  • Glossary of Terms - Population Reference Bureau 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The best method of birth control is one that protects you every time you have sex.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Although it is commonly believed that pre-ejaculate fluid can cause pregnancy, modern research has shown that pre-ejaculate fluid does not contain viable sperm.^ The pre-ejaculate also has sperm in it.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes, pre-cum contains sperm just as semen does.
  • WikiAnswers - Birth Control Questions including "What is pre-cum" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Following a vasectomy, a man continues to ejaculate, but the fluid does not contain sperm.
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][5]
.There are historic records of Egyptian women using a pessary (a vaginal suppository) made of various acidic substances and lubricated with honey or oil, which may have been somewhat effective at killing sperm.^ Latex condoms can NOT be used with oil-based lubrication, as it may deteriorate the condom.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Out of 100 women who use this method, about 20 may get pregnant.
  • Birth Control Guide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fda.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women who use Ortho Evra are strongly advised not to smoke, as it may increase the risk of heart-related side effects.
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .It is important to note that the sperm cell was not discovered until Anton van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope in the late 17th century, so barrier methods employed prior to that time could not know of the details of conception.^ A century ago, women feared dying in childbirth and yet could do little to control conception.
  • Birth Control - World Population Awareness 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typical use” of contraceptives frequently means that the method is not used every time, but it could mean improper use as well.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is very important that this same method, and time be followed every day!

.Asian women may have used oiled paper as a cervical cap, and Europeans may have used beeswax for this purpose.^ Out of 100 women who use this method, about 20 may get pregnant.
  • Birth Control Guide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fda.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women who use Ortho Evra are strongly advised not to smoke, as it may increase the risk of heart-related side effects.
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women are encouraged not to use creams, lotions, or oils near the patch site these agents may cause the patch to detach.
  • Family Planning Council, Birth Control Methods, www.familyplanning.org 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.familyplanning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The condom appeared sometime in the 17th century, initially made of a length of animal intestine.^ The male condom, or "rubber," is a thin covering made of latex, plastic or animal membrane that is rolled over an erect penis.

^ The male condom is a thin sheath made of latex (rubber), polyurethane (plastic), or animal membrane that is worn by the man over his erect penis.
  • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first male condoms used were made of fine linen; animal bladders (cecum of sheep, lambs, or goats) and vulcanized rubber condoms were developed later.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

.It was not particularly popular, nor as effective as modern latex condoms, but was employed both as a means of contraception and in the hopes of avoiding syphilis, which was greatly feared and devastating prior to the discovery of antibiotic drugs.^ Male condoms are the most effective, least costly, nonprescription contraceptives, but they are male-controlled devices and require joint agreement for use.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved "the pill" in 1960, it has become the most popular and one of the most effective forms of reversible birth control ever invented.
  • About Birth Control Pills | Birth Control Pill Options | Birth Control Pill Information | HealthyWomen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I can also see how premarital sex skews the meaning of sexual union as God designed it, because it obviously requires the use of contraceptives to avoid pregnancy.

.Various abortifacients have been used throughout human history in attempts to terminate undesired pregnancy.^ Erasmus Sexuality Old Style: Strange Contraceptives and Birthcontrol Used Throughout History Crocodile-dung, herbs, and a lot more were used in ancient times to prevent pregnancies.
  • Oral Contraceptives - Associated Content - Topic 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Throughout civilized history, conservative elders have attempted to prevent the young from finding out about sex.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barrier methods of contraception have been the most widely used contraceptive techniques throughout recorded history.
  • Non Hormonal Contraception - un knol de Philip Darney, MD MSc 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of them were effective, some were not; those that were most effective also had major side effects.^ What are some common side effects of EC? .
  • Emergency Contraception FAQ - VaginaPagina 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some women may have side effects.

^ Some women have side effects.

.One abortifacient reported to have low levels of side effects—silphium—was harvested to extinction around the 1st century.^ Silphium was basically harvested to extinction.

^ Another significant side effect—probably the most undesirable one—is weight gain.
  • Birth Control Hormonal Options:Pills, Shots, and Implants 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most significant side effect is severe nausea, which affects about one­third of women using this regimen.
  • Birth Control Hormonal Options:Pills, Shots, and Implants 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .The ingestion of certain poisons by the female can disrupt the reproductive system; women have drunk solutions containing mercury, arsenic or other toxic substances for this purpose.^ Childbearing Years The reproductive age span of women, assumed for statistical purposes to be 15-44 or 15-49 years of age.
  • Glossary of Terms - Population Reference Bureau 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A by-product of the nuclear power, fertilizer, and other heavy industries, fluoride is more toxic than lead and only marginally less toxic than arsenic.

^ These imitators of this basic female hormone-found in plastics, pesticides, and industrial pollutants-may adversely affect male reproductive functioning, among other things.
  • Birth Control - World Population Awareness 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Greek gynaecologist Soranus in the 2nd century suggested that women drink water that blacksmiths had used to cool metal.^ Current research suggests that healthy, non-smoking women have little if any greater risk of these serious health problems than do women who do not use the pill."
  • Birth Control Pill May Cause Migraines | Progressive U 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.progressiveu.org [Source type: General]

^ Adding a sterilant to drinking water or staple foods is a suggestion that seems to horrify people more than most proposals for involuntary fertility control.
  • Holdren Forced To Respond To Controversy Over Totalitarian Population Control Proposals 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a document of the third century a Christian author wrote of the use of contraceptives by freeborn Christian women of Rome.
  • Anscombe on contraception and chastity 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC cavehill.uwi.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The herbs tansy and pennyroyal are well-known in folklore as abortive agents, but these also "work" by poisoning the woman.^ For example, the resources of the earth have to be worked on to supply our needs and enhance our lives: this is a general and well-known fact of nature.
  • Anscombe on contraception and chastity 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC cavehill.uwi.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The real issue is not how these herbs worked, but whether the ancients thought they did.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Contraception: Early Church Teaching (William Klimon) 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also warned that, 'the effects of these engineered biological agents could be worse than any disease known to man' and that advances in biotechnology will be very hard to police.

.Levels of the active chemicals in these herbs that will induce a miscarriage are high enough to perilously damage the liver, kidneys and other organs.^ That these goals emanated from a very high level in the central government.
  • The Peruvian Population Control Program 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ (AB-do-men) The area of the body that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and other organs.

^ Having to do with the abdomen, which is the part of the body between the chest and the hips that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and other organs.

.However, in those times where risk of maternal death from postpartum complications was high, the risks and side effects of toxic medicines may have seemed less onerous.^ This has greatly lowered the risk of side effects.
  • Birth Control Methods << Frequently Asked Questions << womenshealth.gov 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some women may have side effects.

^ Side effects may include the following: .
  • Female Contraception 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some herbalists claim that black cohosh tea will also be effective in certain cases as an abortifacient.^ Taking cyclophosphamide Some Trade Names LYOPHILIZED CYTOXAN , certain antibiotics, or possibly certain antifungal drugs can make oral contraceptives less effective.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For centuries, historians paid no attention to ancient accounts that claimed certain plants provided an effective means of birth control.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Contraception: Early Church Teaching (William Klimon) 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.Aside from abortifacients, herbal contraceptives in folklore have also included a few preventative measures.^ The book included several descriptions of possible population control measures, including the addition of sterilants to the water supply to prevent human conception.
  • Obama�s science czar does not support coercive population control, spokesman says :: Catholic News Agency (CNA) 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.catholicnewsagency.com [Source type: General]

^ Neither ECPs nor IUDs prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Many women who need emergency contraception are at risk of these infections.
  • Fact Sheet: Emergency Contraception | Planned Parenthood Affiliates New Jersey 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.plannedparenthoodnj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Information on emergency contraception should be incorporated into the sexuality counseling included as part of a preventive health care visit.
  • NGC - NGC Summary 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.guideline.gov [Source type: Academic]

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, known in Ayurveda as a contraceptive, may have antiestrogenic properties.[9] .Papaya seeds, rumored to be a male contraceptive, have recently been studied for their azoospermic effect on monkeys.^ The FDA label says the same thing about emergency contraception and recent study after recent study is showing how unlikely it is that EC has a post-conception effect.
  • Jill Stanek - Contraception archives 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.jillstanek.com [Source type: General]

^ The stigma placed on users of the emergency contraceptive pill as having casual sex and not being in relationships could change since a recent study done by the University of Melbourne.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In vitro studies have demonstrated that contraceptive spermicides kill or inactivate most STD pathogens, including HIV. Spermicides have been reported to prevent HIV seroconversion as well as to have no effect.
  • Non Hormonal Contraception - un knol de Philip Darney, MD MSc 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.During the medieval period, physicians in the Islamic world listed many birth control substances in their medical encyclopedias.^ There are many methods of birth control .
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do not use the birth control sponge during your menstrual period.

^ During the first week of use, a backup method of birth control should be used.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Avicenna listing 20 in The Canon of Medicine (1025) and Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi listing 176 in his Hawi (10th century). .This was unparalleled in European medicine until the 19th century.^ Prior to the 19th century, Protestants and Catholics held abortion permissible until ‘quickening’—the moment the fetus was believed to gain life.
  • POPULATION EXPLOSION - A PROBLEM TO SURVIVAL OF HUMAN EXISTENCE 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.The fact that various effective methods of birth control were known in the ancient world sharply contrasts with a seeming ignorance of these methods in wide segments of the population of early modern Christian Europe.^ It is more effective if you use it with another method of birth control.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ring is a very effective reversible method of birth control.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.This ignorance continued far into the 20th century, and was paralleled by eminently high birth rates in European countries during the 18th and 19th centuries.^ "Population Explosion" (or "Population Bomb") Expressions used to describe the 20th century worldwide trend of rapid population growth, resulting from a world birth rate much higher than the world death rate.
  • Glossary of Terms - Population Reference Bureau 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, it advanced into the early 20th century by Margaret Sanger and her supporting associates.
  • Population Control 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.albatrus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women’s diaries and correspondence indicate that abortion was commonplace and accepted in the United States during the 19th century.
  • POPULATION EXPLOSION - A PROBLEM TO SURVIVAL OF HUMAN EXISTENCE 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Some historians have attributed this to a series of coercive measures enacted by the emerging modern state, in an effort to repopulate Europe after the population catastrophe of the Black Death, starting in 1348. According to this view, the witch hunts were the first measure the modern state took in an attempt to eliminate knowledge about birth control within the population, and monopolize it in the hands of state-employed male medical specialists (gynecologists).^ After an abortion when is it safe to start birth control?
  • WikiAnswers - Birth Control Questions including "What is pre-cum" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Population controllers also worked to legalize abortion within the United States.
  • How Eugenics and Population Control Led to Abortion 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.meehanreports.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Learning about birth control: .
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior to the witch hunts, male specialists were unheard of, because birth control was naturally a female domain.^ A combination of natural methods of birth control  .
  • Birth Control - Health - 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.health.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a permanent male birth control measure.
  • Contraception / Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.montefiore.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Anyone use natural birth control?

