The Full Wiki

Bisphenol A: Wikis

  
  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bisphenol A
Identifiers
CAS number 80-05-7 Yes check.svgY
PubChem 6623
ChemSpider 6371
EC number 201-245-8
RTECS number SL6300000
SMILES
InChI
InChI key IISBACLAFKSPIT-UHFFFAOYAI
Properties
Molecular formula C15H16O2
Molar mass 228.29 g mol−1
Appearance White to light brown flakes or powder
Density 1.20 g/cm³, solid
Melting point
158 to 159 °C (430 K)
Boiling point
220 °C (493 K) / 4 mmHg
Solubility in water 120–300 ppm (at 21.5 °C)
Hazards
R/S statement R: 36, 37, 38, 43 S: 24, 26, 37
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
3
0
Flash point 227 °C, autoignition: 600 °C
Related compounds
Related compounds phenols
Bisphenol S
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
.Bisphenol A, commonly abbreviated as BPA, is an organic compound with two phenol functional groups.^ BPA has two hydroxyl groups, and T 3 has a hydroxyl and an alanine group.
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Phenol is C6H5-OH. The -OH is the functional group.
  • Dangerous Levels of BPA, Bisphenol A, Found in Canned Foods - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Bisphenol A, commonly abbreviated as BPA, is an organic compound with two phenol functional groups.
  • La Vida Locavore:: Bisphenol A Back in the News 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.lavidalocavore.org [Source type: General]
  • Bisphenol A: The Chemical Used in Plastics « Plastic Bag News and Facts : Project GreenBag 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.projectgreenbag.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is a difunctional building block of several important plastics and plastic additives.^ It also is the major building block in Polycarbonate plastic.
  • mom knows best - What is BPA? 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.momknowsbest.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a difunctional building block of several important plastics and plastic additives, 2–3 million metric ton are produced every year.
  • Bisphenol A: The Chemical Used in Plastics « Plastic Bag News and Facts : Project GreenBag 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.projectgreenbag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a difunctional building block of several important polymers and polymer additives.
  • La Vida Locavore:: Bisphenol A Back in the News 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.lavidalocavore.org [Source type: General]

.Suspected of being hazardous to humans since the 1930s, concerns about the use of bisphenol A in consumer products were regularly reported in the news media in 2008 after several governments issued reports questioning its safety, and some retailers have removed products containing it from their shelves.^ It is used in plastics in many consumer products.
  • BPA (Bisphenol A), used in packaging, is linked to metabolic disorders. - Doctors Lounge 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some polymers used in dental treatment contain Bisphenol-A. .
  • Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC website.lineone.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Welcome to thinksport - Free of Bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC thinksportbottles.com [Source type: Academic]

^ April 18, 2008 business News ARTICLES ABOUT BISPHENOL A .
  • Bisphenol A News - The New York Times 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.A 2010 report from the FDA raised further concerns regarding exposure of fetuses, infants, and young children.^ A lengthy draft report from a part of the National Institutes of Health found “some concern” about the effect of BPA on fetuses, infants and children at current exposure levels.
  • Retailers Pulling Bottles With Bisphenol-A » On The Pitch 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC onthepitch.org [Source type: General]

^ Two weeks ago, a draft report by a program of the National Institutes of Health concurred with the earlier evaluation of an independent scientific panel, concluding there was "some concern" about possible neural and behavioral effects in fetuses, infants and young children exposed to the chemical at current levels.
  • Bisphenol-A: Out of the bottle | Philadelphia Inquirer | 03/06/2009 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.philly.com [Source type: General]

^ The NTP Monograph concluded that, based on the weight of the evidence, there is “some concern” about the effects of BPA on the brain, behavior, and prostrate gland of fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures levels; “minimal concern” for some other effects; and “negligible concern” for others.
  • Bisphenol A Developments in 2008: The Year in Review: Environmental Law Firm, Attorneys, Beveridge & Diamond 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.bdlaw.com [Source type: Academic]

[1]

Contents

Synthesis

Bisphenol A was first reported by A.P. Dianin in 1891.[2][3]
.It is prepared by the condensation of acetone (hence the suffix A in the name)[4] with two equivalents of phenol.^ PEER REVIEWED**   Methods of Manufacturing: Produced by the condensation of two moles of phenol with one mole of acetone while bubbling hydrogen chloride through the mixture.

^ Bisphenol A may be produced by various techniques, but typically it is prepared in an acid-catalyzed, condensation reaction of two moles of phenol and one mole of acetone.
  • Method and system for bisphenol a production using controlled turbulence - Patent 5874644 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Industrially, bisphenol A is usually obtained by condensing one mole of acetone with two moles of phenol according to the reaction: .
  • Method for making bisphenol A - Patent 7227046 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The reaction is catalyzed by an acid, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) or a sulfonated polystyrene resin.^ Commonly-used catalysts include hydrochloric acid, a mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, and an acidic form of an ion-exchange resin.
  • Method and system for bisphenol a production using controlled turbulence - Patent 5874644 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bisphenol A may be produced by various techniques, but typically it is prepared in an acid-catalyzed, condensation reaction of two moles of phenol and one mole of acetone.
  • Method and system for bisphenol a production using controlled turbulence - Patent 5874644 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This reaction is generally carried out in the presence of a strong acid catalyst (HCl or a sulphonic resin) and a mercaptan co-catalyst such as methyl mercaptan (MM) or 3-mercaptopropionic acid.
  • Method for making bisphenol A - Patent 7227046 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Typically, a large excess of phenol is used to ensure full condensation:
(CH3)2CO + 2 C6H5OH → (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 + H2O
A large number of ketones undergo analogous condensation reactions. The method is efficient and the only by-product is water.[5]

Use

Repeating chemical structure unit of polycarbonate made from bisphenol A
.Bisphenol A is used primarily to make plastics, and products containing bisphenol A-based plastics have been in commerce for more than 50 years.^ (NaturalNews) Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical that has been used for years in the production of plastic and epoxy resins.
  • bisphenol A news and articles 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bisphenol A is used primarily in the production of polycarbonate resins and epoxy resins.
  • SRI Consulting CEH Report Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.sriconsulting.com [Source type: News]

^ Bisphenol A and polycarbonate plastic containers .
  • Bisphenol A and polycarbonate plastic containers - Not About Food - Chowhound 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: General]

.It is a key monomer in production of epoxy resins[6][7] and in the most common form of polycarbonate plastic.^ Bisphenol A is used primarily in the production of polycarbonate resins and epoxy resins.
  • SRI Consulting CEH Report Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.sriconsulting.com [Source type: News]

^ Bisphenol A Uses Bisphenol A is used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics.
  • Welcome to thinksport - Free of Bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC thinksportbottles.com [Source type: Academic]

^ BPA is an estrogenic compound widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins.
  • Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female MouseCurrent Biology, v.13, 1apr03 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

[8][5][9] .Polycarbonate plastic, which is clear and nearly shatter-proof, is used to make a variety of common products including baby and water bottles, sports equipment, medical and dental devices, dental fillings and sealants, eyeglass lenses, CDs and DVDs, and household electronics.^ BPA is also used in the production of materials found in dental composites and sealants.

^ NO plastic bottled water or drinks.
  • Bangor protest targets unsafe baby products, chemical bisphenol-A - Bangor Daily News 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.bangordailynews.com [Source type: General]

^ This plastic is used in almost every soda and water bottle in the world.
  • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .BPA is also used in the synthesis of polysulfones and polyether ketones, as an antioxidant in some plasticizers, and as a polymerization inhibitor in PVC.^ "If we want to not use BPA, we will not have polycarbonate plastics.
  • Bisphenol-A: Out of the bottle | Philadelphia Inquirer | 03/06/2009 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.philly.com [Source type: General]

^ Donna BPA- Bisphenol-A is a monomer used in synthesis of pc plastics.
  • Health Risk or Hysteria? Plastic Baby Bottles and Bisphenol A - Poked & Prodded - Health.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC pokedandprodded.health.com [Source type: General]

^ In use since the 1950's, bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical and a building block for polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins.
  • EWG || Human Toxome Project 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ewg.org [Source type: Academic]

.Epoxy resins containing bisphenol A are used as coatings on the inside of almost all food and beverage cans,[11] however, due to BPA health concerns, in Japan epoxy coating was mostly replaced by PET film.^ Bisphenol A is used to make food and beverage containers that range from baby bottles to cans of tomato sauce.
  • Switchboard, from NRDC :: Blogs :: BPA 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC switchboard.nrdc.org [Source type: General]

^ (NaturalNews) Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical that has been used for years in the production of plastic and epoxy resins.
  • bisphenol A news and articles 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bisphenol A is used primarily in the production of polycarbonate resins and epoxy resins.
  • SRI Consulting CEH Report Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.sriconsulting.com [Source type: News]

[12] .Bisphenol A is also a precursor to the flame retardant, tetrabromobisphenol A, and was formerly used as a fungicide.^ Bisphenol A has also been used as an inert ingredient in pesticides (although in the US this has apparently been halted), as a fungicide, antioxidant, flame retardant, rubber chemical, and polyvinyl chloride stabilizer.

^ It is also used as a fungicide, antioxidant, and a flame retardant, in the making of rubber chemical, and to stabilize polyvinyl chloride.
  • http://www.dld123.com/q&a/index.php?cid=1614 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.dld123.com [Source type: General]

^ Bisphenol A has been used as an inert ingredient in pesticides (although in the US this has apparently been halted), as a fungicide, antioxidant, flame retardant, rubber chemical, and polyvinyl chloride stabilizer.
  • Our Stolen Future: Background on BPA... what is it , how is it used and what does science say about exposure risks 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ourstolenfuture.org [Source type: Academic]

[13] Bisphenol A is a preferred color developer in thermal paper[14] and in carbonless copy paper.[15]
.Global production of bisphenol A in 2003 was estimated to be over 2 million tonnes.^ With an annual production of 2-3 million tonnes, it is an important monomer in the production of polycarbonate.
  • La Vida Locavore:: Bisphenol A Back in the News 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.lavidalocavore.org [Source type: General]

^ Used commercially since the 1950s, current bisphenol A global production tops 6 billion pounds.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Find this article online Burridge E (2003) Bisphenol A: product profile.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[16] .In the U.S., it is manufactured by Bayer MaterialScience, Dow Chemical Company, SABIC Innovative Plastics (formerly GE Plastics), Hexion Specialty Chemicals, and Sunoco Chemicals.^ Leading producers profiles - Bayer AG - LG Chem - Mitsubishi Chemical - Mitsui Chemical - Rhodia - Sabic - The Dow Chemical 8.
  • Bisphenol A: 2009 World Market Outlook And Forecast - market research report on Reportlinker 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.reportlinker.com [Source type: News]

^ Cone told the National Public Radio program " Living on Earth " she has seen the list of clients and it includes Dow chemical company and NBASF, both producers or manufacturers of BPA, the chemical the federal agency is now reviewing.

^ The chemical is IN the plastic, being used to manufacture it.
  • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2004, these companies produced just over 1 million t of bisphenol A, up from just 7,260 t in 1991. In 2003, annual U.S. consumption was 856,000 t, 72% of which was used to make polycarbonate plastic and 21% going into epoxy resins.^ Bisphenol A leaches from polycarbonate as the plastic ages.
  • http://www.dld123.com/q&a/index.php?cid=1614 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.dld123.com [Source type: General]

^ Bisphenol A and polycarbonate plastic containers .
  • Bisphenol A and polycarbonate plastic containers - Not About Food - Chowhound 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: General]

^ Bisphenol A, also called BPA, is a chemical found in polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins.
  • Bisphenol A: 9 Questions and Answers 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC children.webmd.com [Source type: General]

[10]

Identification in plastics

Some type 7 plastics may leach bisphenol A
Some type 3 plastics may leach bisphenol A
.There are seven classes of plastics used in packaging applications.^ These plastics are used in many food and drink packaging applications, whilst the resins are commonly used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops and water supply pipes (ENDS, 1995).
  • Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC website.lineone.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Welcome to thinksport - Free of Bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC thinksportbottles.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Polycarbonate plastics have many applications including use in some food and drink packaging, e.g., water and infant bottles, compact discs, impact-resistant safety equipment, and medical devices.
  • Since You Asked - Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) News, Research 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: General]
  • Bisphenol A may harm fetuses, infants and children 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (HealthDay News) — Bisphenol A, a controversial chemical used to harden plastic packaging for many foods and beverages, may affect human reproduction, researchers report.
  • Chemical in Plastics May Cause Fertility Problems - Health News - Health.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC news.health.com [Source type: News]

.Type 7 is the catch-all "other" class, and some type 7 plastics, such as polycarbonate (sometimes identified with the letters "PC" near the recycling symbol) and epoxy resins, are made from bisphenol A monomer.^ Bisphenol A leaches from polycarbonate as the plastic ages.
  • http://www.dld123.com/q&a/index.php?cid=1614 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.dld123.com [Source type: General]

^ Bisphenol A and polycarbonate plastic containers .
  • Bisphenol A and polycarbonate plastic containers - Not About Food - Chowhound 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: General]

^ Plastics that are made with Bisphenol A are light and transparent.
  • Bisphenol A – The Hidden Threat in Plastics | Tomorrow Today | Deutsche Welle 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: General]

[5][17]
.Type 3 (PVC) can also contain bisphenol A as an antioxidant in plasticizers.^ Bisphenol A and polycarbonate plastic containers .
  • Bisphenol A and polycarbonate plastic containers - Not About Food - Chowhound 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: General]

^ Many plastics contain Bisphenol A. .
  • Bisphenol A – The Hidden Threat in Plastics | Tomorrow Today | Deutsche Welle 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: General]

^ Bisphenol A is a chemical used for the production of industrial epoxies, polycarbonate plastics, fungicides, flame-retardants, antioxidants, and other products.
  • Bisphenol A in Plastic Bottles: Play It Safe with Alternatives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.Types 1 (PET), 2 (HDPE), 4 (LDPE), 5 (polypropylene), and 6 (polystyrene) do not use bisphenol A during polymerization or package forming.^ Bisphenol-A is commonly used in the manufacture of some types of epoxy resins and plastic products used by billions of people on a daily basis.
  • Bisphenol-A from Plastics is Likely Detectable in Your Blood Right Now 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.home-air-purifier-expert.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical widely used in food and drinks packaging.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1957, chemists discovered another use for bisphenol A—when polymerized (linked together in long chains), it forms a hard plastic, polycarbonate.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed] [18]

Health effects

.Bisphenol A is an endocrine disruptor, which can mimic the body's own hormones and may lead to negative health effects.^ The chemical mimics the hormone oestrogen in the body.
  • Bisphenol A: a common, controversial chemical - Health News, Health & Families - The Independent 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ As such, a health-protective effect is being generated by an endocrine disruptor.

^ Endocrine disruptors and reproductive health: the case of bisphenol-A .
  • Bisphenol A stifles thyroid hormone and slows frog development. — Environmental Health News 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.environmentalhealthnews.org [Source type: Academic]

[19][20][21][22] .Early development appears to be the period of greatest sensitivity to its effects.^ Goldman: We know that the time of greatest sensitivity to BPA occurs in utero (passed directly from mother to baby) and during infancy and early childhood.
  • Q&A: Bisphenol A and Plastics 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.jhsph.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We have concluded that early development is sensitive to the effects of bisphenol A. Although our science tells us that exposure levels to newborns and infants are below levels that cause effects, we believe the current safety margin needs to be higher."
  • CBC News - Health - Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Although it is not immediately lethal, studies show that greatest sensitivity to bisphenol A occurs during periods of early development and that the substance accumulates over time in the body and environment.
  • Study looks at health impact of Bisphenol A - MayoClinic.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: General]

[23] .Regulatory bodies have determined safety levels for humans, but those safety levels are currently being questioned or under review as a result of new scientific studies.^ Human safety levels .
  • Bisphenol A is in you - JSOnline 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.jsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Those factors can influence the studies' results.
  • Bisphenol A is in you - JSOnline 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.jsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Having considered both the pre-2002 and new studies available, the EFSA scientific panel concluded that the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of five milligram/kg body weight/day identified in the previous evaluation in 2002, remains valid.
  • Bisphenol A in infant formula at 'dangerous' levels, says group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nutraingredients-usa.com [Source type: Academic]

[24][25]
In 2009 the The Endocrine Society released a scientific statement expressing concern over current human exposure to BPA.[26]

Previous studies

.In 2007, a consensus statement by 38 experts on bisphenol A concluded that average levels in people are above those that cause harm to animals in laboratory experiments.^ They conclude that average levels in people are above those that cause harm to animals in laboratory experiments .
  • 38 experts on bisphenol A warn policy makers about potential adverse health effects. 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ourstolenfuture.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Levels of bisphenol A in people were higher than the levels found to cause harm in lab animals, the panel said.
  • Bisphenol A is in you - JSOnline 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.jsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ EWG had previously estimated that one out of every 16 infants fed ready-to-eat liquid formula are exposed to BPA at doses exceeding those that caused increased aggression and significant changes in testosterone levels in laboratory animals.
  • Bisphenol A in infant formula at 'dangerous' levels, says group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nutraingredients-usa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bisphenol A in infant formula at 'dangerous' levels, says group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nutraingredients.com [Source type: Academic]

[27] .A panel convened by the U.S. National Institutes of Health determined that there was "some concern" about BPA's effects on fetal and infant brain development and behavior.^ The new FDA report was prompted by the findings by the National Toxicology Program that found “some concern” about BPA effects on infants.
  • Bisphenol A’s Impact on the Promotional Items Industry : Ecopreneurist 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ecopreneurist.com [Source type: General]

^ Studies about the effects of BPA have been conflicting.
  • FDA Weighs Safety Of Bisphenol A : NPR 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BPA - Bisphenol A - possible effects during fetal development or on newborns .
  • Department of Human Services | BPA - Bisphenol A - possible effects during fetal development or on newborns 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.state.nj.us [Source type: Academic]

[10] A 2008 report by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) later agreed with the panel, expressing "some concern for effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A," and "minimal concern for effects on the mammary gland and an earlier age for puberty for females in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A." The NTP had "negligible concern that exposure of pregnant women to bisphenol A will result in fetal or neonatal mortality, birth defects, or reduced birth weight and growth in their offspring."[28]

Obesity

.A 2008 review has concluded that obesity may be increased as a function of BPA exposure, which "merits concern among scientists and public health officials".[29] A 2009 review of available studies has concluded that "perinatal BPA exposure acts to exert persistent effects on body weight and adiposity".[30] Another 2009 review has concluded that "Eliminating exposures to (BPA) and improving nutrition during development offer the potential for reducing obesity and associated diseases".[31] Other reviews have come with similar conclusions.^ The objective of the hazard identification step is to qualitatively identify the health effects that may be associated with exposure to BPA. .
  • Consumer Bisphenol A Exposure & Safety Information 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.bisphenol-a.org [Source type: Academic]

^ May 31, 2009 BPA Questions Answered Boston Globe .
  • Bisphenol A: Toxic Plastics Chemical in Canned Food | Environmental Working Group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ewg.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies about the effects of BPA have been conflicting.
  • FDA Weighs Safety Of Bisphenol A : NPR 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32][33] .A later study on rats has suggested that perinatal exposure to drinking water containing 1 mg/L of BPA increased adipogenesis in females at weaning.^ While air, dust, and water are other possible sources of exposure, BPA in food and beverages accounts for the majority of daily human exposure.
  • Since You Asked - Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Bisphenol A may harm fetuses, infants and children 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent studies have linked BPA to effects such as increased aggression in toddler girls, heart disease, obesity, early puberty and infertility.
  • Is Bisphenol-a Truly Harmful or Have We Gone too Far? | Perspectives... 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC blogs.drgreene.com [Source type: General]

^ BPA is detectable in our environment and is present in drinking water, canned goods, and even milk bottles.
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[34]

Neurological issues

.A panel convened by the U.S. National Institutes of Health determined that there was "some concern" about BPA's effects on fetal and infant brain development and behavior.^ The new FDA report was prompted by the findings by the National Toxicology Program that found “some concern” about BPA effects on infants.
  • Bisphenol A’s Impact on the Promotional Items Industry : Ecopreneurist 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ecopreneurist.com [Source type: General]

^ Studies about the effects of BPA have been conflicting.
  • FDA Weighs Safety Of Bisphenol A : NPR 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BPA - Bisphenol A - possible effects during fetal development or on newborns .
  • Department of Human Services | BPA - Bisphenol A - possible effects during fetal development or on newborns 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.state.nj.us [Source type: Academic]

[10] .A 2008 report by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) later agreed with the panel, expressing "some concern for effects on the brain".[28] In January 2010 the FDA expressed the same level of concern.^ January 28, Thursday, 2010 .
  • Avoid Bisphenol A | Green Edmonton 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC greenedmonton.ca [Source type: General]

^ Like in this National Toxicology Program report .
  • The Science Creative Quarterly » BISPHENOL-A: THE ONE-ACT PLAY 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.scq.ubc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They expressed “some” concern for these types of effects, a moderate level of concern.

