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Countries by birth rate in 2008

Crude birth rate is the nativity or childbirths per 1,000 people per year.[1]

According to the United Nations' World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database, crude birth rate is the Number of births over a given period divided by the person-years lived by the population over that period. It is expressed as number of births per 1,000 population. CBR = (births in a period / population of person-years over that period).

Another indicator of fertility that is frequently used is the total fertility rate, which is the average number of children born to each woman over the course of her life. In general, the total fertility rate is a better indicator of (current) fertility rates because unlike the crude birth rate it is not affected by the age distribution of the population. Fertility rates tend to be higher in less economically developed countries and lower in more economically developed countries.

World historical and predicted crude birth rates (1950-2050)
UN, medium variant, 2008 rev.[2]
Years CBR Years CBR
1950-1955 37.2 2000-2005 21.2
1955-1960 35.3 2005-2010 20.3
1960-1965 34.9 2010-2015 19.4
1965-1970 33.4 2015-2020 18.2
1970-1975 30.8 2020-2025 16.9
1975-1980 28.4 2025-2030 15.8
1980-1985 27.9 2030-2035 15.0
1985-1990 27.3 2035-2040 14.5
1990-1995 24.7 2040-2045 14.0
1995-2000 22.5 2045-2050 13.4

The birth rate is an item of concern and policy for a number of national governments. Some, including those of Italy and Malaysia, seek to increase the national birth rate using measures such as financial incentives or provision of support services to new mothers. Conversely, others aim to reduce the birth rate. For example, China's One child policy; measures such as improved information about and availability of birth control have achieved similar results in countries such as Iran.

There has also been discussion on whether bringing women into the forefront of development initiatives will lead to a decline in birth rates. In some places, government policies have been focused on reducing birth rates through improving women's sexual and reproductive health and rights. Typically, high birth rates has been associated with health impairments and low life expectancy, low living standards, low status of women, and low levels of education. There are claims that as countries go through economic development and social change, population growth such as birth rate declines.

In 1974 at the World Population Conference in Bucharest, women's issues gained considerable attention. family programmes were seriously discussed and 137 countries drafted a World Population Plan of Action. In the discussion, many countries accepted modern birth control, such as the pill and the condom, but opposed abortion. In 1994, Another Action plan was drafted in Cairo under the United Nations. They discussed the concern on population and the need to incorporate women into the discourse. They agreed that a need to improve women's status, initiatives in defence of reproductive health and freedom, the environment, and sustainable socio-economic development were needed.

Generally, birth rate is calculated using live birth counts from a universal system of registration of births, deaths, and marriages, and population counts from a census or using estimation through specialized demographic techniques. Birth rate is also commonly used to calculate population growth. It is combined with death rates and migration rates to calculate population growth.

As for 2009, the average birth rate for the whole world is 19.95 per year per 1000 total population. Birth rate from 2003 to 2009 shows that there has been a -.48% decline from 2003's world birth rate of 20.43 per 1000 total population. According to the CIA - The World Factbook, the country with the highest birth rate currently is Niger at 51.6 births per 1000 people. The country with the lowest birth rate is Japan at 7.64 births per 1000 people. (Hong Kong as a Special Administrative Region of China is at 7.42 births per 1000 people.) As compared to the 1950s (birth rate was at 36 births per 1000 in the 1950s[3]), birth rate has declined by 16 births per 1000 people.

Countries with birth rates ranging from 10-20 births per 1000 is considered low and countries ranging from 40-50 births per 1000 is considered high. There are problems associated with both an extremely high birth rate and extremely low birth rate. High birth rates could cause stress on the government welfare and family programs to support the youthful population. Further problems of a country with a high birth rate include: how to educate growing number of children, creating jobs for these children when they grow up to be working age, and dealing with the environmental effects that a large population can produce. Low birth rates can also put stress on the government to prove adequate senior welfare systems and also the stress on families to support the elders themselves. There will be less children or working age population to support the constantly growing aging population.