[13]
.Presenters at a family planning conference told a tale of Arab traders inserting small stones into the uteruses of their camels in order to prevent pregnancy, a concept very similar to the modern IUD.^ An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small device that is placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a small piece of plastic that is inserted by a doctor into the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a sexually transmitted disease is present at the time the IUD is inserted, the infection can be carried into the uterus.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the story has been repeated as truth, it has no basis in history and was meant only for entertainment purposes.^ But on the admittedly empirical questions of what sorts of sexual behavior have what sorts of effect, her confidence has no conceivable basis at all, and her bluff assertions are correspondingly not only mistaken but ridiculous.
  • Anscombe on contraception and chastity 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC cavehill.uwi.edu [Source type: Original source]

[14] The first interuterine devices (which occupied both the vagina and the uterus) were first marketed around 1900. The first modern intrauterine device (contained entirely in the uterus) was described in a German publication in 1909. The Gräfenberg ring, the first IUD that was used by a significant number of women, was introduced in 1928.[15]
.The rhythm method was developed in the early-20th century, as researchers discovered that a woman only ovulates once per menstrual cycle.^ We have, he is an early to mid 20th century Eugenist.
  • Holdren Forced To Respond To Controversy Over Totalitarian Population Control Proposals 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rhythm method assumes that each woman has a 28-day cycle and ovulates on day 14 of her cycle.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To calculate when to abstain from intercourse, a woman subtracts 18 days from the shortest and 11 days from the longest of her previous 12 menstrual cycles.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Not until the 1950s, when scientists better understood the functioning of the menstrual cycle and the hormones that controlled it, were methods of hormonal contraception and modern methods of fertility awareness (also called natural family planning) developed.^ How do fertility awareness methods work?
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describe the menstrual cycle and the physiologic changes induced by hormonal contraception.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We are learning about Natural Family Planning so we can both learn about my fertility.

.Margaret Sanger (1879-1966) was an American birth control activist and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood).^ "Birth control and family planning."
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abortion is birth control, plan and simple.

^ Mass Murderer Margaret Sanger (Meet the evil mother of abortion, birth control and planned parenthood.

.She was instrumental in opening the way to access birth control.^ Birth control methods work in a number of ways.
  • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 14, 2004 Planned Parenthood Birth Control: Easy Access Poses Risks .
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact is, lots of people, especially in the developing world, don't have access to things like family planning, which includes safe, reliable forms of birth control.
  • 'Contraception cheapest way to combat climate change' - Telegraph 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.In 1960 the FDA approved the first form of hormonal contraception, the combined oral contraceptive pill.^ Lybrel is the first FDA-approved oral contraceptive with 365-day combination dosing.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Pill - combined contraceptive pills have two hormones - an estrogen and progestin.
  • What Is Contraception? What Is Birth Control? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FDA-approved reversible methods of contraception.
  • Birth Control - World Population Awareness 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Methods

Physical methods

A diaphragm (a type of physical barrier method) in its case, with a quarter added for scale.
.Physical methods may work in a variety of ways, among them: physically preventing sperm from entering the female reproductive tract; hormonally preventing ovulation from occurring; making the woman's reproductive tract inhospitable to sperm; or surgically altering the male or female reproductive tract to induce sterility.^ Barrier contraceptives prevent sperm from entering a woman's uterus.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A diaphragm prevents sperm from entering the uterus.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Female sterilization does not involve hormones.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some methods use more than one mechanism.^ More than one company?
  • Birth Control - DrDonnica.com - The First Name in Women's Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.drdonnica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In more ways than one.
  • Big Hollywood » Blog Archive » A “Cultural Fix”?: Global Citizen Educators Rethinking Sustainability into Population Control vs. Academic Freedom 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC bighollywood.breitbart.com [Source type: General]

^ Some women find it hard to plan ahead or to interrupt an intimate moment before having sex to use a barrier method.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Physical methods vary in simplicity, convenience and efficacy.

Barrier methods

Condom (rolled-up).
.Barrier methods place a physical impediment to the movement of sperm into the female reproductive tract.^ Barrier contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases in women: A comparison of female dependent methods and condoms.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, women who have successfully used barrier methods and who are strongly motivated to avoid STDs are more likely to choose the female condom.
  • Non Hormonal Contraception - un knol de Philip Darney, MD MSc 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Artifical contraception involves using a chemical or physical barrier, or other method, that thwarts the natural fertile cycle or otherwise blocks conception.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Contraception: Early Church Teaching (William Klimon) 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most popular barrier method is the male condom, a latex or polyurethane sheath placed over the penis.^ Male Latex Condoms Male latex condoms have a reputation of being the most popular type of condom available.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is one of the most popular mechanical barriers.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The male condom The condom is a sheath made of latex or polyurethane that is placed on the penis just prior to intercourse to prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The condom is also available in a female version, which is made of polyurethane.^ Condoms Condoms come in male and female versions.
  • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The female condom is a pouch made of polyurethane, which lines the vagina.
  • Non Hormonal Contraception - un knol de Philip Darney, MD MSc 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polyurethane condoms are becoming widely available.
  • Birth Control - a Christian Perspective 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.themarriagebed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The female condom has a flexible ring at each end — one secures behind the pubic bone to hold the condom in place, while the other ring stays outside the vagina.^ The female condom has a flexible ring at each end - one secures behind the pubic bone to hold the condom in place, while the other ring stays outside the vagina.
  • What Is Contraception? What Is Birth Control? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reality, a polyurethane condom for women, has a flexible ring at each end.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The open end then hangs outside of the vagina.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cervical barriers are devices that are contained completely within the vagina.^ What is the difference between barrier devices like the diaphragm and cervical cap and the vaginal ring?
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The contraceptive sponge is a barrier device inserted to cover the cervix and release spermicide into the vagina.
  • Birth Control Chart 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.4parents.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sponge, a disk-shaped polyurethane foam device containing the spermicide nonoxynol-9, is inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix.
  • Birth Control - DrDonnica.com - The First Name in Women's Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.drdonnica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The contraceptive sponge has a depression to hold it in place over the cervix.^ Contraceptive sponge - The contraceptive sponge has a depression to hold it in place over the cervix.
  • What Is Contraception? What Is Birth Control? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To insert, the sponge is moistened with water (squeezing out the excess) and placed firmly against the cervix.
  • Non Hormonal Contraception - un knol de Philip Darney, MD MSc 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cervical cap is the smallest cervical barrier.^ What is the difference between barrier devices like the diaphragm and cervical cap and the vaginal ring?
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonhormonal contraceptive methods include IUDs, vaginal barriers (diaphragm, cervical cap, contraceptive sponge, or male and female condoms), and spermicides.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Barrier methods , including the diaphragm, cervical cap, Lea's Shield, male condom, female condom, and spermicide, are moderately successful at preventing pregnancy.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Depending on the type of cap, it stays in place by suction to the cervix or to the vaginal walls.^ The cap stays in place by suction.
  • What Is Contraception? What Is Birth Control? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An IUD is left in place for 5 or 10 years, depending on the type, or until the woman wants the device removed.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once an IUD is in place, it can provide birth control for 5 to 10 years, depending on the type.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The diaphragm fits into place behind the woman's pubic bone and has a firm but flexible ring, which helps it press against the vaginal walls.^ A woman can place and remove the vaginal ring herself.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diaphragm - fits into place behind the woman's pubic bone and has a firm but flexible ring, which helps it press against the vaginal walls.
  • What Is Contraception? What Is Birth Control? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poorly fitted diaphragms may cause vaginal erosions.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Spermicide may be placed in the vagina before intercourse and creates a chemical barrier.^ Spermicides - may be placed in the vagina before intercourse and create a chemical barrier.
  • What Is Contraception? What Is Birth Control? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional spermicide should be placed in the vagina before each additional episode of sexual intercourse while the diaphragm is in place.
  • Non Hormonal Contraception - un knol de Philip Darney, MD MSc 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cap is inserted before intercourse and left in place for at least 8 hours after intercourse, up to 48 hours at a time.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spermicide may be used alone, or in combination with a physical barrier.^ They can be used alone or in combination with other barrier contraceptives.
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Used in combination with spermicidal jelly or cream.
  • Family Planning Council, Birth Control Methods, www.familyplanning.org 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.familyplanning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some spermicidal jellies and creams may be used alone; others are only intended for use with diaphragms or cervical caps.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

Hormonal methods

Ortho Tri-cyclen, a brand of oral contraceptive, in a dial dispenser.
.There are various delivery methods for hormonal contraception.^ There are several methods of contraception.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there any contraindications to the use of hormonal contraception?
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are now three hormonal, long-term, reversible contraception methods: hormone implants (Norplant) and hormone injections (Depo-Provera or Lunelle).
  • Birth Control - DrDonnica.com - The First Name in Women's Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.drdonnica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Forms of synthetic oestrogens and progestins (synthetic progestogens) combinations commonly used include the combined oral contraceptive pill ("The Pill"), the Patch, and the contraceptive vaginal ring ("NuvaRing").^ Combination estrogen plus progestin methods (pill, patch, or ring)?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How do I use a hormonal vaginal ring?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Skin patches and vaginal rings that contain estrogen and a progestin are used for 3 of 4 weeks, then removed.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A monthly injectable form, Lunelle, is not currently available for sale in the United States.^ Two types of IUDs are currently available in the United States.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, while emergency contraception (EC) is available over the counter in the United States, EC covered by Medicaid is not.
  • The Contraception Failure | | AlterNet 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Sterilization is the most popular form of birth control in the United States.
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other methods contain only a progestin (a synthetic progestogen).^ The mini-pill contains progestin only.