.A 2007 review has concluded that BPA, like other xenoestrogens, should be considered as a player within the nervous system that can regulate or alter its functions through multiple pathways.^ Endocrine Society issued its first ’scientific statement,’ concluding this month that for chemicals like BPA, ‘the concern is real.’” .
  • Health Risk or Hysteria? Plastic Baby Bottles and Bisphenol A - Poked & Prodded - Health.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC pokedandprodded.health.com [Source type: General]

^ Some scientists believe that BPA exposure can harm the reproductive and nervous systems and possibly promote cancers.
  • Health agencies call for more study on bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.sfgate.com [Source type: News]
  • Health agencies call for more study on bisphenol-A - NewsFlash - PennLive.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.pennlive.com [Source type: News]
  • Health agencies call for more study on bisphenol-A - NewsFlash - PennLive.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.lehighvalleylive.com [Source type: News]

^ Scientists say BPA and other chemicals that disrupt the endocrine system do not act like other toxins that become more potent as their doses increase.
  • Tests find chemical leaches off 'microwave safe' products; babies get dose of toxic bisphenol A | National News - cleveland.com - - cleveland.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.cleveland.com [Source type: News]

[35] .A 2007 review has concluded that low doses of BPA during development have persistent effects on brain structure, function and behavior in rats and mice.^ BPA's low dose toxicity.
  • Bisphenol A: Toxic Plastics Chemical in Canned Food | Environmental Working Group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ewg.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Brain damage: Low doses of BPA can disrupt important effects of estrogen in the developing brain, causing brain damage.

^ Teratogenic effect is reported in rats, but not in mice.
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

[36] .A 2008 review concluded that low-dose BPA maternal exposure causes long-term consequences at the level of neurobehavioral development in mice.^ BPA's low dose toxicity.
  • Bisphenol A: Toxic Plastics Chemical in Canned Food | Environmental Working Group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ewg.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diabetes and obesity: Low-level, chronic exposure to BPA causes insulin resistance in adult mice.

^ In studies with mice, BPA causes aneuploidy even at extremely low doses.

[37] .A 2008 review has concluded that neonatal exposure to Bisphenol-A (BPA) can affect sexually dimorphic brain morphology and neuronal phenotypes in adulthood.^ Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA).
  • Bisphenol-A - Toxipedia 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.toxipedia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In utero or neonatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic, is associated with higher body weight, increased breast and prostate cancer, and altered reproductive function.
  • Hypomethylation, bisphenol A, autism, schizophrenia 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.generationrescue.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In one 2006 study, pregnant mice were exposed to BPA from the eighth day of pregnancy to the 16th, a period critical for the development of neurons that regulate sexual behavior.
  • Tests find chemical leaches off 'microwave safe' products; babies get dose of toxic bisphenol A | National News - cleveland.com - - cleveland.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.cleveland.com [Source type: News]

[38] .A 2008 review has concluded that BPA altered long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and even nanomolar dosage could induce significant effects on memory processes.^ The panel also concluded that reports of low-dose endocrine effects of BPA in rodents did not demonstrate such activity in ways that were "robust or reproducible".
  • Bisphenol A in infant formula at 'dangerous' levels, says group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nutraingredients-usa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bisphenol A in infant formula at 'dangerous' levels, says group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nutraingredients.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) organized a panel review of BPA. The primary focus of this review was on potential reproductive and developmental effects rather than cancer.

^ However, recent studies indicate that current levels of exposure to BPA in early life may have long-term health consequences.
  • Q&A: Bisphenol A and Plastics 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.jhsph.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .A 2009 review raised concerns about BPA effect on anteroventral periventricular nucleus.^ Studies about the effects of BPA have been conflicting.
  • FDA Weighs Safety Of Bisphenol A : NPR 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why are people concerned about BPA? .
  • Since You Asked - Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Bisphenol A may harm fetuses, infants and children 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Federal officials said they are particularly concerned about BPA's effect on the development of fetuses, infants and young children.
  • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
.A 2008 study by the Yale School of Medicine demonstrated that adverse neurological effects occur in non-human primates regularly exposed to bisphenol A at levels equal to the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) maximum safe dose of 50 µg/kg/day.^ Measurement of bisphenol A levels in human urine.
  • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States, the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum acceptable "reference" dose for chronic BPA ingestion is 50 g/kg /day, calculated as 0.1% of the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) determined from toxicity studies (U.S. EPA 1993).
  • The Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol A Inhibits Estradiol-Induced Hippocampal Synaptogenesis 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Bisphenol A levels in human urine.
  • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

[41][42] .This research found a connection between BPA and interference with brain cell connections vital to memory, learning and mood.^ BPA has come under increasing scrutiny by medical researchers for its endocrine-hormone-disrupting potential -- effects that include interference with reproductive, egg and fat cell development, as well as with thyroid hormone and neurological functions.
  • A Chemical Found in Most Consumer Products May Cause Heart Disease in Women | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ In a 1993 study BPA was found to be oestrogenic in the human breast cancer cell.
  • Bisphenol A in infant formula at 'dangerous' levels, says group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nutraingredients-usa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bisphenol A in infant formula at 'dangerous' levels, says group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nutraingredients.com [Source type: Academic]

^ First, a technical but important aside: BPA was found to alter function of immune cells labeled with surface markers known as CD4 and CD25 (1).

Highly controversial claims have been made that BPA could be involved in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)[43][44][45]
A 2010 study with rats perinatal exposured to 40 microg/kg bw BPA has concluded that corticosterone and its actions in the brain are sensitive to the programming effects of BPA.[46]

Disruption of the dopaminergic system

.A 2005 review concluded that prenatal and neonatal exposure to BPA in mice can potentiate the central dopaminergic systems, resulting in the supersensitivity to the drugs-of-abuse-induced reward effects and hyperlocomotion.^ Scientists are concerned that BPA exposure might harm the reproductive and nervous systems, and possibly promote prostate and breast cancers.
  • Heavy exposure to bisphenol A linked to impotence and other sexual problems | Health and Fitness - cleveland.com - - cleveland.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.cleveland.com [Source type: General]

^ A preliminary investigation linking BPA exposures to recurrent miscarriage in a small group of Japanese women, made potentially pivotal by its concordance with lab studies of BPA-induced chromosome damage that could well cause miscarriage (Sugiura-Ogasawara 2005).
  • Bisphenol A: Toxic Plastics Chemical in Canned Food | Environmental Working Group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ewg.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If parents are concerned, they can make the personal choice to reduce exposures of their infants and children to BPA." Full report: NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Bisphenol A (.pdf) .
  • NIH Issues Report on Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.medgadget.com [Source type: Academic]

[47]
.A 2008 review has concluded that BPA, mimic estrogenic activity and impact various dopaminergic processes to enhance mesolimbic dopamine activity resulting in hyperactivity, attention deficits, and a heightened sensitivity to drugs of abuse.^ The amount of BPA released has estrogenic activity.
  • Who's afraid of Bisphenol A? (part 2) | Giovanna Di Sauro 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC gdisauro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The panel also concluded that reports of low-dose endocrine effects of BPA in rodents did not demonstrate such activity in ways that were "robust or reproducible".
  • Bisphenol A in infant formula at 'dangerous' levels, says group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nutraingredients-usa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bisphenol A, or BPA, is linked to things like cancer, obesity, attention deficit disorder and genital abnormalities, and it's been found in our food.

[48]
.A 2009 study on rats has concluded that prenatal and neonatal exposure to low-dose BPA causes deficits in development at dorsolateral striatum via altering the function of dopaminergic receptors.^ BPA's low dose toxicity.
  • Bisphenol A: Toxic Plastics Chemical in Canned Food | Environmental Working Group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ewg.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of low and high dose prenatal exposure on female rat offspring.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast cancer: Studies show that low-dose BPA exposure stimulates mammary gland development.

[49] .Another 2009 study has found associated changes in the dopaminergic system.^ When more and more studies found effects on hormone sensitive tissues and systems at doses below the safety standard, the industry argued that the reported physiological changes were irrelevant to human health.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Another study, funded by the U.S. and Argentine governments, found that the chemical increased the likelihood of rats developing mammary tumors.
  • Bisphenol A is in you - JSOnline 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.jsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Korean study found that the sperm density and the reproductive systems of male rats were not harmed by bisphenol A. .
  • Bisphenol A is in you - JSOnline 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.jsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[45]

Thyroid function

.A 2007 review has concluded that bisphenol-A have been shown to bind to thyroid hormone receptor and perhaps have selective effects on its functions.^ Antiandrogenic effects of bisphenol A and nonylphenol on the function of androgen receptor.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of BPA on thyroid function have not been elucidated.
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Two of the panel's four chapters considered the same kind of studies the newspaper reviewed - looking at the effects of bisphenol A on live animals.
  • Bisphenol A is in you - JSOnline 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.jsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[50]
A 2009 review about environmental chemicals and thyroid function, raised concerns about BPA effects on triiodothyronine and concluded that "available evidence suggests that governing agencies need to regulate the use of thyroid-disrupting chemicals, particularly as such uses relate exposures of pregnant women, neonates and small children to the agents".[51]
.A 2009 review summarized BPA adverse effects on thyroid hormone action.^ Here we report that BPA can disturb thyroid hormone action.
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of BPA on thyroid function have not been elucidated.
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BPA has come under increasing scrutiny by medical researchers for its endocrine-hormone-disrupting potential -- effects that include interference with reproductive, egg and fat cell development, as well as with thyroid hormone and neurological functions.
  • A Chemical Found in Most Consumer Products May Cause Heart Disease in Women | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[52]

Cancer research

.According to the WHO's INFOSAN, "animal studies have not provided convincing evidence of risk of cancer from BPA exposure."^ "There is mounting scientific evidence that BPA is toxic, especially to children," said Aaron Freeman, policy director with Environmental Defence Canada, which participated in the study.
  • Bisphenol A in infant formula at 'dangerous' levels, says group 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nutraingredients.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Jane The Science Editor of Newsweek, Sharon Begley, covers this in an essay on June 29 2009, Page 28, “When Studies Collide, Rethinking the evidence on BPA”.
  • Health Risk or Hysteria? Plastic Baby Bottles and Bisphenol A - Poked & Prodded - Health.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC pokedandprodded.health.com [Source type: General]

^ Some scientists believe that BPA exposure can harm the reproductive and nervous systems and possibly promote cancers.
  • Health agencies call for more study on bisphenol-A - NewsFlash - PennLive.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.pennlive.com [Source type: News]
  • Health agencies call for more study on bisphenol-A - NewsFlash - PennLive.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.lehighvalleylive.com [Source type: News]

[53]
.Neither the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency[54] nor the International Agency for Research on Cancer[55] has evaluated bisphenol A for possible carcinogenic activity.^ The first assessment, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the non-profit organization Commonweal, brought together a select group of 38 bisphenol A or endocrine disruptor experts to evaluate over 700 low dose studies.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural estradiol-17β is a carcinogen as classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer [37], [106] and [107].
  • Who's afraid of Bisphenol A? (part 2) | Giovanna Di Sauro 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC gdisauro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of BADGE in experimental animals.
  • Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.dow.com [Source type: Reference]

Breast cancer

A 2008 review has concluded that "perinatal exposure to (...) low doses of (..) BPA, alters breast development and increases breast cancer risk".[56] Another 2008 review concluded that " animal experiments and epidemiological data strengthen the hypothesis that foetal exposure to xenoestrogens may be an underlying cause of the increased incidence of breast cancer observed over the last 50 years".[57]
.A 2009 in vitro study has concluded that BPA is able to induce neoplastic transformation in human breast epithelial cells.^ BPA may induce in vitro cellular transformation.
  • Who's afraid of Bisphenol A? (part 2) | Giovanna Di Sauro 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC gdisauro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jane The Science Editor of Newsweek, Sharon Begley, covers this in an essay on June 29 2009, Page 28, “When Studies Collide, Rethinking the evidence on BPA”.
  • Health Risk or Hysteria? Plastic Baby Bottles and Bisphenol A - Poked & Prodded - Health.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC pokedandprodded.health.com [Source type: General]

^ One showed that BPA induces changes in gene expression in breast cancer cell lines coherent with those of high-grade lesions; the other suggested that BPA is also able to alter the epigenetic profile in the progeny of BPA-treated epithelial cells.
  • Who's afraid of Bisphenol A? (part 2) | Giovanna Di Sauro 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC gdisauro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .Another 2009 study concluded that maternal oral exposure to low concentrations of BPA during lactation increases mammary carcinogenesis in a rodent model.^ Because of these differences, people at all life stages are not at risk from exposure to low levels of BPA, according to the EFSA. As stated by the panel, this body of evidence further limits the relevance of low-dose effects of BPA reported in some rodent studies.
  • Bisphenol A deemed safe by prominent European food safety agency - 2008-07-25 15:26:00 | Packaging Digest 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.packagingdigest.com [Source type: General]

^ Many studies have linked long term, low-level BPA exposure to everything from increased risks for obesity by triggering fat-cell activity , to diabetes, heart disease and an increased risk of developing breast cancer later in life from fetal exposure.
  • La Vida Locavore:: Bisphenol A Back in the News 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.lavidalocavore.org [Source type: General]

^ Short-term exposure to environmentally relevant doses of BPA has been linked to a variety of reproductive effects in laboratory rodents, including reduced sperm production, alterations in prostate development, and increased susceptibility to prostate carcinogenesis in the male [ 7 , 8 ] and alterations in mammary gland organization, brain development, and estrous cyclicity in the female [ 9 – 11 ].
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

[59]
A 2010 study with the mammary glands of the offspring of pregnant rats treated orally with 0, 25 or 250 µg BPA/kg body weight has found that key proteins involved in signaling pathways such as cellular proliferation were regulated at the protein level by BPA.[60]
.A 2010 study has found that BPA may reduce sensitivity to chemotherapy treatment of specific tumors.^ The study found "When pregnant mothers of this strain were given BPA, a significant higher number of their offspring were born with yellow fur.
  • http://www.dld123.com/q&a/index.php?cid=1614 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.dld123.com [Source type: General]

^ In most of the canned food samples, BPA, when detected, was found at levels comparable to or lower than the average level of 37 ppb for food cans reported in the SPI study.
  • Consumer Bisphenol A Exposure & Safety Information 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.bisphenol-a.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Environmental Working Group has a detailed timeline of BPA studies and political developments , which you may enjoy reading.
  • Umbra on plastic bottles and BPA | Grist 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.grist.org [Source type: General]

[61]

Neuroblastoma

.In vitro studies have suggested that BPA can promote the growth of neuroblastoma cells.^ Based on the results of pachytene studies, we predicted that BPA-exposed females would exhibit both an increase in the average number of chiasmata per cell and in univalents.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ New studies suggest that the plastic chemical Bisphenol A (BPA) may be linked to heart disease and intestinal problems.
  • BPA Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: General]
  • Bisphenol A Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: General]

^ In vitro , BPA competes with estradiol for binding to ER and introduces the expression of progesterone receptors and proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells ( 6 , 7 , 8 ).
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[62][63] .A 2010 in vitro study has concluded that BPA potently promote invasion and metastasis of neuroblastoma cells through overexpression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 as well as downregulation of TIMP2.^ Based on the results of pachytene studies, we predicted that BPA-exposed females would exhibit both an increase in the average number of chiasmata per cell and in univalents.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In vitro , BPA competes with estradiol for binding to ER and introduces the expression of progesterone receptors and proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells ( 6 , 7 , 8 ).
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Research from other laboratories also indicates that when bisphenol A acts through estrogen receptors on the cell membrane, as opposed to the nuclear estrogen receptors, its estrogenic effect is as potent as natural estrogen.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[64]

Prostate development and cancer

.A 1997 study in mice has found that neonatal BPA exposure of 2 μg/kg increased adult prostate weight.^ Effects of neonatal estrogens on adult prostate.
  • Developmental Exposure to Estradiol and Bisphenol A Increases Susceptibility to Prostate Carcinogenesis and Epigenetically Regulates Phosphodiesterase Type 4 Variant 4 -- Ho et al. 66 (11): 5624 -- Cancer Research 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A recent study measured BPA levels in the urine of nearly 3,000 randomly selected people (6 years old and above), and BPA was found in over 92 percent of the people tested.
  • Bisphenol-A - Toxipedia 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.toxipedia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Despite the fact that BPA is metabolized by the body, the findings provide strong evidence that exposure to BPA is very frequent or nearly continuous In fact, one recent study found significant increases in calcium inflow even at the lowest levels of BPA exposure in the parts per trillion (ppt) level.

