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Black Panther
Jungleaction23.png
Jungle Action #23 (Sept. 1976)
Cover art by John Byrne and Dan Adkins.
Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance Fantastic Four #52 (July 1966)
Created by Stan Lee
Jack Kirby
In-story information
Alter ego Shuri, formerly T'Challa
Team affiliations Fantastic Four
Avengers
Defenders
Fantastic Force
Partnerships Storm
Notable aliases Luke Charles, Black Leopard (alternate translation of his Wakandan title), His Majesty The King of Wakanda
Abilities Superhumanly acute senses
The peak of human physical capabilities
Genius level intellect
Skilled combatant/acrobat/gymnast and hunter/tracker
Vibranium uniform, boots and equipment
Retractable anti-metal claws
Ebony Blade

The Black Panther (T'Challa) is a fictional character in the Marvel Comics universe. Created by writer-editor Stan Lee and penciller-co-plotter Jack Kirby, he first appeared in Fantastic Four #52 (July 1966). He is the first black superhero in mainstream American comics, debuting several years before such early African-American superheroes as the Falcon, Luke Cage, Tyroc, Black Lightning or John Stewart.

Contents

Concept and creation

Name

The Black Panther's name predates the October 1966 founding of the Black Panther Party, though not the black panther logo of the party's predecessor, the Lowndes County Freedom Organization, nor the segregated World War II Black Panthers Tank Battalion.[1][2] He is not the first Black hero in mainstream comic books; that distinction is split between Waku, Prince of the Bantu, who starred in his own feature in the omnibus series Jungle Tales, from Marvel's 1950s predecessor, Atlas Comics, and the Dell Comics Western character Lobo, the first Black man to star in his own comic book. Previous non-caricatured Black supporting characters in comics include Daily Bugle managing editor Joe Robertson in The Amazing Spider-Man, and U.S. Army infantry private Gabriel Jones of Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos.

Publication history

Following his debut in Fantastic Four #52-53 (July-Aug. 1966) and subsequent guest appearance in Fantastic Four Annual #5 (1967) and with Captain America in Tales of Suspense #97-99 (Jan.-March 1968), the Black Panther sojourned from the fictional African nation of Wakanda to New York City, New York to join the titular American superhero team in The Avengers #52 (May 1968), appearing in that comic for the next few years. During his time with the Avengers, he made solo guest-appearances in three issues of Daredevil, and fought Doctor Doom in Astonishing Tales #6-7 (June & Aug. 1971), in that supervillain's short-lived starring feature. He later returned in a guest-appearance capacity in Fantastic Four #119 (Feb. 1972) during which he briefly tried the name Black Leopard to avoid connotations invoking the Black-militant political party the Black Panthers.[3] He received his first starring feature with Jungle Action #5 (July 1973), a reprint of the Panther-centric story in the superhero-team comic The Avengers #62 (March 1969). A new series began running the following issue, written by Don McGregor, with art by pencilers Rich Buckler, Gil Kane, and Billy Graham, and which gave inkers Klaus Janson and Bob McLeod some of their first professional exposure. The critically acclaimed[4] series ran in Jungle Action #6-24 (Sept. 1973 - Nov. 1976).[5]

One now-common innovation McGregor pioneered was that of the self-contained, multi-issue story arc.[6] The first, "Panther's Rage", ran through the first 13 issues, initially as 13- to 15-page stories. Starting with Jungle Action #14, they were expanded to 18- to 19-page stories; there was additionally a 17-page epilogue. Two decades later, writer Christopher Priest's 1998 series The Black Panther utilized Erik Killmonger, Venomm, and other characters introduced in this arc.

Critic Jason Sacks has called the arc "Marvel's first graphic novel":

"[T]here were real character arcs in Spider-Man and the Fantastic Four [comics] over time. But ... 'Panther's Rage' is the first comic that was created from start to finish as a complete novel. Running in two years' issues of Jungle Action (#s 6 through 18), 'Panther's Rage' is a 200-page novel that journeys to the heart of the African nation of Wakanda, a nation ravaged by a revolution against its king, T'Challa, the Black Panther".[6]

The second and final arc, "Panther vs. the Klan", ran as mostly 17-page stories in Jungle Action #19-24 (Jan.-Nov. 1976), except for issue #23, a reprint of Daredevil #69 (Oct. 1970), in which the Black Panther guest-starred.[5] The subject matter of the Ku Klux Klan was considered controversial in the Marvel offices at the time, creating difficulties for the creative team.[citation needed] The arc ended mid-story and Jungle Action folded, with Jack Kirby — newly returned to Marvel after having decamped to rival DC Comics for a time — immediately writing and drawing the shorter-lived Black Panther series, starting January 1977.