^ Mirena® contains a progestin-only hormone and offers benefits similar to other progestin-only methods.
  • Thinking about Birth Control - McKinley Health Center - University of Illinois 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mckinley.illinois.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Progestin-Only Hormonal Contraception - contains only progestin: .
  • Thinking about Birth Control - McKinley Health Center - University of Illinois 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mckinley.illinois.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These include the progesterone only pill (the POP or 'minipill'), the injectables Depo Provera (a depot formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate given as an intramuscular injection every three months) and Noristerat (Norethindrone acetate given as an intramuscular injection every 8 weeks), and contraceptive implants.^ An injection is given by a doctor every 3 months.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is an injection given every 3 months.
  • Family Planning Council, Birth Control Methods, www.familyplanning.org 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.familyplanning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Injections of medroxyprogesterone acetate Some Trade Names PROVERA .
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The progestin-only pill must be taken at more precisely remembered times each day than combined pills.^ Progestin-only pills must be taken exactly on time, every day.
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is taken at the same time each day.
  • Contraception: Unintended and Teen Pregnancy | CDC Reproductive Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Progestin-only pills differ form combination pills in that they have to be taken continuously.
  • Meadowbrook Women's Clinic: Birth Control Methods 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.meadowbrookclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first contraceptive implant, Norplant, has been removed from the market in the United States but is still used in many other countries.^ There are other religions in the United States!
  • Virginia pharmacy declares it's "birth-control free" - Feministing 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less than 1% of women in the United States use this method of contraception.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At this time, Norplant II is not currently being marketed in the United States.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.A single-rod implant called Implanon is approved in the United States.^ Implanon is a single-rod implant that is 4 cm long and 2 mm in diameter.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Implanon was approved for use in the United Kingdom in 1999 and has recently been approved in the United States.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NAL Call Number: 41.8 Am3 Descriptors: animal welfare, cats, population control, United States.
  • Information Resources on Spaying and Neutering Cats, Dogs and Related Wildlife. Pet Population Control: Animal Welfare Information Center 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The various progestin-only methods may cause irregular bleeding during use.^ Some women using this method have irregular bleeding.
  • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irregular bleeding but only during the first few months .
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The risk may vary with the type of progestin used in the pill.
  • About Birth Control Pills | Birth Control Pill Options | Birth Control Pill Information | HealthyWomen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ormeloxifene (Centchroman)

.Ormeloxifene (Centchroman) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator, or SERM. It causes ovulation to occur asynchronously with the formation of the uterine lining, preventing implantation of a zygote.^ The morning after pill may prevent ovulation, or if fertilization has occurred, it may ruin the implantation of a newly conceived human being.

^ Cipla's i-pill prevents pregnancy by stopping or delaying release release of an egg), blocking fertilisation or preventing implantation by making the lining of the uterus inhospitable for pregnancy.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contraception is prevention of fertilization of an egg by a sperm (conception) or attachment of the fertilized egg to the lining of the uterus (implantation).
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has been widely available as a birth control method in India since the early 1990s, marketed under the trade name Saheli.^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Birth Control - AOL Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I had been on birth control since I was 17.

^ Birth control is widely available and there is a desire for smaller families.
  • View topic - Human population control - ComputerAndVideoGames.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.computerandvideogames.com [Source type: General]

.Centchroman is legally available only in India.^ Centchroman (also called Centron and Saheli) is a non-hormonal once a week pill currently only available in India.
  • Birth Control - a Christian Perspective 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.themarriagebed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Emergency contraception

.Some combined pills and POPs may be taken in high doses to prevent pregnancy after a birth control failure (such as a condom breaking) or after unprotected sex.^ EC, often confused with medical abortion, is a high dose of birth control pills that can be used to prevent unintended pregnancy within 72 hours of unprotected sex or contraceptive failure.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do you recommend very-low-dose birth control pills for me?
  • About Birth Control Pills | Birth Control Pill Options | Birth Control Pill Information | HealthyWomen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is used to help prevent pregnancy when a woman had sex without using birth control or the birth control was not used properly.
  • ACOG Education Pamphlet AP021 -- Birth Control Pills 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hormonal emergency contraception is also known as the "morning after pill," although it is licensed for use up to three days after intercourse.^ Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) protocol.

^ How do emergency contraceptive pills work?
  • About Birth Control Pills | Birth Control Pill Options | Birth Control Pill Information | HealthyWomen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The morning-after pill is the contraceptive of choice.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Copper intrauterine devices may also be used as emergency contraception.^ Copper T intrauterine device.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many times when it may be necessary to use emergency contraception.
  • Tag: Contraception - Explore content tagged Contraception on eHow.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ The copper intrauterine device .
  • Contraception - Medpedia 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this use, they must be inserted within five days of the birth control failure or unprotected intercourse.^ Unprotected intercourse can mean that no method of birth control was used.
  • Contraception - Medpedia 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not sure of what type of birth control to use.
  • Birth Control - Health for Teens - Teens - AllExperts.com 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Emergency contraception appears to work by suppressing ovulation.^ How do emergency contraceptive pills work?
  • About Birth Control Pills | Birth Control Pill Options | Birth Control Pill Information | HealthyWomen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It works by suppressing ovulation each month.
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Late follicular phase administration of mifepristone suppresses circulating leptin and FSH - mechanism(s) of action in emergency contraception?

[16][17] .However, because it might prevent a fertilized egg from implanting[18], some people[19] consider it a form of abortion.^ Plan B acts by preventing ovulation, but may also prevent a fertilized egg from implanting.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some religious conservatives consider emergency contraception a form of abortion.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can also prevent the implantation of a fertilized egg.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The details of the possible methods of action are still being studied.

Intrauterine methods

An intrauterine device.
.These are contraceptive devices which are placed inside the uterus.^ Plastic device placed inside the uterus that contains copper or hormones.
  • Birth Control Chart 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.4parents.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diaphragm is placed inside the vagina to cover the cervix, thus preventing sperm from entering the uterus.
  • Term paper on Contraceptives 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC www.termpapergenie.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An intrauterine device {IUD} is a small device that is shaped in the form of a “T.” A health care provider places it inside the uterus.
  • Contraception - Medpedia 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are usually shaped like a "T" — the arms of the T hold the device in place.^ An intrauterine device {IUD} is a small device that is shaped in the form of a “T.” A health care provider places it inside the uterus.
  • Contraception - Medpedia 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intrauterine device (IUD) - a small, flexible T-shaped device that is placed in the uterus by a physician.
  • What Is Contraception? What Is Birth Control? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of a diaphragm, a rubber cup-shaped device inserted before intercourse, prevents sperm from reaching the uterine cervix; it is usually used with a spermicide.
  • birth control Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about birth control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are two main types of intrauterine contraceptives: those that contain copper (which has a spermicidal effect), and those that release a progestin (a synthetic progestogen).^ There are two main types of IUDs: copper IUDs (such as Paragard) and hormonal IUDs (such as Mirena).
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other type releases a progestin.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two kinds of emergency contraception : .
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Terms used for these devices differ between the United Kingdom and the United States.^ Implanon was approved for use in the United Kingdom in 1999 and has recently been approved in the United States.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the long term goal of population reduction needs to be up there as an international obligation of states, so the populous needs to be indoctrinated differently (Finally!...a use for the services of Ad executives..
  • Colin Feltham: Population control could save the planet | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Shocking as it may be, there is not one pro-life organization in the United States that supports the use of contraception.
  • Jill Stanek - Contraception archives 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.jillstanek.com [Source type: General]

.In the US, all devices which are placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy are referred to as intrauterine devices (IUDs) or intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs).^ An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small device that is placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are inserted into your uterus .
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emergency contraceptive pills contain common female hormones, prevent pregnancy in the first place and so do not cause an abortion.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the UK, only copper-containing devices are called IUDs (or IUCDs), and hormonal intrauterine contraceptives are called Intra-Uterine System (IUS).^ Copper T intrauterine device.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Birth control pill Birth control patch ( Ortho-Evra ) (new) Birth control ring ( Nuvaring ) (new) Depo-provera Intrauterine device (IUD) Intrauterine system (IUS) (new) Male condom Female condom Diaphragm Spermicide Protectaid sponge Vaginal contraceptive film (VCF) Sterilization Fertility awareness methods Withdrawal Birth control pill .
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonhormonal contraception methods such as barrier devices and copper IUDs are preferred in women who are nursing because they don't contain hormones that could affect milk supply or pass through the milk.
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This may be because there are ten types of copper IUDs available in the UK,[20] compared to only one in the US.[21]

Sterilization

.Surgical sterilization is available in the form of tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.^ Tubal ligation - a permanent form of female sterilization.
  • What Is Contraception? What Is Birth Control? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vasectomy is a permanent surgical sterilization procedure for men.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What methods of tubal sterilization are available?
  • Non Hormonal Contraception - un knol de Philip Darney, MD MSc 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sterilization should be considered permanent.^ Sterilization is considered an elective permanent method of contraception.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Easley created a committee to consider whether individuals who were sterilized should be compensated by providing education benefits, and access to a health care.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I should say something about permanent sterilization.

.In women, the process may be referred to as "tying the tubes," but the Fallopian tubes may be tied, cut, clamped, or blocked.^ In women, sterilization blocks the fallopian tubes.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure where the fallopian tubes, which carry the eggs from the ovaries to the uterus, are tied, cut, or blocked.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The progesterone-induced thickening of the cervical mucus may help prevent bacteria from entering the uterus and fallopian tubes.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

.This serves to prevent sperm from joining the unfertilized egg.^ Prevents sperm from fertilizing egg.
  • Family Planning Council, Birth Control Methods, www.familyplanning.org 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.familyplanning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will keep sperm from joining the egg.
  • contraception 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.menstuff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It works by preventing ovulation (i.e release of egg) as well as thickens the wall of uterus so that sperm can not swim into it to fertilize the eggs.

.The non-surgical sterilization procedure, Essure, is an example of a procedure that blocks the tubes, wherein micro-inserts are placed into the fallopian tubes by a catheter passed from the vagina through the cervix and uterus.^ The rim is compressed together, inserted into the vagina, and placed over the cervix.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pelvic exam: An exam of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum.

^ A colposcope (a thin, lighted tube) is inserted through the vagina into the cervix.