Contents

Methods of measuring birth rate

  • General fertility rate (GFR): This measures the number of births per 1,000 women aged 15 to 44 or 15 to 49.
  • Standardised birth rate (SBR): This compares the age-sex structure to a hypothetical standard population.
  • Total fertility rate (TFR): The mean number of children a woman is expected to bear during her child-bearing years. It is also independent of the age-sex structure of the population.
  • Child-to-woman ratio: This measures the number of children below five to the number of women of child-bearing years (age 15 to 44). In the past, when there is no universal registration of births, this ratio is a relatively good indicator of fertility since it can be measure using data from the Census. However, high infant mortality rate would cause huge difference between child to woman ratio and general fertility rate (GFR).

Factors affecting birth rate

Birth rate and the Demographic Transition Model

The demographic Transition Model describes population mortality and fertility may decline as social and economic development occurs through time. The two major factors in the Demographic Transition Model is Crude Birth Rate (CBR) and Crude Death Rate (CDR). There are 4 stages to the Demographic Model and in the first and second stage, CBR remains high because people are still in agrarian cultures and need more labour to work on farms. In addition, the chances of children dying are high because medicine is not as advance during that phrase. However, in the third stage, CBR starts to decline due to more women's participation in society and the reduced need of families to have many children. In the fourth stage, CBR is sustained at a really low level with some countries below replacement levels.

See also

Case studies:

Lists:

Organisations:

References

2. http://esa.un.org/UNPP/index.asp?panel=7 -- United Nations World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database

3. Clark, Audrey. Longman Dictionary of Geography, Human and Physical. New York: Longman, 1985.

4. Douglas, Ian and Richard Huggett. Companion Encyclopedia of Geography. New York: Routledge, 2007.

5. Norwood, Carolette. "Re-thinking the integration of women in population development initiatives" Development in Practice. 19.7(2009):906 - 911.

6. http://www.indexmundi.com/world/birth_rate.html -- World Birth rate by IndexMundi.

7. http://www.answers.com/topic/birth-rate -- excert from Encyclopedia of Public Health

8. http://www.worldwatch.org/node/1631 -- "Demographic Fatigue Overwhelming Third World Governments" by Worldwatch Institute. 26 Sept 1998.

External links



Crude birth rate is the nativity or childbirths per 1,000 people per year (in estimation review points).[1]

According to the 'United Nations' World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database, crude birth rate is the number of births over a given period divided by the person-years lived by the population over that period. It is expressed as number of births per 1,000 population. CBR = (births in a period / population of person-years over that period).

Another indicator of fertility that is frequently used is the total fertility rate, which is the average number of children born to each woman over the course of her life. In general, the total fertility rate is a better indicator of (current) fertility rates because, unlike the crude birth rate, it is not affected by the age distribution of the population. Fertility rates tend to be higher in less economically developed countries and lower in more economically developed countries.

World historical and predicted crude birth rates (1950–2050)
UN, medium variant, 2008 rev.[2]
YearsCBRYearsCBR
1950–195537.22000–200521.2
1955–196035.32005–201020.3
1960–196534.92010–201519.4
1965–197033.42015–202018.2
1970–197530.82020–202516.9
1975–198028.42025–203015.8
1980–198527.92030–203515.0
1985–199027.32035–204014.5
1990–199524.72040–204514.0
1995–200022.52045–205013.4

The birth rate is an item of concern and policy for a number of national governments. Some, including those of Italy and Malaysia, seek to increase the national birth rate using measures such as financial incentives or provision of support services to new mothers. Conversely, other countries have policies to reduce the birth rate, for example, China's one child policy. Measures such as improved information about and availability of birth control have achieved similar results in countries such as Iran.

There has also been discussion on whether bringing women into the forefront of development initiatives will lead to a decline in birth rates. In some places, government policies have been focused on reducing birth rates through improving women's sexual and reproductive health and rights. Typically, high birth rates has been associated with health impairments and low life expectancy, low living standards, low status of women, and low levels of education. There are claims that as countries go through economic development and social change, population growth such as birth rate declines.