[65] .A 2005 study in mice has found that neonatal BPA exposure at 10 μg/kg disrupted the development of the fetal mouse prostate.^ Another study suggested that neonatal exposure of as low as 50 µg/kg disrupts ovarian development in mice.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one 2006 study, pregnant mice were exposed to BPA from the eighth day of pregnancy to the 16th, a period critical for the development of neurons that regulate sexual behavior.
  • Tests find chemical leaches off 'microwave safe' products; babies get dose of toxic bisphenol A | National News - cleveland.com - - cleveland.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.cleveland.com [Source type: News]

^ A recent study measured BPA levels in the urine of nearly 3,000 randomly selected people (6 years old and above), and BPA was found in over 92 percent of the people tested.
  • Bisphenol-A - Toxipedia 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.toxipedia.org [Source type: Academic]

[66] .A 2006 study in rats has shown that neonatal bisphenol A exposure at 10 μg/kg levels increases prostate gland susceptibility to adult-onset precancerous lesions and hormonal carcinogenesis.^ Here, we show that transient developmental exposure of rats to low, environmentally relevant doses of bisphenol A or estradiol increases prostate gland susceptibility to adult-onset precancerous lesions and hormonal carcinogenesis.
  • Developmental Exposure to Estradiol and Bisphenol A Increases Susceptibility to Prostate Carcinogenesis and Epigenetically Regulates Phosphodiesterase Type 4 Variant 4 -- Ho et al. 66 (11): 5624 -- Cancer Research 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of the hormonal susceptibility of different rat strains to bisphenol A treatment.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Specifically, the data show that exposure to low doses of estradiol or environmentally relevant doses of bisphenol A during the neonatal developmental period in rats increases susceptibility to precancerous prostatic lesions as the animals aged and sensitizes the prostate gland to adult-induced hormonal carcinogenesis.
  • Developmental Exposure to Estradiol and Bisphenol A Increases Susceptibility to Prostate Carcinogenesis and Epigenetically Regulates Phosphodiesterase Type 4 Variant 4 -- Ho et al. 66 (11): 5624 -- Cancer Research 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[67] .A 2007 in vitro study has found that BPA within the range of concentrations currently measured in human serum is associated with permanently increase in prostate size.^ Measurement of bisphenol A concentrations in human colostrum.

^ The researchers, led by veteran reproductive scientist Retha Newbold, wrote that "The BPA doses were low and within the range of human exposure...The findings...raise concerns about widespread exposure to BPA and, in particular, exposure to fetuses, infants, and children."
  • Enviroblog: About BPA: Do you feel lucky? Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: General]

^ Furthermore, a recent study of pregnant women and their fetuses conducted in Germany suggests that current human exposure levels may well be within this range [21].
  • Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female MouseCurrent Biology, v.13, 1apr03 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

[68] .A 2009 study has found that newborn rats exposed to a low-dose of BPA (10 µg/kg) increased prostate cancer susceptibility when adults.^ Prostate disease and cancer: Low-dose exposure to BPA can significantly increase prostate size.

^ Bisphenol A affects spermatogenesis in the adult rat even at a low dose.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Bisphenol-A affects spermatogenesis in the adult rat even at low dose.
  • Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female MouseCurrent Biology, v.13, 1apr03 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

[69]

Reproductive system and sexual behavior research

A series of studies made in 2009 found:
.
  • Mouse ovary anomalies from exposition as low as 1 µg/kg, concluded that BPA exposure causes long-term adverse reproductive and carcinogenic effects if exposure occurs during prenatal critical periods of differentiation.^ "Long-term adverse effects of neonatal exposure to bisphenol A on the murine female reproductive tract."
    • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Low dose effect of in utero exposure to bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on female mouse reproduction.

    ^ The same Endocrine Society released a scientific statement expressing concern over current human exposure to BPA. testking 70-297 A 2009 study in mice suggested that 1 µg/kg BPA exposure causes long-term adverse reproductive and carcinogenic testking 646-223 effects if exposure occurs during prenatal critical periods of differentiation.
    • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [70]
  • .
  • Neonatal exposure of as low as 50 µg/kg disrupts ovarian development in mice.^ Another study suggested that neonatal exposure of as low as 50 µg/kg disrupts ovarian development in mice.
    • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Prenatal and neonatal exposure to bisphenol-A enhances the central dopamine D1 receptormediated action in mice: enhancement of the methamphetamine-induced abuse state.

    ^ Prostate enlargement in mice due to fetal exposure to low doses of estradiol or diethylstilbestrol and opposite effects at high doses.
    • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
    • PLoS Biology: Babies, Bottles, and Bisphenol A: The Story of a Scientist-Mother 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    [71][72][73]
  • .
  • Neonatal BPA exposition of as low as 50 µg/kg permanently alters the hypothalamic estrogen-dependent mechanisms that govern sexual behavior in the adult female rat.^ Besides, if we are activating estrogen receptors (supposed mechanism of BPA) wouldn’t you expect some metabolic changes?
    • Natural Standard Blog: Bisphenol Controversy Continues 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC blog.naturalstandard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There may be other compounds in the environment--natural and man-made--that, like 17 -E 2 and BPA, exert potent effects on neural estrogen response mechanisms, even though their reported affinities for ER- and ER-β are low.
    • The Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol A Inhibits Estradiol-Induced Hippocampal Synaptogenesis 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Developmental exposure to environmental estrogens alters anxiety and spatial memory in female mice.
    • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

    [74]
  • .
  • Prenatal exposure to BPA at levels of (10 μg/kg/day) affects behavioral sexual differentiation in male monkeys.^ Developmental exposure decreased maternal behavior at 10 μg/kg/day ( Palanza et al.
    • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The TBARS levels were not affected by BPA administrations.

    ^ These data were published the same week the the US FDA issued a draft conclusion that BPA is safe at current levels of exposure.
    • Bisphenol A exposure can increase risk of diabetes and heart attacks on Environmental Expert 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.environmental-expert.com [Source type: News]

    [75]
  • .
  • In placental JEG3 cells in vitro BPA may reduce estrogen synthesis.^ In vitro , BPA competes with estradiol for binding to ER and introduces the expression of progesterone receptors and proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells ( 6 , 7 , 8 ).
    • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Based on the in vitro assay results, one might expect BPA to exhibit effects in vivo similar to those for the natural estrogen, E2.
    • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In contrast, the estrogenicity of BPA has been demonstrated in a number of in vitro and in vivo assays.
    • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    [76]
  • .
  • BPA exposure disrupted the blood-testis barrier when administered to immature, but not to adult, rats.^ Furthermore, low-dose BPA exposures disrupted meiosis in rats, leading to aneuploidy, 40 the chromosomal abnormality in humans most commonly identified as resulting in pregnancy miscarriage, or, if the pregnancy is taken to term, mental retardation in offspring.
    • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ SD rats following three consecutive daily BPA doses of 8 mg/kg/day and higher with sc injection, or of 160 mg/kg/day and higher with oral exposure.
    • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of estradiol and BPA, alone and in combination, on CA1 PSSD in adult ovariectomized (OVX) rats.
    • The Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol A Inhibits Estradiol-Induced Hippocampal Synaptogenesis 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [77]
  • .
  • Exposure to BPA in the workplace could produce sexual dysfunction in male adult humans.^ To investigate human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used endocrine disruptor, we measured serum BPA concentrations and analyzed the interrelation of BPA with sex-related hormones.

    ^ Over 6 billion pounds are produced worldwide annually, and several studies have reported levels of BPA in human tissues in the parts per billion range [ 4 – 6 ].
    • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Of the few human epidemiological studies, one revealed a relationship between BPA exposure and repeated miscarriage [ 9 ].
    • PLoS Biology: Babies, Bottles, and Bisphenol A: The Story of a Scientist-Mother 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    [78]
.A 2010 study with mice concluded that BPA exposure in utero leads to permanent DNA alterations in sensitivity to estrogen.^ Bisphenol A-induced increases in uterine weight and alterations in uterine morphology in ovariectomized B6C3F1 mice: Role of the estrogen receptor.
  • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Of the few human epidemiological studies, one revealed a relationship between BPA exposure and repeated miscarriage [ 9 ].
  • PLoS Biology: Babies, Bottles, and Bisphenol A: The Story of a Scientist-Mother 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BPA, although the prediction was that any estrogenic response would be altered by exposure to BPA during early development.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[79]

General research

.In 2009, at an Endocrine Society meeting new research reported data from animals experimentally treated with BPA.[80] Studies presented at the group's annual meeting show BPA can affect the hearts of women, can permanently damage the DNA of mice, and appear to be entering the human body from a variety of unknown sources.^ At an Endocrine Society meeting new research reported troubling data from animals experimentally treated with BPA. it certification Studies presented at the group's annual meeting show BPA can affect the hearts of women, can permanently damage the DNA of mice, and appear to be pouring into the human body from a variety of unknown sources.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cellular, animals and some human studies have shown BPA effects on the brain, prostate, normal hormonal systems and gene programming which can lead to several problems with reproduction, behavior, insulin resistance, heart disease and even cancer.
  • La Vida Locavore:: Bisphenol A Back in the News 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.lavidalocavore.org [Source type: General]

^ The BPA Heart Disease Link At some point, even the people at Stats.org are going to have to acknowledge the growing pile of studies from all over the world adding...
  • In Reversal, FDA Expresses Concern Over BPA 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81]
A 2009 in vitro study on cytotrophoblasts cells has found cytoxic effects in exposure of BPA doses from 0.0002 to 0.2 micrograms per millilitre and concluded this finding "suggests that exposure of placental cells to low doses of BPA may cause detrimental effects, leading in vivo to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity and pregnancy loss"[82]
.A 2009 study in rats concluded that BPA, at the reference safe limit for human exposure, was found to impact intestinal permeability and may represent a risk factor in female offspring for developing severe colonic inflammation in adulthood.^ Others have found impacts on sperm production, testes development, and mammary-gland tissue, as well as behavioral disorders including hyperactivity, aggressiveness, and impaired learning.
  • The Real Story Behind Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Conducted by 21 independent scientists across the EU for the Food Safety Agency, it concluded BPA was so safe the tolerable daily intake could be increased by a factor of five.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83]
.A 2010 study on mice has concluded that perinatal exposure to 10 micrograms/mL of BPA in drinking water enhances allergic sensitization and bronchial inflammation and responsiveness in an animal model of asthma.^ BPA is detectable in our environment and is present in drinking water, canned goods, and even milk bottles.
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Prenatal and neonatal exposure to bisphenol-A enhances the central dopamine D1 receptormediated action in mice: enhancement of the methamphetamine-induced abuse state.

^ Toxicological studies in laboratory animals have shown estrogen-response mechanism-mediated effects after low-level in utero BPA exposures (20–400 micrograms per kilogram per day).
  • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

[84]

Studies on humans

Lang study and heart disease
.The first large study of health effects on humans associated with bisphenol A exposure was published in September 2008 by Iain Lang and colleagues in the Journal of the American Medical Association.^ Among the hundreds of studies published on bisphenol A, none of the industry-funded studies have reported any effects of bisphenol A exposure.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Large effects from small exposures.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Journal of the American Medical Association 301: 721–722.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[16][85] .The cross-sectional study of almost 1,500 people assessed exposure to bisphenol A by looking at levels of the chemical in urine.^ Measurement of bisphenol A levels in human urine.
  • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bisphenol A levels in human urine.
  • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.The authors found that higher bisphenol A levels were significantly associated with heart disease, diabetes, and abnormally high levels of certain liver enzymes.^ We re-tested the originally identified associations of higher urinary BPA concentrations associated with reported heart disease, diabetes and liver enzymes.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This suggests that BPA exposure is associated with a higher risk of heart disease and diabetes.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Bisphenol A in Plastics – Should We Worry? 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bisphenol A, or BPA, is linked to things like cancer, obesity, attention deficit disorder and genital abnormalities, and it's been found in our food.

.An editorial in the same issue notes that while this preliminary study needs to be confirmed and cannot prove causality, there is precedent for analogous effects in animal studies, which "add[s] biological plausibility to the results reported by Lang et al."^ The findings reported by Thigpen et al.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ PUBLISHED STUDIES CITED Lang IA et al.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, these reported low-dose effects of BPA could not be reproduced in more robust studies designed with larger numbers of animals and the same (Ashby et al ., 1999 ) and additional lower and higher doses (Cagen et al ., 1999a ), and the NTP Low-Dose Peer Review's Statistical Subpanel could not confirm the statistical significance of the decreased DSP per gram testis at 20 µg/kg/day (NTP, 2001 ).
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[22]
.A later similar study performed by the same group of scientists, published in January 2010, confirmed, despite of lower concentrations of BPA in the second study sample, an associated increased risk for heart disease but not for diabetes or liver enzymes.^ The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maintains that BPA is safe, despite early evidence that may be associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heart disease.
  • Natural Standard Blog: Bisphenol Controversy Continues 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC blog.naturalstandard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We re-tested the originally identified associations of higher urinary BPA concentrations associated with reported heart disease, diabetes and liver enzymes.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Despite this, we have replicated earlier findings that higher urinary concentrations of Bisphenol A are associated with an increased prevalence of coronary heart disease.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[86]
Other studies
.Studies have associated recurrent miscarriage with BPA serum concentrations,[87] oxidative stress and inflamattion in postmenopausal women with urinary concentrations,[88] externalizing behaviors in two-year old children, especially among female children, with mother's urinary concentrations,[89] and altered hormone levels in men with urinary concentrations.^ Urinary BPA concentrations have previously been shown to be positively associated with oxidative stress markers.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bisphenol A exposure is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation in postmenopausal women.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Exposure to bisphenol A is associated with recurrent miscarriage.

[90]

Historical studies

.The first evidence of the estrogenicity of bisphenol A came from experiments on rats conducted in the 1930s,[91][92] but it was not until 1997 that adverse effects of low-dose exposure on laboratory animals were first reported.^ Other researchers have also reported no effect of exposure to BPA at low doses.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of perinatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A on female offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of low and high dose prenatal exposure on female rat offspring.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[11]

Low dose exposure in animals

Dose (µg/kg/day) Effects (measured in studies of mice or rats,
descriptions (in quotes) are from Environmental Working Group)[93][94]
Study Year
0.025 "Permanent changes to genital tract" 2005[95]
0.025 "Changes in breast tissue that predispose cells to hormones and carcinogens" 2005[96]
1 long-term adverse reproductive and carcinogenic effects 2009[70]
2 "increased prostate weight 30%" 1997[97]
2 "lower bodyweight, increase of anogenital distance in both genders, signs of early puberty and longer estrus." 2002[98]
2.4 "Decline in testicular testosterone" 2004[99]
2.5 "Breast cells predisposed to cancer" 2007[100]
10 "Prostate cells more sensitive to hormones and cancer" 2006[101]
10 "Decreased maternal behaviors" 2002[102]
30 "Reversed the normal sex differences in brain structure and behavior" 2003[103]
50 Adverse neurological effects occur in non-human primates 2008[41]
50 Disrupts ovarian development 2009[71]
.A study from 2008 concluded that blood levels of bisphenol A in neonatal mice are the same whether it is injected or ingested.^ Prenatal and neonatal exposure to bisphenol-A enhances the central dopamine D1 receptormediated action in mice: enhancement of the methamphetamine-induced abuse state.

^ This study was performed to investigate the serum levels of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, in women with ovarian dysfunction and obesity.

^ Their findings found similar blood levels of bisphenol A in the two dosing groups.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[104] .The current U.S. human exposure limit set by the EPA is 50 µg/kg/day.^ Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, a recent study of pregnant women and their fetuses conducted in Germany suggests that current human exposure levels may well be within this range [21].
  • Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female MouseCurrent Biology, v.13, 1apr03 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The brief concludes: "There is some concern for neural and behavioural effects in fetuses, infants and children at current human exposures.
  • Ottawa to declare bisphenol A toxic 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

[105]
.In a 2010 commentary a group of scientists criticized a study designed to test low dose BPA exposure published in "Toxicological Sciences"[106] and a later editorial by the same journal[107] which used rats insensitive to estrogen and had other problems like the use of polycabornate cages.^ Other researchers have also reported no effect of exposure to BPA at low doses.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BPA 3-generation study design.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As of November 2005, there were 151 published studies on the low-dose effects of BPA. .

[108]

Xenoestrogen

.There is evidence that bisphenol A functions as a xenoestrogen by binding strongly to estrogen-related receptor γ (ERR-γ).^ Bisphenol A-induced increases in uterine weight and alterations in uterine morphology in ovariectomized B6C3F1 mice: Role of the estrogen receptor.
  • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Antiandrogenic effects of bisphenol A and nonylphenol on the function of androgen receptor.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Bisphenol A interacts with the estrogen receptor αin a distinct manner from estradiol.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[109] .This orphan receptor (endogenous ligand unknown) behaves as a constitutive activator of transcription.^ BPA also did not activate the transcription mediated by androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid, or mineralocorticoid receptors ( 46 ).
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nuclear hormone receptors constitute a large superfamily of ligand-inducible transcriptional factors, which include receptors for steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, vitamin D 3 , retinoids and prostanoids, and a number of proteins with high sequence homology but as yet unidentified ligands ( 2 ).
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors and ß.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.BPA seems to bind strongly to ERR-γ (dissociation constant = 5.5 nM), but not to the estrogen receptor (ER).^ BPA also binds strongly to the estrogen-related receptor-gamma (ERR-gamma), the function of which is unknown [9] .
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In vitro , BPA competes with estradiol for binding to ER and introduces the expression of progesterone receptors and proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells ( 6 , 7 , 8 ).
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Differential effects of xenoestrogens on coactivator recruitment by estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta.
  • Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female MouseCurrent Biology, v.13, 1apr03 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

[109] .BPA binding to ERR-γ preserves its basal constitutive activity.^ BPA also binds strongly to the estrogen-related receptor-gamma (ERR-gamma), the function of which is unknown [9] .
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this study we demonstrated that BPA could impair thyroid hormone action by inhibiting T 3 binding to the TR and by suppressing its transcriptional activity.
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BPA had no significant effect on the basal transcriptional activity mediated by Gal4-DBD alone (data not shown).
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[109] .It can also protect it from deactivation from the selective estrogen receptor modulator 4-hydroxytamoxifen.^ Bisphenol A appears to elicit different estrogenic effects depending on the target tissue, classifying it as a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM), similar to the drug tamoxifen.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[109]
.Different expression of ERR-γ in different parts of the body may account for variations in bisphenol A effects.^ Effects of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the rat.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of exposure in utero to bisphenol a on the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor, related factors, and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in murine embryos.
  • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Phenol may be removed from the adduct solution in a column at a temperature below about 150° C. to inhibit the decomposition of bisphenol A to color body precursors.
  • Method and system for bisphenol a production using controlled turbulence - Patent 5874644 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.For instance, ERR-γ has been found in high concentration in the placenta, explaining reports of high bisphenol A accumulation in this tissue.^ The audit consisted of a simple comparison of the number of published studies on bisphenol A found in the open literature with the number of studies included in the Sciences International draft report.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[110]

Human exposure sources

.Bisphenol A has been known to leach from the plastic lining of canned foods[111] and, to a lesser degree,[citation needed] polycarbonate plastics, especially those that are cleaned with harsh detergents or used to contain acidic or high-temperature liquids.^ Determination of bisphenol A in canned pet foods.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ BPA leaches into canned food from the lining.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bisphenol A is a toxic plastics chemical found in polycarbonate plastic and the resinous lining of food cans.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A recent Health Canada study found that the majority of canned soft drinks it tested had low, but measurable levels of bisphenol A.[112] This exposure through metal cans is due to the fact that BPA is an ingredient in the internal coating of food and beverage metal cans used to protect the food from direct contact with metal.^ Measurement of bisphenol A levels in human urine.
  • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ New study of BPA in canned food says maybe not… .
  • Switchboard, from NRDC :: Blogs :: BPA 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC switchboard.nrdc.org [Source type: General]

^ Human exposure to low doses of BPA occurs mostly through food contact uses such as leaching from plastic bottles and from the coating of food and beverage cans.
  • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.While most human exposure is through diet, exposure can also occur through air and through skin absorption.^ Human exposure to low doses of BPA occurs mostly through food contact uses such as leaching from plastic bottles and from the coating of food and beverage cans.
  • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[113]
.BPA is found in high concentration in thermal paper, which is commonly used to print receipts in automated machines, and carbonless copy paper.^ Sez Campanella: ‘ carbonless copy paper credit card and store receipts have a reported average of 50-100mg of free BPA. That is receipts using this bisphenol A technology have a loose coating of unbound BPA ready for uptake on the fingers or even possibly through direct skin absorption!’ .
  • Sience News Update: Bisphenol A : SFFaudio 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.sffaudio.com [Source type: General]

^ Aliquots from all dosed feed preparations were analyzed for BPA concentration, and the diet was used only if within the acceptable range (± 15% of the nominal).
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To investigate human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used endocrine disruptor, we measured serum BPA concentrations and analyzed the interrelation of BPA with sex-related hormones.