Writer-artist Dwayne McDuffie said of the Jungle Action "Black Panther" series:

"This overlooked and underrated classic is arguably the most tightly written multi-part superhero epic ever. If you can get your hands on it (and where's that trade paperback collection, Marvel?), sit down and read the whole thing. It's damn-near flawless, every issue, every scene, a functional, necessary part of the whole. Okay, now go back and read any individual issue. You'll find seamlessly integrated words and pictures; clearly introduced characters and situations; a concise (sometimes even transparent) recap; beautifully developed character relationships; at least one cool new villain; a stunning action set piece to test our hero's skills and resolve; and a story that is always moving forward towards a definite and satisfying conclusion. That's what we should all be delivering, every single month. Don [McGregor] and company did it in only 17 story pages per issue."[4]

The four-issue miniseries Black Panther, appeared in 1988, written by Peter B. Gillis and penciled by Denys Cowan. McGregor revisited his Panther saga with Gene Colan in "Panther's Quest", published as 25 eight-page installments within the bi-weekly anthology series Marvel Comics Presents (issues #13-37, Feb.-Dec. 1989). He later teamed with artist Dwayne Turner in the square-bound miniseries Panther's Prey (Sept. 1990 - March 1991).

Writer Christopher Priest's and penciller Mark Texeira's 1998 series The Black Panther vol. 3 utilized Erik Killmonger, Venomm, and other characters introduced in "Panther's Rage", together with new characters such as State Department attorney Everett Ross, the Black Panther's adopted brother, Hunter, and Panther's protégé, Queen Divine Justice. The Priest-Texeira series, which was under the Marvel Knights imprint in its first year, earned critical plaudits,[citation needed] but sales of the comic were never high.[citation needed] Priest said the creation of character Ross contributed heavily to his decision to write the series. "I realized I could use Ross to bridge the gap between the African culture that the Black Panther mythos is steeped in and the predominantly white readership that Marvel sells to," adding that in his opinion, the Black Panther had been misused in the years after his creation.[7]

The last 13 issues (#50-62) saw the main character replaced by an African American New York City police officer named Kasper Cole, with T'Challa relegated to a supporting character. This Black Panther, who became the White Tiger, was placed in the series The Crew, running concurrently with the final few Black Panther issues. The Crew was canceled with issue #7.

In 2005, Marvel began publishing the ongoing series Black Panther vol. 4, initially written by filmmaker Reginald Hudlin (through issue #38) and penciled by John Romita, Jr. (through #6). Hudlin said he wanted to add "street cred" to the title, although he noted that the book is not necessarily or primarily geared toward an African-American readership.[8] As influences for his characterization of the character, Hudlin has cited comic character Batman, film director Spike Lee, and music artist Sean Combs.[8] This volume ran 41 issues (April 2005 - Nov. 2008).

A new Black Panther title launched in February 2009, with Hudlin scripting, which introduced a successor Black Panther, [9][10] T'challa's sister. Hudlin co-wrote issue #7 with Jonathan Maberry, who then become the new writer,[11] joined by artist Will Conrad.[12]

Fictional character biography

Early life and background

The Black Panther is the ceremonial title given to the chief of the Panther Tribe of the African nation of Wakanda. In addition to ruling the country, he is also chief of its various tribes (collectively referred to as the Wakandas). The Panther uniform is a symbol of office (head of state) and is used even during diplomatic missions.

Cover detail, The Avengers #52 (May 1968): Debut of the short-lived cowl mask. Art by John Buscema

The Black Panther is entitled to the use of a heart-shaped herb that grants the person who consumes it enhanced strength, agility, and perception. The present-day bearer of the Black Panther mantle is T'Challa, who has had a lengthy career as a superhero, including a longstanding membership in the Avengers. For a brief time upon joining the superhero team the Avengers,[13] the Black Panther wore a cowled half-mask, similar to that of Batman. In stories published in the 2000s, it came to light that the Panther originally joined the Avengers with the intention of spying on them. This drove a temporary wedge between T'Challa and his teammates.

T'Challa is the son of T'Chaka, who was the Black Panther before him. In the distant past, a massive meteorite made of the (fictional) vibration-absorbing mineral vibranium crashed in Wakanda, and was unearthed. Knowing that others would attempt to manipulate and dominate Wakanda for this rare and valuable resource, T'Chaka concealed his country from the outside world. He would sell off minute amounts of the valuable vibranium while surreptitiously sending the country's best scholars to study abroad, consequently turning Wakanda into one of the world's most technologically advanced nations. Eventually, however, the explorer Ulysses Klaw found his way to Wakanda to covertly create a vibranium-powered, sound-based weapon. When exposed, Klaw killed T'Chaka and other Wakandans, only to see his "sound blaster" turned on him by a grieving T'Challa, then barely a teenager. Klaw's right hand was destroyed, and he and his men fled.

During his youth, T'Challa also met and fell in love with apparent orphaned child Ororo Munroe, who would grow up to become the X-Men member Storm;[14] the two broke up over T'Challa's need to avenge his father's death.

