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Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411)
.The Black Death was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. It is widely thought to have been an outbreak of bubonic plague caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, but this view has recently been challenged.^ The cause of death proved to be plague.

^ From: cainmarko666 [cain marko] Date: 20-Jan-2009 21:29 The Black Death (also known as The Black Plague or Bubonic Plague), was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia pestis (Plague), but recently attributed by some to other diseases.

^ Shrewsbury, History of Bubonic Plague , chap.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usually thought to have started in Central Asia, it had reached the Crimea by 1346. From there, probably carried by fleas residing on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships, it spread throughout the Mediterranean and Europe.^ (I) Plague can be carried by fleas from an unhealthy rat.

^ Some historians believe the pandemic began in China or Central Asia in the late 1320s or 1330s, and during the next years merchants and soldiers carried it over the caravan routes until in 1346 it reached the Crimea in southern Russia.

^ In the 14th century the plague spreads throughout Europe and carries off whole village populations.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

.The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population, reducing the world's population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400. This has been seen as creating a series of religious, social and economic upheavals which had profound effects on the course of European history.^ In Florence, wills per annum increased threefold after the Black Death and in Tournai fourfold, despite shrinking populations in both places.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Humans have no natural immunity to modern bubonic plague, whereas populations of Western Europe adapted rapidly to the pathogen of the Black Death for at least the first hundred years.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all the countries named plague appears to behave very much as it used to do in Europe from the time of the Black Death onwards.

.It took 150 years for Europe's population to recover.^ In Mediterranean Europe and Italy, the South of France and Spain, where plague ran for about four years consecutively, it was probably closer to 70% to 75% of the population.
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.The plague returned at various times, resulting in a larger number of deaths, until it left Europe in the 19th century.^ Plague in the 19th Century .

^ In the 14th century the plague spreads throughout Europe and carries off whole village populations.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ At yesterday's meeting of the Board of Publie Health a return was presented showing that up to that date 131 cases of plague, with 36 deaths, had occurred in New ...

Contents

Overview

Inspired by Black Death, The Dance of Death is an allegory on the universality of death and a common painting motif in late medieval period.
.The Black Death is categorized into three specific types of plague: bubonic plague (infection in the lymph nodes, or [hence] buboes), pneumonic plague (the infection in the lungs), and septicemic plague (the infection in the blood and the most deadly of the three).^ It worked on bubonic Plague but not pneumonic.
  • History of Plagues 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC uhavax.hartford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In people, plague has three forms: Bubonic plague, infection of the lymph glands; septicemia plague, infection of the blood; and pneumonic plague, infection of the lungs."

^ Murine or silvatic Plague, buboes, bubonic Plague, septicemic Plague, pneumonic Plague.
  • History of Plagues 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC uhavax.hartford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scientists and historians at the beginning of the 20th century assumed that the Black Death was an outbreak of the same diseases, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis and spread by fleas which primarily made use of highly mobile small animal populations like that of the black rat (Rattus rattus).^ This bacterium, carried and spread by fleas, is the cause of the various forms of the disease plague.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists and historians at the beginning of the twentieth century assumed that the Black Death was an outbreak of the same disease, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis and spread by fleas with the help of animals like the black rat .
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^ From contemporary descriptions, the disease is believed to have been bubonic plague, which is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis .....
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.Once infected by the Yersinia pestis bacterium, it is estimated that victims would die within three to seven days.^ All of this occurs within three to seven days.
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^ Most victims died within four to seven days after infection.
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^ These victims died within five days.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .However, this view has recently been questioned by some scientists and historians,[2] and some researchers, examining historical records of the spread of disease,[3][4] believe that the illness was, in fact, a viral hemorrhagic fever.^ However, this view has recently been questioned by scientists and historians, as described in section 3.2.
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^ Epidemic outbreaks of other diseases - for instance, cholera, diphtheria and typhoid fever - are often preceded and followed by the prevalence of mild illness of an allied type; and t he true significance of this fact is one of the most important problems in epidemiology.

^ Historian William McNeill noted that voluminous Chinese records on disease and social disruption survive from this period, but no one has studied these sources in depth.
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.Some historians believe the pandemic began in China or Central Asia (one such location is Lake Issyk Kul)[5] in the lungs of the bobak variety of marmot, spreading to fleas, to rats, and eventually to humans.^ Some historians believe the pandemic began in China or Central Asia in the late 1320s or 1330s, and during the next years merchants and soldiers carried it over the caravan routes until in 1346 it reached the Crimea in southern Russia.

^ As of January 1, 2001, it has not been incontrovertibly established that that variant of the disease can be spread from human-to-human, although there may have been one or two such cases.
  • History of Plagues 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC uhavax.hartford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fortunately, the bubonic form, caused by fleas from rats, had not seemed to spread to other villages as epizootics did not occur in outlying areas of the colony.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .In the late 1320s or 1330s, merchants and soldiers carried it over the caravan routes until in 1346 it reached the Crimea in South Eastern Europe.^ Some historians believe the pandemic began in China or Central Asia in the late 1320s or 1330s, and during the next years merchants and soldiers carried it over the caravan routes until in 1346 it reached the Crimea in southern Russia.

.Other scholars believe the plague was endemic in that area.^ Other scholars believe the plague was endemic in southern Russia.

^ Other areas which escaped the plague were isolated mountainous regions (e.g.
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.In either case, from Crimea the plague spread to Western Europe and North Africa during the 1340s.^ In either case, from Crimea the plague spread to Western Europe and North Africa during the 1340s.

^ In the 14th century the plague spreads throughout Europe and carries off whole village populations.
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^ Finally it spread to north-western Russia in 1351; however, the plague largely spared some parts of Europe, including the Kingdom of Poland and isolated parts of Belgium and The Netherlands .
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[7][8] .It also spread eastward into the Yangtse river valley, and the resulting epidemics, ignored by the Mongol government, ignited a popular rebellion which brought down the Yuan dynasty.^ This forced the Committee to destroy more dwellings than it had originally planned, resulting in increased resistance as the plague-fighting campaign spread into Usshertown.
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.February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The total number of deaths worldwide is estimated at 75 million people,[9] approximately 25–50 million of which occurred in Europe.^ The total number of deaths worldwide is estimated at 75 million people, approximately 2550 million of which occurred in Europe.

^ Estimates of the worldwide mortality for this epidemic range from 25 million to 50 million.
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^ The total number of deaths worldwide from the pandemic is estimated at 75 million people; there were an estimated 10 million deaths in Europe alone.
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[10][11] .The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population.^ The Black Death is estimated to have killed one fifth of Europe's population .
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^ Arguing on the basis of a neo-Malthusian economics, revisionist historians recast the Black Death as a necessary and long overdue corrective to an overpopulated Europe” .
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^ In all the countries named plague appears to behave very much as it used to do in Europe from the time of the Black Death onwards.

[12][13][14] It may have reduced the world's population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400.[15]
.The plague is thought to have returned every generation with varying virulence and mortality until the 1700s.^ The plague is thought to have returned every generation with varying virulence and mortalities until the 1700s.

^ The same disease is thought to have returned to Europe every generation with varying virulence and mortalities until the 1700s.
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^ In 1877 plague also occurred at Shuster in south-west Persia, probably conveyed by pilgrims returning from Irak, and caused great mortality.

[16] .During this period, more than 100 plague epidemics swept across Europe.^ During this period, more than 100 plague epidemics swept across Europe.
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^ But across England and Europe, later chroniclers continued to remark that plague killed children first and foremost.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the plague of 1363 claimed a third of those friars killed in 1348, the third plague of 1374 claimed little more than a twentieth (5), and after 1400, no plague killed more than that fraction.
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[4] .On its return in 1603, the plague killed 38,000 Londoners.^ In the Great Plague of London they were believed to carry the infection, and were killed in vast numbers.

^ The works of English physicians of this period are of little medical value; but Lodge's Treatise of the Plague (London, 1603) deserves mention.

^ BUBONIC PLAGUE. RAGING IN THE PUNJAUB. 2,000 DEATHS DAILY. LONDON, March 23.

[17] .Other notable 17th-century outbreaks were the Italian Plague of 1629–1631, and the Great Plague of Seville (1647–1652), the Great Plague of London (1665–1666),[18] and the Great Plague of Vienna (1679).^ The Italian Plague of 1629-1631 was a series of outbreaks of bubonic plague from 1629 through 1631 in northern Italy.
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^ Other notable 17th century outbreaks were the Italian Plague of 1629-1631 , the Great Plague of Seville (1647-1652), the Great Plague of London (1665–1666), [5] the Great Plague of Vienna (1679).
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^ The plague repeatedly returned to haunt Europe and the Mediterranean throughout the fourteenth to seventeenth centuries, and although bubonic plague still occurs in isolated cases today, the Great Plague of London in 1665 – 1666 is generally recognized as one of the last major outbreaks.
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.There is some controversy over the identity of the disease, but in its virulent form, after the Great Plague of Marseille in 1720–1722,[19] the Great Plague of 1738 (which hit eastern Europe), and the Russian plague of 1770-1772, it seems to have disappeared from Europe during the 19th century.^ The plague was not eradicated until the 19th century.
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^ There is some controversy over the identity of the disease, but in its virulent form, after the Great Plague of Marseille in 1720–1722 [6] and the 1771 plague in Moscow it seems to have disappeared from Europe in the 18th century.
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^ Plague in the 19th Century .