.Although sterilization should be considered a permanent procedure, it is possible to attempt a tubal ligation reversal to reconnect the Fallopian tubes in females, or a vasovasostomy by which vasectomies are reversed in males.^ The procedures discussed will include tubal ligation , Essure , vasectomy/male sterilization , and hysterectomy .
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tubal ligation - a permanent form of female sterilization.
  • What Is Contraception? What Is Birth Control? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vasectomy is a permanent surgical sterilization procedure for men.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rate of success depends on the type of sterilization that was originally performed and damage done to the tubes as well as the patient's age.^ This form of sterilization prevents fertilization by interrupting the fallopian tubes; however, the Essure system does not require surgical incisions and can be performed with the patient under local anesthesia.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are a wide range of options for NHBC as well as a wide range of success rates.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although both female and male sterilization procedures can be reversed surgically, the surgery is technically more difficult than the original procedure and may not be successful.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[22]

Behavioral methods

.Behavioral methods involve regulating the timing or methods of intercourse to prevent the introduction of sperm into the female reproductive tract, either altogether or when an egg may be present.^ Menstrual regulation (MR) may involve either chemical [eg.
  • Population Control 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.albatrus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It changes the environment so that sperm cannot fertilize the egg, rearranges the chemical balance seen in pregnancy, and prevents implantation of the fertilized egg.
  • Female Contraceptive Birth Control Condom Training Reproductive Sistem Pregnancy Birth Control Models Fetus Uterus Birth Models.800-686-5232 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.buyamag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What has not been taken into account is the duration of the human life, an interval of time that characterizes our reproductive capacity and lifespan.
  • POPULATION EXPLOSION - A PROBLEM TO SURVIVAL OF HUMAN EXISTENCE 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fertility awareness

.Symptoms-based methods of fertility awareness involve a woman's observation and charting of her body's fertility signs, to determine the fertile and infertile phases of her cycle.^ How do fertility awareness methods work?
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fertility awareness hinges on the identification of a woman's fertile and infertile days.
  • Peer Health: Contraception 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC wso.williams.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Periodic abstinence as a method of contraception is keyed to the observation of naturally occurring signs and symptoms of the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle.
  • Non Hormonal Contraception - un knol de Philip Darney, MD MSc 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Charting may be done by hand or with the assistance of software. .Most methods track one or more of the three primary fertility signs:[23] changes in basal body temperature, in cervical mucus, and in cervical position.^ The end of the fertile period is predicted by measuring basal body temperature.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This method requires sensing or observing the cervical mucus changes over time.
  • Non Hormonal Contraception - un knol de Philip Darney, MD MSc 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The woman notes when cervical mucus increases and changes in appearance and when basal body temperature increases.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If a woman tracks both basal body temperature and another primary sign, the method is referred to as symptothermal.^ For the symptothermal method, the woman uses the temperature, mucus, and calendar methods.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptothermal Method The symptothermal method takes into account a woman's body temperature and signs of ovulation.
  • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NFP is not always easy because it requires abstaining for sometimes extended periods of time and daily monitoring three different kinds of physical signs (basal body temperature, cervical mucus, and the opening or closing of the cervix).
  • Silence on Contraception - A Papal Discussion Blog - NYTimes.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC thepope.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other bodily cues such as mittelschmerz are considered secondary indicators.
.Fertility monitors are computerized devices that determine fertility or infertility based on, for example, temperature or urinalysis tests.^ Billings Method --People who use the Billings method monitor only their cervical fluid to help them determine when they are fertile.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, with 12,898 SNPs, we can detect four significant PCs (P-value <0.05 based on the Tracy-Widom test).
  • PLoS ONE: Population Substructure and Control Selection in Genome-Wide Association Studies 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Intra-uterine devices of differing size, shape, and bioactivity should be developed and tested to determine the optimum levels of effectiveness, safety, and acceptability.
  • POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS - The Life and Death of NSSM 200 - Appendix 3 - part 2 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.population-security.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Calendar-based methods such as the rhythm method and Standard Days Method estimate the likelihood of fertility based on the length of past menstrual cycles.^ The fertility awareness method (FAM), is not the rhythm method.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To calculate when to abstain from intercourse, a woman subtracts 18 days from the shortest and 11 days from the longest of her previous 12 menstrual cycles.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ring can be inserted any time during the first 5 days of the menstrual cycle.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.To avoid pregnancy with fertility awareness, unprotected sex is restricted to the least fertile period.^ Periodic abstinence or fertility awareness methods .
  • Contraception - Medpedia 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An unwanted pregnancy can happen any time you have unprotected sex.

^ Over a two-year period, approximately 550 unwanted pregnancies were avoided in B.C. The drug is available without a prescription in Quebec and Saskatchewan.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the most fertile period, barrier methods may be availed, or she may abstain from intercourse.^ Periodic abstinence is not having sexual intercourse during a woman's fertile period.
  • Birth Control - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also called "natural family planning" or the "rhythm method", periodic abstinence is dependent on the ability to identify the approximate 10 days in each menstrual cycle that a woman is fertile.
  • Birth Control - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some discussions, those who -- for religious reasons -- choose to abstain rather than use a barrier method during each fertile period are practicing Natural Family Planning (NFP), which can be viewed as a form of fertility awareness since it involves the same principles of monitoring and interpretation.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term natural family planning (NFP) is sometimes used to refer to any use of fertility awareness methods.^ We are learning about Natural Family Planning so we can both learn about my fertility.

^ How do you use fertility awareness methods?
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are fertility awareness methods?
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, this term specifically refers to the practices which are permitted by the Roman Catholic Churchbreastfeeding infertility for example.^ I am not and never was a member of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Cafferty File: Tell Jack how you really feel Blog Archive - Mandatory population control to fight global warming? « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC caffertyfile.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the Roman Catholic Church is brought down, the rest of Christianity will follow easily.
  • New Order of Barbarians - transcript of tapes I-III | 100777.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC 100777.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholic Church has prophetically proclaimed the truths about human sexuality and birth control practices in its official teachings.

.FA methods may be used by NFP users to identify these fertile times.^ A backup method may need to be used with it.
  • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also called "natural family planning" or the "rhythm method", periodic abstinence is dependent on the ability to identify the approximate 10 days in each menstrual cycle that a woman is fertile.
  • Birth Control - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Make sure you are taught by a healthcare worker how to use fertility awareness methods before you try them.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Coitus interruptus

.Coitus interruptus (literally "interrupted sexual intercourse"), also known as the withdrawal method, is the practice of ending sexual intercourse ("pulling out") before ejaculation.^ The methods we will be discussing are The Fertility Awareness Method (FAM), and the pull-out (withdrawal) method .
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coitus interruptus involves withdrawal of the entire penis from the vagina before ejaculation.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are widespread in several countries, such as Peru, where the rhythm method is popular, and Turkey, where coitus interruptus is prevalent.
  • POPULATION EXPLOSION - A PROBLEM TO SURVIVAL OF HUMAN EXISTENCE 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main risk of coitus interruptus is that the man may not perform the maneuver correctly, or may not perform the maneuver in a timely manner.^ CajunHighlander - May 18th, 2009 at 4:43 am Mr. Adam Baldwin, I have enjoyed your acting performances for some time now.
  • Big Hollywood » Blog Archive » A “Cultural Fix”?: Global Citizen Educators Rethinking Sustainability into Population Control vs. Academic Freedom 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC bighollywood.breitbart.com [Source type: General]

^ This method, also called coitus interruptus, is not reliable because sperm may be released before orgasm.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although concern has been raised about the risk of pregnancy from sperm in pre-ejaculate, several small studies[4][5] have failed to find any viable sperm in the fluid.^ The pre-ejaculate also has sperm in it.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This fluid is called pre-ejaculate.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there is concern about the physical failure of male condoms, slippage because of improper use is the most frequent cause of contraceptive failure.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

Avoiding vaginal intercourse

.The risk of pregnancy from non-vaginal sex, such as with anal sex, oral sex, or non-penetrative sex is very low[citation needed].^ Sex ed really stinks (or is non-existent) in public schools, and parents/peers/magazines don't often fill in the blanks very effectively.
  • The Contraception Failure | | AlterNet 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Latex condoms stop semen, vaginal fluid, or blood from being passed on during oral sex, vaginal sex, or anal sex.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you have oral sex before vaginal sex, put the spermicide in after oral sex .
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Total abstinence

.Different groups define the term sexual abstinence in different ways.^ There was no difference in sexually transmitted infection rates between the two groups, unprotected sex, condom use or changes in use of other contraception.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When used in discussions of birth control, usually the avoidance of all sexual activity—total sexual abstinence—is the intended meaning.^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dear Dr. T, I have a question birth control and sexual activity.
  • Contraception Questions 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mcgill.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Use birth control.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes people choose to be sexually abstinent to reduce their risk of pregnancy, and abstinence may be included in lists of birth control methods.^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Birth control pills may lower colon cancer risk."
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are some other considerations in choosing a birth control method?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those who are sexually abstinent do not have unplanned pregnancies.^ We were also told of the punishments inflicted on those who wish to freely determine for themselves the timing and spacing of their pregnancies.
  • Coercive Population Control in China: New Evidence of Forced Abortion and Forced Sterilization 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ We were also told of the punishments inflicted on those who wish to freely determine for themselves the timing and spacing of pregnancy.
  • Coercive Population Control in China: New Evidence of Forced Abortion and Forced Sterilization 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Because it may be inserted well before sexual activity commences, it may be acceptable to those couples who find use of a male condom an inconvenience or interruption.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

[24] .Other sources instead classify abstinence as not being a form of birth control.^ The female condom is a form of birth control.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VCF is a form of birth control.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a reversible form of birth control.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25][26]
.Abstinence as a long term method is not 100% effective in preventing pregnancy: not everyone who intends to be abstinent refrains from all sexual activity,[27] and in many populations there is a significant risk of pregnancy from nonconsensual sex.^ Are there any long-term health risks associated with the Pill?
  • Contraception Questions 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mcgill.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many methods of birth control .
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How each method prevents pregnancy .
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .As a public health measure, it is estimated that the protection provided by abstinence may be similar to that of condoms.^ When women use the female condom, they don’t have to rely on their partners to provide STI protection, giving them more power and control over their sexual health.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet condoms provide a false sense of security because the couple will say "hey, we can pursue this because we have protection."
  • Contraception by David MacDonald 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cons of Lamb Skin Condoms: Lamb skin is porous and may not protect against STIs, including HIV. They may be more expensive than latex condoms.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .Some authorities recommend that those using abstinence as a primary method have backup method(s) available (such as condoms or emergency contraceptive pills).^ In addition it was found that half of the women also used condoms as a contraceptive method.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use a backup method like condoms for the first seven days.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spermicides are best used with a barrier contraceptive, such as a condom or diaphragm.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]

Lactational

.Most breastfeeding women have a period of infertility after the birth of their child.^ In most women, birth control lightens periods and pain.
  • WikiAnswers - Birth Control Questions including "What is pre-cum" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ In most women it occurs about 12–14 days before the start of the menstrual period.
  • ACOG Education Pamphlet AP022 -- Barrier Methods of Contraception 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Birth control pills are widely used by women to regulate their menstrual periods besides protecting themselves from unwanted pregnancies.