T'Challa earned the title and attributes of the Black Panther by defeating the various champions of the Wakandan tribes. One of his first acts was to disband and exile the Hatut Zeraze — the Wakandan secret police — and its leader, his adopted brother Hunter the White Wolf; later, to keep the peace, he picked dora milaje ("adored ones") from rival tribes to serve as his personal guard and ceremonial wives-in-training. He then studied abroad before returning to his kingship. T'Challa invited the American superhero team the Fantastic Four to Wakanda, then attacked and neutralized them individually in order to prove himself worthy as his people's defender and to test the team to see if it could be an effective ally against Klaw, who had become a being made of living sound.[15] After the ruler made proper amends to the superhero team for the incident, they befriended and helped T'Challa, and he in turn aided the heroes against the supervillain the Psycho-Man.[16]

T'Challa later joined the Avengers,[17] beginning a long association with that superhero team. He first battled the Man-Ape while with the Avengers,[18] and then met the American singer Monica Lynne,[19] with whom he became romantically involved. He helped the Avengers defeat the second Sons of the Serpent, and then revealed his true identity on American television.[20] He encountered Daredevil, and revealed to him that he had deduced Daredevil's secret identity.[21]

Return to Wakanda

The Panther eventually leaves his active Avengers membership to return to a Wakanda on the brink of civil war, bringing Lynne with him. After defeating would-be usurper Erik Killmonger and his minions,[22] the Panther ventures to the American South to battle the Ku Klux Klan.[23] He later gains possession of the mystical time-shifting artifacts known as King Solomon's Frogs.[24] These produced an alternate version of T'Challa from a future 10 years hence, a merry, telepathic Panther with a terminal brain aneurysm, whom T'Challa placed in cryogenic stasis.

Later, while searching for and finding his mother, the Panther contends with South African authorities during Apartheid.[25] T'Challa eventually proposes and becomes engaged to Monica Lynne,[26] though the couple never married.

Years later, the Panther accepts a Washington, D.C. envoy, Everett K. Ross, and faces multiple threats to Wakanda's sovereignty. Ross assists him in many of these threats, often fighting side by side (or attempting to). In gratitude, the Panther often risks much for Ross in return. The first main threat to Wakandan soveriengty he and Ross encounter is 'Xcon' — an alliance of rogue intelligence agents — backs a coup led by the sorcerer Reverend Achebe. Afterward, Killmonger resurfaces with a plot to destroy Wakanda's economy. This forces T'Challa to nationalize foreign companies. Killmonger then defeats him in ritual combat, thus inheriting the role of Black Panther, but falls into a coma upon eating the heart-shaped herb — poisonous to anyone outside the royal bloodline, which had a hereditary immunity to its toxic effects. T'Challa preserves his rival's life rather than allowing him to die.

Later, T'Challa finds he has a brain aneurysm like his alternate future self, and succumbs to instability and hallucinations. After his mental state almost causes tribal warfare, the Panther hands power to his council and hides in New York City. There he mentors police officer Kasper Cole (who had adopted an abandoned Panther costume), an experience that gives T'Challa the strength to face his illness, reclaim his position, and return to active membership in the Avengers, whom he helps secure special United Nations status.

Marriage and superhero Civil War

The marriage of Storm and the Black Panther: Promotional art for Black Panther #18 cover (Sept. 2006) by Frank Cho.

T'Challa then helps Ororo Munroe (alias Storm), with whom he had a brief romance during his teens, reunite with her surviving family members in Africa and the U.S. He shortly afterward proposes, and the two are married in a large Wakandan ceremony attended by many superheroes. However, he failed to reunite both Captain America and Iron Man because of their opposing views on the Superhuman Registration Act.[27]

One of the couple's first tasks is to embark on a diplomatic tour, in which they visit the Inhumans, Doctor Doom, the President of the United States, and Namor, with only that last ending well. After the death of Bill Foster, the Black Panther and Storm side with Captain America's anti-registration forces. During the end battle between both sides, the Wakandan embassy in Manhattan is heavily damaged, though no actual Wakandans were hurt. After the confrontation, the Panther and Storm briefly fill in for vacationing Fantastic Four members Reed and Sue Richards before returning to Wakanda.

Passing the mantle

Upon returning to Wakanda, Black Panther and Storm face Erik Killmonger, defeating him with assistance from Monica Rambeau (a.k.a. Pulsar).[28] Afterward, Wakanda fends off the alien shapeshifters the Skrulls, who had infiltrated as part of their "Secret Invasion" plan to conquer Earth.[29] Prince Namor, the Sub-Mariner, attempts to recruit T'Challa for the Cabal, a secret council of supervillains masterminding. Attacked by the forces of fellow Cabal member Doctor Doom, T'Challa is left comatose.[30] His sister Shuri is trained as the next Panther, with the mantle passing onto her officially after T'Challa awakens from his coma and attempts to recover from his injuries.[31]

Power

Following his defeat at the hands of Doom and the passing of the Panther mantle, T'Challa lost all of his enhanced attributes given to him by being the panther totem.[32] Since this he has been working with his sorcerer, Zawavari, to accumulate a replacement.[33]. He has since made a pact with another unknown Panther deity, returning his attributes to an even higher level as well as placing incantations on his body, making himself highly resistant to magic. This has all been done in preparation in an impending battle with Doctor Doom[34]