[114][115][116]
.Studies by the CDC found bisphenol A in the urine of 95% of adults sampled in 1988–1994[117] and in 93% of children and adults tested in 2003–04.[118] Infants fed with liquid formula are among the most exposed, and those fed formula from polycarbonate bottles can consume up to 13 micrograms of bisphenol A per kg of body weight per day (μg/kg/day; see table below).^ We are, however, exposed to BPA daily; it is a component of polycarbonate plastics, resins lining food/beverage containers, and additives in a variety of consumer products.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The acceptable intake established by the EPA is .05 milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day.
  • Bisphenol-A in Plastics - Parenting.com Community 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC forums.parenting.com [Source type: General]

^ WASHINGTON — The Food and Drug Administration has reversed its position on the safety of bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastic bottles, soda cans, food containers and thousands of consumer goods, saying it now has concerns about health risks.
  • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119] .The most sensitive animal studies show effects at much lower doses, while the EPA considers exposures up to 50 µg/kg/day to be safe.^ Many of these effects have been reported to occur at concentrations below recommended safe daily exposure levels, prompting much recent debate on the requirement for revision of current legislation [18] , [19] , [20] , [21] .
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Contrary to the media scare, scientists have researched BPA up and down and they all come to the same conclusions - effects of exposure to BPA used under normal parenting conditions do not show effects that cause concern.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States, the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum acceptable "reference" dose for chronic BPA ingestion is 50 g/kg /day, calculated as 0.1% of the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) determined from toxicity studies (U.S. EPA 1993).
  • The Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol A Inhibits Estradiol-Induced Hippocampal Synaptogenesis 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[93][120] .In 2009, a study found that drinking from polycarbonate bottles increased urinary bisphenol A levels by two thirds, from 1.2 micrograms/gram creatinine to 2 micrograms/gram creatinine.^ Increased migration levels of bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles after dishwashing, boiling and brushing.
  • Bisphenol A Overview - Environment California 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.environmentcalifornia.org [Source type: Academic]
  • The Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol A Inhibits Estradiol-Induced Hippocampal Synaptogenesis 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The method of claim 58, further comprising increasing a supersaturation level of bisphenol A as the turbulence is increased.
  • Method and system for bisphenol a production using controlled turbulence - Patent 5874644 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Estimation of intake level of bisphenol A in Japanese pregnant women based on measurement of urinary excretion level of the metabolite.
  • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

[121]
.Consumer groups recommend that people wishing to lower their exposure to bisphenol A avoid canned food and polycarbonate plastic containers (which shares resin identification code 7 with many other plastics) unless the packaging indicates the plastic is bisphenol A-free.^ Avoid polycarbonate plastic.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bisphenol A is a toxic plastics chemical found in polycarbonate plastic and the resinous lining of food cans.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Determination of bisphenol A in canned pet foods.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[122] .The National Toxicology Panel recommends avoiding microwaving food in plastic containers, putting plastics in the dishwasher, or using harsh detergents, to avoid leaching.^ We are, however, exposed to BPA daily; it is a component of polycarbonate plastics, resins lining food/beverage containers, and additives in a variety of consumer products.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Importantly, bisphenol A leaches from food and beverage containers as well as dental sealants and is found in the serum of humans with higher concentrations in placental and fetal tissues ( 5 ).
  • Developmental Exposure to Estradiol and Bisphenol A Increases Susceptibility to Prostate Carcinogenesis and Epigenetically Regulates Phosphodiesterase Type 4 Variant 4 -- Ho et al. 66 (11): 5624 -- Cancer Research 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In its report, the NIH's National Toxicology Program advised "concerned parents" to reduce their use of canned foods; use BPA-free baby bottles; and opt for glass, porcelain, or stainless-steel containers, particularly for hot foods and liquids.
  • The Real Story Behind Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: Academic]

[123]
.A 2009 small US study funded by the EWG has detected an average of 2.8 ng/mL BPA in the blood of 9 out of the 10 umbilical cords tested.^ BPA in 101 samples was detected in the concentration range of 1-7 ng ml(-1).

^ Based on the results of pachytene studies, we predicted that BPA-exposed females would exhibit both an increase in the average number of chiasmata per cell and in univalents.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood (4 mL) was collected in a sterile vacutainer containing K 2 EDTA (Becton Dickinson Vacutainer Systems Europe, Plymouth, UK) via a vacutainer needle (both not leaching BPA) that was directly placed into the patient's or the umbilical vein.
  • Parent Bisphenol A Accumulation in the Human Maternal-Fetal-Placental Unit 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[124]
.In the US and Canada, BPA has been found in infant liquid formula in concentrations varying from 0.48 to 11 ng/g.^ The PDIs of BPA varied from as low as 0.21 for infants 8-12 months of age to as high as 1.35 μg/kg b.w.
  • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The main potential exposure to BPA for infants from food packaging uses is from epoxy-based lined cans that are used in packaging infant formulas.
  • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ BPA migrating from epoxy lined infant formula cans.
  • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[125][126] .BPA has been rarely found in infant powder formula (only 1 of 14).^ The main potential exposure to BPA for infants from food packaging uses is from epoxy-based lined cans that are used in packaging infant formulas.
  • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ BPA migrating from epoxy lined infant formula cans.
  • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ If you're formula feeding your infant, consider using powdered formulas packaged in non-steel cans.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[125]
Population Estimated daily bisphenol A intake, μg/kg/day.
.Table adapted from the National Toxicology Program Expert Panel Report.^ See more articles cited in this paragraph Review Summary of the National Toxicology Program's report of the endocrine disruptors low-dose peer review.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The National Toxicology Program (NTP), which is part of the National Institutes of Health, reported in September 2008 "some concern" that BPA harms the human brain and reproductive system, especially in babies and fetuses.
  • The Real Story Behind Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dramatic increase in production brought the chemical to the attention of researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP).
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[10]
Infant (0–6 months)
formula-fed
1–11
Infant (0–6 months)
breast-fed
0.2–1
Infant (6–12 months)
1.65–13
Child (1.5–6 years)
0.043–14.7
Adult
0.008–1.5

Pharmacokinetics

.There's no agreement between scientists of a PBPK BPA model for humans.^ In our study, there was no significant correlation between the concentrations of BPA in colostrum and the age and parity of mothers.

^ Linear regression models were used to estimate associations between logged levels of liver enzymes and standardized BPA concentrations.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The ubiquitous use of BPA has made many scientists and regulatory agencies concerned that human exposure to BPA may occur at levels shown to have adverse effects in rodent models.
  • Parent Bisphenol A Accumulation in the Human Maternal-Fetal-Placental Unit 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The effects of BPA on an organism depends on how much free BPA is available and for how long cells are exposed to it.^ Based on the results of pachytene studies, we predicted that BPA-exposed females would exhibit both an increase in the average number of chiasmata per cell and in univalents.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Subsequent evaluations by the Food Directorate have focused on reproductive/ developmental effects of BPA from available published and non-published studies.
  • Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC clf2-nsi2.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ BPA suppressed transcriptional activities mediated by endogenous TRs We next studied the effects of BPA using a cell line that contains physiological amounts of endogenous TRs.
  • Thyroid Hormone Action Is Disrupted by Bisphenol A as an Antagonist -- Moriyama et al. 87 (11): 5185 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Glucuronidation in the organism reduces the amount of free BPA, however BPA glucuronide can be deconjugated by beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme present in high concentration in placenta and other tissues.^ However, we have decided that starting in January all new water bottles arriving in our stores will be made of Acrylic and 100% BPA free."
  • Lululemon to stop selling bottles with bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ The product is expected to have improved performance in producing high clarity polycarbonate resins compared to BPA produced in many other systems.
  • Method and system for bisphenol a production using controlled turbulence - Patent 5874644 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Linear regression models were used to estimate associations between logged levels of liver enzymes and standardized BPA concentrations.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

Free BPA can also be inactivated by sulfation, a process that can also be reverted by arylsulfatase C.[127]
.A 2009 research has found that some drugs, like naproxen, salicylic acid, carbamazepine and mefenamic acid can, in vitro, significantly inhibit BPA glucuronidation.^ Bisphenol A, or BPA, is linked to things like cancer, obesity, attention deficit disorder and genital abnormalities, and it's been found in our food.

^ Administration of 300 g/kg BPA alone significantly reduced PSSD. The same dose of BPA also inhibited the increase in PSSD induced by 17 -E 2 (Figure 4).
  • The Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol A Inhibits Estradiol-Induced Hippocampal Synaptogenesis 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As noted earlier, BPA has been reported to have weak, estrogen-like activity in some in vitro screening assays (Gaido et al ., 1997 ; Krishnan et al ., 1993 ; Kuiper et al ., 1997 , 1998 ; Maruyama et al ., 1999 ).
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[128]

Environmental risk

.BPA can contaminate the environment either directly or through degradation of products containing BPA, such as ocean-borne plastic trash.^ We are, however, exposed to BPA daily; it is a component of polycarbonate plastics, resins lining food/beverage containers, and additives in a variety of consumer products.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We recently experienced an inadvertent environmental exposure in our mouse colony to 2,2-(4,4-dihydroxydiphenol)propane, or bisphenol A. Bisphenol A (BPA) is the monomer that is polymerized to manufacture polycarbonate plastic products and resins, such as those used to line cans containing food and beverages and those found in dental sealants.
  • Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female MouseCurrent Biology, v.13, 1apr03 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ SIGG Scandal: Sigg ‘Eco’ Water Bottles Contain BPA inhabitots.com -- SIGG water bottles, which have long been perceived to be the eco-friendly alternative to plastic water bottles...

[129]
As an environmental contaminant this compound interferes with nitrogen fixation at the roots of leguminous plants associated with the bacterial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. .Despite a half-life in the soil of only 1–10 days, its ubiquity makes it an important pollutant.^ I'm sure someone will say it causes cancer, then say in a footnote it requires you to consume half a kilo of the chemical per day for 10 years.
  • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If released to acclimated water, biodegradation would be the dominant fate process (half-life less than or equal to 4 days).

[130] .According to Environment Canada, "initial assessment shows that at low levels, bisphenol A can harm fish and organisms over time.^ "An extensive new literature concerning low-dose effects of bisphenol A shows the need for a new risk assessment."
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Perinatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A affects body weight, patterns of estrous cyclicity, and plasma LH levels.
  • Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female MouseCurrent Biology, v.13, 1apr03 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ F. S. vom Saal and C. Hughes, "An extensive new literature concerning low-dose effects of bisphenol A shows the need for a new risk assessment," Environ Health Perspect 113, no.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

Studies also indicate that it can currently be found in municipal wastewater."[131]
.A 2009 review of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife published by the Royal Society with a focus on annelids (both aquatic and terrestrial), molluscs, crustaceans, insects, fish and amphibians concluded that BPA have been shown to affect reproduction in all studied animal groups, to impair development in crustaceans and amphibians and to induce genetic aberrations.^ All animals in this study acquired puberty.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Others have found impacts on sperm production, testes development, and mammary-gland tissue, as well as behavioral disorders including hyperactivity, aggressiveness, and impaired learning.
  • The Real Story Behind Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In April of 2008, the National Toxicology Program raised concerns that exposure to BPA during pregnancy and childhood could impact the developing breast and prostate, hasten puberty, and affect behavior in American children.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[132]

Government and industry response

World Health Organization

.Arguing uncertainty of possible adverse health effects of low dose BPA exposure, especially on the nervous system and on behaviour, and also the differences of exposure of very young children, the WHO announced in November 2009 that it would organize an expert consultation in 2010 to assess BPA safety.^ Other researchers have also reported no effect of exposure to BPA at low doses.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the possible health effects?
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Possible explanation of differences in routes of exposure.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[53]

Australia and New Zealand

.The Australia and New Zealand Food Safety Authority (Food Standards Australia New Zealand) does not see any health risk with bisphenol A baby bottles if the manufacturer's instructions are followed.^ Collectively, this research challenges the long held assumption that bisphenol A’s “weak” estrogenicity poses little risk to human health, and raises serious questions about the presumed safety of the reference dose.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "An extensive new literature concerning low-dose effects of bisphenol A shows the need for a new risk assessment."
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Food and Drug Administration developed its safety standard for bisphenol A from a single, high dose study conducted on adult rats in the late 1970s.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

.Levels of exposure are very low and do not pose a significant health risk.^ Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Perinatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A affects body weight, patterns of estrous cyclicity, and plasma LH levels.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because the first cohort of cells initiates meiosis at 13.5 d of gestation, this ensured low-level, continuous exposure of all oocytes during meiotic prophase.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

.It added that “the move by overseas manufacturers to stop using BPA in baby bottles is a voluntary action and not the result of a specific action by regulators.”[1] It suggests the use of glass baby bottles if parents have any concerns.^ Finally, baby bottles will be free of BPA. .

^ Since the FDA has failed to take steps to protect the public from the potential harm posed by the use bisphenol A, or BPA, the city of Chicago has issued a ban on the sale of baby bottles and sippy cups that contain the chemical.
  • BPA Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: General]
  • Bisphenol A Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: General]

^ BPA is most commonly used as the building block of polycarbonate plastic for products such as baby bottles and water bottles, epoxy resins (coatings that line food containers), and white dental sealants.

[133]

Canada

In April 2008, Health Canada assessed that the chemical may pose some risk to infants[134] and proposed classifying the chemical as "'toxic' to human health and the environment."[135]
.After the release of that assessment, Canadian Health Minister Tony Clement announced Canada's intent to ban the import, sale, and advertisement of polycarbonate baby bottles containing bisphenol A due to safety concerns, and investigate ways to reduce BPA contamination of baby formula packaged in metal cans.^ While the focus is on baby bottles, formula, etc.
  • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Battle over the baby bottle: Should containers with bisphenol A be banned?

^ Finally, baby bottles will be free of BPA. .

.While the agency concluded that human exposures were less than levels believed to be unsafe, the margin of safety was not high enough for formula-fed infants.^ Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The NTP’s Brief on bisphenol A together with the Chapel Hill Consensus Statement present two rigorous reviews of the available literature that raise significant concerns about the safety of bisphenol A at levels of human exposure particularly for the developing fetus, infant and child.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure."
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[23][136] .Around the same time, Wal-Mart announced that it was immediately ceasing sales in all its Canadian stores of food containers, water and baby bottles, sippy cups, and pacifiers containing bisphenol A, and that it would phase out baby bottles made with it in U.S. stores by early 2009.[137] Nalgene also announced it will stop using the chemical in its products,[138] and Toys-R-Us said it too will cease selling baby bottles made from it.^ A number of states are moving to curtail the sale and use of bottles that have this chemical.

^ Food for thought: what’s coming out of baby’s bottle?
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Chicago on Wednesday became the first U.S. city to adopt a ban on the sale of baby bottles and sippy cups containing the chemical BPA. .