.The 14th-century eruption of the Black Death had a drastic effect on Europe's population, irrevocably changing the social structure.^ The fourteenth-century eruption of the Black Death had a drastic effect on Europe's population, irrevocably changing Europe's social structure.
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^ The Black Death is estimated to have killed one fifth of Europe's population .
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^ Arguing on the basis of a neo-Malthusian economics, revisionist historians recast the Black Death as a necessary and long overdue corrective to an overpopulated Europe” .
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.It was, arguably, a serious blow to the Catholic Church, and resulted in widespread persecution of minorities such as Jews, foreigners, beggars, and lepers.^ It was a serious blow to the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in widespread persecution of minorities such as Jews, foreigners, beggars and lepers.
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^ This spelled trouble for minority populations of all sorts, as some Christians targeted "various groups such as Jews, friars, foreigners, beggars, pilgrims", [60] lepers [61] [62] and gypsies, thinking that they were to blame for the crisis.
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.The uncertainty of daily survival has been seen as creating a general mood of morbidity, influencing people to "live for the moment", as illustrated by Giovanni Boccaccio in The Decameron (1353).^ Giovanni Boccaccio, Decameron , Vittore Branca, ed.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

Naming

.Medieval people called the catastrophe of the 14th century either the "Great Pestilence"' or the "Great Plague".[21] Writers contemporary to the plague referred to the event as the "Great Mortality". Swedish and Danish chronicles of the 16th century described the events as "black" for the first time, not to describe the late-stage sign of the disease, in which the sufferer's skin would blacken due to subepidermal hemorrhages (purpura), and the extremities would darken with gangrene (acral necrosis), as the term is more likely to refer to black in the sense of glum, lugubrious, or dreadful as to denote the terribleness and gloom of the events.^ It has been popularly thought that the name came from a striking late-stage sign of the disease, in which the sufferer's skin would blacken due to subepidermal hemorrhages ( purpura ), and the extremities would darken with gangrene ( acral necrosis ).
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^ The 16th century was not more free from plague than the 15th.

^ Contemporary writers then referred to the event as the "Great Mortality"; the term "Black Death" was introduced for the first time in 1833.
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[22] .The German physician and medical writer Justus Hecker took that idea when he described the catastrophe in 1832[21] in his publication "Der schwarze Tod im vierzehnten Jahrhundert".^ Der ‘Schwarze Tod’ führt die Kinozuschauer in eine dunkle und schicksalhafte Zeit zurück… .
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ Hirsch (Berlin, 1865); R. Hoeniger, Der schwarze Tod in Deutschland (Berlin, 1882).

^ Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod .
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.The work was translated into English the following year, and under the influence of the cholera epidemic of that time, "The Black Death in the 14th century" gained widespread attention which coined the term Schwarzer Tod and Black Death in the German and English speaking worlds, respectively.^ Translation into English by Evi .
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^ Translated into English by Gerda .
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ Translated into English by Evi .
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

Migration

Genoese (red) and Venetian (green) maritime trade routes in the Mediterranean and Black Sea
The Black Death spread rapidly along the major European sea and land trade routes.
.The plague disease, generally thought to be caused by Yersinia pestis, is enzootic (commonly present) in populations of ground rodents (most specifically, the bobac variety of marmot)[23] in Central Asia, but it is not entirely clear where the 14th-century pandemic started.^ The plague disease, caused by Yersinia pestis , is enzootic in populations of ground rodents in central Asia, but it is not entirely clear where the fourteenth-century pandemic started.
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^ From contemporary descriptions, the disease is believed to have been bubonic plague, which is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis .....
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From: cainmarko666 [cain marko] Date: 20-Jan-2009 21:29 The Black Death (also known as The Black Plague or Bubonic Plague), was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia pestis (Plague), but recently attributed by some to other diseases.

.The popular theory places the first cases in the steppes of Central Asia, although some speculate that it originated around northern India, and others, such as the historian Michael W. Dols, argue that the historical evidence concerning epidemics in the Mediterranean and specifically the Plague of Justinian point to a probability that the Black Death originated in Africa and spread to Central Asia, where it then became entrenched among the rodent population.^ The most popular theory places the first cases in the steppes of Central Asia , though some speculate that it originated around northern India , and others, like scholar Michael W. Dols, argue that the historical evidence concerning epidemics in the Mediterranean and specifically the Plague of Justinian point to a probability that the Black Death originated in Africa and spread to central Asia, where it then became entrenched among the rodent population.
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^ He will have his first real role in "Black Death".
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^ Plague - LoveToKnow 1911 "Black Death" .
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[24] .Nevertheless, from Central Asia it was carried east and west along the Silk Road, by Mongol armies and traders making use of the opportunities of free passage within the Mongol Empire offered by the Pax Mongolica.^ Nevertheless, from central Asia it was carried east and west along the Silk Road , by Mongol armies and traders making use of the opportunities of free passage within the Mongol Empire offered by the Pax Mongolica .
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^ After a protracted siege during which the Mongol army was reportedly withering from the disease, they might have decided to use the infected corpses as a biological weapon .
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^ It is probable that the Mongols and merchant caravans inadvertently brought the plague from central Asia to the Middle East and Europe.
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.It was reportedly first introduced to Europe at the trading city of Caffa in the Crimea in 1347. After a protracted siege, during which the Mongol army under Jani Beg was suffering the disease, they catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls to infect the inhabitants.^ It was reportedly first introduced to Europe at the trading city of Caffa in the Crimea in 1347.
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^ After a protracted siege, during which the Mongol army under Janibeg was suffering the disease, they catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls to infect the inhabitants.
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^ The corpses were catapulted over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants.
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.The Genoese traders fled, taking the plague by ship into Sicily and the south of Europe, when it spread.^ Robert Gottfried questioned the accuracy of Gabriele de Mussis's account of the plague's spread in 1347, when soldiers of the Golden Horde lobbed infected bodies into the besieged Genoese trading port of Caffa on the Black Sea.
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^ When, however, in 1575 a new wave of plague passed over Europe, its origin was referred to Constantinople, whence it was said to have spread by sea to Malta , Sicily and Italy, and by land through the Austrian territories to Germany.

^ Plague got into this quarter, but did not spread there; on the other hand, it appeared in other and vastly superior parts of the town.

[25] .Whether or not this hypothesis is accurate, it is clear that several pre-existing conditions such as war, famine, and weather contributed to the severity of the Black Death.^ Whether or not this hypothesis is accurate, it is clear that several pre-existing conditions such as war, famine and weather contributed to the severity of the Black Death.
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^ In 2006 a scientific study by Dr. Thomas van Hoof of Utrecht University suggests that the Black Death contributed to the Little Ice Age .
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^ The film poster for "Black Death" is already existing.
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.In China, the 13th century Mongol conquest disrupted farming and trading, and led to widespread famine.^ This war disrupted farming and trading patterns, and led to episodes of widespread famine.
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The population dropped from approximately 120 to 60 million.[26] .The 14th-century plague is estimated to have killed one third of the population of China.^ The Black Death is estimated to have killed one fifth of Europe's population .
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^ Europe in the middle of the 14th century: The plague is killing millions of people.
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^ In the 14th century the plague spreads throughout Europe and carries off whole village populations.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

[27]
.In Europe, the Medieval Warm Period ended sometime towards the end of the 13th century, bringing the "Little Ice Age"[28] and harsher winters with reduced harvests.^ The Medieval warm period ended sometime towards the end of the fourteenth century, bringing harsher winters and reduced harvests.
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^ This was followed by the so-called Little Ice Age, which ended by 1351.
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^ In 2006 a scientific study by Dr. Thomas van Hoof of Utrecht University suggests that the Black Death contributed to the Little Ice Age .
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.In the years 1315 to 1317 a catastrophic famine, known as the Great Famine, struck much of North West Europe.^ In the years 1315 to 1322 a catastrophic famine, known as the Great Famine, struck all of Northern Europe .
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^ The already weak harvests of the north suffered and the seven-year famine ensued.
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^ The many famines preceding the Black Death, even the ‘great hunger’ of 1314 to 1317, did not result in any appreciable reduction in population levels”.
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.It has been argued that the famine came about as the result of a large population growth in the previous centuries, with the result that, in the early 14th century the population began to exceed the number that could be sustained by productive capacity of the land and farmers.^ The famine came about as the result of a large population growth in the previous centuries, with the result that Europe had become overpopulated in the early fourteenth century; the number of Europeans began to exceed the reduced productive capacity of the land and farmers.
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^ In the 14th century the plague spreads throughout Europe and carries off whole village populations.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ The KSOD started after I rebooted and Windows came up and said it could not start properly and had to do a startup repair (took about 10 mins).
  • REVISED: How to fix the Vista KSOD (blacK Screen Of Death) | LogBlog 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.logicitc.com [Source type: General]