.The lactational amenorrhea method, or LAM, gives guidelines for determining the length of a woman's period of breastfeeding infertility.^ This is called the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM).
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) refers to the natural cessation of a woman's menstrual period while she is breastfeeding.
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the cervical mucus method, the woman attempts to predict her fertile period by quantifying the cervical mucus with her fingers.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Induced abortion

.In some areas, women use abortion as a primary means to control birth.^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some women simply cannot use hormonal birth control .
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some are concerned that young people will use the pill as birth control.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This practice is more common in Russia,[31] Turkey,[32] and Ukraine.[33] .On the other hand, women from Canada[34], and other places[citation needed] generally do not use abortion as a primary form of birth control.^ I went on to have two more children while using other various forms of birth control.

^ The Protectaid sponge is a form of birth control.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a reversible form of birth control.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Abortion is subject to ethical debate.
.Surgical abortion methods include suction-aspiration abortion (used in the first trimester) or dilation and evacuation (used in the second trimester).^ During the first week of use, a backup method of birth control should be used.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breast Feeding Natural Abortion: Inducing Miscarriage with Herbs There are several herbs that can induce a miscarriage in the first trimester than may be preferable to surgical abortion for some women.
  • Oral Contraceptives - Associated Content - Topic 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Section 114 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (P.L. 93-189), as amended in 1974, adds for the first time restrictions on the use of A.I.D. funds relative to abortion.
  • POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS - The Life and Death of NSSM 200 - Appendix 3 - part 2 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.population-security.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Medical abortion methods involve the use of medication which is swallowed or inserted vaginally to induce abortion.^ The Sympto Thermal Method does not involve the use of any chemicals (birth control pills, vaginal creams or gels), mechanical/barriers (male or female condoms, IUD's or diaphragms) or surgical interventions (male or female sterilization).

^ Your doctor can insert another set of implants at the same time the old set is removed, if you want to continue using the method.
  • Birth Control Hormonal Options:Pills, Shots, and Implants 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Congress passed a major domestic "family planning" bill in 1970, it provided that money appropriated for it could not "be used in programs where abortion is a method of family planning."
  • How Eugenics and Population Control Led to Abortion 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.meehanreports.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Medical abortion can be used if the length of gestation has not exceeded 8 weeks.^ If you need to take these medications for only a few weeks, your doctor will probably advise you to use a backup contraceptive, such as condoms or spermicides.
  • Birth Control Hormonal Options:Pills, Shots, and Implants 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had a fair amount of medical prestige, which he used to advance the abortion cause.
  • How Eugenics and Population Control Led to Abortion 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.meehanreports.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some herbs are considered abortifacient, and some animal studies have found various herbs to be effective in inducing abortion in non-human animal species.^ Even if we tried to twist the Scripture to mean some humans have dominion over others, that would be saying slavery is OK. This passage was giving humans dominion over creation, over non-humans.
  • Contraception by David MacDonald 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As humans, we manage the populations of every other species of plant and animal we come into contact with.
  • David Rockefeller urges worldwide population control measures 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some critics consider the pill tantamount to abortion.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8][35] .Humans generally do not use herbs when other methods are available, due to the unknown efficacy and due to risks of toxicity..^ It can be used to prevent pregnancy when no other method is available.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evening Primrose (use in conjunction with other specific herbs listed top .

^ Spermicides and other barrier methods of contraception have been shown to reduce the risk of cervical cancer in sexually active women.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

Methods in development

For females

.
  • Praneem is a polyherbal vaginal tablet being studied in India as a spermicide, and a microbicide active against HIV.[36]
  • BufferGel is a spermicidal gel being studied as a microbicide active against HIV.[37]
  • Duet is a disposable diaphragm in development that will be pre-filled with BufferGel.^ If parents did a better job of being actively involved in the childs development we would significantly improve our society and world .
    • Cafferty File: Tell Jack how you really feel Blog Archive - Mandatory population control to fight global warming? « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC caffertyfile.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Spermicide comes in the form of cream, jellies, foam, gel, suppositories, and vaginal contraceptive film .
    • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Before the diaphragm is inserted, the dome is filled with spermicide, and spermicide is placed around the dome rim.
    • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

    [38] It is designed to deliver microbicide to both the cervix and vagina. .Unlike currently available diaphragms, the Duet will be manufactured in only one size and will not require a prescription, fitting, or a visit to a doctor.^ A visit to the doctor is required for a proper fitting for the diaphragm or cervical cap and for a prescription for the cervical shield.
    • Contraception - Medpedia 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A diaphragm requires a prescription and needs to be fitted by a doctor.
    • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The diaphragm and cervical cap come in different sizes and require a doctor to “fit” them.
    • Contraception - Medpedia 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [37]
  • The SILCS diaphragm is a silicone barrier which is still in clinical testing. .It has a finger cup molded on one end for easy removal.^ SILCS has a pre-shaped rim to cling high in the vaginal vault and a finger cup on one edge for easy removal.
    • MoonDragon's ObGyn Health Information: Contraception: Diaphragm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Like the Duet, the SILCS is novel in that it will only be available in one size.
  • A vaginal ring is being developed that releases both estrogen and progesterone, and is effective for over 12 months.^ The vaginal rings can deliver progesterone or progesterone-estrogen combinations.
    • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ However, one dominant follicle continues to develop and release estrogen.
    • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ One of them being to make sure that children know about grandma and grandpa and where did they come from and developing a whole...
    • New Order of Barbarians - transcript of tapes I-III | 100777.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC 100777.com [Source type: Original source]

    [39]
  • .
  • Two types of progestogen-only vaginal rings are being developed.^ Vaginal Contraceptive Ring One of the newest contraceptives on the market, NuvaRing, is available by prescription only and consists of a soft, flexible, transparent ring that measures approximately two- inches in diameter.
    • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A comparative study of two contraceptive vaginal rings releasing norethindrone acetate and differing doses of ethinyl estradiol.
    • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Investigative progestins such as nestorone are being investigated in implants, gels, vaginal rings, and patches.
    • Female Contraception 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Progestogen-only products may be particularly useful for women who are breastfeeding.^ It often is recommended for women who are breastfeeding.
    • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Candidates for use include women who are breastfeeding and women with contraindications to estrogen use.
    • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some women who have anatomical anomalies may not be able to use spermicides.
    • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

    [39] .The rings may be used for four months at a time.^ A new ring is used each month.
    • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Contraceptive intercourse and intercourse using infertile times may be alike in respect of further intention, and these further intentions may be good, justified, excellent.
    • Anscombe on contraception and chastity 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC cavehill.uwi.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At a White House press briefing in May of last year, three months before the F.D.A.'s nonruling on Plan B, Press Secretary Scott McClellan was asked four times by a WorldNetDaily correspondent, Les Kinsolving, if the president supported contraception.
    • Contra-Contraception - New York Times 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [40]
  • .
  • A progesterone-only contraceptive is being developed that would be sprayed onto the skin once a day.^ Opponents of emergency contraception say the drug might prevent a fertilized egg from being implanted which they believe would be tantamount to having an abortion.
    • Emergency Contraception
      The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
      2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Previously surgical contraception was allowed only in cases where a woman's health would be in danger from an additional pregnancy.
    • The Peruvian Population Control Program 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Although she may only be fertile for the 3 days preceding and 3 days following ovulation, this is still a very unreliable method of contraception.
    • Sex Education - Contraception 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.motherschoice.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [41]
  • .
  • Quinacrine sterilization (non-surgical) and the Adiana procedure (similar to Essure) are two permanent methods of birth control being developed.^ Which birth control method should I use?
    • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Vasectomy for permanent birth control?
    • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The vasectomy is a permanent surgical sterilization procedure for men.
    • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [42]

For males

.Other than condoms and withdrawal, there are currently no available methods of reversible contraception which males can use or control.^ Unprotected intercourse can mean that no method of birth control was used.
  • Contraception - Medpedia 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a condom breaks or if birth control was not used, emergency contraception is an option.
  • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Several methods are in research and development:
.
  • As of 2007, a chemical called Adjudin is currently in Phase II human trials as a male oral contraceptive.^ Currently on the market, 91-day combination oral contraceptives have touted a reduction in menstrual cycles per year.
    • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Burkman RT. Oral contraceptives: current status.
    • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The national trend of restricting women's access to birth control pills By Alissa Madson   |  Published 6/13/2007 More topics: Oral Contraceptive .
    • Oral Contraceptives - Associated Content - Topic 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    [43]
  • .
  • RISUG (Reversible Inhibition of Sperm Under Guidance), is an experimental injection into the vas deferens that coats the walls of the vas with a spermicidal substance.^ It involves blocking the vas deferens from allowing sperm to flow from the testicles to the prostate .
    • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In this minor surgery, the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the seminal fluid (semen), are cut and blocked so that the semen no longer contains sperm .
    • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The scrotum is numbed with an anesthetic, so the doctor can make a small incision to access the vas deferens, the tubes through which sperm travels from the testicle to the penis.
    • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The method can potentially be reversed by washing out the vas deferens with a second injection.
  • Experiments in heat-based contraception involve heating the testicles to a high temperature for a short period of time.

Misconceptions

Modern misconceptions and urban legends have given rise to a great many false claims:
.
  • The suggestion that douching with any substance immediately following intercourse works as a contraceptive is untrue.^ The birth control sponge can be inserted up to 24 hours prior to intercourse and provides immediate and continuous contraception during this period, regardless of the frequency of intercourse.