Powers and abilities

The title "Black Panther" is a rank of office, chieftain of the Wakandan Panther Clan. As chieftain, the Panther is entitled to eat a special heart-shaped herb, as well as his mystical connection with the Wakandan Panther god, that grants him superhumanly acute senses and increases his strength, speed, stamina, and agility to the peak of human development. He has since lost this connection and forged a new one with another unknown Panther deity, granting him augment physical attributes as well as a resistance to magic.[35] His senses are so powerful that he can pick up a prey's scent and memorize tens of thousands of individual ones. T'Challa is a rigorously trained gymnast and acrobat, proficient in various African martial arts as well as contemporary ones and fighting styles that belong to no known disciplines. He is a skilled hunter, tracker, strategist, and scientist — he has a Ph.D. degree in physics from Oxford University. Considered one of the eight smartest people on the planet,[36] he is a genius in physics and advanced technology, and is a brilliant inventor.

As king of Wakanda, the Panther has access to a vast collection of magical artifacts, advanced Wakandan technological and military hardware, as well as the support of his nation's wide array of scientists, warriors, and mystics. The Wakandan military has been described as one of the most powerful on Earth. His attire is the sacred vibranium costume of the Wakandan Panther Cult.

In Volume 2, writer Christopher Priest expanded the Panther's day-to-day arsenal to include equipment such as an "energy dagger", a vibranium-weave suit, and a portable supercomputer, the "Kimoyo card." In Volume 3, writer Reginald Hudlin introduced such specialized equipment as "thrice-blessed armor" and "light armor" for specific tasks, and also outfitted him with the Ebony Blade, however the Ebony Blade was recently returned to the Black Knight by T'Challa's wife, Storm.[37]

Supporting cast

Allies

Enemies

Reception

Volume 3

Journalist Joe Gross praised Christopher Priest for his characterization of the Black Panther, stating, that the writer "turned an underused icon into the locus of a complicated high adventure by taking the Black Panther to his logical conclusion. T'Challa (the title character) is the enigmatic ruler of a technologically advanced, slightly xenophobic African nation, so he acts like it". Gross applauded the title's "endless wit, sharp characterization, narrative sophistication and explosive splash panels".[38]

Comics reviewer and journalist Mike Sangiacomo, however, criticized the narrative structure. "Christopher Priest's fractured writing is getting on my nerves. Like the Spider-Man comics, I want to like Black Panther, but Priest's deliberately jumbled approach to writing is simply silly. I know it's a style, but does he have to do it every issue?"[39]

Reporter Bill Radford cited similar concerns when the title had just launched. "I appreciate the notion of seeing the Black Panther through the eyes of an Everyman, but the Panther is almost relegated to secondary status in his own book. And Ross' narration jumps around in time so much that I feel like his boss, who, in trying to get Ross to tell her what has happened, complains: 'This is like watching 'Pulp Fiction' in rewind. My head is exploding.'"[40]

Volume 4

Publishers Weekly gave a negative review to the first arc, "Who Is The Black Panther?", a modern retelling of the character's origin, saying, "Hudlin's take is caught between a rock and a hard place. His over-the-top narrative is not likely to appeal to fans of the most recent version of the character, but it's too mired in obscure Marvel continuity to attract the more general reader. The plot manages to be convoluted without ever becoming absorbing".[41]

Journalist Shawn Jeffords, citing the lack of appearances of the title character in the first issue, called the new series a "fairly unimpressive launch". Jeffords also said general-audience unfamiliarity was a hindrance. "He's never been a marquee character and to make him one will be tough".[42]

Other versions

Amalgam Comics

Bronze Panther - Is the ruler of Wakanda and is named B'Nchalla. An amalgamation of the Bronze Tiger (DC) and the Black Panther (Marvel).

Earth-6606

T'Challa is Chieftain Justice[43] a Captain Britain Corps member who featured in Excalibur vol. 1 #44 (1991).

Earth X

In the alternate universe of Earth X, T'Challa has been affected by the mutative event that drives the plot. Like most of humanity, he is mutated; in this case to become a humanoid black panther. He is entrusted with the Cosmic Cube by Captain America, who knows that T'Challa would be the only one to resist using it and to never give it back if asked. In fact, Captain America does ask for it back and T'Challa is forced to refuse.

Exiles

An alternate version of Black Panther, called simply "Panther", is drafted onto the interdimensional superhero team the Exiles.[44] The Panther is the son of T'Challa and Storm and named T'Chaka, after his grandfather. Originating from Earth-1119, he was ambushed by Klaw while examining some ruins. Caught in Klaw's blast, the Panther was plucked out of time and placed on the team.[45] Unlike the stoic 616-Black Panther, The Panther is a wisecracking flirt[46]. After his assumed death on Earth-1119, his sister took up the mantle of Black Panther.[47]

Fox Kids

The Black Panther appears in issues #1 and #6-7 of Marvel Comics/Fox Kids comic book series based on the TV show The Avengers: United They Stand.