[139] .Subsequent news reports showed many retailers removing polycarbonate drinking products from their shelves.^ The product is expected to have improved performance in producing high clarity polycarbonate resins compared to BPA produced in many other systems.
  • Method and system for bisphenol a production using controlled turbulence - Patent 5874644 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This week, Hudson's Bay Co., Canadian Tire and Forzani all announced they were removing products containing BPA from their shelves.
  • The polluted debate on bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.financialpost.com [Source type: General]

^ The product from this unit contains 1 to 2% phenol which is removed in a subsequent tower by stripping with superheated steam.
  • Method and system for bisphenol a production using controlled turbulence - Patent 5874644 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[140]
.In 2006, Canadian regulators selected bisphenol A as one of 200 substances deserving of thorough safety assessments because preliminary studies had found it to be "inherently toxic"; the chemical had not previously been studied by them in depth, having been accepted under grandfather clauses when stricter regulations were passed in the 1980s.^ Bisphenol-A, or BPA, is a plastic-hardening chemical found in water bottles, canned food lining and hundreds of other household items.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Health agencies remain concerned over bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rat two-generation reproductive toxicity study of bisphenol A. Reprod.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ See more articles cited in this paragraph Rat two-generation reproductive toxicity study of bisphenol A. Reprod Toxicol.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[93]
.The federal government has formally declared bisphenol A a hazardous substance as of October 2008 and is now placed on its list of toxic substances.^ Ottawa to declare bisphenol A toxic .
  • Ottawa to declare bisphenol A toxic 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Ottawa to declare bisphenol A toxic Canada.com Network .
  • Ottawa to declare bisphenol A toxic 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ The federal government is reviewing the safety of bisphenol A as part of its Chemicals Management Plan.
  • Ottawa to declare bisphenol A toxic 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

Health officials wrote in Canada Gazette that "It is concluded that bisphenol A be considered as a substance that may be entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health."[141] The federal ministries of health and the environment announced they would seek to restrict imports, sales and advertising of polycarbonate baby bottles containing BPA.[142]
.In its statement Gc.ca released on 18 October 2008, Health Canada noted that “bisphenol A exposure to newborns and infants is below levels that cause effects” and that the “general public need not be concerned”.^ Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The NTP also has some concern for bisphenol A exposure in these populations based on effects in the prostate gland, mammary gland and an earlier age for puberty in females."
  • Ottawa to declare bisphenol A toxic 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of these effects have been reported to occur at concentrations below recommended safe daily exposure levels, prompting much recent debate on the requirement for revision of current legislation [18] , [19] , [20] , [21] .
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

Europe

European Union

.The updated 2008 European Union Risk Assessment Report on bisphenol A, published in June 2008 by the European Commission and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that bisphenol A-based products, such as polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, are safe for consumers and the environment when used as intended.^ BPA is an estrogenic compound widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins.
  • Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female MouseCurrent Biology, v.13, 1apr03 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bisphenol A ("BPA") is an important raw material in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate resins.
  • Method and system for bisphenol a production using controlled turbulence - Patent 5874644 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bisphenol A is a toxic plastics chemical found in polycarbonate plastic and the resinous lining of food cans.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[143] .By October 2008, after the Lang Study was published, the EFSA issued a statement concluding that the study provided no grounds to revise the current TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) level for BPA of 0.05 mg/kg bodyweight.^ In direct contrast to this statement, my colleagues and I published an article showing that in newborn mice, it made absolutely no difference whether BPA was fed to the babies or administered by injection (Taylor et al.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States, the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum acceptable "reference" dose for chronic BPA ingestion is 50 g/kg /day, calculated as 0.1% of the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) determined from toxicity studies (U.S. EPA 1993).
  • The Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol A Inhibits Estradiol-Induced Hippocampal Synaptogenesis 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Conducted by 21 independent scientists across the EU for the Food Safety Agency, it concluded BPA was so safe the tolerable daily intake could be increased by a factor of five.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[144]
A 2009 scientific study criticized the European risk assessment processes of endocrine disruptors, including BPA.[145]
.On 22 December 2009 the EU Environment ministers released a statement expressing concerns over recent studies showing adverse effects of exposure to endocrine disrupters.^ Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The NTP also has some concern for bisphenol A exposure in these populations based on effects in the prostate gland, mammary gland and an earlier age for puberty in females."
  • Ottawa to declare bisphenol A toxic 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ The same Endocrine Society released a scientific statement expressing concern over current human exposure to BPA. testking 70-297 A 2009 study in mice suggested that 1 µg/kg BPA exposure causes long-term adverse reproductive and carcinogenic testking 646-223 effects if exposure occurs during prenatal critical periods of differentiation.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[146]
The EFSA is scheduled to release another opinion on BPA by May 2010.[147]

Denmark

.In May 2009, the Danish parliament passed a resolution to ban the use of BPA in baby bottles.^ Finally, baby bottles will be free of BPA. .

^ Chicago is first U.S. city to ban BPA baby bottles .

^ Okay, let me preface the first link with: Why the hell were these baby bottle companies still selling bottles with BPA in them?

However, this has yet to be enacted as of December 2009, because the Danish Minister of Public Health seeks further evidence of the hazardous effect of BPA.

Belgium

.On March 2010, senator Philippe Mahoux proposed legislation to ban BPA in food contact plastics.^ We are, however, exposed to BPA daily; it is a component of polycarbonate plastics, resins lining food/beverage containers, and additives in a variety of consumer products.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Two New York Senators announced new legislation to ban the plastics chemical Bisphenol from products commonly used by children and pregnant women; the news comes in the wake of a recent study by Consumer Reports that showed BPA is now used to make a mu...

^ Researchers in the UK have found more evidence for a link between bisphenol A exposure (BPA, a chemical commonly used in plastic food containers) and cardiovascular disease.

[148]

France

.On 27 July 2009, French senator members of the RDSE proposed legislation to ban BPA in food contact plastics.^ We are, however, exposed to BPA daily; it is a component of polycarbonate plastics, resins lining food/beverage containers, and additives in a variety of consumer products.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BPA commonly is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics used as protective coatings on food containers and in plastic baby bottles—applications accounting for about 63 percent of its use.
  • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ J. D. Meeker, S. Sathyanarayana, and S. H. Swan Phthalates and other additives in plastics: human exposure and associated health outcomes Phil Trans R Soc B, July 27, 2009; 364(1526): 2097 - 2113.
  • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

[149]
.On 5 February 2010, the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA) questioned the previous assessments of the health risks of BPA, especially in regard to behavioral effects observed in rat pups following exposure in utero and during the first months of life.^ Conducted by 21 independent scientists across the EU for the Food Safety Agency, it concluded BPA was so safe the tolerable daily intake could be increased by a factor of five.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, in Europe the risk assessment of BPA by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which used the same flawed approach of only relying on 2 chemical-industry funded studies to reach its conclusions, will be re-evaluated at a meeting in Berlin in March 2009.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In April of 2008, the National Toxicology Program raised concerns that exposure to BPA during pregnancy and childhood could impact the developing breast and prostate, hasten puberty, and affect behavior in American children.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[150][151]

Germany

.On 19 September 2008, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, BfR) stated that there was no reason to change the current risk assessment for bisphenol A on the basis of the Lang Study.^ There are no risk free solutions.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first study, conducted by John Ashby of AstraZeneca, reported no effects of bisphenol A exposure on prostate weight or sperm count.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In summary, a new risk assessment is needed to establish a new LOAEL and a new reference dose for BPA based on the extensive new information from low-dose studies.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[152]
.In October, 2009, the German environmental organization Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland requested a ban on BPA for childrens' products, especially pacifiers,[153] and products that make contact with food.^ We are, however, exposed to BPA daily; it is a component of polycarbonate plastics, resins lining food/beverage containers, and additives in a variety of consumer products.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I am finding out about a lot of harmful products that companies are making and they are so defensive about it, especially baby products.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bills have been introduced in the U.S. House and Senate to ban bisphenol A (BPA) in all food and beverage containers, due to growing concerns that the chemical could pose long-term health risks, especially for young children.
  • BPA Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: General]
  • Bisphenol A Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: General]

[154] In response, some manufacturers voluntarily removed the problematic pacifiers from the market.[155]

Netherlands

.On 6 November 2008, the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA), stated in a newsletter that baby bottles made from polycarbonate plastic do not release measurable concentrations of bisphenol A and therefore are safe to use.^ Content and release of bisphenol A from polycarbonate dental products.
  • The Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol A Inhibits Estradiol-Induced Hippocampal Synaptogenesis 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ I am in the process of eliminating the plastic baby bottles.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are, however, exposed to BPA daily; it is a component of polycarbonate plastics, resins lining food/beverage containers, and additives in a variety of consumer products.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

[156]

Switzerland

.In February 2009 the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health, based on reports of other health agencies, stated that the intake of bisphenol A from food represents no risk to the consumer, including newborns and infants.^ WASHINGTON — The Food and Drug Administration has reversed its position on the safety of bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastic bottles, soda cans, food containers and thousands of consumer goods, saying it now has concerns about health risks.
  • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In its recent report, the NTP stated that such high dose studies are insufficient in determining the cancer risks in “hormonally-responsive tissues such as the mammary gland.” [ 7 ] The FDA must respond to the growing scientific consensus of bisphenol A’s threat to the public’s health, in particular its risks to the healthy development of fetuses, infants and children.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The first study, conducted by John Ashby of AstraZeneca, reported no effects of bisphenol A exposure on prostate weight or sperm count.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, in the same statement it advised for proper use of polycarbonate baby bottles and listed alternatives.^ Polycarbonate is a hard, rigid plastic used in kitchen appliances, chocolate molds, baby bottles, reusable water bottles, compact discs (CDs), digital video discs (DVDs), and water coolers.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BPA commonly is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics used as protective coatings on food containers and in plastic baby bottles—applications accounting for about 63 percent of its use.
  • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The high-temperature, autoclavable polycarbonate cages and bottles used in our facility were comprised of a synthetic thermoplastic polymer that is a blend of bisphenol A and polyester carbonate.
  • Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female MouseCurrent Biology, v.13, 1apr03 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

[157]

UK

.In December 2009 responding to a letter from a group of seven scientists that urged the UK Government to ‘adopt a standpoint consistent with the approach taken by other Governments who have ended the use of BPA in food contact products marketed at children’[158] the UK Food Standards Agency reaffirmed in January 2009 their view that ‘exposure of UK consumers to BPA from all sources, including food contact materials, was well below levels considered harmful’.^ Consumer group finds unsafe BPA levels in range of foods .

^ The assumption of safety at levels of exposure below the standard is just that, an assumption.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We are, however, exposed to BPA daily; it is a component of polycarbonate plastics, resins lining food/beverage containers, and additives in a variety of consumer products.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

[159]

United States

September 2008

.In September, the National Toxicology Program finalized their report on bisphenol A, finding "some concern", mid-point of a five-level scale, that infants were at risk from exposure to the chemical.^ Furthermore, acknowledging this fact, the Center for the Evaluation of Risk to Human Reproduction (CERHR) within the National Toxicology Program (NTP) concluded that route of administration was irrelevant in studies involving babies, so apparently Mr. Butterworth did not really read the CERHR report released in September 2008 that he cites.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This report, released in draft form on April 14, 2008, raised the level of concern for bisphenol A exposure in fetuses, infant and children on the prostate and mammary gland, as well as early on-set of puberty.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The first study, conducted by John Ashby of AstraZeneca, reported no effects of bisphenol A exposure on prostate weight or sperm count.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.At that time, the FDA reassured consumers that current limits were safe, but convened an outside panel of experts to review the issue.^ Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure."
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Lang study was also released that month, and David Melzer, a co-author of the study, presented the results of the study before the FDA panel.^ Many of the effects observed by the above authors were from BPA administered by various parenteral (non-oral) routes, versus the present study with BPA administered in the diet, or were endpoints not directly evaluated in the present study.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Results from the present study do confirm effects on body and systemic (but not reproductive or accessory sex) organ weights at high doses (750 and 7500 ppm).
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NTP panel as presenting conclusions that were “flawed,” “illogical,” and “misleading,” and the NTP panel concluded that results were, in fact, statistically significant ( NTP 2001 , p.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[160]
.The editorial accompanying the Lang study's publication in JAMA criticized the FDA's assessment of bisphenol A: "A fundamental problem is that the current ADI [acceptable daily intake] for BPA is based on experiments conducted in the early 1980s using outdated methods (only very high doses were tested) and insensitive assays.^ In the United States, the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum acceptable "reference" dose for chronic BPA ingestion is 50 g/kg /day, calculated as 0.1% of the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) determined from toxicity studies (U.S. EPA 1993).
  • The Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol A Inhibits Estradiol-Induced Hippocampal Synaptogenesis 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Conducted by 21 independent scientists across the EU for the Food Safety Agency, it concluded BPA was so safe the tolerable daily intake could be increased by a factor of five.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, in Europe the risk assessment of BPA by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which used the same flawed approach of only relying on 2 chemical-industry funded studies to reach its conclusions, will be re-evaluated at a meeting in Berlin in March 2009.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More recent findings from independent scientists were rejected by the FDA, apparently because those investigators did not follow the outdated testing guidelines for environmental chemicals, whereas studies using the outdated, insensitive assays (predominantly involving studies funded by the chemical industry) are given more weight in arriving at the conclusion that BPA is not harmful at current exposure levels."^ BPA, resulting in low-level BPA exposures similar to those used in laboratory animal testing.
  • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The FDA has been relying on studies done be the chemical companies.
  • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States, the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum acceptable "reference" dose for chronic BPA ingestion is 50 g/kg /day, calculated as 0.1% of the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) determined from toxicity studies (U.S. EPA 1993).
  • The Environmental Estrogen Bisphenol A Inhibits Estradiol-Induced Hippocampal Synaptogenesis 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[22]
.The Union of Concerned Scientists similarly criticized the agency saying, "We're concerned that the FDA is basing its conclusion on two studies while downplaying the results of hundreds of other studies....^ Based on the results of pachytene studies, we predicted that BPA-exposed females would exhibit both an increase in the average number of chiasmata per cell and in univalents.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to the difference in impetus, the present study differs in two other important respects.
  • Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female MouseCurrent Biology, v.13, 1apr03 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A physiologically based approach to the study of bisphenol A and other estrogenic chemicals on the size of the reproductive organs, daily sperm production, and behavior.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.This appears to be a case of cherry-picking data with potentially high cost to human health."^ Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure."
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The body of data in those fields is huge and the effects are documented in human health data, not extrapolated from limited, and by the author's own admissions, sometimes questionable laboratory results.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast, the American Chemistry Council, the manufacturing industry's lobby group, was skeptical of the latest study.^ The Society of the Plastics Industry Bisphenol A Task Group and the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) sponsored two studies to replicate vom Saal’s findings.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The agency currently relies on data from two studies, funded by the American Plastics Council, to uphold this standard.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Draft National Toxicology Program Report Supports Safety of Bisphenol A,” American Chemistry Council.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[160]

March 2009

.Sunoco, a producer of gasoline and chemicals, is now refusing to sell the chemical to companies for use in food and water containers for children younger than 3, saying it can't be certain of the compound's safety.^ More than 2.2 million metric tonnes of BPA are produced worldwide each year for use mainly as a constituent monomer in polycarbonate plastics, which are used extensively in drinks containers and food packaging, and in the production of epoxy resins used in the lining of canned goods [2] .
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical widely used in food and drinks packaging.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This continues to be the safety standard used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

.Sunoco plans to require its customers to guarantee that the chemical will not be used in children's food products.^ Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical widely used in food and drinks packaging.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Overview Bisphenol A is an estrogenic chemical primarily used in the production of two major plastics: polycarbonate and epoxy resin.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result, the vast majority of the 80,000 chemicals registered to be used in products have never undergone a government or Dentists Palm Beach safety review.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[161]
.The six largest US companies which commercialize baby bottles decided to stop using bisphenol A in their products.^ Bisphenol A is a thermal degradation product of epoxy resin and powder paint used to paint metal objects(4-5).

^ I am finding out about a lot of harmful products that companies are making and they are so defensive about it, especially baby products.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical widely used in food and drinks packaging.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[162] Suffolk County, New York banned baby beverage containers made with bisphenol A.[163]
On March 13 leaders from the House and Senate proposed legislation to ban bisphenol A.[164]
.In the same month, Rochelle Tyl, author of two studies used by FDA to assert BPA safety in August 2008, said those studies didn't claim that BPA is safe since they weren't designed to cover all aspects of the chemical's effects.^ BPA 3-generation study design.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Are they considered safe to use?
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These data were published the same week the the US FDA issued a draft conclusion that BPA is safe at current levels of exposure.
  • Bisphenol A exposure can increase risk of diabetes and heart attacks on Environmental Expert 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.environmental-expert.com [Source type: News]

[165]

May 2009

.Among the first US jurisdictions to pass regulations limiting or banning BPA were Minnesota and Chicago.^ Low oral doses of BPA have been suggested to be subject to rapid first-pass elimination by the liver and efficient metabolic clearance [17, 18].
  • Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female MouseCurrent Biology, v.13, 1apr03 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tags: Baby Bottle , Bisphenol A , BPA , Chicago , Connecticut , Illinois , Minnesota , Plastic .
  • BPA Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: General]
  • Bisphenol A Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: General]

^ BPA Plastic Baby Bottles Banned in Chicago .
  • BPA Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: General]
  • Bisphenol A Lawsuit News and Information - AboutLawsuits.com 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: General]

Minnesota's regulation takes effect in 2010, "manufacturers of ... children's products containing BPA may not sell them in the state after Jan. 1, 2010. The ban extends to all retailers in the state a year later." .The products impacted are known as sippy cups and baby bottles.^ It is scary to know that BPA is found in most baby bottles and sippy cups.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pitcher is designed to last quite a long time (several years) using high impact polystyrene (#6), so the need for bottles is reduced over the life time of the product.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[166] The City of Chicago adopted a similar ban shortly thereafter. Coverage of Chicago's ban in the news showed a relentless opposition by the industry. .A Chicago Tribune article noted an up-hill battle while passing legislation, "[industry officials] used FDA’s position on the issue when they tried to block the city’s measure."^ PEER REVIEWED**   Preventive Measures: SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting.