    .While it may seem like a sensible idea to try to wash the ejaculate out of the vagina, it is not likely to be effective.^ It seems like it would be worth a try.
    • Answers and Articles about Birth control pills and abnormal bleeding from Woman's Diagnostic Cyber 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wdxcyber.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ How do you wash out your vagina after sex to prevent pregnancy or STDs?
    • WikiAnswers - Birth Control Questions including "What is pre-cum" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I point that out because the anti-choice/anti-birth control crowd like to talk as if it is fact so they can try to label it an abortifacient.
    • Virginia pharmacy declares it's "birth-control free" - Feministing 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Due to the nature of the fluids and the structure of the female reproductive tract, douching most likely actually spreads semen further towards the uterus.^ Just like in the "Third World" in times of natural disasters and wars, it is the most victimised in New Orleans that are doing most of the dying.
    • POPULATION EXPLOSION - A PROBLEM TO SURVIVAL OF HUMAN EXISTENCE 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the female reproductive tract, there is one ovary and one fallopian tube on each side of the uterus.

    ^ Female Contraceptive Birth Control Condom Training Reproductive Sistem Pregnancy Birth Control Models Fetus Uterus Birth Models.800-686-5232 .
    • Female Contraceptive Birth Control Condom Training Reproductive Sistem Pregnancy Birth Control Models Fetus Uterus Birth Models.800-686-5232 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.buyamag.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Some slight spermicidal effect may occur if the douche solution is particularly acidic, but overall it is not scientifically observed to be a reliably effective method.^ Some people may have an allergy to spermicide.
    • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some spermicidal jellies and creams may be used alone; others are only intended for use with diaphragms or cervical caps.
    • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Experts recommend that you use condoms along with another method or spermicide and condoms together to increase their effectiveness.
    • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Douching is neither a contraceptive nor a preventative measure against STDs or other infections.
  • It is untrue that a female cannot become pregnant as a result of the first time she engages in sexual intercourse.
  • While women are usually less fertile for the first few days of menstruation,[44] it is a myth that a woman absolutely cannot get pregnant if she has sex during her period.
  • Having sex in a hot tub does not prevent pregnancy, but may contribute to vaginal infections.^ The ring can be inserted any time during the first 5 days of the menstrual cycle.
    • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some may lubricate your vagina during sexual intercourse.
    • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You may not be able to have vaginal sex at some times of the month.
    • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [45]
  • .
  • Although some sex positions may encourage pregnancy, no sexual positions prevent pregnancy.^ If taken within 72 hours of sex, EC is "at least" 75% effective at preventing pregnancy.
    • Emergency Contraception
      The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
      2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some may lubricate your vagina during sexual intercourse.
    • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I can also see how premarital sex skews the meaning of sexual union as God designed it, because it obviously requires the use of contraceptives to avoid pregnancy.

    .Having sex while standing up or with a woman on top will not keep the sperm from entering the uterus.^ Barrier contraceptives prevent sperm from entering a woman's uterus.
    • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A diaphragm prevents sperm from entering the uterus.
    • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It keeps sperm from getting into a woman’s vagina during sex.
    • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The force of ejaculation, the contractions of the uterus caused by prostaglandins[citation needed] in the semen, as well as ability of sperm to swim overrides gravity.
  • Urinating after sex does not prevent pregnancy and is not a form of birth control, although it is often advised anyway to help prevent urinary tract infections.^ As with hormonal birth control , the end result is to prevent pregnancy.
    • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A spermicide is a form of birth control.
    • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Withdrawal is a form of birth control.
    • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [46]
  • Toothpaste cannot be used as an effective contraceptive[47].

Effectiveness

See also the table at: Comparison of birth control methods
.Effectiveness is generally measured by how many women become pregnant using a particular birth control method in the first year of use.^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ring is a very effective reversible method of birth control.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ And with many types of birth control, that depends on how well you use it.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, if 100 women use a method that has a 12 percent first-year failure rate, then sometime during the first year of use, 12 of the women should become pregnant.^ Out of 100 women who use this method, about 20 may get pregnant.
  • Birth Control Guide 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fda.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Condoms have a higher failure rate of about 15%, meaning 15 women out of 100 would get pregnant using them for a year.
  • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the first week of use, a backup method of birth control should be used.
  • Contraception: Family Planning: Merck Manual Home Edition 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This equals 12 pregnancies per 100 woman-years, an alternative unit.^ About one million unwanted pregnancies each year in the United States are as a result of improper adherence to OC regimens.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each year, about 85 out of 100 women who don't use birth control have an unplanned pregnancy.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the population trend continues, in 100 years Earth will house 12 billion people living in deplorable conditions.
  • POPULATION EXPLOSION - A PROBLEM TO SURVIVAL OF HUMAN EXISTENCE 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes the effectiveness is given in lifetime failure rate, more commonly among methods with high effectiveness, such as vasectomy after the appropriate negative semen analysis.^ It has a relatively high failure rate.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The failure rate is relatively high.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diaphragms have a high failure rate.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[48]
.The most effective methods in typical use are those that do not depend upon regular user action.^ Billings Method --This method is 97% effective with perfect use and 80% effective with typical use.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is the use of a condom and the withdrawal method effective?
  • WikiAnswers - Birth Control Questions including "What is pre-cum" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ The method is not effective with improper use.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Surgical sterilization, Depo-Provera, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) all have first-year failure rates of less than one percent for perfect use.^ Expulsion rates of 2 to 10% are reported for the first year of use.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is not the case after using the diaphragm or intrauterine device (IUD).
  • Health: Birth control pills, patch, or ring; Birth control pills Very low-dose pills ... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The failure rate is estimated to be approximately 4% in the first year of perfect use.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.In reality, however, perfect use may not be the case, but still, sterilization, implants, and IUDs also have typical failure rates under one percent.^ Failure rates with typical use are estimated to be 7% in the first year of use.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The typical-use failure rate within the first 6 months is 2%.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Planned Parenthood gives the perfect and typical use rates as follows: .
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The typical failure rate of Depo-Provera is disagreed upon, with figures ranging from less than one percent up to three percent.^ The failure rate of the pill is less than 0.1% if she is taking it right.
  • Contraception Questions 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mcgill.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The typical use failure rate after one year of use is 18%.
  • Non Hormonal Contraception - un knol de Philip Darney, MD MSc 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is one of the most effective forms of contraception, with less than a 1% failure rate.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49][50]
.Other methods may be highly effective if used consistently and correctly, but can have typical use first-year failure rates that are considerably higher due to incorrect or ineffective usage by the user.^ Typical use leads to higher rates of unintended pregnancies.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Expulsion rates of 2 to 10% are reported for the first year of use.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Billings Method --This method is 97% effective with perfect use and 80% effective with typical use.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hormonal contraceptive pills, patches or rings, fertility awareness methods, and the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), if used strictly, have first-year (or for LAM, first-6-month) failure rates of less than 1%.^ Expulsion rates of 2 to 10% are reported for the first year of use.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dont use contraceptive patch if: .
  • Sex Education - Contraception 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.motherschoice.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hormonal Methods - Pills, Implants, Shots, Rings and Patches: Hormonal methods are the most used form of contraceptive today.
  • Birth Control - a Christian Perspective 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.themarriagebed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51][52][53][54] .In one survey, typical use first-year failure rates of hormonal contraceptive pills (and by extrapolation, patches or rings) were as high as five percent per year.^ Within the first year of use, the failure rate is 0.3%.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Expulsion rates of 2 to 10% are reported for the first year of use.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Are there any contraindications to the use of hormonal contraception?
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

.Fertility awareness methods as a whole have typical use first-year failure rates as high as 25 percent per year; however, as stated above, perfect use of these methods reduces the first-year failure rate to less than 1%.^ The rate of pregnancy during the first year is 5% for perfect use of the female condom, and 21% for typical use.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within the first year of use, the failure rate is 0.3%.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With perfect use in the first year, the failure rate for nulliparous women is 9%, as opposed to 20% in parous women.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[49]
.Condoms and cervical barriers such as the diaphragm have similar typical use first-year failure rates (14 and 20 percent, respectively), but perfect usage of the condom is more effective (three percent first-year failure vs six percent) and condoms have the additional feature of helping to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as the HIV virus.^ Is using two condoms more effective?
  • Birth Control - DrDonnica.com - The First Name in Women's Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.drdonnica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expulsion rates of 2 to 10% are reported for the first year of use.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Billings Method --This method is 97% effective with perfect use and 80% effective with typical use.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The withdrawal method, if used consistently and correctly, has a first-year failure rate of four percent.^ Expulsion rates of 2 to 10% are reported for the first year of use.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When a method is used correctly each time, the failure rates are lower.
  • ACOG Patient Education Booklet AB020 -- Birth Control 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The failure rate is estimated to be approximately 4% in the first year of perfect use.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Due to the difficulty of consistently using withdrawal correctly, it has a typical use first-year failure rate of 19 percent,[49] and is not recommended by some medical professionals.^ Expulsion rates of 2 to 10% are reported for the first year of use.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The failure rate is estimated to be approximately 4% in the first year of perfect use.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With typical use within the first year, the failure rate is 20% in nulliparous women and 40% in parous women.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[55]
.Combining two birth control methods, can increase their effectiveness to 95% or more for less effective methods.^ Is using two condoms more effective?
  • Birth Control - DrDonnica.com - The First Name in Women's Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.drdonnica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is more effective if you use it with another method of birth control.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .Using condoms with another birth control method is also one of the recommended methods of reducing risk of getting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.^ It is more effective if you use it with another method of birth control.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using a condom with these methods will help lower the risk of getting an STD. .
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This approach is one of the Dual Protection Strategies.[57]

Protection against sexually transmitted infections

.Some methods of birth control also offer protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).^ There are many methods of birth control .
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spermicide does not protect against STIs.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The male latex condom offers some protection against some STIs with correct and consistent use, as does the female condom, although the latter has only been approved for vaginal sex.^ The FDA approved the female condom in 1993.
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do not use the female condom and a male condom at the same time.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How does the female condom work?
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The female condom may offer greater protection against STIs that pass through skin to skin contact, as the outer ring covers more exposed skin than the male condom.^ Cons of Lamb Skin Condoms: Lamb skin is porous and may not protect against STIs, including HIV. They may be more expensive than latex condoms.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Condoms may still be used during sex as STI protection.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spermicide does not protect against STIs.
  • Non-Hormonal Birth Control - VaginaPagina 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vaginapagina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the methods involving avoiding vaginal intercourse can also reduce risk: latex or polyurethane barriers can be used during oral sex, and mutual or solo masturbation are very low-risk.^ (Some STDs can be spread through oral sex as well as through intercourse.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And during times when you are fertile, you will need to skip sex or use a barrier method.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barrier methods must be used every time you have sex.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The remaining methods of birth control do not offer significant protection against the sexual transmission of STIs.^ Which birth control method should I use?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This method does not protect against STDs.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ You are not protected against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many STIs may also be transmitted non-sexually; this is one reason why abstinence from sexual behavior does not guarantee 100 percent protection against sexually transmitted infections.^ When used correctly, it may protect you from some sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This method does not protect against STDs.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Withdrawal does not protect you or your partner against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, HIV may be transmitted through contaminated needles which may be used in intravenous drug use, tattooing, body piercing, or injections.^ When used correctly, it may protect you from some sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of "morning after pills" which may be taken up to 72 hours after sexual intercourse as a "safe" way to "avoid pregnancy."