Mangaverse

T'Challa appears in the Marvel Mangaverse as a man with a pet panther. When summoning the spirits, T'Challa and his panther combine to become the Black Panther. He also became The Falcon. This Black Panther was romantically attracted to Tigra. T'Challa's sister, T'Chana, later reveals herself to be this universe's Dr. Doom.

Marvel Knights 2099

A Black Panther was featured in the Marvel Knights 2099 one shots. A new Black Panther, K'Shamba, rose to fight and thwart the mounting invasions by the successor of Doom. While the victory over the new Doom appeared triumphant, the new Wakandan king was ultimately revealed to be a puppet of Doom.[48]

Marvel Zombies

Black Panther is, for the most part, one of the few uninfected superheroes in the alternate-universe series Marvel Zombies, where he is kept as a food supply for the Zombie Giant-Man.[49] Despite having lost half of his right arm and his left foot, the Panther escapes – with the severed head of zombified superheroine the Wasp in tow – and joins forces with the mutant group the Acolytes. Decades later, T'Challa has married one of the Acolytes, Lisa Hendricks, and they have a son.[50] The Panther is stabbed and critically wounded by an agent of an Acolyte splinter group, and the Wasp — now a willing ally after having lost her zombie hunger — zombifies the Panther in order to grant him continued existence. With the Wasp's help, he survives to the post-hunger stage himself and continues to lead his people, despite his status.[51] Further internal betrayal lead the Black Panther and many of his allies to be tossed through the dimensions.[52]

MC2

In the MC2 universe Black Panther has a son named T'chaka II, who is the Coal Tiger.[53] T'chaka eventually joined the A-Next.

Ultimate Black Panther

In the alternate-reality Ultimate Marvel imprint, the Black Panther is T'Challa Udaku, a mutant who is experimented on in Weapon X program of Nick Fury and S.H.I.E.L.D..[54]

Promotional art for Ultimate Captain America Annual #1 (Dec. 2008), by Brandon Peterson.

T'Challa, the younger son of King T'Chaka of Wakanda, is severely injured during the "Trial of the Panther" from which the protector of the nation is selected. His older brother M'Baku finds T'Challa bloodied and near death but derisively calls him a fool for attempting the trial. Later, M'Baku adds that he, not T'Challa, should have taken the trial. Angry that his father has decided to share Wakanda's technology in exchange for America's help in saving T'Challa’s life, M'Baku leaves the kingdom.

To save T'Challa, T'Chaka turns him over to S.H.I.E.L.D.'s Weapon X program. Over a year later, a healthy T'Challa, in his full Black Panther garb, has enhanced speed, strength, night vision, and healing ability. Additionally, he can summon short, cat-like Adamantium claws from his knuckles by balling his hands into fists. Despite these enhancements, S.H.I.E.L.D. claims it was unable to repair his damaged vocal cords, rendering him mute. T'Chaka becomes outraged upon learning that S.H.I.E.L.D. now considers his son an asset of the U.S. and S.H.I.E.L.D. He subsequently contacts M'Baku a letter, claiming that M'Baku, not T'Challa, is the titular "favorite son", and He implores M'Baku to return.

Fury has Captain America train and mentor the Panther, who reveals his damaged throat. Captain America, sympathizing for the Panther's plight, encourages Fury to place the Panther in the superhero team the Ultimates. This turns out to be a ruse in which Captain America impersonates the Panther, allowing T'Challa to escape and return home to Wakanda.[55]

Captain America later impersonates Black Panther during the an Ultimates confrontation with the Juggernaut.[56]

After Ultimatum he joins The New Ultimates.

In other media

Television

The Black Panther in the 1994 Fantastic Four animated series.
  • The Black Panther appears in the "Prey Of The Black Panther" episode of the 1994 Fantastic Four animated TV series, voiced by Keith David. He lures them to Wakanda to see if they are worthy enough to help fight Klaw.[citation needed]
  • The Black Panther has a non-speaking cameo in the "Sanctuary" episode of the X-Men TV series.[citation needed]
  • In The Avengers: United They Stand, a portrait of the Panther hangs in Avengers Mansion in Episode 1. While the Black Panther does not appear in the animated series, he does appear in issues #1 and #6-7 of the comic book series based on the show.[citation needed]
  • Black Panther appeared in the Iron Man: Armored Adventures episode "Panther's Prey" voiced by Jeffrey Bowyer-Chapman.[57]
  • Black Panther appeared in The Super Hero Squad Show episode "Tremble at the Might of MODOK" voiced by Taye Diggs[58]. He appears with Storm when Iron Man calls them in to help stop MODOK after to the squad when Thor, Wolverine and the Hulk have been drained of their powers. In the show Storm mentions that he is her boyfriend.
  • Marvel Animation and BET began producing a primetime animated series. Djimon Hounsou has been announced as the voice of Black Panther.[59][60] The series is produced in the motion comic style.[61] The world premiere of the show was in Australia, on ABC 3 on the 16th January 2010.
  • Black Panther will appear in Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes.[62]