^ Despite the rising concerns of scientists and consumers, the FDA has persistently supported the position of the chemical and plastics industry.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

It further notes that,
“The .FDA continues to be recalcitrant and very slow about taking any action on BPA,” said Ald.^ Federal officials said they are particularly concerned about BPA's effect on the development of fetuses, infants and young children.
  • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basically companies have to be very careful about suppliers not having BPA contaimination in the supply stream.
  • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Manny Flores (1st), who co-sponsored the Chicago measure with Ald. Edward Burke.
.Chicago bans the sale after 2010 of any empty food or drink container containing BPA that is intended for use by children less than 3 years old.^ We are, however, exposed to BPA daily; it is a component of polycarbonate plastics, resins lining food/beverage containers, and additives in a variety of consumer products.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More than 2.2 million metric tonnes of BPA are produced worldwide each year for use mainly as a constituent monomer in polycarbonate plastics, which are used extensively in drinks containers and food packaging, and in the production of epoxy resins used in the lining of canned goods [2] .
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Consumer exposure to BPA may be possible from migration of BPA from dental sealants or from polycarbonate or epoxy-lined food and drink containers.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Burke and Flores pushed the measure through after backing down from a more aggressive version that would have outlawed nearly any product for children that was made with the chemical.^ However, corporations that manufacture products made from BPA would be less affected because alternatives to BPA already exist for many products.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Still, the chemical industry fought hard to thwart the scaled-back ban, including hiring former Ald. Terry Gabinski to lobby against it. .The American Chemistry Council trade group responded with a written statement that called [the] vote “unwarranted.”.^ Draft National Toxicology Program Report Supports Safety of Bisphenol A,” American Chemistry Council.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[167][168]
.In May 2009 the Washington Post accused the manufacturers of food and beverage containers and some of their biggest customers of trying to devise a public relations and lobbying strategy to block government BPA bans.^ We are, however, exposed to BPA daily; it is a component of polycarbonate plastics, resins lining food/beverage containers, and additives in a variety of consumer products.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We recently experienced an inadvertent environmental exposure in our mouse colony to 2,2-(4,4-dihydroxydiphenol)propane, or bisphenol A. Bisphenol A (BPA) is the monomer that is polymerized to manufacture polycarbonate plastic products and resins, such as those used to line cans containing food and beverages and those found in dental sealants.
  • Bisphenol A Exposure Causes Meiotic Aneuploidy in the Female MouseCurrent Biology, v.13, 1apr03 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Importantly, bisphenol A leaches from food and beverage containers as well as dental sealants and is found in the serum of humans with higher concentrations in placental and fetal tissues ( 5 ).
  • Developmental Exposure to Estradiol and Bisphenol A Increases Susceptibility to Prostate Carcinogenesis and Epigenetically Regulates Phosphodiesterase Type 4 Variant 4 -- Ho et al. 66 (11): 5624 -- Cancer Research 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[169]

June 2009

.In June 2009, the FDA announced the decision to reconsider the BPA safety levels.^ These data were published the same week the the US FDA issued a draft conclusion that BPA is safe at current levels of exposure.
  • Bisphenol A exposure can increase risk of diabetes and heart attacks on Environmental Expert 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.environmental-expert.com [Source type: News]

[170]
.Connecticut was the first US state to ban bisphenol A from infant formula and baby food containers, as well from any reusable food or beverage container.^ We are, however, exposed to BPA daily; it is a component of polycarbonate plastics, resins lining food/beverage containers, and additives in a variety of consumer products.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Importantly, bisphenol A leaches from food and beverage containers as well as dental sealants and is found in the serum of humans with higher concentrations in placental and fetal tissues ( 5 ).
  • Developmental Exposure to Estradiol and Bisphenol A Increases Susceptibility to Prostate Carcinogenesis and Epigenetically Regulates Phosphodiesterase Type 4 Variant 4 -- Ho et al. 66 (11): 5624 -- Cancer Research 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BPA is found in hundreds of kinds of plastic items, everything from glasses to CDs to canned food, including liquid infant formula.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Health agencies call for more study on bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: News]

[171]

July 2009

.The California Environmental Protection Agency's Developmental and Reproductive Toxicant Identification Committee unanimously voted against placing Bisphenol A on the state's list of chemicals that are believed to cause reproductive harm.^ The developmental toxicity of bisphenol A in rats and mice.
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some scientists believe that BPA exposure can harm the reproductive and nervous systems and possibly promote cancers.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Health agencies call for more study on bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: News]

^ TEXT SIZE The Associated Press Federal health agencies say ongoing research continues to cause concern over the chemical bisphenol-A's potential effect on children, but there is not enough information to make regulatory changes.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Health agencies remain concerned over bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The panel, although concerned over the growing scientific research showing BPA's reproductive harm in animals, found that there was insufficient data of the effects in humans.^ Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some scientists believe that BPA exposure can harm the reproductive and nervous systems and possibly promote cancers.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Health agencies call for more study on bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: News]

^ At an Endocrine Society meeting new research reported troubling data from animals experimentally treated with BPA. it certification Studies presented at the group's annual meeting show BPA can affect the hearts of women, can permanently damage the DNA of mice, and appear to be pouring into the human body from a variety of unknown sources.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[172] .Critics point out that the same panel failed to add second-hand smoke to the list until 2006, and only one chemical was added to the list in the last three years.^ The FDA ruled last year trace amounts that leach out of bottles and food packaging are not dangerous.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Health agencies remain concerned over bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Food and Drug Administration ruled last year trace amounts that leach out of bottles and food packaging are not dangerous.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Health agencies call for more study on bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: News]

^ And he also seems to discount Ashby's attempts to replicate Vom Saal's work (he failed) and the National Toxicology Program's biostatistics panel criticism of Vom Saal's data.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[173]

August 2009

.On August 3, Massachusetts' Department of Public Health advised mothers to take certain actions to prevent possible health impact in children.^ It is, therefore, critically important that lawmakers take a strong stand in protecting the public’s health.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service.

^ About the Author : Sarah Vogel is a PhD Candidate at Columbia University in the Department of Sociomedical Sciences’ Center for the History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

Mothers with children up to two years old were advised to limit exposure by avoiding products that might contain BPA, such as plastic drinking bottles and other plastic materials with recycling codes of 7 or 3.[174]
.The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, as part of an ongoing investigative series into BPA and its effects, revealed plans by the Society of the Plastics Industry to execute a major public relations blitz to promote BPA, including plans to attack and discredit those who report or comment negatively on the monomer and its effects.^ Other researchers have also reported no effect of exposure to BPA at low doses.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The final NTP report will combined the CERHR report, the NTP review and all public comments on reports and is expected to be released at the end of this summer.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1998, when BPA became a major issue at a scientific conference in Kyoto, Japan, Lamb led press conferences attacking vom Saal's studies.
  • The Real Story on BPA | Page 6 | Fast Company 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[175][176]

September 2009

.On September 29, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that it is evaluating BPA, and another five chemicals, for action plan development.^ Clearly understanding the basis of this effect and, more generally, the influence of estrogen on the early stages of oocyte development are essential first steps in evaluating the potential risk of in utero exposure to chemicals that mimic the action of this hormone.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The last U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment for BPA was based on research conducted in the 1980s [ Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) 1988 ].
  • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The agencies plan to continue research and will set up a system making it easier to quickly make any regulatory changes on the chemical's status.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Health agencies remain concerned over bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[177]

October 2009

.On October 28, the NIH announced $30,000,000 in stimulus grants to study the health effects of BPA. This money is expected to result in many peer-reviewed publications.^ Based on the results of pachytene studies, we predicted that BPA-exposed females would exhibit both an increase in the average number of chiasmata per cell and in univalents.
  • PLoS Genetics: Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The product is expected to have improved performance in producing high clarity polycarbonate resins compared to BPA produced in many other systems.
  • Method and system for bisphenol a production using controlled turbulence - Patent 5874644 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The final NTP report will combined the CERHR report, the NTP review and all public comments on reports and is expected to be released at the end of this summer.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[178]

November 2009

.The Consumer Reports magazine published an analysis of BPA content in some canned foods and beverages, where in specific cases the content of a single can of food could exceed the current FDA Cumulative Exposure Daily Intake.^ Many of these effects have been reported to occur at concentrations below recommended safe daily exposure levels, prompting much recent debate on the requirement for revision of current legislation [18] , [19] , [20] , [21] .
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some scientists believe that BPA exposure can harm the reproductive and nervous systems and possibly promote cancers.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Health agencies call for more study on bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: News]

^ Bisphenol-A, or BPA, is a plastic-hardening chemical found in water bottles, canned food lining and hundreds of other household items.
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Health agencies remain concerned over bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[179][180]

January 2010

.On January 15 the FDA expressed "some concern", the middle level in the scale of concerns, about the potential effects of BPA on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and young children and announced it was taking reasonable steps to reduce human exposure to BPA in the food supply.^ Concerned about your baby's exposure?
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Federal officials said they are particularly concerned about BPA's effect on the development of fetuses, infants and young children.
  • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, the Department of Health recommended several steps for families concerned about BPA's effects on infants and children, including throwing away scratched plastic baby bottles and refraining from putting hot liquids in bottles that could contain BPA. .
  • PhillyBurbs.com:  Health agencies call for more study on bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: News]

.However, the FDA is not recommending that families change the use of infant formula or foods, as it sees the benefit of a stable source of good nutrition to outweigh the potential risk from BPA exposure.^ Infant formula: How to choose it & use it .
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These data were published the same week the the US FDA issued a draft conclusion that BPA is safe at current levels of exposure.
  • Bisphenol A exposure can increase risk of diabetes and heart attacks on Environmental Expert 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.environmental-expert.com [Source type: News]

^ Consumer exposure to BPA may be possible from migration of BPA from dental sealants or from polycarbonate or epoxy-lined food and drink containers.
  • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[181]
.On the same date the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services released information for parents to reduce children's BPA exposure.^ Contrary to the media scare, scientists have researched BPA up and down and they all come to the same conclusions - effects of exposure to BPA used under normal parenting conditions do not show effects that cause concern.
  • Enviroblog: Cheatsheet: Bisphenol A (BPA) Archives 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.enviroblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These data were published the same week the the US FDA issued a draft conclusion that BPA is safe at current levels of exposure.
  • Bisphenol A exposure can increase risk of diabetes and heart attacks on Environmental Expert 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.environmental-expert.com [Source type: News]

^ Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure.
  • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[182]

February 2010

According with the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, which supports BPA ban, after lobbyists for the chemical industry met with administration officials, the EPA delayed BPA regulation and not included the chemical in action plan released December 30, 2009.[183][184]
.Many US states are considering some sort of BPA ban.^ In many of the experiments, BPA's effect was comparable to E2's, and in some even stronger.
  • Bisphenol A exposure can increase risk of diabetes and heart attacks on Environmental Expert 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.environmental-expert.com [Source type: News]

^ States across the country and the Canadian government are considering new limits and bans on bisphenol A, particularly in children’s products.
  • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