[21]
.In Northern Europe, new technological innovations such as the heavy plough and the three-field system were not as effective in clearing new fields for harvest as they were in the Mediterranean because the north had poor, clay-like, soil.^ In Northern Europe, new technological innovations such as the heavy plow and the three-field system were not as effective in clearing new fields for harvest as they were in the Mediterranean because the north had poor, clay-like, soil.
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^ Americans won’t stand for any such madness, because they’ve already had it up to here with what we’ve been fed so far.
  • Marc Cooper » Blog Archive » Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC marccooper.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some say it was because he had a Jewish mistress, but it is more likely that his country needed the skills they possessed.
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[21] .Food shortages and rapidly inflating prices were a fact of life for as much as a century before the plague.^ Food shortages and skyrocketing prices were a fact of life for as much as a century before the plague.
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^ He reasoned that these political circumstances "gave rise to high prices, grain shortages, and famine," which ignited the plague.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On top of all this, the plague's great population reduction brought cheaper land prices, more food for the average peasant, and a relatively large increase in per capita income among the peasantry, if not immediately, in the coming century.
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Wheat, oats, hay and consequently livestock, were all in short supply. .Their scarcity resulted in malnutrition, which increases susceptibility to infections due to weakened immunity.^ The result was a mounting human vulnerability to disease, due to weakened immune systems.
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^ Wheat, oats, hay, and consequently livestock were all in short supply, and their scarcity resulted in hunger and malnutrition.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The European economy entered a vicious circle in which hunger and chronic, low-level debilitating disease reduced the productivity of labourers, and so the grain output was reduced, causing grain prices to increase.^ The European economy entered a vicious circle in which hunger and chronic, low-level debilitating disease reduced the productivity of labourers, and so the grain output suffered, causing grain prices to increase.
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^ The uncharacteristically rapid spread of the plague could be due to respiratory droplet transmission, and low levels of immunity in the European population at that period.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any disease with a low to moderate normal base level incidence rate in the population, but not necessarily constant, is said to be endemic .
  • History of Plagues 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC uhavax.hartford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This situation was worsened when landowners and monarchs such as Edward III of England (r.^ This situation was worsened when landowners and monarchs like Edward I of England (r.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1327–1377) and Philip VI of France (r. 1328–1350), out of a fear that their comparatively high standard of living would decline, raised the fines and rents of their tenants.[21] .Standards of living then fell drastically, diets grew more limited, and Europeans as a whole experienced more health problems.^ Standards of living then fell drastically, diets grew more limited, and Europeans as a whole experienced more health problems.
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^ See Medieval demography for a more complete treatment of this issue and current theories on why improvements in living standards took longer to evolve.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the autumn of 1314, heavy rains began to fall, which led to several years of cold and wet winters.^ In autumn of 1314, heavy rains began to fall which led to several years of cold and wet winters.
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.The already weak harvests of the north suffered and the seven-year famine ensued.^ The already weak harvests of the north suffered and the seven-year famine ensued.
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.The Great Famine was arguably the worst in European history, perhaps reducing the population by more than 10%.^ The Great Famine was the worst in European history, and carried away at least ten percent of the population.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Eastern Europe , by contrast, renewed stringency of laws tied the remaining peasant population more tightly to the land than ever before through serfdom .
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wales suffered heavier losses than the more densely populated plains.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .Records recreated from dendrochronological studies show a hiatus in building construction during the period, as well as a deterioration in climate.^ Historian William McNeill noted that voluminous Chinese records on disease and social disruption survive from this period, but no one has studied these sources in depth.
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^ Studies of English church records indicate an unusually long incubation period in excess of thirty days, which could account for the rapid spread, topping at 5 km/day.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]
.This was the economic and social situation in which the predictor of the coming disaster, a typhoid (contaminated water) epidemic, emerged.^ This was the economic and social situation in which the predictor of the coming disaster, a typhoid (Infected Water) epidemic, emerged.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many thousands died in populated urban centres, most significantly Ypres (now in Belgium).^ Many thousands died in populated urban centres, most significantly Ypres .
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diseases like measles and mumps that ravaged virgin populations are now rarely lethal for even the most susceptible human hosts.
  • History of Plagues 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC uhavax.hartford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Black Death hit the culture of towns and cities disproportionately hard, although rural areas (where most of the population lived) were also significantly affected.
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.In 1318 a pestilence of unknown origin, sometimes identified as anthrax, targeted the animals of Europe, notably sheep and cattle, further reducing the food supply and income of the peasantry.^ In 1318 a pestilence of unknown origin, sometimes identified as anthrax , targeted the animals of Europe, notably sheep and cattle, further reducing the food supply and income of the peasantry.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Causes

Bubonic infection

.
Yersinia pestis seen at 200x magnification.
^ Yersinia pestis seen at 2000x magnification.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bubonic Plague Classification & external resources Yersinia pestis'' seen at 2000x magnification with a fluorescent label.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This bacterium, carried and spread by fleas, is generally thought to have been the cause of millions of deaths.^ This bacterium, carried and spread by fleas, is the cause of the various forms of the disease plague.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This bacterium, carried and spread by fleas, is generally thought to have been the cause of millions of deaths Plague and the ecology of Yersinia pestis in soil, and in rodent and (possibly and importantly) human ectoparasites are reviewed and summarized by Michel Drancourt in modeling sporadic, limited and large plague outbreaks.
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^ In 2001, epidemiologists Susan Scott and Christopher Duncan from Liverpool University proposed the theory that the Black Death might have been caused by an Ebola -like virus , not a bacterium.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]
.Several possible causes have been advanced for the Black Death; the most prevalent is the Bubonic plague theory[31] Efficient transmission of Y. pestis is generally thought to occur only through the bites of fleas whose mid guts become obstructed by replicating Y. pestis several days after feeding on an infected host.^ Bubonic plague theory .
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A case of bubonic plague has occurred in Brisbane.

^ This difference, he argues, ties in with the fact that fleas caused the modern plague and not the Black Death.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This blockage results in starvation and aggressive feeding behaviour by fleas that repeatedly attempt to clear their blockage by regurgitation, resulting in thousands of plague bacteria being flushed into the feeding site, infecting the host.^ The bubonic plague is raging with much severity in the Punjaub in India, half the province being infected.

^ This forces the flea to clear the obstruction that the rapidly multiplying bacteria causes in its distended oesophagus, by driving it back into the bite wound before sucking fresh blood.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After taking a bite from an infected host, a flea must rest in order digest its meal of blood.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, modelling of epizootic plague observed in prairie dogs, suggests that occasional reservoirs of infection such as an infectious carcass, rather than "blocked fleas" are a better explanation for the observed epizootic behaviour of the disease in nature.^ Modelling of epizootic plague observed in prairie dogs suggests that occasional reservoirs of infection such as an infectious carcass, rather than "blocked fleas" are a better explanation for the observed epizootic behaviour of the disease in nature.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To resolve the inconsistencies past and present, scholars such as the bacteriologist J. F. D. Shrewsbury questioned contemporary accounts rather than the disease.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classic flea-borne transmission does not drive plague epizootics in prairie dogs (pdf).
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
.One hypothesis about the epidemiology (the appearance, spread and especially disappearance) of plague from Europe, is that the flea-bearing rodent reservoir of disease was eventually succeeded by another species.^ About eighteen months after its first appearance, the disease disappeared.
  • History of Plagues 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC uhavax.hartford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the second half a still greater decline is observable, and by the third quarter the disease had disappeared or was disappearing from a great part of western Europe.

^ In the 14th century the plague spreads throughout Europe and carries off whole village populations.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

.The Black Rat (Rattus rattus) was originally introduced from Asia to Europe by trade, but was subsequently displaced and succeeded throughout Europe by the bigger Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus).^ The black rat ( Rattus rattus ) was originally introduced from Asia to Europe by trade, but was subsequently displaced and succeeded throughout Europe by the bigger brown rat ( Rattus norvegicus ).
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was reportedly first introduced to Europe at the trading city of Caffa in the Crimea in 1347.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Syphilis spread throughout Europe in the 1490s and was particularly lethal in its original manifestation.
  • History of Plagues 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC uhavax.hartford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The brown rat was not as prone to transmit the germ-bearing fleas to humans in major outbreaks due to it occupying a different ecological niche.^ For example, Simpson believed that Yersinia Pestis could be transmitted through infected rats, infected fleas, and cough sputum , as well as infected food, infected clothes, and through cuts on the feet .
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A hardy rod shaped germ, the Yersinia Pestis has managed to carve out an ecological niche by surviving endemically in rat and squirrel populations around the globe.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33][34] .The dynamic complexities of rat ecology, herd immunity in that reservoir, interaction with human ecology, secondary transmission routes between humans with or without fleas, human herd immunity and changes in each might explain the eruption, dissemination, and re-eruptions of plague that continued for centuries until its (even more) unexplained disappearance.^ The plague was not eradicated until the 19th century.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dynamic complexities of rat ecology, herd immunity in that reservoir, interaction with human ecology, secondary transmission routes between humans with or without fleas, human herd immunity and changes in each might explain the eruption, dissemination, and re-eruptions of plague that continued for centuries until its (even more) unexplained disappearance.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One might even argue that the cultural sophistication of doctors at the turn of the century—their knowledge of the late medieval past 50 —was a factor that delayed for a decade or more their acceptance of the complex rat-flea-human vector in the transmission of modern plague.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The persecution of cats in Europe is often overlooked as a contributing factor in the spread of plague.^ In the 14th century the plague spreads throughout Europe and carries off whole village populations.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ The Genoese traders fled, bringing the plague by ship into Sicily and the south of Europe, whence it spread.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Genoese traders fled, transferring the plague via their ships into the south of Europe, whence it rapidly spread.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In years prior to the outbreak, cats had been vilified and slain en masse, due to their growing popular association with Satan and witches. .The mass slaughter of cats preceding the arrival of infected rats greatly reduced a potential predator of the rat, allowing rat populations to flourish unnaturally.^ A watch should be kept on rats at ports of arrival and on board ships from infected countries.