^ Condoms (male or female) should always be used if you are at risk of getting or spreading a sexually transmitted disease , such as genital herpes , chlamydia , or HIV .
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Health-care workers have acquired HIV through occupational exposure to accidental injuries with needles.^ And improving health care access will impact reproductive health, population, tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS epidemics, etc.
  • Population control in the rich world 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.sindark.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why not simply include contraception under the penumbra of treatments that health care workers are allowed to refuse because of religious or moral beliefs?
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a health care worker I see doctors helping people with 10 kids to have yet another which they can't naturally have without a doctor's intervention..
  • Cafferty File: Tell Jack how you really feel Blog Archive - Mandatory population control to fight global warming? « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC caffertyfile.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58]

Religious and cultural attitudes

Religious views on birth control

.Religions vary widely in their views of the ethics of birth control.^ Birth control pills are widely used by women to regulate their menstrual periods besides protecting themselves from unwanted pregnancies.

^ Birth control is widely available and there is a desire for smaller families.
  • View topic - Human population control - ComputerAndVideoGames.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.computerandvideogames.com [Source type: General]

^ Protestants and other non-Catholics tended to look on curiously as they took part in the general societywide acceptance of various forms of birth control.
  • Contra-Contraception - New York Times 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Roman Catholic Church accepts only Natural Family Planning and only for serious reasons,[59] while Protestants maintain a wide range of views from allowing none to very lenient.^ The accepted terminology is "family planning."
  • POPULATION EXPLOSION - A PROBLEM TO SURVIVAL OF HUMAN EXISTENCE 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Labels: catholic youth , contraception , environmentalism , natural family planning .
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fertility awareness (natural family planning)?
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60] Views in Judaism range from the stricter Orthodox sect to the more relaxed Reform sect.[61] .In Islam, contraceptives are allowed if they do not threaten health, although their use is discouraged by some.^ Although there is concern about the physical failure of male condoms, slippage because of improper use is the most frequent cause of contraceptive failure.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some have dared to suggest that if every person on the Indian sub-continent were to use the same level of western packaging, they would bury themselves in waste.
  • Population Control 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.albatrus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A priest in charge of health said that, although those who took the pill would not be officially excommunicated, they would be excommunicated by their actions and compared the use of the pill to genocide.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .Hindus may use both natural and artificial contraceptives.^ Contraceptive intercourse and intercourse using infertile times may be alike in respect of further intention, and these further intentions may be good, justified, excellent.
  • Anscombe on contraception and chastity 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC cavehill.uwi.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They claim that the Church condemns contraception because it is artificial, and that natural family planning is morally acceptable because it is not artificial.
  • Contraception: A Symposium 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The distinction between facilitating nature and violating nature is key-"artificial" forms of contraception violate nature.
  • Contraception: A Symposium 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

[63] .A common Buddhist view of birth control is that preventing conception is ethically acceptable, while intervening after conception has occurred or may have occurred is not.^ Types of Contraceptive Options The contraceptive options women may choose are: Birth Control Pills There are three types of BCPs on the market today: the combination pill, the mini-pill and the emergency contraceptive pill.
  • About Contraception | Contraception Options | Emergency Contraception Effectiveness | HealthyWomen 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You/your wife may swim or tub bathe with the birth control sponge properly placed in your/her vagina.

^ Between so many people without access to education, birth control, and common sense, there's not likely to be any control.
  • Cafferty File: Tell Jack how you really feel Blog Archive - Mandatory population control to fight global warming? « - Blogs from CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC caffertyfile.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64]

Birth control education

.Many teenagers, most commonly in developed countries, receive some form of sex education in school.^ "They also introduced sex education into the schools," according to the Peace Corps report, "and it is now an accepted part of the Ministry of Education curriculum."
  • How Eugenics and Population Control Led to Abortion 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.meehanreports.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This can be partly attributed to better sex education in schools,better knowledge and use of the morning after pill which has been available over the counter since 2004.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women's sexual system; cures for male impotency; the Aids crisis; sex education for teenagers; the global mantra of 'safe sex'.

.What information should be provided in such programs is hotly contested, especially in the United States and United Kingdom.^ I want to know what the United States can do to make it clear that such a disregard and disrespect for human life is something we absolutely will not tolerate.
  • Coercive Population Control in China: New Evidence of Forced Abortion and Forced Sterilization 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ AID should encourage governments to consider such measures, and should provide financial and technical assistance where appropriate.
  • POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS - The Life and Death of NSSM 200 - Appendix 3 - part 2 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.population-security.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was explained in every population textbook and was the rationale for large population programs by the United States and other countries."
  • How Eugenics and Population Control Led to Abortion 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.meehanreports.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Topics include reproductive anatomy, human sexual behavior, information on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), social aspects of sexual interaction, negotiating skills intended to help teens follow through with a decision to remain abstinent or to use birth control during sex, and information on birth control methods.^ It is more effective if you use it with another method of birth control.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Condom prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Use birth control.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One type of sex education program used in some more conservative areas of the United States is called abstinence-only education, and it promotes complete sexual abstinence until marriage.^ There is, for instance, this response to a questionnaire she answered in 2006: Question: Will you support funding for abstinence-until-marriage education instead of for explicit sex-education programs, school-based clinics, and the distribution of contraceptives in schools?
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These three motivations reinforced one another; all of them were oriented toward keeping the industrialized West, and especially the United States, dominant in the world.
  • How Eugenics and Population Control Led to Abortion 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.meehanreports.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some spermicidal jellies and creams may be used alone; others are only intended for use with diaphragms or cervical caps.
  • Contraceptives: Which one is right for your patients? 20 September 2009 7:25 UTC secure.pharmacytimes.com [Source type: Academic]

.The programs do not encourage birth control, often provide inaccurate information about contraceptives and sexuality[65], stress failure rates of condoms and other contraceptives, and teach strategies for avoiding sexually intimate situations.^ The female condom is a form of birth control.
  • Birth control methods · Hassle Free Clinic 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hasslefreeclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subject: condoms and birth control .

^ See a table showing the birth control failure rates of each method.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Advocates of abstinence-only education believe that the programs will result in decreased rates of teenage pregnancy and STD infection.^ It is the only sure way to prevent pregnancy and protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. .
  • Birth Control Methods << Frequently Asked Questions << womenshealth.gov 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our results suggest that increasing access to contraception may actually increase long run pregnancy rates even though short run pregnancy rates fall.
  • CONTRACEPTION 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.nebcathcon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The availability of emergency contraception would result in a decrease in unwanted pregnancies.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a non-random, Internet survey of 1,400 women who found and completed a 10-minute multiple-choice online questionnaire listed in one of several popular search engines, women who received sex education from schools providing primarily abstinence information, or contraception and abstinence information equally, reported fewer unplanned pregnancies than those who received primarily contraceptive information, who in turn reported fewer unplanned pregnancies than those who received no information.^ Regulators had received on average 4.8 years of school, where as non-regulators completed only 2.0.
  • POPULATION EXPLOSION - A PROBLEM TO SURVIVAL OF HUMAN EXISTENCE 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And contraceptives would be dispensed in the schools in association with sex education!
  • New Order of Barbarians - transcript of tapes I-III | 100777.com 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC 100777.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But each of the groups had similar pregnancy rates, because many women who reported having unprotected sex didn't use emergency contraception, and few women used it more than once.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .However, randomized controlled trials demonstrate that abstinence-only sex education programs increase the rates of pregnancy and STDs in the teenage population.^ Initial trials have demonstrated a pregnancy rate of 15% in 6 months.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, population control is VERY necessary.
  • Rejecting "population control" as a way to fight climate change - Feministing 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite abstinence-only programs and sex education, 80% of 850,000 teen pregnancies are unplanned.
  • Emergency Contraception
    The Morning After Pill of WOA!! Population Awareness
    2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.overpopulation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67][68] .Professional medical organizations, including the AMA, AAP, ACOG, APHA, APA, and Society for Adolescent Medicine, support comprehensive sex education (providing abstinence and contraceptive information) and oppose the sole use of abstinence-only sex education.^ The information provided here is for educational and informational purposes only.
  • Contraception: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Information provided on this website is for educational purposes only.

^ Designed to make the most current, credible, and accurate cancer information available to health professionals and the public, PDQ contains peer-reviewed summaries on cancer treatment, screening, prevention, genetics, complementary and alternative medicine, and supportive care; a registry of cancer clinical trials from around the world; and directories of physicians, professionals who provide genetics services, and organizations that provide cancer care.

[69][70]

See also

References

  1. ^ Stacey, Dawn. Contraception Accessed July 14, 2009
  2. ^ Hunt, Lynn, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, R. Po-chia Hsia, and Bonnie G. Smith. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. Third ed. Vol. C. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2009.
  3. ^ Kippley, John; Sheila Kippley (1996). The Art of Natural Family Planning (4th addition ed.). Cincinnati, OH: The Couple to Couple League. p. 146. ISBN 0-926412-13-2. , which cites:
    Guttmacher Institute (1992). "Choice of Contraceptives". The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics 34 (885): 111–114. doi:10.1016/j.<a (inactive 2008-06-25). PMID 1448019. 
    Hatcher, RA; Trussel J, Stewart F, et al. (1994). Contraceptive Technology (Sixteenth Revised ed.). New York: Irvington Publishers. ISBN 0-8290-3171-5. 
  4. ^ a b "Researchers find no sperm in pre-ejaculate fluid". Contraceptive Technology Update 14 (10): 154–156. October 1993. PMID 12286905. 
  5. ^ a b Zukerman, Z.; Weiss D.B. Orvieto R. (April 2003). "Short Communication: Does Preejaculatory Penile Secretion Originating from Cowper's Gland Contain Sperm?". Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 20 (4): 157–159. doi:10.1023/A:1022933320700. PMID 12762415. 
  6. ^ "Ancient Egyptian Midwifery and Childbirth". Minnesota State University. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/midwifery.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  7. ^ Tatman, John. Silphium: Ancient Wonder Drug? Accessed December 21, 2005
  8. ^ a b Riddle, John M. (1999). Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West. Harvard MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-27026-6. 
  9. ^ Vasudeva. "Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots". Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology. http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/nem003v1. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  10. ^ Lohiya NK, Manivannan B, Mishra PK, et al. (March 2002). "Chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds induces long-term reversible azoospermia in langur monkey". Asian J. Androl. 4 (1): 17–26. PMID 11907624. 
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External links


Simple English

Birth control or contraception is a way to allow a man and woman to have sexual intercourse while reducing the chance that it will cause a pregnancy. Some of the contraceptives available can also protect a person from sexually transmitted diseases.