[185]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Update on Bisphenol A for Use in Food Contact Applications: January 2010". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 15 January 2010. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ucm197739.htm. Retrieved 15 January 2010. 
  2. ^ Dianin (1891). Zhurnal russkogo fiziko-khimicheskogo obshchestva. 23. pp.  492–. 
  3. ^ Zincke, Theodor (1905). "Ueber die Einwirkung von Brom und von Chlor auf Phenole: Substitutionsprodukte, Pseudobromide und Pseudochloride". Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie 343: 75–99. doi:10.1002/jlac.19053430106. 
  4. ^ Uglea, Constantin V.; Ioan I. Negulescu (1991). Synthesis and Characterization of Oligomers. CRC Press. p. 103. 
  5. ^ a b c d Fiege, Helmut; Heinz-Werner Voges, Toshikazu Hamamoto, Sumio Umemura, Tadao Iwata, Hisaya Miki, Yasuhiro Fujita, Hans-Josef Buysch, Dorothea Garbe, Wilfried Paulus (2002). Phenol Derivatives. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313. 
  6. ^ Replogle, Jill (2009-07-17). "Lawmakers to press for BPA regulation". California Progress Report. http://www.californiaprogressreport.com/2009/07/committee_succe.html. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  7. ^ Ubelacker, Sheryl (2008-04-16). "Ridding life of bisphenol A a challenge". Toronto Star. http://www.thestar.com/article/415296. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  8. ^ Kroschwitz, Jacqueline I.. Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 5 (5 ed.). pp. 8. 
  9. ^ "Polycarbonate (PC) Polymer Resin". Alliance Polymers, Inc. http://www.alliancepoly.com/polycarbonate.asp. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  10. ^ a b c d e National Toxicology Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2007-11-26). "CERHR Expert Panel Report for Bisphenol A" (PDF). http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/chemicals/bisphenol/BPAFinalEPVF112607.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  11. ^ a b Erickson, Britt E. (June 2, 2008). "Bisphenol A under scrutiny". Chemical and Engineering News (American Chemical Society) 86 (22): 36–39. http://pubs.acs.org/isubscribe/journals/cen/86/i22/html/8622gov1.html. 
  12. ^ Byrne, Jane (22 September 2008). "Consumers fear the packaging - a BPA alternative is needed now". http://www.foodnavigator.com/Financial-Industry/Consumers-fear-the-packaging-a-BPA-alternative-is-needed-now. Retrieved 5 January 2010. 
  13. ^ Pesticideinfo.org: Bisphenol A
  14. ^ US patent 6562755
  15. ^ Fukazawa, H.; Hoshino, K.; Shiozawa, T.; Matsushita, H.; Terao, Y. (2001). "Identification and quantification of chlorinated bisphenol a in wastewater from wastepaper recycling plants". Chemosphere 44 (5): 973–979. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00507-5. PMID 11513431.  edit
  16. ^ a b Lang IA, Galloway TS, Scarlett A, Henley WE, Depledge M, Wallace RB, Melzer D (2008). "Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration With Medical Disorders and Laboratory Abnormalities in Adults". JAMA 300 (300): 1303. doi:10.1001/jama.300.11.1303. PMID 18799442. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/300.11.1303. 
  17. ^ Biello D (2008-02-19). "Plastic (not) fantastic: Food containers leach a potentially harmful chemical". Scientific American 2. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=plastic-not-fantastic-with-bisphenol-a. Retrieved 2008-04-09. 
  18. ^ Jack Snyder (2009-08-24). "Styrene Not a Human Carcinogen, Does Not Contain BPA". Styrene Information and Research Center (SIRC), Arlington, Va.. http://www.styrene.org/news_styrene_human_health/not_carcinogen_no_bpa_statement.html. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  19. ^ Gore, Andrea C. (June 8, 2007). Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice. Contemporary Endocrinology. Humana Press. ISBN 978-1588298300. 
  20. ^ O’Connor, JC; Chapin, RE (2003). "Critical evaluation of observed adverse effects of endocrine active substances on reproduction and development, the immune system, and the nervous system" (Full Article). Pure Appl. Chem 75 (11–12): 2099–2123. doi:10.1351/pac200375112099. http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/2003/pdf/7511x2099.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-28. 
  21. ^ Okada H, Tokunaga T, Liu X, Takayanagi S, Matsushima A, Shimohigashi Y (January 2008). "Direct evidence revealing structural elements essential for the high binding ability of bisphenol A to human estrogen-related receptor-gamma". Environ. Health Perspect. 116 (1): 32–8. doi:10.1289/ehp.10587. PMID 18197296. 
  22. ^ a b c vom Saal FS, Myers JP (2008). "Bisphenol A and Risk of Metabolic Disorders". JAMA 300 (300): 1353. doi:10.1001/jama.300.11.1353. PMID 18799451. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/300.11.1353. 
  23. ^ a b Draft Screening Assessment for The Challenge Phenol, 4,4' -(1-methylethylidene)bis- (Bisphenol A)Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 80-05-7. Health Canada, 2008.
  24. ^ Ginsberg G, Rice DC (2009). "Does Rapid Metabolism Ensure Negligible Risk from Bisphenol A?". EPH 117 (11): 1639–1643. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901010. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2009/0901010/0901010.html. 
  25. ^ Beronius, A.; Rudén, C.; Håkansson, H.; Hanberg, A. (2009). "Risk to all or none?-A comparative analysis of controversies in the health risk assessment of Bisphenol A". Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.). doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2009.11.007. PMID 19931376.  edit
  26. ^ Endocrine Society released scientific statement on endocrine-disrupting chemicals
  27. ^ vom Saal FS, Akingbemi BT, Belcher SM, et al (2007). "Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure". Reprod. Toxicol. 24 (2): 131–8. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.07.005. PMID 17768031. 
  28. ^ a b c Since you asked - Bisphenol A: Questions and Answers about the Draft National Toxicology Program Brief on Bisphenol A, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences website.
  29. ^ Elobeid, M.; Allison, D. (Oct 2008). "Putative environmental-endocrine disruptors and obesity: a review". Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity 15 (5): 403–408. doi:10.1097/MED.0b013e32830ce95c. ISSN 1752-296X. PMID 18769210.  edit
  30. ^ Rubin, B.; Soto, A. (May 2009). "Bisphenol A: Perinatal exposure and body weight". Molecular and cellular endocrinology 304 (1-2): 55–62. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2009.02.023. ISSN 0303-7207. PMID 19433248.  edit
  31. ^ Heindel, J.; Vom Saal, F. (May 2009). "Role of nutrition and environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals during the perinatal period on the aetiology of obesity". Molecular and cellular endocrinology 304 (1-2): 90–96. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2009.02.025. ISSN 0303-7207. PMID 19433253.  edit
  32. ^ Newbold, R.; Padilla-Banks, E.; Jefferson, W. (May 2009). "Environmental estrogens and obesity". Molecular and cellular endocrinology 304 (1-2): 84–89. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2009.02.024. ISSN 0303-7207. PMID 19433252.  edit
  33. ^ Grün, F.; Blumberg, B. (May 2009). "Endocrine disrupters as obesogens". Molecular and cellular endocrinology 304 (1-2): 19–29. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2009.02.018. ISSN 0303-7207. PMID 19433244.  edit
  34. ^ Somm, E. (2009). "Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol a Alters Early Adipogenesis in the Rat (PDF)". Environmental Health Perspectives. doi:10.1289/ehp.11342.  edit
  35. ^ Panzica, G.; Viglietti-Panzica, C.; Mura, E.; Quinn Mj, J.; Lavoie, E.; Palanza, P.; Ottinger, M. (2007). "Effects of xenoestrogens on the differentiation of behaviorally-relevant neural circuits". Frontiers in neuroendocrinology 28 (4): 179–200. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2007.07.001. PMID 17868795.  edit
  36. ^ Richter, C.; Birnbaum, L.; Farabollini, F.; Newbold, R.; Rubin, B.; Talsness, C.; Vandenbergh, J.; Walser-Kuntz, D. et al. (2007). "In vivo effects of bisphenol a in laboratory rodent studies". Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) 24 (2): 199–224. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.06.004. PMID 17683900.  edit
  37. ^ Palanza, P; Gioiosa; Vom Saal; Parmigiani (2008). "Effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol a on brain and behavior in mice". Environmental research 108 (2): 150–7. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2008.07.023. PMID 18949834.  edit
  38. ^ Patisaul, H.; Polston, E. (2008). "Influence of endocrine active compounds on the developing rodent brain". Brain research reviews 57 (2): 352–362. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2007.06.008. PMID 17822772.  edit
  39. ^ Ogiue-Ikeda, M.; Tanabe, N.; Mukai, H.; Hojo, Y.; Murakami, G.; Tsurugizawa, T.; Takata, N.; Kimoto, T. et al. (2008). "Rapid modulation of synaptic plasticity by estrogens as well as endocrine disrupters in hippocampal neurons". Brain research reviews 57 (2): 363–375. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2007.06.010. PMID 17822775.  edit
  40. ^ 10.1016/j.yfrne.2008.02.002
  41. ^ a b Leranth C, Hajszan T, Szigeti-Buck K, Bober J, Maclusky NJ (September 2008). "Bisphenol A prevents the synaptogenic response to estradiol in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of ovariectomized nonhuman primates". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (37): 14187. doi:10.1073/pnas.0806139105. PMID 18768812. 
  42. ^ Layton, Lindsey (September 4, 2008). "Chemical in Plastic Is Connected to Health Problems in Monkeys". Washington Post. pp. A02. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/03/AR2008090303397.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  43. ^ Brown, J. S.; Jr, (2009). "Effects of Bisphenol-A and Other Endocrine Disruptors Compared with Abnormalities of Schizophrenia: an Endocrine-Disruption Theory of Schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Bulletin 35: 256. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm147. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2643957/.  edit
  44. ^ Kiguchi, M.; Fujita, S.; Oki, H.; Shimizu, N.; Cools, A. R.; Koshikawa, N. (2008). "Behavioural characterisation of rats exposed neonatally to bisphenol-A: responses to a novel environment and to methylphenidate challenge in a putative model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder". Journal of Neural Transmission 115 (7): 1079. doi:10.1007/s00702-008-0044-5. PMID 18368283.  edit
  45. ^ a b Tanida, T.; Warita, K.; Ishihara, K.; Fukui, S.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Sugawara, T.; Tabuchi, Y.; Nanmori, T. et al. (2009). "Fetal and neonatal exposure to three typical environmental chemicals with different mechanisms of action: mixed exposure to phenol, phthalate, and dioxin cancels the effects of sole exposure on mouse midbrain dopaminergic nuclei.". Toxicology letters 189 (1): 40–47. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.04.005. PMID 19481886.  edit
  46. ^ Poimenova, A.; Markaki, E.; Rahiotis, C.; Kitraki, E. (2010). "Corticosterone - regulated actions in the rat brain are affected by perinatal exposure to low dose of bisphenol A.". Neuroscience. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.02.051. PMID 20219646.  edit
  47. ^ Suzuki; Mizuo, K; Miyagawa, K; Narita, M (2005). "Exposure to bisphenol-A affects the rewarding system in mice". Nihon shinkei seishin yakurigaku zasshi = Japanese journal of psychopharmacology 25 (3): 125–8. PMID 16045194.  edit
  48. ^ Jones, D.; Miller, G. (2008). "The effects of environmental neurotoxicants on the dopaminergic system: A possible role in drug addiction". Biochemical pharmacology 76 (5): 569–581. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2008.05.010. PMID 18555207.  edit
  49. ^ Zhou, R.; Zhang, Z.; Zhu, Y.; Chen, L.; Sokabe, M.; Chen, L. (2009). "Deficits in development of synaptic plasticity in rat dorsal striatum following prenatal and neonatal exposure to low-dose bisphenol A". Neuroscience 159 (1): 161–171. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.12.028. PMID 19162132.  edit
  50. ^ Zoeller, R. (2007). "Environmental chemicals impacting the thyroid: targets and consequences". Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association 17 (9): 811–817. doi:10.1089/thy.2007.0107. PMID 17956155.  edit
  51. ^ Boas, M.; Main, K.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U. (Oct 2009). "Environmental chemicals and thyroid function: an update". Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity 16 (5): 385–391. doi:10.1097/MED.0b013e3283305af7. ISSN 1752-296X. PMID 19625957.  edit
  52. ^ Kashiwagi, K.; Furuno; Kitamura; Ohta; Sugihara; Utsumi; Hanada; Taniguchi et al. (2009). "Disruption of Thyroid Hormone Function by Environmental Pollutants". Journal of Health Science 55: 147. doi:10.1248/jhs.55.147. http://jhs.pharm.or.jp/data/55(2)/55_147.pdf.  edit
  53. ^ a b "BISPHENOL A (BPA) - Current state of knowledge and future actions by WHO and FAO". 27 November 2009. http://www.who.int/entity/foodsafety/publications/fs_management/No_05_Bisphenol_A_Nov09_en.pdf. Retrieved 02 December 2009. 
  54. ^ U.S.EPA, IRIS: Bisphenol A
  55. ^ Agents Reviewed by the Monographs Volumes 1–99
  56. ^ Brisken, C. (2008). "Endocrine Disruptors and Breast Cancer". CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry 62: 406–409. doi:10.2533/chimia.2008.406.  edit
  57. ^ Soto, A.; Vandenberg, L.; Maffini, M.; Sonnenschein, C. (2008). "Does breast cancer start in the womb?". Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology 102 (2): 125–133. doi:10.1111/j.1742-7843.2007.00165.x. PMID 18226065.  edit
  58. ^ Fernandez, S. V.; Russo, J. (2009). "Estrogen and Xenoestrogens in Breast Cancer". Toxicologic Pathology. doi:10.1177/0192623309354108.  edit
  59. ^ Jenkins, S.; Raghuraman, N.; Eltoum, I.; Carpenter, M.; Russo, J.; Lamartiniere, C. A. (2009). "Oral Exposure to Bisphenol a Increases Dimethylbenzanthracene-Induced Mammary Cancer in Rats" (Free full text). Environmental Health Perspectives. doi:10.1289/ehp.11751. http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2009/11751/11751.html.  edit
  60. ^ Betancourt, A.; Mobley, J.; Russo, J.; Lamartiniere, C. (2010). "Proteomic Analysis in Mammary Glands of Rat Offspring Exposed In Utero to Bisphenol A.". Journal of proteomics. doi:10.1016/j.jprot.2010.02.020. PMID 20219716.  edit
  61. ^ PMID 19796866 (PubMed)
    Citation will be completed automatically in a few minutes. Jump the queue or expand by hand
  62. ^ Zhu, H.; Xiao, X.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, S.; Dong, K.; Yu, Y. (2009). "Growth-promoting effect of bisphenol a on neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo☆". Journal of Pediatric Surgery 44 (4): 672–680. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2008.10.067. PMID 19361625.  edit
  63. ^ Zheng, J.; Xiao, X.; Liu, J.; Zheng, S.; Yin, Q.; Yu, Y. (2007). "Growth-promoting effect of environmental endocrine disruptors on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells☆". Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 24: 189–193. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2007.05.003.  edit
  64. ^ Zhu, H; Zheng, J; Xiao, X; Zheng, S; Dong, K; Liu, J; Wang, Y (2010). "Environmental endocrine disruptors promote invasion and metastasis of SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells". Oncology reports 23 (1): 129–39. PMID 19956873.  edit
  65. ^ Nagel, SC; Vom Saal; Thayer; Dhar; Boechler; Welshons (1997). "Relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative in vivo bioactivity of the xenoestrogens bisphenol a and octylphenol". Environmental health perspectives 105 (1): 70–6. doi:10.2307/3433065. PMID 9074884.  edit
  66. ^ Timms, B.; Howdeshell, K.; Barton, L.; Bradley, S.; Richter, C.; Vom Saal, F. (2005). "Estrogenic chemicals in plastic and oral contraceptives disrupt development of the fetal mouse prostate and urethra". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 (19): 7014–7019. doi:10.1073/pnas.0502544102. PMID 15867144.  edit
  67. ^ Ho, S.; Tang, W.; Belmonte De Frausto, J.; Prins, G. (2006). "Developmental exposure to estradiol and bisphenol a increases susceptibility to prostate carcinogenesis and epigenetically regulates phosphodiesterase type 4 variant 4". Cancer research 66 (11): 5624–5632. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0516. PMID 16740699.  edit
  68. ^ Richter, C.; Taylor, J.; Ruhlen, R.; Welshons, W.; Vom Saal, F. (2007). "Estradiol and Bisphenol a stimulate androgen receptor and estrogen receptor gene expression in fetal mouse prostate mesenchyme cells". Environmental health perspectives 115 (6): 902–908. doi:10.1289/ehp.9804. PMID 17589598.  edit
  69. ^ Prins, G. (2008). "Developmental exposure to bisphenol a increases prostate cancer susceptibility in adult rats: epigenetic mode of action is implicated". Fertility and Sterility 89: e41-e41. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.12.023.  edit
  70. ^ a b Newbold, R.; Jefferson, N.; Padilla-Banks, E. (Jun 2009). "Prenatal exposure to bisphenol a at environmentally relevant doses adversely affects the murine female reproductive tract later in life". Environmental health perspectives 117 (6): 879–885. doi:10.1289/ehp.0800045. ISSN 0091-6765. PMID 19590677.  edit
  71. ^ a b Adewale, B.; Jefferson, N.; Newbold, R.; Patisaul, B. (Jun 2009). "Neonatal Bisphenol-A Exposure Alters Rat Reproductive Development and Ovarian Morphology Without Impairing Activation of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Neurons" (Free full text). Biology of reproduction 81 (4): 690–699. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.109.078261. ISSN 0006-3363. PMID 19535786. http://www.biolreprod.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=19535786.  edit
  72. ^ Study Finds Reproductive Health Effects From Low Doses of Bisphenol-A
  73. ^ Bosquiazzo, L.; Varayoud, J.; Muñoz-De-Toro, M.; Luque, H.; Ramos, G. (Aug 2009). "Effects of Neonatal Exposure to Bisphenol a on Steroid Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Endothelial Cell Proliferation in the Adult Rat Uterus" (Free full text). Biology of reproduction. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.109.078543. ISSN 0006-3363. PMID 19696011. http://www.biolreprod.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=19696011.  edit
  74. ^ Monje, L.; Varayoud, J.; Muñoz-De-Toro, M.; Luque, H.; Ramos, G. (Jul 2009). "Neonatal exposure to bisphenol a alters estrogen-dependent mechanisms governing sexual behavior in the adult female rat". Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) 28 (4): 435–442. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2009.06.012. ISSN 0890-6238. PMID 19577632.  edit
  75. ^ Nakagami, A.; Negishi, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Imai, N.; Nishida, Y.; Ihara, T.; Kuroda, Y.; Yoshikawa, Y. et al. (Sep 2009). "Alterations in male infant behaviors towards its mother by prenatal exposure to bisphenol a in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during early suckling period". Psychoneuroendocrinology 34 (8): 1189–1197. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.03.005. ISSN 0306-4530. PMID 19345509.  edit
  76. ^ Huang, H.; Leung, K. (Sep 2009). "Bisphenol a downregulates CYP19 transcription in JEG-3 cells". Toxicology letters 189 (3): 248–252. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.06.853. ISSN 0378-4274. PMID 19539015.  edit
  77. ^ Li; Mruk, D.; Lee, W.; Cheng, C. (2009). "Disruption of the blood-testis barrier integrity by bisphenol a in vitro: is this a suitable model for studying blood-testis barrier dynamics?". The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 41 (11): 2302–2314. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.05.016. PMID 19497385.  edit
  78. ^ http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dep381
  79. ^ Bromer, J. G.; Zhou, Y.; Taylor, M. B.; Doherty, L.; Taylor, H. S. (2010). "Bisphenol-A exposure in utero leads to epigenetic alterations in the developmental programming of uterine estrogen response". The FASEB Journal. doi:10.1096/fj.09-140533. Lay summary.  edit
  80. ^ "More Troubling News About BPA / Science News". www.sciencenews.org. http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/44577/title/More_troubling_news_about_BPA. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  81. ^ "Hormone experts worried about plastics, chemicals - Yahoo! News". news.yahoo.com. http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20090611/hl_nm/us_bisphenol_2. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  82. ^ Benachour, N.; Aris, A. (2009). "Toxic effects of low doses of Bisphenol-A on human placental cells.". Toxicology and applied pharmacology 241 (3): 322–328. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2009.09.005. PMID 19769995. Lay summary.  edit
  83. ^ Braniste, V.; Jouault, A.; Gaultier, E.; Polizzi, A.; Buisson-Brenac, C.; Leveque, M.; Martin, P.; Theodorou, V. et al. (2009). "Impact of oral bisphenol a at reference doses on intestinal barrier function and sex differences after perinatal exposure in rats" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (1): 448–453. doi:10.1073/pnas.0907697107. PMID 20018722. PMC 2806743. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/12/10/0907697107.full.pdf.  edit
  84. ^ Midoro-Horiuti, T.; Tiwari, R.; Watson, C.; Goldblum, R. (2010). "Maternal bisphenol a exposure promotes the development of experimental asthma in mouse pups". Environmental health perspectives 118 (2): 273–277. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901259. PMID 20123615.  edit
  85. ^ Newscientist.com Plastic bottle chemical linked to heart disease
  86. ^ Melzer, D.; Rice, N. E.; Lewis, C.; Henley, W. E.; Galloway, T. S.; Zhang, B. (2010). "Association of Urinary Bisphenol a Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06" (pdf). PLoS ONE 5: e8673. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008673. http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0008673&representation=PDF. Lay summary.  edit
  87. ^ Sugiura-ogasawara, M.; Ozaki, Y.; Sonta, S. -I.; Makino, T.; Suzumori, K. (2005). "Exposure to bisphenol a is associated with recurrent miscarriage". Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 20 (8): 2325–2329. doi:10.1093/humrep/deh888. PMID 15947000.  edit
  88. ^ Yang, J.; Hong, C.; Oh, Y.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Leem, H.; Ha, H. (Aug 2009). "Bisphenol a exposure is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation in postmenopausal women". Environmental research 109 (6): 797–801. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2009.04.014. ISSN 0013-9351. PMID 19464675.  edit
  89. ^ Braun, J.; Yolton, K.; Dietrich, K.; Hornung, R.; Ye, X.; Calafat, A.; Lanphear, B. (2009). "Prenatal Bisphenol a Exposure and Early Childhood Behavior". Environmental Health Perspectives. doi:10.1289/ehp.0900979.  edit
  90. ^ Meeker, J. D.; Calafat, A. M.; Hauser, R. (2009). "Urinary Bisphenol a Concentrations in Relation to Serum Thyroid and Reproductive Hormone Levels in Men from an Infertility Clinic". Environmental Science & Technology: 091223134144053. doi:10.1021/es9028292.  edit
  91. ^ E. C. Dodds and Wilfrid Lawson, "Synthetic Œstrogenic Agents without the Phenanthrene Nucleus", Nature, 137 (1936), 996.
  92. ^ E. C. Dodds and W. Lawson, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 125, #839 (27-IV-1938), pp. 222–232.
  93. ^ a b c Mittelstaedt, Martin (2007-04-07). "'Inherently toxic' chemical faces its future". Globe & Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20070406.wbisphenolA0407/BNStory/National/. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  94. ^ This table is adapted from: EWG, 2007. "Many studies confirm BPA's low-dose toxicity across a diverse range of toxic effects," Environmental Working Group Report: A Survey of Bisphenol A in U.S. Canned Foods. Accessed November 4th, 2007 at http://www.ewg.org/node/20941. All studies included in this table where judged by the CEHRH panel to be at least of moderate usefulness for assessing the risk of BPA to human reproduction.
  95. ^ Markey CM, Wadia PR, Rubin BS, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM (2005). "Long-term effects of fetal exposure to low doses of the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A in the female mouse genital tract". Biol. Reprod. 72 (6): 1344–51. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.104.036301. PMID 15689538. http://www.biolreprod.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15689538. 
  96. ^ Muñoz-de-Toro M, Markey CM, Wadia PR, et al (2005). "Perinatal exposure to bisphenol-A alters peripubertal mammary gland development in mice". Endocrinology 146 (9): 4138–47. doi:10.1210/en.2005-0340. PMID 15919749. http://endo.endojournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15919749. 
  97. ^ Nagel SC, vom Saal FS, Thayer KA, Dhar MG, Boechler M, Welshons WV (1997). "Relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative in vivo bioactivity of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A and octylphenol". Environ. Health Perspect. 105 (1): 70–6. doi:10.2307/3433065. PMID 9074884. 
  98. ^ Honma S, Suzuki A, Buchanan DL, Katsu Y, Watanabe H, Iguchi T (2002). "Low dose effect of in utero exposure to bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on female mouse reproduction". Reprod. Toxicol. 16 (2): 117–22. doi:10.1016/S0890-6238(02)00006-0. PMID 11955942. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0890623802000060. 
  99. ^ Akingbemi BT, Sottas CM, Koulova AI, Klinefelter GR, Hardy MP (2004). "Inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis by the xenoestrogen bisphenol A is associated with reduced pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion and decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in rat Leydig cells". Endocrinology 145 (2): 592–603. doi:10.1210/en.2003-1174. PMID 14605012. http://endo.endojournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14605012. 
  100. ^ Murray TJ, Maffini MV, Ucci AA, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM (2007). "Induction of mammary gland ductal hyperplasias and carcinoma in situ following fetal bisphenol A exposure". Reprod. Toxicol. 23 (3): 383–90. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2006.10.002. PMID 17123778. PMC 1987322. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0890-6238(06)00263-2. 
  101. ^ Ho SM, Tang WY, Belmonte de Frausto J, Prins GS (2006). "Developmental exposure to estradiol and bisphenol A increases susceptibility to prostate carcinogenesis and epigenetically regulates phosphodiesterase type 4 variant 4". Cancer Res. 66 (11): 5624–32. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0516. PMID 16740699. PMC 2276876. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16740699. 
  102. ^ Palanza PL, Howdeshell KL, Parmigiani S, vom Saal FS (2002). "Exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A during fetal life or in adulthood alters maternal behavior in mice". Environ. Health Perspect. 110 Suppl 3: 415–22. PMID 12060838. PMC 1241192. http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2002/suppl-3/415-422palanza/abstract.html. 
  103. ^ Kubo K, Arai O, Omura M, Watanabe R, Ogata R, Aou S (2003). "Low dose effects of bisphenol A on sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior in rats". Neurosci. Res. 45 (3): 345–56. doi:10.1016/S0168-0102(02)00251-1. PMID 12631470. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0168010202002511. 
  104. ^ Taylor JA, Welshons WV, Vom Saal FS (February 2008). "No effect of route of exposure (oral; subcutaneous injection) on plasma bisphenol A throughout 24h after administration in neonatal female mice". Reprod. Toxicol. 25 (2): 169–76. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2008.01.001. PMID 18295446. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0890-6238(08)00002-6. Retrieved 2008-05-05. 
  105. ^ EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1988. Oral RfD Assessment: Bisphenol A. Integrated Risk Information System.
  106. ^ Ryan, B.; Hotchkiss, A.; Crofton, K.; Gray Jr, L. (2010). "In utero and lactational exposure to bisphenol A, in contrast to ethinyl estradiol, does not alter sexually dimorphic behavior, puberty, fertility, and anatomy of female LE rats". Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 114 (1): 133–148. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfp266. PMID 19864446.  edit
  107. ^ Sharpe, R. M. (2010). "Is it time to end concerns over the estrogenic effects of bisphenol A?". Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 114 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfp299. PMID 20147444.  edit
  108. ^ vom Saal, F. S. (2010). "Flawed Experimental Design Reveals the Need for Guidelines Requiring Appropriate Positive Controls in Endocrine Disruption Research.". Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfq048. PMID 20164146.  edit
  109. ^ a b c d Matsushima A, Kakuta Y, Teramoto T, Koshiba T, Liu X, Okada H, Tokunaga T, Kawabata S, Kimura M, Shimohigashi Y (October 2007). "Structural evidence for endocrine disruptor bisphenol A binding to human nuclear receptor ERR gamma". J. Biochem. 142 (4): 517–24. doi:10.1093/jb/mvm158. PMID 17761695. 
  110. ^ Takeda Y, Liu X, Sumiyoshi M, Matsushima A, Shimohigashi M, Shimohigashi Y (July 2009). "Placenta expressing the greatest quantity of bisphenol A receptor ERR{gamma} among the human reproductive tissues: Predominant expression of type-1 ERRgamma isoform". J. Biochem. 146 (1): 113–22. doi:10.1093/jb/mvp049. PMID 19304792. 
  111. ^ "Environmental Working Group". http://www.ewg.org/reports/bisphenola. Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  112. ^ Health Canada. "Survey of Bisphenol A in Canned Drink Products". http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/packag-emball/bpa/bpa_survey-enquete-can-eng.php. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  113. ^ Lang IA Galloway TS, Scarlett A, Henley WE, Depledge M, Wallace, Robert B, Melzer, D (2008). "Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration With Medical Disorders and Laboratory Abnormalities in Adults". JAMA 300 (300): 1303. doi:10.1001/jama.300.11.1303. PMID 18799442. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/300.11.1303. 
  114. ^ Fukazawa, H.; Hoshino, K.; Shiozawa, T.; Matsushita, H.; Terao, Y. (2001). "Identification and quantification of chlorinated bisphenol a in wastewater from wastepaper recycling plants". Chemosphere 44 (5): 973–979. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00507-5. PMID 11513431.  edit
  115. ^ Raloff, Janet (2009-10-07). "Concerned About BPA: Check Your Receipts". Society for Science and the Public. http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/48084/title/Concerned_about_BPA_Check_your_receipts. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  116. ^ Gehring, Martin; Tennhardt, L., Vogel, D., Weltin, D., Bilitewski, B. (2004) (PDF). Bisphenol A Contamination of Wastepaper, Cellulose and Recycled Paper Products. Waste Management and the Environment II. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, vol. 78. WIT Press. http://rcswww.urz.tu-dresden.de/~gehring/deutsch/dt/vortr/040929ge.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-15. Lay summary. 
  117. ^ Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Caudill SP, Ekong J, Needham LL (2005). "Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol in a human reference population". Environ. Health Perspect. 113 (4): 391–5. PMID 15811827. PMC 1278476. http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/members/2004/7534/7534.html. 
  118. ^ Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong LY, Reidy JA, Needham LL (2008). "Exposure of the U.S. population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol: 2003–2004". Environ. Health Perspect. 116 (1): 39–44. doi:10.1289/ehp.10753. PMID 18197297. 
  119. ^ "European Food Safety Authority Opinion" (Abstract). http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/science/afc/afc_opinions/bisphenol_a.html. Retrieved 2007-02-28. 
  120. ^ Bisphenol A - United States Environmental Protection Agency
  121. ^ Carwile JL, Luu HT, Bassett LS, Driscoll DA, Yuan C, Chang JY, Ye X, Calafat AM, Michels KB (2009). "Use of Polycarbonate Bottles and Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations". Environ. Health Perspect.. doi:10.1289/ehp.0900604. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2009/0900604/0900604.pdf. 
  122. ^ War of the Sciences Air Date: Week of September 19, 2008 - Ashley Ahearn, Living on Earth
  123. ^ FDA Weighs Safety Of Bisphenol A
  124. ^ "Cord Blood Contaminants in Minority Newborns". Environmental Working Group. 2009. http://www.ewg.org/files/2009-Minority-Cord-Blood-Report.pdf. Retrieved 02 December 2009. 
  125. ^ a b Ackerman, L.; Noonan, G.; Heiserman, W.; Roach, J.; Limm, W.; Begley, T. (2010). "Determination of Bisphenol a in U.S. Infant Formulas: Updated Methods and Concentrations". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 58 (4): 100126132743092. doi:10.1021/jf903959u. PMID 20102208.  edit
  126. ^ Cao, X.; Dufresne, G.; Belisle, S.; Clement, G.; Falicki, M.; Beraldin, F.; Rulibikiye, A. (2008). "Levels of bisphenol a in canned liquid infant formula products in Canada and dietary intake estimates". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 56 (17): 7919–7924. doi:10.1021/jf8008712. PMID 18702469.  edit
  127. ^ Gary Ginsberg and Deborah C. Rice (November 2009). "Does Rapid Metabolism Ensure Negligible Risk from Bisphenol A?". Environmental Health Perspectives 117 (11): 1639–1643. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2009/0901010/0901010.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
  128. ^ Verner, M.; Magher, T.; Haddad, S. (2009). "High concentrations of commonly used drugs can inhibit the in vitro glucuronidation of bisphenol a and nonylphenol in rats". Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems 00: 091116055959032. doi:10.3109/00498250903383334. PMID 19916736.  edit
  129. ^ Barry, Carolyn (2009-08-20). "Plastic Breaks Down in Ocean, After All -- And Fast". National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/08/090820-plastic-decomposes-oceans-seas.html. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  130. ^ Fox, J.E., J. Gulledge, E. Engelhaupt, M.E. Burrow & J.A. McLachlan (2007). "Pesticides reduce symbiotic efficiency of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and host plants". Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104 (24): 10282–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611710104. PMID 17548832. 
  131. ^ Bisphenol A Fact Sheet, Government of Canada. Assessed April 19, 2008.
  132. ^ Oehlmann, J.; Schulte-Oehlmann, U.; Kloas, W.; Jagnytsch, O.; Lutz, I.; Kusk, O.; Wollenberger, L.; Santos, M. et al. (Jul 2009). "A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife". Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 364 (1526): 2047–2062. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0242. ISSN 0962-8436. PMID 19528055.  edit
  133. ^ "Baby’s bottles and bisphenol A". New Zealand Food Safety Authority. May 2008. http://www.nzfsa.govt.nz/consumers/chemicals-nutrients-additives-and-toxins/bisphenol-a.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  134. ^ Morrissey, Susan R. (April 23, 2008). "Banning Bisphenol A In Baby Bottles: Canada moves toward restricting the chemical; Congress proposes similar legislation". Chemical and Engineering News. http://pubs.acs.org/cen/news/86/i17/8617news4.html. .
  135. ^ Government of Canada Takes Action on Another Chemical of Concern: Bisphenol A, Chemical Substances, Health Canada. Accessed April 19, 2008.
  136. ^ The government will evaluate whether the ban will become law in October 2008. "Government of Canada Takes Action on Another Chemical of Concern: Bisphenol A". http://www.chemicalsubstanceschimiques.gc.ca/challenge-defi/bisphenol-a_e.html. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  137. ^ Wal-Mart to pull baby bottles made with chemical BPA: Washington Post, Market Watch, April 18, 2008.
  138. ^ Bottle Maker to Stop Using Plastic Linked to Health Concerns, New York Times, April 18, 2008.
  139. ^ "Toys 'R' Us to phase out bisphenol A baby bottles". CBC News. 2008-04-22. http://www.cbc.ca/consumer/story/2008/04/22/bottles-bpa.html. Retrieved 2008-04-22. 
  140. ^ Canoe.ca, Politics: Bisphenol A water-bottle removal expanding among Canadian retailers
  141. ^ "Toxic status possible for bisphenol A in Canada". CBC News. 2008-10-17. http://www.cbc.ca/health/story/2008/10/17/bpa-toxic.html. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  142. ^ "Canada moves to ban bisphenol A in baby bottles". CBC News. 2008-10-18. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2008/10/18/bpa-regulations.html. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  143. ^ Rapporteur: United Kingdom. (2008). JRC.it Updated European Risk Assessment Report: 4,4’-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL (BISPHENOL-A) FINAL APPROVED VERSION AWAITING FOR PUBLICATION. Press release.
  144. ^ Europa.eu
  145. ^ Beronius; Rudén, C.; Hanberg, A.; Håkansson, H. (2009). "Health risk assessment procedures for endocrine disrupting compounds within different regulatory frameworks in the European Union". Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP 55 (2): 111–122. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2009.05.019. PMID 19500631.  edit
  146. ^ "Council conclusions on combination effects of chemicals". Brussels: Council of The European Union. 22 December 2009. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/NewsWord/en/envir/112043.doc. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  147. ^ "Bisphenol A update: EFSA calls meeting and invites contributions from Member States". European Food Safety Authority. 2 February 2010. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/cef100202.htm. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  148. ^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". http://nieuws.be.msn.com/buitenland/artikel.aspx?cp-documentid=152421106. Retrieved 8 March 2010. 
  149. ^ "Proposition de Loi 595" (in French). 2009-07-27. http://www.senat.fr/leg/ppl08-595.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-04. 
  150. ^ "Bisphenol A: AFSSA recommends the development of new assessment methods". 5 February 2010. http://www.afssa.fr/PM9100B6I0.htm. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  151. ^ "Opinion of the French Food Safety Agency on the critical analysis of the results of a study of the toxicity of bisphenol A on the development of the nervous system together with other recently-published data on its toxic effects". French Food Safety Agency. 29 January 2010. http://www.afssa.fr/cgi-bin/countdocs.cgi?Documents/MCDA2009sa0270EN.pdf. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  152. ^ Bund.de (German)
  153. ^ "Schnuller geben hormonell wirksames Bisphenol A ab. BUND fordert Verbot der Chemikalie für Babyartikel" (in german). http://www.bund.net/nc/bundnet/presse/pressemitteilungen/detail/zurueck/pressemitteilungen/artikel/schnuller-geben-hormonell-wirksames-bisphenol-a-ab-bund-fordert-verbot-der-chemikalie-fuer-babyarti. Retrieved 2009-10-15. 
  154. ^ "Chemikalie in Schnullern entdeckt" (in german). 2009-10-01. http://www.derwesten.de/nachrichten/wp/2009/10/1/news-135346902/detail.html. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  155. ^ "Bisphenol-A: Kehrtwende" (in German). MedizinAuskunft. 4 November 2009. http://www.medizinauskunft.de/artikel/aktuell/2009/04_11_bisphenol_a.php. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  156. ^ VWA.nl (Dutch)
  157. ^ Admin.ch (German)
  158. ^ Smith, Rebecca (December 1, 2009). "Ban chemical linked to cancer in baby bottles: campaigners". Telegraph. http://www.nomorebpa.org.uk/news/US_Acts_On_BPA_And_Baby%20_Bottles.php. Retrieved 16 February 2010. 
  159. ^ "US Acts on BPA and Baby Bottles while UK Food Standards Agency dismisses concerns". Breast Cancer UK. 18 January 2009. http://www.nomorebpa.org.uk/news/US_Acts_On_BPA_And_Baby%20_Bottles.php. Retrieved 16 February 2010. 
  160. ^ a b Layton, Lindsey (September 16, 2008). "Study Links Chemical BPA to Health Problems". Washington Post. pp. A03. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2008/09/16/ST2008091601215.html?sid=ST2008091601215&s_pos=list. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  161. ^ Matthew Perrone (12 March 2009). "Sunoco restricts sales of chemical used in bottles". Associated Press. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5gOPl1ZUc7b5Zxrt5oXVoyFC24GTQD96SMQH80. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  162. ^ No BPA For Baby Bottles In U.S.6 Makers Announce Decision on Chemical - By Lyndsey Layton, March 6, 2009; Page A06, Washington Post
  163. ^ County bans baby bottle plastic with BPA By Karen Forman, March 05, 2009, northshoreoflongisland.com
  164. ^ Bills Would Ban BPA From Food and Drink Containers, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, March 14, 2009; Page A04, Washington Post
  165. ^ Scientists reject FDA assertion of BPA's safety
  166. ^ Sternberg, Bob von (2009-05-08). "State bans chemical in baby bottles". Star Tribune. http://www.startribune.com/lifestyle/health/44586267.html. Retrieved 2009-07-11. 
  167. ^ "Chicago BPA ban: Chicago bans sale of baby bottles, sippy cups with dangerous chemical ... linked to diabetes, cancer and other illnesses". 2009-05-14. http://archives.chicagotribune.com/2009/may/14/local/chi-chicago-bpa-baby-bottles-14may14. Retrieved 2009-08-04. 
  168. ^ "Chicago to ban BPA baby bottles". USA Today. 2009-05-13. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2009-05-13-bpa-babybottles_N.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  169. ^ Strategy Being Devised To Protect Use of BPA
  170. ^ FDA to Revisit Decision on Safety of BPA
  171. ^ Bodach, Jill (2009-06-05). "Connecticut first state to ban BPA". The Hour (The Hour Publishing Co.). http://www.thehour.com/story/470418. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  172. ^ "Calif. regulators will not list Bisphenol A under Prop. 65, call for more study". http://www.latimes.com/business/nationworld/wire/sns-ap-us-california-bpa,0,3478515.story. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  173. ^ California won't warn public about bisphenol A
  174. ^ "Public Health Advisory Regarding Bisphenol A (BPA)". Commonwealth of Massachusetts. http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=eohhs2pressrelease&L=4&L0=Home&L1=Government&L2=Departments+and+Divisions&L3=Department+of+Public+Health&sid=Eeohhs2&b=pressrelease&f=090803_bpa_advisory&csid=Eeohhs2. Retrieved 2009-08-04. 
  175. ^ "BPA industry fights back", from Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, August 23, 2009
  176. ^ "'Watchdog' advocates for BPA", from Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, August 23, 2009
  177. ^ "Existing Chemical Action Plans". http://www.epa.gov/oppt/existingchemicals/pubs/ecactionpln.html. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  178. ^ Sarewitz D (December 2009). "World view: A tale of two sciences". Nature 462 (7273): 566. doi:10.1038/462566a. PMID 19956236. 
  179. ^ "Concern over canned foods". Consumer Reports. December 2009. http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine-archive/december-2009/food/bpa/overview/bisphenol-a-ov.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  180. ^ "Significant bisphenol A levels found in canned food". 2009-11-04. http://www.foodmag.com.au/Article/Significant-bisphenol-A-levels-found-in-canned-food/504393.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  181. ^ "Update on Bisphenol A for Use in Food Contact Applications: January 2010". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 15 January 2010. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ucm197739.htm. Retrieved 15 January 2010. 
  182. ^ "Bisphenol A (BPA) Information for Parents". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. 15 January 2010. http://www.hhs.gov/safety/bpa/. Retrieved 15 January 2010. 
  183. ^ Kissinger, Meg (14 February 2010). "Regulator waffles on bisphenol A". Journal Sentinel. http://www.jsonline.com/watchdog/watchdogreports/84321857.html. Retrieved 17 February 2010. 
  184. ^ "EPA delays action on suspect chemical". United Press International. 14 February 2010. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2010/02/14/EPA-delays-action-on-suspect-chemical/UPI-37321266190180/. Retrieved 17 February 2010. 
  185. ^ Koch, Wendy (16 February 2010). "Bans sought for chemical BPA in baby, toddler products". USA Today. http://content.usatoday.com/communities/greenhouse/post/2010/02/bans-sought-for-chemical-bpa-in-baby-toddler-products/1. Retrieved 17 February 2010. 