[35]

Signs and symptoms

The main symptoms of pneumonic plague as illustrated
.The three forms of plague brought an array of signs and symptoms to those infected.^ The three forms of plague brought an array of signs and symptoms to those infected.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The physical signs are those of broncho-pneumonia; oedema of the lungs soon supervenes, and death occurs in three or four days.

^ Three more rats infected with bubonic plague have been caught at Brisbane.

.The septicemic plague is a form of "blood poisoning," and pneumonic plague is an airborne plague that attacks the lungs before the rest of the body.^ The septicaemic plague is a form of blood poisoning, and pneumonic plague is an airborne plague that attacks the lungs before the rest of the body.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rats brought up blood, and the body of one examined after death by Dr Francis showed an affection of the lungs.'

^ Some scientists feel that this form of Plague can even be carried by either the common human flea or the body louse.
  • History of Plagues 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC uhavax.hartford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The classic sign of bubonic plague was the appearance of buboes in the groin, the neck and armpits, which oozed pus and bled.^ Three of the seven formed boils; all of them were in the neck or behind the ears; none were in the armpits or groin.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From: mencken Date: 19-Jan-2009 18:00 oozing, pus-filled buboes on the arboreal Wogs.

^ If the bubo predominated as a sign, we could still be reasonably comfortable after five centuries that there was not much error in the ascription of a death to plague."
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most victims died within four to seven days after infection.^ Most victims died within four to seven days after infection.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These victims died within five days.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given a household multiplier of around four (slightly less than in 1427), Florence had recouped most of its losses within five years.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bubonic plague was the most commonly seen form during the Black Death, with a mortality rate of thirty to seventy-five percent and symptoms including fever of 38–41 °C (101–105 °F), headaches, painful aching joints, nausea and vomiting, and a general feeling of malaise.^ The bubonic plague was the most commonly seen form during the Black Death, with a mortality rate of thirty to seventy-five percent and symptoms including fever of 38 - 41 ° C (101-105 °F ), headaches , painful aching joints, nausea and vomiting , and a general feeling of malaise .
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Black Death comes in various forms.

^ The epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages; Black Death.
  • Archaic Medical Terms English List P 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.antiquusmorbus.com [Source type: Reference]

.Of those who contracted the bubonic plague, 4 out of 5 died within eight days.^ Of those who contracted the bubonic plague, 4 out of 5 died within eight days.
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^ Jemima Warnock died of the plague to-day.

^ The boy from Paddington, who was suffering from plague, died at the Plague Hospital to-day.

[36]
.Pneumonic plague was the second most commonly seen form during the Black Death, with a mortality rate of ninety to ninety-five percent.^ Black Death comes in various forms.

^ This pneumonic Plague has a 100% mortality rate, if untreated, and death can occur in a matter of hours.
  • History of Plagues 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC uhavax.hartford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all the countries named plague appears to behave very much as it used to do in Europe from the time of the Black Death onwards.

.Symptoms included fever, cough, and blood-tinged sputum.^ Symptoms included fever, cough and blood-tinged sputum .
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^ He was seen on the evening of the eighth day as usual, but further than slight symptoms of fever, rather a typical tongue and occasional cough without blood stained sputum, there was nothing that under ordinary conditions would have raised suspicion.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The symptoms of this disease are fever, accompanied with pain in the thorax, which is aggravated by coughing, a quick and hard pulse, with more or less difficulty of breathing.
  • Archaic Medical Terms English List P 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC www.antiquusmorbus.com [Source type: Reference]

.As the disease progressed, sputum became free flowing and bright red.^ As the disease progressed, sputum became free flowing and bright red.
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.Septicemic plague was the least common of the three forms, with a mortality rate close to one hundred percent.^ The mortality rate for untreated bubonic Plague is about 50-75% and 100% for septicemic Plague.
  • History of Plagues 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC uhavax.hartford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From one place after another a great mortality among rats was reported, and the broad fact that they do die of plague is incontestable.

^ BRISBANE, Tuesday.— One of three suspicious cases under observation in Brisbane has been diagnosed as other than bubonic plague and the patient has been ...

.Symptoms were high fevers and purple skin patches (purpura due to DIC).^ Symptoms were high fevers and purple skin patches ( purpura due to DIC ( Disseminated intravascular coagulation )).
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MeSH D011693 Purpura (from the Latin, purpura , meaning "purple") is the appearance of red or purple discolorations on the skin, caused by bleeding underneath the skin.
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David Herlihy identifies another potential sign of the plague: freckle-like spots and rashes.[37] .Sources from Viterbo, Italy refer to "the signs which are vulgarly called lenticulae", a word which bears resemblance to the Italian word for freckles, lentiggini.^ Sources from Viterbo, Italy refer to "the signs which are vulgarly called lenticulae ," a word which bears resemblance to the Italian word for freckles, lentiggini .
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These are not the swellings of buboes, but rather "darkish points or pustules which covered large areas of the body".

Malthusian crisis

.Some historians have suggested another theory for the cause of the Black Death, one that points to social, agricultural and economic causes.^ In addition, various historians have adopted yet another theory for the cause of the Black Plague, one that points to social, agricultural, and sometimes economic causes.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From: cainmarko666 [cain marko] Date: 20-Jan-2009 21:29 The Black Death (also known as The Black Plague or Bubonic Plague), was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia pestis (Plague), but recently attributed by some to other diseases.

^ Arguing on the basis of a neo-Malthusian economics, revisionist historians recast the Black Death as a necessary and long overdue corrective to an overpopulated Europe” .
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often known as the Malthusian limit, scholars use this term to express and explain tragedies throughout history.^ Often known as the Malthusian limit, scholars use this term to express, and/or explain, certain tragedies throughout history.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The words " dirt " and " insanitary conditions " are much used, but such general terms explain nothing.

.In his 1798 Essay on the Principle of Population, Thomas Malthus asserted that eventually humans would reproduce so greatly that they would go beyond the limits of food supplies; once they reached this point, some sort of "reckoning" was inevitable.^ They found 149 deactivated genes that once enabled the bacterium to thrive in the human gut, but are no longer needed.
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^ PERHAPS you would like to go back to the days when it was all a HUMAN could do to merely stay alive.

^ (Yet, there is some sort of wondrous political point to be scored by proving, say, that Bush is worse than Nixon.
  • Marc Cooper » Blog Archive » Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC marccooper.com [Source type: Original source]

.While the Black Death may appear to be a "reckoning" of this sort, it was in fact an external, unpredictable factor and does not therefore fit into the Malthusian theory.^ While the Black Death may appear to be a "reckoning" of this sort, it was in fact an external, unpredictable factor and does not therefore fit into the Malthusian theory.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arguing on the basis of a neo-Malthusian economics, revisionist historians recast the Black Death as a necessary and long overdue corrective to an overpopulated Europe” .
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all the countries named plague appears to behave very much as it used to do in Europe from the time of the Black Death onwards.

.In his book, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, professor David Herlihy explores this idea of plague as an inevitable crisis wrought on humanity in order to control the population and human resources.^ Plague - LoveToKnow 1911 "Black Death" .
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his book, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West , David Herlihy explores this idea of Plague as an inevitable crisis wrought on man in order to control the population and human resources.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all the countries named plague appears to behave very much as it used to do in Europe from the time of the Black Death onwards.

.In the book The Black Death; A Turning Point in History? (ed.^ A decade later, Carmichael, "Bubonic Plague: The Black Death," in Plague, Pox, and Pestilence , Kenneth F. Kiple, ed.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Black Death: A Turning Point in History?
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most prominent exception is Twigg, Black Death , who in the last section of his book speculated that the disease might have been anthrax.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.William M. Bowsky) he writes "implies that the Black Death's pivotal role in late medieval society ...^ Black Death’s pivotal role in late medieval society...
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He will have his first real role in "Black Death".
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ At the castle of Blankenburg the filming of the medieval-mystery-thriller "Black Death", a "German production of international dimensions", as the crew promises, continues.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

was now being challenged. Arguing on the basis of a neo-Malthusian economics, revisionist historians recast the Black Death as a necessary and long overdue corrective to an overpopulated Europe."
.Herlihy also examined the arguments against the Malthusian crisis, stating "if the Black Death was a response to excessive human numbers it should have arrived several decades earlier"[38] due to the population growth of years before the outbreak of the Black Death.^ In Florence, wills per annum increased threefold after the Black Death and in Tournai fourfold, despite shrinking populations in both places.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Humans have no natural immunity to modern bubonic plague, whereas populations of Western Europe adapted rapidly to the pathogen of the Black Death for at least the first hundred years.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Florence, Genoa, Venice, and most of northern Italy, expenditures on warfare increased exponentially after the Black Death to the fifteenth century, as shown by the soaring of state indebtedness.
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Herlihy also brings up other, biological factors that argue against the plague as a "reckoning" by arguing "the role of famines in affecting population movements is also problematic.^ Herlihy also brings up other, biological factors that argue against the Plague as a "reckoning" by arguing “the role of famines in affecting population movements is also problematic.
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^ Therefore, historians have cited the smaller impact of the plague as a contributing factor in Eastern Europe's failure to experience either of these movements on a similar scale.
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^ PRECAUTIONS AGAINST PLAGUE. [ tagged as Bubonic Plague Brisbane ] The Argus (Melbourne, Vic.