In 1974, at the World Population Conference in Bucharest, women's issues gained considerable attention. Family programmes were seriously discussed and 137 countries drafted a World Population Plan of Action. In the discussion, many countries accepted modern birth control, such as the pill and the condom, but opposed abortion. In 1994, another action plan was drafted in Cairo under the United Nations. They discussed the concern on population and the need to incorporate women into the discourse. They agreed that improvements in women's status, and initiatives in defense of reproductive health and freedom, the environment, and sustainable socio-economic development were needed.

Generally, birth rate is calculated using live birth counts from a universal system of registration of births, deaths, and marriages, and population counts from a census or using estimation through specialized demographic techniques. Birth rate is also commonly used to calculate population growth. It is combined with death rates and migration rates to calculate population growth.

As of 2009, the average birth rate for the whole world is 19.95 per year per 1000 total population, a 0.48% decline from 2003's world birth rate of 20.43 per 1000 total population. According to the CIA - The World Factbook, the country with the highest birth rate currently is Niger at 51.6 births per 1000 people. The country with the lowest birth rate is Japan at 7.64 births per 1000 people. (Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region of China, is at 7.42 births per 1000 people.) As compared to the 1950s (birth rate was at 36 births per 1000 in the 1950s[3]), birth rate has declined by 16 births per 1000 people.

Birth rates ranging from 10-20 births per 1000 are considered low, while rates from 40-50 births per 1000 are considered high. There are problems associated with both an extremely high birth rate and an extremely low birth rate. High birth rates can cause stress on the government welfare and family programs to support a youthful population. Additional problems faced by a country with a high birth rate include educating a growing number of children, creating jobs for these children when they enter the workforce, and dealing with the environmental effects that a large population can produce. Low birth rates can put stress on the government to prove adequate senior welfare systems and also the stress on families to support the elders themselves. There will be less children or working age population to support the constantly growing aging population.

Contents

Methods of measuring birth rate

Factors affecting birth rate

  • Pro-natalist policies and Antinatalist policies from government
  • Existing age-sex structure
  • Availability of family planning services
  • Social and religious beliefs - especially in relation to contraception and abortion
  • Female literacy levels (higher levels of literacy and advanced education, including education about methods of birth control and the planning of families, enable women to better plan for what kind of family structure and number of children she would like to have happen, and contribute to greater maternal and familial health; it helps even moreso if both partners have received advanced levels of education)[citation needed]
  • Economic prosperity (although in theory when the economy is doing well families can afford to have more children, in practice the higher the economic prosperity the lower the birth rate: the Demographic-economic paradox).
  • Poverty levels – Children can be seen as an economic resource in developing countries as they can earn money.
  • Infant Mortality Rate – A family may have more children if a country's IMR is high as it is likely some of those children will die.
  • Urbanization
  • Typical age of marriage
  • Pension availability
  • Conflict

Birth rate and the Demographic Transition Model

The Demographic Transition Model describes how population mortality and fertility decline as social and economic development occurs through time. The two major factors in the Demographic Transition Model are Crude Birth Rate (CBR) and Crude Death Rate (CDR). There are four stages to the Demographic Model. In the first and second stages, CBR remains high because people are still in agrarian cultures and need more labour to work on farms. In addition, the chances of children dying are high because medicine is not as advanced during that phase. In the third stage, CBR starts to decline due to women's increasing participation in society and the reduced need for families to have many children to work on farms. In the fourth stage, CBR is sustained at a very low level, with some countries having rates that are below replacement levels.

See also

Case studies:

Lists:

Organisations:

References

2. http://esa.un.org/UNPP/index.asp?panel=7 -- United Nations World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database

3. Clark, Audrey. Longman Dictionary of Geography, Human and Physical. New York: Longman, 1985.

4. Douglas, Ian and Richard Huggett. Companion Encyclopedia of Geography. New York: Routledge, 2007.

5. Norwood, Carolette. "Re-thinking the integration of women in population development initiatives" Development in Practice. 19.7(2009):906 - 911.

6. http://www.indexmundi.com/world/birth_rate.html -- World Birth rate by IndexMundi.

7. http://www.answers.com/topic/birth-rate -- excert from Encyclopedia of Public Health

8. http://www.worldwatch.org/node/1631 -- "Demographic Fatigue Overwhelming Third World Governments" by Worldwatch Institute. 26 Sept 1998.

External links








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