Film

  • In the direct-to-DVD film, Next Avengers: Heroes of Tomorrow, the Black Panther and Queen Storm have a son named Azari.[citation needed] Black Panther was called one last time to fight with the Avengers against the robot Ultron. But Black Panther did not survive. It is unknown what happened to Storm, for after the Battle with Ultron, Tony Stark (Iron Man) raised Azari along with the children of the fallen members of the Avengers.[63]
  • In June 1992, Wesley Snipes announced his intention to make a film about the Black Panther.[64] By August, Snipes had begun working on the film.[65] In July 1993, Snipes announced plans to begin The Black Panther after starring in Demolition Man.[66] Snipes said in August 1993, "We have a wide-open field for comic book characters on the big screen and we've yet to have a major black comic book hero on the screen. Especially the Black Panther, which is such a rich, interesting life. It's a dream come true to originate something that nobody's ever seen before." Snipes expressed interest in making sequels to The Black Panther.[67] In January 1994, Snipes entered talks with Columbia Pictures to portray the Black Panther in the film adaptation of the comic book superhero.[68] The following March, Stan Lee joined the development process for a film about the Black Panther.[69] By May, the film was in early development with Columbia Pictures.[70] In January 1996, Stan Lee said that he had not been pleased with the scripts he had encountered for the Black Panther.[71] In July 1997, the Black Panther was listed as part of Marvel Comics' film slate.[72] In March 1998, Marvel hired Joe Quesada and Jimmy Palmiotti to work on the Black Panther film adaptation.[73] In August, corporate problems at Marvel had put the Black Panther project on hold.[74] In August 1999, Snipes was set to produce, and possibly star, in the film featuring the Black Panther.[75]
  • In Marvel's June 2000 deal with Artisan Entertainment to develop film and television adaptations, the Black Panther was one of the four names (among Captain America, Thor, and Deadpool) that surfaced.[76] In March 2002, Snipes told Cinescape magazine that he planned to do Blade 3 or Black Panther in 2003.[77] In August 2002, Snipes said he hoped to begin production on Black Panther by 2003.[78] In July 2004, Blade 3 director David S. Goyer said that Wesley Snipes would not likely be Black Panther. "He's already so entrenched as Blade that another Marvel hero might be overkill," said Goyer.[79] In September 2005, Marvel chairman and CEO Avi Arad announced Black Panther as one of the ten Marvel films that would be developed by Marvel Studios and distributed by Paramount Pictures.[80] In June 2006, Snipes told Men's Fitness magazine that much work had been done toward a film adaptation of the Black Panther, and that he hoped to have a director soon.[81] In February 2007, Kevin Feige, president of production for Marvel Studios, stated that Black Panther was on Marvel's development slate.[82]
  • In July 2007, director John Singleton said that he was approached to do Black Panther.[83]

Video games

  • The Black Panther is a playable character in the video game Marvel: Ultimate Alliance voiced by Phil LaMarr. He can be unlocked by collecting 5 of his action figures. He has special dialogue with Nick Fury, Namor, Ghost Rider, Doctor Doom, and Deathbird. In his simulator disc, he has to battle Dark Captain America in Arcade's Murderworld.[85]
  • The Black Panther is an NPC in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2, voiced by Tim Russ.[86] He is one of the few characters in the game to not be taken under the control of The Fold. He is now playable as a new downloadable character for PS3 and Xbox 360.[87]

Bibliography

  • Jungle Action vol. 2, #5-24 (July 1973 - Nov. 1976)
  • The Black Panther vol. 1 #1-15 (Jan. 1977 - May 1979)
  • Marvel Premiere #51-53 (Dec. 1979 - April 1980)
  • Black Panther #1-4 (miniseries; July-Oct. 1988)
  • "Panther's Quest" Parts 1-25 in Marvel Comics Presents #13-37 (Feb.-Dec. 1989)
  • Black Panther: Panther's Prey prestige-format miniseries #1-4 (May-Oct. 1991)
  • Black Panther vol. 2, #1-62 (Nov. 1998 - Sept. 2003)
  • Black Panther vol. 3, #1-41, Annual #1 (April 2005-Oct. 2008)
  • Black Panther vol. 4 #1- (Feb. 2009- )
  • Avengers Vol. 1 #51-181, 239, 305-308, 335-339, 356, 394, 400, 500-503, Annual #2, 18
  • Avengers Vol. 3 #1-4, 19-23, 70, 76
  • Defenders Vol. 1 #7, 9, 10-11, 84-86