When people practice contraception to prevent STDs and pregnancy, sometimes it is called safe sex.

Birth control is also sometimes called family planning. This is because it means that people have babies and make their families when they plan for it. This means that babies and families do not happen by accident.

Birth control may be used by married couples, or by couples who live together but are not marrried, or by a man and woman who are engaged, or by a couple who are merely boyfriend and girlfriend, or even by single people who are not in a relationship at all but who may have casual sex with others.

People may use birth control for several reasons. Perhaps a man and woman wish to have only a few children so they will have enough money to give those children good food, clothes, and education. More children might mean less for each child, so the parents use birth control to limit the number of children they have. Or maybe a man and woman do not want any children at all in order to focus on their own lives, jobs, or each other. Other couples may use birth control to make sure that they do not have too many children in too short a time, an idea that is called "spacing" their children. This may help them take better care of their children. Still another reason is that a young couple may not be able to afford having a baby until they are older and have more money or better jobs. This may be especially true of younger people who are still in school and probably not married. By using birth control, the couple can grow closer and strengthen their relationship by having sexual intercourse frequently so that when they are ready to have a baby their relationship is strong and stable. But in all of these cases the man and woman want to have sex to be close, to feel good with each other, and to make their relationship stronger. Contraception lets them have intercourse while greatly reducing the chances of a pregnancy.

Contents

Types of birth control

There are many types of birth control. Some of these have been done for a long time, but many of them were only discovered in the last eighty years. Each type of birth control has advantages and disadvantages.

Another word for a type of contraception is a method.

Barrier methods

A barrier is something that stands between two things. So barrier methods stand between the sperm and the ovum (egg). Some barrier methods help prevent many sexually transmitted diseases (STDs):

File:Condom
Condoms
  • Condom – this is the oldest barrier method. A condom is a thin tube (often made of latex) that the man puts over his penis. This keeps the sperm from getting to the egg. Condoms are also called rubbers.
  • Female condom – this is like a condom, but it goes in the woman's vagina.

Some barrier methods only protect a small amount against STDs:

  • Diaphragm and cervical cap – these are objects that a woman puts in her vagina to cover the cervix (the opening at the bottom of the uterus where sperm get in).
  • Contraceptive sponge – this is a sponge that is filled with spermicide (a substance that kills sperm) and is put in the woman's vagina over the cervix.

Barrier methods can be easy to use and have few side effects (bad things that happen if you take a medicine). Some of them can be bought without a doctor's prescription. But sometimes they can be messy or interfere with the pleasure and sensation of sex.

Hormonal methods

These can only be used by women. Doctors are trying to find a way to use hormonal methods for men. [[File:|thumb|right|Birth Control Pills]]

  • Birth Control Pills – these are pills that a woman takes every day that make her stop ovulating (making eggs). They usually have both female hormones estrogen and progesterone in them. Some have only progesterone. It is one of the ways of not getting pregnant that works best.
  • Birth Control Patch – this is a small and thin object that is put on the woman's skin and stays there. Hormones in the patch go into the skin and into the woman's body. This makes her not ovulate.
  • Emergency contraception pill – also called the morning-after pill. This is a medicine that is taken after sex that makes the woman less likely to get pregnant. It is best if used very soon after sex. The longer after sex it is taken, the less effective it is. It is recommended to be taken no more than 48 hours after the event. After this time, the pill no longer works well.
  • Implants – these are objects that are put under the woman's skin and stay there for years. They slowly put hormones into her body and make her not ovulate. These only have progesterone in them (not estrogen).
  • Injections (shots) – this is where a doctor or nurse gives the woman a shot with a needle every three to 6 months months depending on the type of injection. They inject a progesterone hormone that makes the woman not ovulate.
  • Rings - a soft plastic ring that is placed inside the vagina. The hormones in the ring go into the woman's vagina and into her body to prevent her from ovulating. The ring cannot be felt during sex and one ring lasts for up to three months.

Implants and injections are very good for younger women or women who cannot take a pill every day.

Hormonal birth control tends to be extremely effective if it is used in the right way. Many hormonal birth control methods also make women's menses shorter and with less bleeding, which most women like. And unlike barrier methods, hormonal methods do not interfere with sex. When a woman is using hormonal birth control, she and her man are usually not even aware of it during intercourse, which seems and feels very natural. For all of these reasons, hormonal methods are very popular.

But all hormonal birth control methods have some risks for side effects. They can make a very small increase in the risk of blood clots in the lungs, strokes, heart attacks, and breast cancer. Most of these risk are small.

Also, hormonal methods do not prevent STDs.

Intrauterine methods

This is where an object is put in the woman's uterus (womb, where the fetus grows when she is pregnant). This object is called an intrauterine device or IUD (acronym).

There are 2 types of IUD. The copper IUD or IUD with hormones implanted on it. The hormonal IUD has better protection against pregnancy but does cost more.

IUDs are the most common birth control method used in the world. They have many good things about them:

  • Do not need the woman to do anything after they are put in
  • Lasts a long time (up to 10 years)
  • Works very well at stopping pregnancy (98-99% of pregnancies are stopped)

The worst part about IUDs is that they have to be put in by a doctor. There is some risk of infection of the uterus after the IUD is put in, but this is only for 1-2 months after.

IUDs can also be used as a day-after method to prevent pregnancy after the woman and man already had sex.

IUDs do not prevent STDs.

Sterilization

This is when a man or woman has surgery to make them not able to make babies.

Men can get a vasectomy. This is a small surgery where the tube that carries sperm from the testicles is cut.

Women can get tubal surgeries. These are ways that the fallopian tubes are cut or clipped so that eggs cannot go down them to the uterus. (The fallopian tube is the tube that carries the egg from the woman's ovary).

Sterilization is extremely effective, and they allow a man and woman to have intercourse that seems and feels very natural. But sterilization does involve surgery, which can cost more than other types of contraception and can be unpleasant, and unlike other methods it is very hard to reverse if a couple changes their minds and want to have children later.

Other surgeries will make a woman sterile (not able to get pregnant). These are not done only for contraception, but they are done for other reasons.

  • Hysterectomy surgery to remove the uterus
  • Oophorectomy surgery to remove the ovaries (both must be removed to make a woman sterile).

Traditional contraception

These have been used for a very long time. They were used before modern medicine. Some of them were used before scientists even discovered how reproduction (making babies) happens.

  • Coitus interruptus (sometimes called "withdrawal" or "pulling out"– when the man takes his penis out before semen (liquid that has sperm in it) comes out. This is not a good method of birth control because the fluid that comes out before semen comes out also has sperm in it, and because if the man's semen is close to the woman's vagina, she can still get pregnant.
  • Non-penetrative sex, non-vaginal sex – sex without putting the man's penis in the woman's vagina. This is more effective than coitus interruptus, but it can still be risky if the man ejaculates on or near the woman, and it can also be frustrating for the couple not to be able to have intercourse.
  • Abstinence – not having sex. If a couple can practice this correctly, it is completely effective at preventing pregnancy. It is free and does not require the help of a doctor. But it can be very frustrating for a man and woman to not be able to have intercourse.

Many methods can reduce the risk of STIs, but only abstinence is 100% effective.

Periodic abstinence

This means a man and a woman practice abstinence (not having sex) when the woman is fertile. When the woman is not fertile, she will not get pregnant when she has sex.

  • Natural Family Planning - This is also named fertility awareness. For this method, a woman reads her temperature (how warm her body is) in the morning, or she reads her cervical mucus (liquid that comes out of her vagina). Using the temperature or the cervical mucus, there are rules that say when the woman is fertile and not fertile.
  • Billings Ovulation Method, Creighton Model FertilityCare, two-day method, mucus-only method, basal body temperature method, sympto-thermo method - These are different names for Natural Family Planning.
  • Rhythm method - This is where a woman records the number of days between her menses (the time when she bleeds). There is math the man and woman can do to know when the woman is more fertile and less fertile. For some women, the math does not work and they get pregnant when the math says they are less fertile.

Lactational Amenorrhea Method

This is when a woman is breastfeeding (using her breasts to make milk for her baby). There are certain rules the woman can use to know if she is not fertile. Chances that this method will fail si about 10% (which means 10% change she can get pregnant)

Induced abortion

Induced abortion (sometimes called just abortion) is when a doctor gives a pregnant woman a medicine or does a surgery to stop the pregnancy. Some people do not call abortion a kind of contraception. This is because contraception means preventing pregnancy, but abortion is stopping a pregnancy that has already started.

Abortion is not a good birth control method. If a woman does not want to get pregnant, other methods are more safe and inexpensive (cost less money). So many doctors who do abortions for women help women find a better way to not get pregnant the next time.

Religion and contraception

Some religions do not like contraception. Some of them teach that contraception is a sin.

Religions ideas about contraception:

  • Catholicism – almost all types of birth control are a sin (except Natural Family Planning or abstinence).
  • Protestantism – most Protestant churches believe birth control is not a sin.
  • Islam – most schools of thought believe that some methods of birth control are not a sin. This is not applicable to sterilization, birth control due to financial hardship, or methods that deprive a woman of her right to sexual satisfaction.
  • Judaism – there are many different beliefs in Judaism about birth control, but even the most conservative types of Judaism allow it if the woman will get sick if she gets pregnant.

Religious beliefs that contraception is a sin also keep people from doing safe sex. Some groups who are opposed to this belief say it is dangerous in places where there is a lot of HIV and AIDS, because condoms make people much less likely to get HIV, but at the same times many feel that they can practice extra marital sex since they are "safe" from HIV/AIDS.

Other websites

These may be unsimple:


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Birth control, which are similar to those in the above article.








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