External links

  • Vogel, S. A. (2009). ."The Politics of Plastics: the Making and Unmaking of Bisphenol A "Safety"". American Journal of Public Health 99: S559. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2008.159228.^ Her dissertation, “Politics of Plastic: the economic, political and scientific history of bisphenol A,” will be completed in the spring of 2008.
    • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "APHA" refers to a color scale promulgated by the American Public Health Association for water.
    • Method and system for bisphenol a production using controlled turbulence - Patent 5874644 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The publication of these studies set off a storm of controversy about the safety of bisphenol A at low doses.
    • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

    .PMID 19890158.  edit
  • Plastic Not Fantastic with Bisphenol A (www.scientificamerican.com)
  • US FDA statement on bisphenol A from 2008
  • Myers, John Peterson; et al. (March 2009).^ Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al.
    • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ J. E. Goodman et al., "An updated weight of the evidence evaluation of reproductive and developmental effects of low doses of bisphenol A," Crit Rev Toxicol 36, no.
    • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Her dissertation, “Politics of Plastic: the economic, political and scientific history of bisphenol A,” will be completed in the spring of 2008.
    • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

    ."Why Public Health Agencies Cannot Depend on Good Laboratory Practices as a Criterion for Selecting Data: The Case of Bisphenol A".^ S. A. Vogel The Politics of Plastics: The Making and Unmaking of Bisphenol A "Safety" Am J Public Health, November 1, 2009; 99(S3): S559 - S566.
    • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For a summary of exposure data, see M. V. Maffini et al., "Endocrine disruptors and reproductive health: the case of bisphenol-A," Mol Cell Endocrinol 254-255 (2006): 179-66.
    • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ PhillyBurbs.com: Health agencies remain concerned over bisphenol-A .
    • PhillyBurbs.com:  Health agencies remain concerned over bisphenol-A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.phillyburbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Environmental Health Perspectives 17 (3): 309–315.^ Environmental Health Perspectives 113: 431–439.
    • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Environmental Health Perspectives 113: 192–200.
    • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Environmental Health Perspectives 117: 784–789.
    • PLoS ONE: Association of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration with Heart Disease: Evidence from NHANES 2003/06 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    .http://www.ehponline.org/members/2008/0800173/0800173.html.
     
  • Hazard in a bottle Attempt to regulate BPA in California defeated (from The Economist)
  • Bisphenol-A News & Products News commentary on BPA Containing Products
  • Bondesson, M.; Jönsson, J.; Pongratz, I.; Olea, N.; Cravedi, J.; Zalko, D.; Håkansson, H.; Halldin, K. et al.^ Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al.
    • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ J. E. Goodman et al., "An updated weight of the evidence evaluation of reproductive and developmental effects of low doses of bisphenol A," Crit Rev Toxicol 36, no.
    • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ There has been recent concern that BPA may exhibit weak antiandrogen activity, although Laudenbach et al .
    • Three-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in CD Sprague-Dawley Rats -- Tyl et al. 68 (1): 121 -- Toxicological Sciences 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    (Jul 2009). ."A CASCADE of effects of bisphenol A". Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) 28 (4): 563–567. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2009.06.014.^ J. E. Goodman et al., "An updated weight of the evidence evaluation of reproductive and developmental effects of low doses of bisphenol A," Crit Rev Toxicol 36, no.
    • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ PubMed ] Talsness C, Fialkowski O, Gericke C, Merker H-J, Chahoud I. The effects of low and high doses of bisphenol A on the reproductive system of female and male rat offspring.
    • An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Long-term adverse effects of neonatal exposure to bisphenol A on the murine female reproductive tract."
    • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

    ISSN 0890-6238. .PMID 19577634.  edit
  • How to Protect Your Baby from BPA (Bisphenol A)
  • Layton, Lyndsey (23 February 2010).^ In human fat tissues, bisphenol A (BPA) suppresses levels of a key hormone, adiponectin, that protects people from heart attacks and Type II diabetes.
    • Bisphenol A exposure can increase risk of diabetes and heart attacks on Environmental Expert 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.environmental-expert.com [Source type: News]

    ^ BPA commonly is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics used as protective coatings on food containers and in plastic baby bottles—applications accounting for about 63 percent of its use.
    • Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants -- Joskow et al. 137 (3): 353 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

    "Alternatives to BPA containers not easy for U.S. foodmakers to find". Washington Post. .http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/02/22/AR2010022204830.html.^ AM PST by ThePatriotsFlag (http://www.thepatriotsflag.com - The Patriot's Flag) [ Post Reply .
    • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ AM PST by wolfcreek (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lsd7DGqVSIc) [ Post Reply .
    • FDA now says BPA a health concern 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See http://www.endocrinedisruption.com/.
    • SKAPP :: Case Studies in Science Policy :: Battles Over Bisphenol A 10 February 2010 12:19 UTC www.defendingscience.org [Source type: Academic]

    Retrieved 23 February 2010
    . 

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bisphenol A, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message