.The many famines preceding the Black Death, even the 'great hunger' of 1314 to 1317, did not result in any appreciable reduction in population levels".[38] Herlihy concludes the matter stating, "the medieval experience shows us not a Malthusian crisis but a stalemate, in the sense that the community was maintaining at stable levels very large numbers over a lengthy period" and states that the phenomenon should be referred to as more of a deadlock, rather than a crisis, to describe Europe before the epidemics.^ They have concluded: "we can end the controversy: Medieval Black Death was plague."
  • | The Black Death: End of a Paradigm | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this period, more than 100 plague epidemics swept across Europe.
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^ Finally Herlihy concludes the matter stating, “the medieval experience shows us not a Malthusian crisis but a stalemate, in the sense that the community was maintaining at stable levels very large numbers over a lengthy period” and states that the phenomenon should be referred to as more of a deadlock, rather than a crisis, to describe Europe before the epidemics.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]:34

Effects

Consequences

A scene showing monks, disfigured by the plague, being blessed by a priest. England, 1360–75
.Figures for the death toll vary widely by area and from source to source as new research and discoveries come to light.^ Figures for the death toll vary widely by area and from source to source as new research and discoveries come to light.
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^ Black Death comes in various forms.

^ The mystery-thriller "Black Death“ should reach movie theatres world wide in summer 2010, but will also come to our cultural centre, promises Pietrucha.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

.It killed an estimated 75–200 million people in the 14th century.^ Allied bombing in WWII Germany is estimated to have killed 300,000 people between 1941-45.
  • Marc Cooper » Blog Archive » Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC marccooper.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most extreme estimates are of 130 million indigenous people living in Central and South America before the new diseases and a mere 1.6 million after!
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^ Experts claim that smallpox killed more than 100 million people prior to 1725.
  • History of Plagues 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC uhavax.hartford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39][40][41] According to medieval historian Philip Daileader in 2007:
.The trend of recent research is pointing to a figure more like 45% to 50% of the European population dying during a four-year period.^ According to medieval historian Philip Daileader in 2007 [43] : The trend of recent research is pointing to a figure more like 45% to 50% of the European population dying during a four-year period.
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^ The population of the city is 821,764, but during the earlier plague period large numbers fled, so that the foregoing figures do not give the true plague incidence according to population.

^ The main authorities for the researches into plague are in the official reports of recent years from India and elsewhere.

There is a fair amount of geographic variation. .In Mediterranean Europe and Italy, the South of France and Spain, where plague ran for about four years consecutively, it was probably closer to 75% to 80% of the population.^ In Mediterranean Europe and Italy, the South of France and Spain, where plague ran for about four years consecutively, it was probably closer to 70% to 75% of the population.
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^ In 1877 plague also occurred at Shuster in south-west Persia, probably conveyed by pilgrims returning from Irak, and caused great mortality.

^ The mortality rate for untreated bubonic Plague is about 50-75% and 100% for septicemic Plague.
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In Germany and England ... it was probably closer to 20%.[42]
A scene showing Jews being burned alive during the period of Black Death.
.The best estimate for the Middle East, including Iraq, Iran and Syria, during the Islamic Middle Ages is for a death rate of a third.^ When the sixth pandemic erupted in the Middle East, Russia, and other parts of Europe during the summer of 1892, American newspapers warned of the potential spread westward.
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^ (After all, both Kuwait and Saudi Arabia lent Saddam a lot of money to protect them from Iran, during the Iran-Iraq war.
  • Marc Cooper » Blog Archive » Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC marccooper.com [Source type: Original source]

[43] .The Black Death killed about 40% of Egypt's population.^ The Black Death is estimated to have killed one fifth of Europe's population .
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^ Information about Black Death .
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In "Black Death" there are all in all about 500 extras, informed producer Phil Robertson.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

[44] .Half of Paris's population of 100,000 people had died.^ Arriving in Marseille, France in 1720, the disease killed 100,000 people in the city and the surrounding provinces.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A war that kills 3 million people is more evil than one that kills 100,000.
  • Marc Cooper » Blog Archive » Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC marccooper.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About half of Perpignan 's population died in several months (only two of the eight physicians survived the plague).
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.In Italy, Florence's population was reduced from 110,000 or 120,000 inhabitants in 1338 to 50,000 in 1351. At least 60% of Hamburg's and Bremen's population perished.^ In Prussia and Lithuania 283,000 persons perished; Dantzig, Hamburg and other northern cities suffered severely.

^ A campaign against rats in Bombay, by which 50,000 or 60,000 were killed in a short time, had no effect in checking the disease.

^ Genoa lost 60,000 inhabitants from the same disease, but Tuscany remained untouched.

[45] .Before 1350, there were about 170,000 settlements in Germany, and this had been reduced by nearly 40,000 by 1450.[46] The governments of Europe had no apparent response to the crisis because no one knew its cause or how it spread.^ The governments of Europe had no apparent response to the crisis because no one knew its cause or how it spread.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Stockholm there was a mortality of 40,000.

^ In any case, I agree that there does not seem to be One True Cause or One True Fix for this.
  • REVISED: How to fix the Vista KSOD (blacK Screen Of Death) | LogBlog 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.logicitc.com [Source type: General]

.In 1348, the plague spread so rapidly that before any physicians or government authorities had time to reflect upon its origins, about a third of the European population had already perished.^ In 1348, the plague spread so rapidly that before any physicians or government authorities had time to reflect upon its origins, about a third of the European population had already perished.
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^ The uncharacteristically rapid spread of the plague could be due to respiratory droplet transmission, and low levels of immunity in the European population at that period.
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^ Though time has removed from the minds of most people the fear of a recrudescence of bubonic plague, the Federal Quarantine authorities still follow a ...

In crowded cities, it was not uncommon for as much as fifty percent of the population to die. .Europeans living in isolated areas suffered less, whereas monks and priests were especially hard hit since they cared for the Black Death's victims.^ Europeans living in isolated areas suffered less, and monasteries and priests were especially hard hit since they cared for the Black Death's victims.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chilling account of the Black Death, as part of European history 1300 - 1450.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Behemoth At the Arena ov Aion - Live Apostasy Poland 2008 Black/Death Metal 01.

[47] .Because 14th century healers were at a loss to explain the cause, Europeans turned to astrological forces, earthquakes, and the poisoning of wells by Jews as possible reasons for the plague's emergence.^ Because fourteenth century healers were at a loss in explaining the cause, Europeans turned to astrological forces, earthquakes, and the poisoning of wells by Jews as possible reasons for the plagues emergence.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And so as previously mentioned, Jews were suspected of causing the plague by deliberately poisoning wells.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 14th century the plague spreads throughout Europe and carries off whole village populations.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

[21] .The mechanism of infection and transmission of diseases was unknown in the 14th century; many people believed only God's anger could produce such horrific displays.^ In fact, this new disease, unknown to the Ga people until the epidemic began, had already taken the name of "the one pound disease."
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In small towns everyone could contract the disease in such a short time that the pathogen could die out.
  • History of Plagues 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC uhavax.hartford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early twentieth century, Dr. Otten of the Pasteur institute argued that since rates and fleas were transmitting the disease, the temporary immunity of humans could not stop an epidemic, because they were not part of the cycle of infection.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There were many attacks against Jewish communities.[48] .In August of 1349, the Jewish communities of Mainz and Cologne were exterminated.^ For example, in August of 1349, the Jewish communities of Mainz and Cologne were exterminated.
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^ The largest Jewish community in Europe was in Mainz, Germany where at least 6,000 Jews were incinerated after they fought and killed 200 of an attacking mob.
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.In February of that same year, the citizens of Strasbourg murdered 2,000 Jews.^ In February of that same year, Christians murdered two thousand Jews in Strasbourg.
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^ The 1348 outbreak in Gaza left an estimated 10,000 people dead, while Aleppo recorded a death rate of 500 a day during the same year.
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^ The same year 7000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague; in 2635 it was at Hull .

[48] .By 1351, 60 major and 150 smaller Jewish communities had been destroyed.^ Only after major protests from the well-established German Jewish community were regular burials and kosher food allowed.
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[49]
Flagellants practiced mortification of the flesh as a penance.
.Where government authorities were concerned, most monarchs instituted measures that prohibited exports of foodstuffs, condemned black market speculators, set price controls on grain and outlawed large-scale fishing.^ Where government authorities were concerned, most monarchs instituted measures that prohibited exports of foodstuffs, condemned black market speculators , set price controls on grain, and outlawed large-scale fishing.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Found the key value to be set correctly “NT AUTHORITY\NetworkService” Reboot still hangs with black screen and mouse pointer.
  • REVISED: How to fix the Vista KSOD (blacK Screen Of Death) | LogBlog 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.logicitc.com [Source type: General]

^ These governmental controls were set in place to ensure that workers received the same salary post-plague as they had before the onslaught of the Black Death.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At best, they proved mostly unenforceable and at worst they contributed to a continent-wide downward spiral. .The hardest hit lands, like England, were unable to buy grain abroad: from France because of the prohibition, and from most of the rest of the grain producers because of crop failures from shortage of labour.^ The hardest hit lands, like England, were unable to buy grain abroad: from France because of the prohibition, and from most of the rest of the grain producers because of crop failures from shortage of labour.
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^ In Western Europe, labourers gained more power and were more in demand because of the shortage of labour.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Any grain that could be shipped was eventually taken by pirates or looters to be sold on the black market. .Meanwhile, many of the largest countries, most notably England and Scotland, had been at war, using up much of their treasury and exacerbating inflation.^ Meanwhile, many of the largest countries, most notably England and Scotland , had been at war, using up much of their treasury and exacerbating inflation .
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all the countries named plague appears to behave very much as it used to do in Europe from the time of the Black Death onwards.

