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Panoramic view of the bay from the Port of Miami
View of northern Biscayne Bay from I-195, showing the Downtown Miami skyline in the background, May 2008.
Southern Biscayne Bay makes up the bulk of Biscayne National Park.
Biscayne-sign-for-wikipedia-by-toms-schaefer.jpg

Biscayne Bay (Bahía Vizcaína in Spanish) is a lagoon that is approximately 35 miles (56 km) long and up to 8 miles (13 km) wide located on the Atlantic coast of south Florida, United States. It is usually divided for purposes of discussion and analysis into three parts: North Bay, Central Bay and South Bay.

North Bay lies between Miami Beach barrier island from Miami on the mainland. It has been severely affected over the last century by raw sewage releases, urban runoff, shoreline bulkheading, dredging, the creation of artificial islands and the loss of natural fresh water flow into the bay. However, water quality has steadily improved since regular monitoring began in 1979. North Bay accounts for only 10% of the water area of the bay.

Central Bay is the largest part of the bay. It is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Safety Valve, a series of shallow flats separated by tidal flow channels, stretching from the south end of Key Biscayne to the Ragged Keys at the north end of the Florida Keys. It has been adversely affected primarily by bulkheading, urban runoff discharged by canals, and the loss of natural fresh water flow.

South Bay is nearly as large as Central Bay, and is the least affected by human activities, although it also suffers from the loss of natural fresh water flow. South Bay is separated from the Straits of Florida by the northernmost of the Florida Keys, and includes Card sound and Barnes Sound. It is connected to Florida Bay through a few small channels.

The first bridge across Biscayne Bay was the 2.5 mile wooden Collins Bridge built by John S. Collins and Carl G. Fisher. The toll bridge was "the longest wooden bridge in the world" when it was completed in 1913 at the southern terminus of the Dixie Highway. The Collins Bridge was replaced in 1925. In modern times, the Venetian Causeway follows the same route along the artificial Venetian Islands. The MacArthur, Julia Tuttle, 79th Street and Broad causeways connect Miami to Miami Beach, and the Rickenbacker Causeway connects Miami to Key Biscayne. The Card Sound Bridge connects the mainland in the Homestead, Florida area to the northern part of Key Largo.

The bay makes up part of Biscayne National Park. Seven remaining houses of Biscayne Bay's Stiltsville settlement are now within the boundaries of this National Park which was established in 1980. Much of Biscayne National Park was designated as a National Monument in 1967. Card Sound and Barnes Sound lie within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary.

The bay has been known by several names. Juan Ponce de Leon called it Chequescha in 1513. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés called it Tequesta in 1565. The British, during their occupation of Florida, called the bay Cape River, Dartmouth Sound, and Sandwich gulph. Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda related that a sailor from the Bay of Biscay called the Viscayno or Biscayno had lived on the lower east coast of Florida for a while after being shipwrecked, and a 17th century map shows a Cayo de Biscainhos, the probable origin of Key Biscayne. The bay was known as Key Biscayne Bay in the 19th century, finally shrinking to Biscayne Bay late in the 19th century.[1]

The bay is also home to Florida International University's Biscayne Bay Campus in North Miami and the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science in Virginia Key. It was seen in the music video for The Lonely Island's "I'm On A Boat".

References

  1. ^ Blank, Joan Gill. 1996. Key Biscayne. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. ISBN 1-56164-096-4. p. 13.

Sources


Coordinates: 25°35′49″N 80°15′51″W / 25.59695°N 80.26405°W / 25.59695; -80.26405

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