Collected editions

  • Black Panther By Jack Kirby Vol. 1 (Vol. 1 #1-6)
  • Black Panther By Jack Kirby Vol. 2 (Vol. 1 #7-12)
  • Black Panther Vol. 1: The Client (Vol. 3 #1-5)
  • Black Panther Vol. 2: Enemy of the State (Vol. 3 #6-12)
  • Black Panther: Who is the Black Panther (Vol. 4 #1-6)
  • House of M: World of M Featuring Wolverine (Vol. 4 #7)
  • X-men/Black Panther: Wild Kingdom (Vol. 4 #8-9)
  • Black Panther: Bad Mutha (Vol. 4 #10-13)
  • Black Panther: The Bride (Vol. 4 #14-18)
  • Black Panther: Civil War (Vol. 4 #19-25)
  • Black Panther: Four the Hard Way (Vol. 4 #26-30)
  • Black Panther: Little Green Men (Vol. 4 #31-34)
  • Black Panther: Back To Africa (Vol. 4 #35-38, Annual #1)
  • Black Panther: Secret Invasion (Vol. 4 #39-41, plus extras)
  • Black Panther: The Deadliest of the Species (Vol. 5 #1-6)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Cronin, Brian (05 December 2008). "Comic Book Legends Revealed #183". http://goodcomics.comicbookresources.com/2008/11/27/comic-book-legends-revealed-183/. Retrieved 13 December 2008. 
  2. ^ "Origin of the Black Panther Party logo". H.K. Yuen Social Movement Archive. http://www.docspopuli.org/articles/Yuen/BPP_logo.html. Retrieved 13 December 2008. 
  3. ^ When Fantastic Four member the Thing asked about the name change, T'Challa responded, "I contemplate a return to your country, Ben Grimm, where the latter term has —political connotations. I neither condemn nor condone those who have taken up the name, but T'Challa is a law unto himself. Hence, the new name — a minor point, at best, since the panther is a leopard."
  4. ^ a b McDuffie, Dwayne.To Be Continued (column) #3, Dwayne McDuffie official site, n.d. WebCitation archive.
  5. ^ a b Jungle Action, Marvel, 1973 Series, at the Grand Comics Database.
  6. ^ a b Sacks, Jason. "Panther's Rage: Marvel's First Graphic Novel", Fanboy Planet, n.d. WebCitation archive
  7. ^ Ethan Sacks (2002-03-19). "The unsung heroes: Blade & Co. help to close racial divide". Daily News (New York). 
  8. ^ a b Misha Davenport (2005-02-02). "A superhero reinvented for hip-hop generation". Chicago Sun-Times. 
  9. ^ 2009's 'Black Panther' News Is a Bombshell..., Comic Riffs, The Washington Post, October 21, 2008
  10. ^ THE OSBORN SUPREMACY: Black Panther, Comic Book Resources, January 6, 2009
  11. ^ A New Team for Black Panther, IGN, May 11, 2009
  12. ^ Richards, Dave (May 22 2009). "Will Conrad Talks Black Panther". Comic Book Resources. http://www.comicbookresources.com/?page=article&id=21311. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  13. ^ Avengers #52-55, May-Aug. 1968)
  14. ^ Marvel Team-Up vol. 1 #100 (Dec. 1980), revised in Storm vol. 2 #1-6 (2006)
  15. ^ Fantastic Four #52-53 (July-August 1966)
  16. ^ Fantastic Four Annual #5 (1967)
  17. ^ The Avengers #52 (May 1968)
  18. ^ Avengers #62 (March 1969)
  19. ^ The Avengers #73 (Feb. 1970)
  20. ^ The Avengers #74 (March 1970)
  21. ^ Daredevil #69 (October 1970)
  22. ^ Jungle Action #6-18 (Sept. 1973 - Nov. 1975)
  23. ^ Jungle Action #19-22 & 24 (Jan.-July & Nov. 1976)
  24. ^ Story arc beginning Black Panther #1 (Jan. 1977)
  25. ^ The omnibus series Marvel Comics Presents #13-37 (Late Feb. - 1December [week 2] 1989)
  26. ^ Black Panther: Panther's Prey #1-4 (May-Oct. 1991)
  27. ^ Black Panther #18
  28. ^ Black Panther vol. 4, #35-37
  29. ^ Black Panther vol. 4, #38-41
  30. ^ Black Panther vol 5, #1-2
  31. ^ Black Panther vol. 5, #2-7
  32. ^ Black Panther vol. 5 #8
  33. ^ Black Panther vol. 5 #8
  34. ^ Black Panther vol. 5 #9-10
  35. ^ Black Panther vol. 5 #9-10
  36. ^ Incredible Hulk #601
  37. ^ Captain Britain and MI-13 #10, Feb. 2009
  38. ^ Joe Gross and Jeff Salamon (2002-05-30). "Five comic books you (or your kids)* should be reading". Austin American-Statesman. 
  39. ^ Mike Sangiacomo (2000-04-01). "Tips on what to buy, avoid with budget in mind". The Plain Dealer. 
  40. ^ Bill Radford (1998-11-05). "Marvel Knights books put new spin on classic heroes". The Gazette (Colorado Springs). 
  41. ^ "Black Panther: Who Is the Black Panther?". Publishers Weekly. 2005-10-17. 