^ The susceptibility of rats has been noted from remote times and in many countries, particularly in China, but it has never attracted so much attention as during the recent prevalence of plague.

.In 1337, on the eve of the first wave of the Black Death, England and France went to war in what would become known as the Hundred Years' War.^ He will have his first real role in "Black Death".
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ The leading part of `Black Death' will be played by Sean Bean, best known for his part as Boromir in the first Lord of the Rings film `The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring' (2001).
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ The mortality of the black death was, as is well known, enormous.

.Malnutrition, poverty, disease and hunger, coupled with war, growing inflation and other economic concerns made Europe in the mid-14th century ripe for tragedy.^ Malnutrition, poverty, disease and hunger, coupled with war, growing inflation and other economic concerns made Europe in the mid-fourteenth century ripe for tragedy.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 14th century the plague spreads throughout Europe and carries off whole village populations.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic .
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The Brotherhood of the Flagellants, a movement said to number up to 800,000, reached its peak of popularity.[50]

Recurrence

.In England, in the absence of census figures, historians propose a range of pre-incident population figures from as high as 7 million to as low as 4 million in 1300,[51] and a post-incident population figure as low as 2 million.^ Although overall death rates were relatively low, the incidence rate was abnormally high at around 20% of the population.
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^ At that time, the population of England was estimated to be about four million, yet within a mere two and a half years about one third of them had died.
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[52] .By the end of 1350 the Black Death had subsided, but it never really died out in England over the next few hundred years: there were further outbreaks in 1361–62, 1369, 1379–83, 1389–93, and throughout the first half of the 15th century.^ He will have his first real role in "Black Death".
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ By the end of 1350 the Black Death had subsided, but it never really died out in England over the next few hundred years: there were further outbreaks in 1361-62, 1369, 1379-83, 1389-93, and throughout the first half of the fifteenth century.
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1337 , on the eve of the first wave of the Black Death, England and France went to war in what would become known as the Hundred Years' War , further depleting their treasuries, population, and infrastructure .
  • What is Black Death? 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] .The plague often killed 10% of a community in less than a year—in the worst epidemics, such as at Norwich in 1579 and Newcastle upon Tyne in 1636, as many as 30 or 40%.^ The most generally agreed upon mortality figure was that one in three people were killed by the Plaguea total loss of well over 20 million in Europe and perhaps as many as 40 million worldwide.
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^ It appears, therefore, that plague is less fatal to Europeans than cholera.

^ Objection has been taken in many quarters to the expenditure of such a large sum of money as £20,000 upon a plague hospital to be erected at Coode Island, as suggested ...

The most general outbreaks in Tudor and Stuart England, all coinciding with years of plague in Germany and the Low Countries, seem to have begun in 1498, 1535, 1543, 1563, 1589, 1603, 1625, and 1636.[54]
.The plague repeatedly returned to haunt Europe and the Mediterranean throughout the 14th to 17th centuries, and although bubonic plague still occurs in isolated cases today, the Great Plague of London in 1665–1666 is generally recognised as one of the last major outbreaks.^ A true case of bubonic plague has been discovered.

^ Another case of plague occurred to-day.

^ Another case of plague has occurred.

[55]
.In 1466, perhaps 40,000 people died of plague in Paris.^ As recently as 1947, 20,500 of 30,000 people infected in Egypt died.
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[56] .In 1570, as many as 200,000 may have died in Moscow and in the adjacent neighborhood.^ In 1570, 200,000 persons died in Moscow and the neighbourhood, in 1572, 50,000 at Lyons ; in 1568 and 1574 plague was at Edinburgh, and in 1570 at Newcastle .

[57] .The plague of 1575–77 claimed some perhaps 50,000 victims in Venice.^ In 1570, 200,000 persons died in Moscow and the neighbourhood, in 1572, 50,000 at Lyons ; in 1568 and 1574 plague was at Edinburgh, and in 1570 at Newcastle .

.In 1625, 35,417 Londoners had died of the plague.^ In 1625 (the year of the siege of Breda in Holland) is the third great London plague with 35,417 deaths - though the year 1624 was remarkably exempt, and 1626 nearly so.

[58] In 1634, an outbreak of plague killed perhaps 15,000 Munich residents.[50] .Late outbreaks in central Europe included the Italian Plague of 1629–1631, which is associated with troop movements during the Thirty Years' War, and the Great Plague of Vienna in 1679. About 200,000 people in Moscow died of the disease from 1654 to 1656.[59] Over 60% of Norway's population died from 1348 to 1350.[60] The last plague outbreak ravaged Oslo in 1654.[11] In 1656 the plague killed about half of Naples' 300,000 inhabitants.^ The outbreak of1873-1874began about 60 m.

^ Europe in the middle of the 14th century: The plague is killing millions of people.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ Some historians believe the pandemic began in China or Central Asia in the late 1320s or 1330s, and during the next years merchants and soldiers carried it over the caravan routes until in 1346 it reached the Crimea in southern Russia.

[61] Amsterdam was ravaged in 1663–1664, with a mortality given as 50,000.[62]
.In the first half of the 17th century a plague claimed some 1,730,000 victims in Italy, or about 14% of the population.^ In the 14th century the plague spreads throughout Europe and carries off whole village populations.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ More than 50,000 persons, nearly one-fourth of the population, were carried off.4 The remaining European plague-epidemics of the 18th century were inconsiderable, but on that very account noteworthy.

^ At its height, mortality rates were 15.8% in Philadelphia, 14.8% in Baltimore, and 10.9% in Washington D.C. Sixty percent of the Inuit population in Nome, Alaska fell victim to the flu.
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[63] .More than 1,250,000 deaths resulted from the extreme incidence of plague in 17th century Spain.^ The 16th century was not more free from plague than the 15th.

^ As Bismarck pointed out more than a century ago, these issues are ultimately settled with blood and iron.
  • Marc Cooper » Blog Archive » Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC marccooper.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During this period, more than 100 plague epidemics swept across Europe.

[64] .In the Thirty Years' War, an estimated eight million Germans were killed by bubonic plague and typhus.^ A thirteen year-old Kazakhstani boy died of bubonic Plague on August 9, 1999the first such death in that country in 25 years.
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^ A war that kills 3 million people is more evil than one that kills 100,000.
  • Marc Cooper » Blog Archive » Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC marccooper.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The army diseases of the Civil Wars were chiefly typhus and malarial fevers, but plague was not unknown among them, as at Wallingford Castle (Willis, " Of Feavers," Works, ed.

[65] .In 1710, a plague epidemic that followed the Great Northern War (1700–1721, Sweden v.^ The great plague of 1592 in London seems to have been a part of the same epidemic, which was hardly extinguished by the end of the century, and is noted in London again in 1599.

^ The district had suffered in the great epidemic of plague in Persia in 1829-1835.

^ England was probably seldom quite free from plague, but the next great outbreak is recorded in 1472 and following years.

Russia and allies) killed almost one third of the population in the region.[66] .The plague killed two-thirds of the inhabitants of Helsinki,[67] and claimed a third of Stockholm's population.^ In 1352 Oxford lost two-thirds of her academical population.

^ The total number of deaths from plague in that year, according to the bills of mortality, was 68,596, in a population estimated at 460,000, 3 out of whom two-thirds are supposed to have fled to escape the contagion.

^ At that time, the population of England was estimated to be about four million, yet within a mere two and a half years about one third of them had died.
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[68] .Europe's last major epidemic occurred in 1720 in Marseilles.^ France saw the last plague epidemic in 1668, till it reappeared in 1720.

^ In 1834 and 1836 other epidemics occurred, which at last attracted the attention of government.

[60]
Worldwide distribution of plague infected animals 1998
.The Black Death ravaged much of the Islamic world.^ In all the countries named plague appears to behave very much as it used to do in Europe from the time of the Black Death onwards.

^ The mystery-thriller "Black Death“ should reach movie theatres world wide in summer 2010, but will also come to our cultural centre, promises Pietrucha.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

[69] .Plague epidemics kept returning to the Islamic world up to the 19th century.^ Plague in the 19th Century .

^ The great plague of 1592 in London seems to have been a part of the same epidemic, which was hardly extinguished by the end of the century, and is noted in London again in 1599.

^ Moreover, as this complication was a marked feature in certain epidemics of plague in India , the hypothesis has been framed by Hirsch that a special variety of plague, pestis indica, still found in India, is that which overran the world in the 14th century.

[70] The cities of North Africa were especially hard hit by the disease. 30,000–50,000 died in Algiers in 1620–21, 1654–57, 1665, 1691, and 1740–42.[71]
.The Third Pandemic started in China in the middle of the 19th century, spreading plague to all inhabited continents and killing 10 million people in India alone.^ Plague in the 19th Century .

^ Europe in the middle of the 14th century: The plague is killing millions of people.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ In the 14th century the plague spreads throughout Europe and carries off whole village populations.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

[72] .The plague bacterium could develop drug-resistance and again become a major health threat.^ Guinea-pigs set free in plague-infected houses become infected with the rat flea and develop plague in a certain percentage.

^ The Public Health Committee had already encountered serious resistance to their anti-plague campaign, and they believed that the most difficult part of their anti-plague measures was yet to come.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ability to resist many of the antibiotics used against plague has been found so far in only a single case of the disease in Madagascar.^ Further particulars concerning the suspected cases of plague at Paddington show that one of the patients is suffering from the disease.

^ An outbreak of plague at Messina in 1743 is important, not only for its fatality, but as one of the strongest cases in favour of the theory of imported contagion.

^ Plague responds to many common antibiotics and patients recover fully with prompt treatment.

[73] .From 1944 through 1993, 362 cases of human plague were reported in the United States; approximately 90% of these occurred in four western states.^ Oops: no United States human rights report in the Western Hemisphere section.
  • Marc Cooper » Blog Archive » Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC marccooper.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In early November, the rat deaths increased dramatically and the first cases of human illness occurred.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allowed health inspectors to pre-emptively evacuate entire neighbourhoods with high rates of rodent plague, a measure which Simpson hoped would prevent human cases before they could even occur.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74] Plague was confirmed in the United States from nine western states during 1995.[75]

In culture

Pieter Bruegel's The Triumph of Death (c.1562) reflects the social upheaval and terror that followed the plague which devastated medieval Europe
The Black Death had a profound impact on art and literature throughout the generation that experienced it. .Much of the most useful manifestations of the Black Death in literature, to historians, comes from the accounts of its chroniclers.^ In all the countries named plague appears to behave very much as it used to do in Europe from the time of the Black Death onwards.

^ The mystery-thriller "Black Death“ should reach movie theatres world wide in summer 2010, but will also come to our cultural centre, promises Pietrucha.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

^ "Black Death" is said to come into cinemas in 2010.
  • Sean Bean - Black Death, Der schwarze Tod 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.bean-land.de [Source type: General]

Some of these chroniclers were famous writers, philosophers and rulers such as Boccaccio and Petrarch. Their writings, however, did not reach the majority of the European population. Petrarch's work was read mainly by wealthy nobles and merchants of Italian city-states. He wrote hundreds of letters and vernacular poetry, and passed on to later generations a revised interpretation of courtly love.[76] .There was one troubadour, writing in the lyric style long out of fashion, who was active in 1348. Peire Lunel de Montech composed the sorrowful sirventes "Meravilhar no·s devo pas las gens" during the height of the plague in Toulouse.^ No; there lot stayed home writing in the shit with twigs....its no accident that we owned them and not the reverse.

^ The weekly plague bulletin issued yesterday states that no cases of plague occurred in Brisbane during the week.

^ But however that turns out, the last post was AWESOME with lots of writing style.” .
  • Marc Cooper » Blog Archive » Black Death 2 February 2010 13:51 UTC marccooper.com [Source type: Original source]

.
They died by the hundreds, both day and night, and all were thrown in ...^ The plague patient Volkmaun, whose case was reported two days ago, died to-night Another suspicious case is at present under observation.

^ Two fresh cases of plague were reported last night, and an elderly woman named Warnock, who was quarantined on Tuesday, died to-day ...

^ Five days later all of the members of the family that had tended him while he was ill simultaneously caught the disease and died.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

ditches and covered with earth. And as soon as those ditches were filled, more were dug. And I, Agnolo di Tura ... buried my five children with my own hands ... .And so many died that all believed it was the end of the world.
—The Plague in Siena: An Italian Chronicle[77]
How many valiant men, how many fair ladies, breakfast with their kinfolk and the same night supped with their ancestors in the next world!^ The great plague of 1592 in London seems to have been a part of the same epidemic, which was hardly extinguished by the end of the century, and is noted in London again in 1599.

^ A youth, aged 20 years, residing at the West-End, and employed at a furniture warehouse in Brisbane, who was taken to the plague hospital yesterday, died this ...

^ 'A' woman died in the hospital to-night under circumstances which indicate plague, and a girl reported to be dying in the same institution is also believed to be a ...

The condition of the people was pitiable to behold. They sickened by the thousands daily, and died unattended and without help. .Many died in the open street, others dying in their houses, made it known by the stench of their rotting bodies.^ At least three other priests/healers were known to have died, but no accurate statistics were taken.
  • Gateway | March Issue Story 3 10 February 2010 12:45 UTC grad.usask.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Consecrated churchyards did not suffice for the burial of the vast multitude of bodies, which were heaped by the hundreds in vast trenches, like goods in a ships hold and covered with a little earth.
—Giovanni Boccaccio[78]

See also

References

  1. ^ Knox, Skip. "The Black Death". http://history.boisestate.edu/westciv/plague/07.shtml. Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  2. ^ J. Kelly, The Great Mortality, An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time, (New York, NY: Harper Collins, 2005), p. 295.
  3. ^ Lavelle, Peter. "On the trail of the Black Death". News in Science. ABC Television. http://www.abc.net.au/science/features/blackdeath/default.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  4. ^ a b Jo Revill. "Black Death blamed on man, not rats | UK news | The Observer". The Observer. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2004/may/16/health.books. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  5. ^ The Silk Route, Channel 4 - History.
  6. ^ S. Fry, The Book of General Ignorance (London, 2006).
  7. ^ "Molecular insights into the history of plague". Macalester.edu. http://www.macalester.edu/~cuffel/molecularplague.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  8. ^ Buckler, John (2001). A History of Western Society. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-70841-9. 
  9. ^ "Death on the doorstep". Wellcome Trust. http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/Professional-resources/Education-resources/Big-Picture/Epidemics/Articles/WTD028089.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  10. ^ "Plague, Plague Information, Black Death Facts, News, Photos – National Geographic". Science.nationalgeographic.com. http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-diseases/plague-article.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  11. ^ a b Øivind Larsen. "DNMS.NO : Michael: 2005 : 03/2005 : Book review: Black Death and hard facts". Dnms.no. http://www.dnms.no/index.php?kat_id=16&art_id=87. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  12. ^ S. Barry and N. Gualde, "The Biggest Epidemics of History: (La plus grande épidémie de l'histoire)" L'Histoire n° 310, (2006), pp. 45–6, say "between one-third and two-thirds"; R. Gottfried, "Black Death" in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, vol. 2, (1983). pp. 257–67, says "between 25 and 45 percent".
  13. ^ "The Black Death". History.boisestate.edu. http://history.boisestate.edu/westciv/plague/15.shtml. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  14. ^ "Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe". University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2008-02-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20080212060020/http://www3.iath.virginia.edu/osheim/plaguein.html. 
  15. ^ "Historical Estimates of World Population". Census.gov. http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/worldhis.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  16. ^ "Epidemics of the Past: Bubonic Plague—Infoplease.com". Infoplease.com. http://www.infoplease.com/cig/dangerous-diseases-epidemics/bubonic-plague.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  17. ^ "Plague – LoveToKnow 1911". 1911encyclopedia.org. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Plague. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  18. ^ "A LIST OF NATIONAL EPIDEMICS OF PLAGUE IN ENGLAND 1348-1665". Urbanrim.org.uk. http://urbanrim.org.uk/plague%20list.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  19. ^ "Plague History Provence, - by Provence Beyond". Beyond.fr. http://www.beyond.fr/history/plague.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  20. ^ Boccaccio: THE DECAMERON, "INTRODUCTION"
  21. ^ a b c d e f g J. M. Bennett and C. W. Hollister, Medieval Europe: A Short History (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 326.
  22. ^ S. Barry and N. Gualde, "The Biggest Epidemic of History" (La plus grande épidémie de l'histoire), L'Histoire n°310, (2006), p. 38.
  23. ^ S. Fry, The Book of General Ignorance (London, 2006).
  24. ^ M. W. Dols, "The Second Plague Pandemic and its Recurrences in the Middle East: 1347–1894" Journal of the Economic Social History of the Orient vol. 22, no. 2 (May 1979), pp. 170–1.
  25. ^ "Channel 4 – History – The Black Death". Channel4.com. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/a-b/blackdeath.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  26. ^ Ping-ti Ho, "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song, Series 1, No 1, (1970) pp. 33–53.
  27. ^ "Plague". Center for Health Information Preparedness. http://chip.med.nyu.edu/course/view.php?id=13&topic=1. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  28. ^ World Regions in Global Context Third Edition
  29. ^ Baillie, Mike (1997). A Slice Through Time. p. 124. ISBN 978–0713476545. 
  30. ^ "Plague Backgrounder". Avma.org. http://www.avma.org/public_health/biosecurity/plague_bgnd.asp. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  31. ^ Drancourt,, M.; Houhamdi, L; Raoult, D.. "Yersinia pestis as a telluric, human ectoparasite-borne organism". The Lancet Infectious Diseases (The Lancet) 6: 234. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70438-8. 
  32. ^ Webb,, Colleen T.; Christopher P. Brooks, K. L. Gage, and Michael F. Antolin (7 April 2006). apples "Classic flea-borne transmission does not drive plague epizootics in prairie dogs" (PDF). Infectious Diseases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/16/6236.full.pdf+html apples. Retrieved 2006-12-12. 
  33. ^ A. B. Appleby, "The disappearance of the Plague: a continuing puzzle", Economic History Review, 33, 2 (1980), pp. 161–73
  34. ^ P. Slack, "The disappearance of the Plague: an alternative view", Economic History Review 34, 3 (1981), pp. 469–76.
  35. ^ http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2149/History-Human-Animal-Interaction-MEDIEVAL-PERIOD.html
  36. ^ R. Totaro, Suffering in Paradise: The Bubonic Plague in English Literature from More to Milton (Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 2005), p. 26.
  37. ^ D. Herlihy, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West (1997) Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, p. 29.
  38. ^ a b c Herlihy, David (1997). The black death and the transformation of the west. Harvard University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-674-07612-9. http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HERBLA.html. Retrieved 2 September 2009. 
  39. ^ ABC/Reuters (Tuesday, 29 January 2008). "Black death 'discriminated' between victims (ABC News in Science)". Abc.net.au. http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2008/01/29/2149185.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  40. ^ "BBC News | HEALTH | De-coding the Black Death". News.bbc.co.uk. Wednesday, 3 October 2001, 21:51 GMT 22:51 UK. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/1576875.stm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  41. ^ "Black Death's Gene Code Cracked". Wired.com. http://www.wired.com/medtech/health/news/2001/10/47288. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  42. ^ Philip Daileader, The Late Middle Ages, audio/video course produced by The Teaching Company, (2007) ISBN 978-1-59803-345-8.
  43. ^ Q&A with John Kelly on The Great Mortality on National Review Online
  44. ^ Egypt - Major Cities, U.S. Library of Congress
  45. ^ Snell, Melissa (2006), The Great Mortality, Historymedren.about.com, http://historymedren.about.com/od/theblackdeath/a/greatmortality_2.htm, retrieved 2009-04-19 
  46. ^ Richard Wunderli (1992). Peasant Fires: The Drummer of Niklashausen. Indiana University Press. p. 52. ISBN 0253367255. 
  47. ^ J. M. Bennett and C. W. Hollister, Medieval Europe: A Short History (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 329.
  48. ^ a b BLACK DEATH, JewishEncyclopedia.com
  49. ^ "Jewish History 1340-1349".
  50. ^ a b "Texas Department of State Health Services, History of Plague". Dshs.state.tx.us. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/preparedness/bt_public_history_plague.shtm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  51. ^ The Black Death in Egypt and England: A Comparative Study, Stuart J. Borsch, Austin: University of Texas
  52. ^ Secondary sources such as the Cambridge History of Medieval England often contain discussions of methodology in reaching these figures that are necessary reading for anyone wishing to understand this controversial episode in more detail.
  53. ^ "BBC – History – Black Death". bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/black_09.shtml. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  54. ^ "BBC – Radio 4 Voices of the Powerless – 29/08/2002 Plague in Tudor and Stuart Britain". Bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/voices/voices_salisbury.shtml. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  55. ^ "The London Plague 1665". Britainexpress.com. http://www.britainexpress.com/History/plague.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  56. ^ Plague, 1911 Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica
  57. ^ History Magazine - The Black Death
  58. ^ Burial of the plague dead in early modern London, J. A. I. Champion, Epidemic Disease in London, Centre for Metropolitan History Working Papers Series, No. 1 (1993).
  59. ^ "Genesis of the Anti-Plague System: The Tsarist Period". James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. http://cns.miis.edu/research/antiplague/pdfs/melikishvili.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  60. ^ a b Harald Aastorp (2004-08-01). "Svartedauden enda verre enn antatt". Forskning.no. http://www.forskning.no/Artikler/2004/juli/1090833676.68. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  61. ^ "Naples in the 1600s". Faculty.ed.umuc.edu. http://faculty.ed.umuc.edu/~jmatthew/naples/goldenage.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  62. ^ "Buboni PlagueEuropeFlorence". Mindquestacademy.org. http://www.mindquestacademy.org/publichealth/Linkfile/BubonicPlague.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  63. ^ Karl Julius Beloch, Bevölkerungsgeschichte Italiens, volume 3, pp. 359–360.
  64. ^ The Seventeenth-Century Decline, S. G. Payne, A History of Spain and Portugal
  65. ^ War and Pestilence, TIME
  66. ^ "Kathy McDonough, Empire of Poland". Depts.washington.edu. http://depts.washington.edu/baltic/papers/poland.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  67. ^ "Ruttopuisto – Plague Park". Tabblo.com. http://www.tabblo.com/studio/stories/view/409531/. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  68. ^ "Historical facts about Stockholm, capital of Sweden". Enjoystockholm.com. http://enjoystockholm.com/cmarter.asp?doc=572. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  69. ^ Islamic Medicine Part III: Diseases of the Middle Ages
  70. ^ The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Black Death)
  71. ^ "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500-1800". Robert Davis (2004) ISBN 1-4039-4551-9.
  72. ^ INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Plague Through History, sciencemag.org
  73. ^ Drug-resistant plague a 'major threat', say scientists, SciDev.Net
  74. ^ Human Plague – United States, 1993-1994, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  75. ^ An overview of plague in the United States
  76. ^ J. M. Bennett and C. W. Hollister, Medieval Europe: A Short History (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 372.
  77. ^ "plague readings". u.arizona.edu. http://www.u.arizona.edu/~afutrell/w%20civ%2002/plaguereadings.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  78. ^ Quotes from the Plague