  42. ^ Shawn Jeffords (2005-02-03). "Is the Black Panther back?". Sarnia Observer. 
  43. ^ Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z vol. #2 (May 2008)
  44. ^ Exiles Vol. 3 #1
  45. ^ Exiles Vol. 3 #1
  46. ^ Exiles (v.3) #1
  47. ^ Exiles Vol. 3 #6
  48. ^ Marvel Knights 2099: Black Panther #1 (2005)
  49. ^ "Marvel Zombies" #2
  50. ^ "Marvel Zombies 2" #2
  51. ^ "Marvel Zombies 2" #3
  52. ^ Marvel Zombies 2" #5
  53. ^ A-Next #4
  54. ^ Ultimate Origins #5
  55. ^ Ultimate Captain America Annual #1 (Dec. 2008), written by Jeph Loeb: Chapters "Favorite Son" and "Training Day"
  56. ^ Ultimates 3 #1-5
  57. ^ http://www.comicscontinuum.com/stories/0904/16/index.htm
  58. ^ Comics Continuum
  59. ^ http://www.marvel.com/news/moviestories.5951
  60. ^ http://www.marvel.com/news/comicstories.6694.NYCC_~apos~09~colon~_Marvel~slash~BET_Black_Panther_Panel
  61. ^ http://blog.newsarama.com/2009/02/10/nycc-09-is-black-panther-the-animated-series-a-motion-comic/
  62. ^ Jenna Busch (2010-02-08). "AVENGERS Animated Assembling w/ Phil Lamarr". Newsarama. http://www.newsarama.com/tv/Lamarr-Avengers-Animated-100208.html. Retrieved 2010-02-08. 
  63. ^ Next Avengers: Heroes of Tomorrow
  64. ^ Jay Carr (1992-06-21). "Can penguin cones be far behind?". The Boston Globe. 
  65. ^ Jay Carr (1992-08-30). "Tolkin to sit in director's chair". The Boston Globe. 
  66. ^ Judy Gerstel (1993-07-29). "Rising star on screen and off, the actor is his own man". Detroit Free Press. 
  67. ^ Steve Persall (1993-08-03). "Future is bright for Snipes". St. Petersburg Times. 
  68. ^ John Brodie (1994-01-05). "Hollywood Pours Its Heroes Into Tights". Chicago Sun-Times. 
  69. ^ Leonard Pitts Jr. (1994-03-27). "A comics milestone from the action-filled universe of superheroes come new characters, and a new diversity". 
  70. ^ Frank Lovece (1994-05-15). "Off the drawing board". Newsday. 
  71. ^ Doug Nye (1996-01-28). "Stan Lee hopes New World deal pumps life into his creations". The State. 
  72. ^ Amy Dawes (1997-07-27). "Action! Movie studios lining up to turn comics into cinematic gold". Daily News of Los Angeles. 
  73. ^ Andrew Smith (1998-03-22). "So here's the wackiest gimmick of all - good writing for comics". The Commercial Appeal. 
  74. ^ Stephan Fortes (1998-08-23). "Blade Runner". Newsday. 
  75. ^ Bill Radford (1999-08-01). "Superheroes at home on big screen". The Gazette. 
  76. ^ Jacob W. Michaels (2000-06-02). "Comic Books". Centre Daily Times. 
  77. ^ Rene A. Guzman (2002-03-24). "Snipes' Blade draws focus to black comic book heroes". San Antonio Express-News. 
  78. ^ Monroe Hutchen (2002-08-22). "Undisputed". Latino Review. http://www.latinoreview.com/moviereviews/2002/undisputed/wesleysnipesinterview.html. Retrieved 2006-12-21. 
  79. ^ Clint Morris (2004-07-16). "Goyer talks Superman and Black Panther". Moviehole.net. http://www.moviehole.net/news/3957.html. Retrieved 2006-12-21. 
  80. ^ "Marvel Making Movies". IGN. 2005-09-06. http://movies.ign.com/articles/648/648076p1.html. Retrieved 2006-12-21. 
  81. ^ Sam Malone (2006-06-01). "Snipes on Blade and Black Panther". http://www.superherohype.com/news/bladenews.php?id=4325. Retrieved 2006-12-21. 
  82. ^ Bill Radford (2007-02-08). "Marvel stays true to superhero characters in transition to big screen". The News Sentinel. http://www.fortwayne.com/mld/newssentinel/living/16652105.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-11. 
  83. ^ Wilson Morales (2007-07-27). "John Singleton News". BlackFilm.com. http://www.blackfilm.com/20070720/features/johnsingletonnews.shtml. Retrieved 2007-07-27. 
  84. ^ Marc Graser (2009-03-26). "Marvel's hiring writers". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118001734.html?categoryid=13&cs=1. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  85. ^ Denick, Thom (2006). Marvel Ultimate Alliance: Signature Series Guide. Indianapolis, Indiana: Brady Games. pp. 38, 39. ISBN 0-7440-0844-1. 
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  87. ^ http://i9.photobucket.com/albums/a68/Bionicflmer/mua2DLC.jpg

References

External links


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