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Proper noun

Singular
the Black Death
Plural
-
  1. (pathology) A pandemic outbreak (often attributed to bubonic plague) throughout Europe and most of Asia in the 14th century that killed nearly half the population of Europe.

Synonyms

Translations


Simple English

Bible (1411).]]

The Black Death was a pandemic (an epidemic spreading over a large area) that killed millions of people. It started in Europe in 1347, and lasted until 1351. Almost one out of every three people in Europe got the disease and died.[1] This means about 25 million people died from it in Europe alone.

Contents

Identifying the diseases and causes

As of 2008, people think the disease came from Europe. Today, it is believed the disease may have been the bubonic plague. This disease is carried and spread by fleas on rats. Traders from the Silk Road may have brought the infected fleas to Europe. Another disease that could have been the Black Death is Anthrax. Anthrax could have spread by cattle. Looking at the quick spread of the disease, Viral hemorrhagic fevers are other ideas for what specific disease the Black Death might have been.

Fleas started the problem. The infected fleas were carried by black rats. Rats infested with the diseased fleas would then carry them among human populations, passing the fleas to human hosts. When the fleas bit their host, they would inject a little bit of the bacteria into the wound. This would cause the human host to be infected by the bubonic plague. Rats were regularly carried on ships. This allowed the disease to spread through the Mediterranean.

In humans, the disease caused swelling in the groin and under the arms. These swellings were often black in colour, giving the disease its common name the swellings were called buboes. People were in pain and then they died a horrible death. The symptoms could be seen 3-7 days after being infected.

The Impact on Britain and the rest of the World

It killed between a third and two-thirds of Europe's population. Including in the Middle East, India and China, it killed at least 75 million people.

The same disease is thought to have returned to Europe every generation with different degrees of intensity and fatality until the 1700s. Later outbreaks include the Italian Plague of 1629-1631, the Great Plague of London (1665–1666), the Great Plague of Vienna (1679), the Great Plague of Marseille in 1720–1722 and the 1771 plague in Moscow. There is some controversy over the identity of the disease, but in its virulent form seems to have disappeared from Europe in the 18th century.

The Black Death had a very big effect on Europe's population. It changed Europe's social structure. It was a serious blow to the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in widespread persecution of minorities such as Jews, Muslims, foreigners, beggars and lepers. The uncertainty of daily survival influenced people to live for the moment, as illustrated by Giovanni Boccaccio in The Decameron (1353).

The initial fourteenth-century European event was called the "Great Mortality" by contemporary writers and, with later outbreaks, became known as the 'Black Death'.

As a subject in media

The Black Death has been used as a subject or as a setting in modern literature and media. Edgar Allan Poe's short story The Masque of the Red Death (1842) is set in an unnamed country during a fictional plague that bears strong resemblance to the Black Death.

Albert Camus uses this theme too. His novel, The Plague is set against an outbreak of the plague, in Algeria and how people handle it. It was published in 1947.

Black Metal band 1349 are named after the year Black Death spread through Norway.

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Sufferers of the bubonic plague develop fevers, severe flues and buboes that could swell to the size of an average apple. These buboes appear mainly in the groin, armpit and apparently sometimes on the thighs.

1656. With such clothing doctors in Rome wanted to protect themselves from getting the Black Death (in Rome, 1656).]]

Doctors' reactions

The medical knowledge of the time was based on Hippocrates' theory. According to Hippocrates, the body consists of different fluids. If they are in harmony, the person is healthy. If they are not, disease results. Very often, diseases were also seen as a punishment of God. Such a theory can of course not account for the spreading of a disease from one person to another one. Spreading of disease was said to occur from bad winds (called Miasma). The bad air could also come from within the earth, and thereby causer the disease. Remedies against the disease included to only open windows towards the north, to not sleep during the day, and not to work too hard. The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Paris concluded that the Black Death was caused by a bad constellation of Jupiter, Saturn and Mars. This constellation had occurred on 20 March, 1345. They had been asked by Philipp VI about the cause of the disease in 1348. Since the answer was scientifically founded, it was soon taken to be the real cause, and translated into many languages.

Therefore, the doctors often limited their actions to telling people to go to Confession, so that their sins would be forgiven if they died. In the long run, the pandemics caused the doctors to change their ideas on how the human body worked, to get away from the theories of Hyppocrates and Galenos; more towards empirical science. Only 200 years later did Girolamo Fracastoro discover that diseases spread through infection.

References

Other websites

Primary sources online

Secondary sources online

Other pages



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bubonic plague, which are similar to those in the above article.








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