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Black Sea
Satellite view of the Black Sea, taken by NASA MODIS
Coordinates 44°N 35°E / 44°N 35°E / 44; 35Coordinates: 44°N 35°E / 44°N 35°E / 44; 35
Max. length 1,175 km (730 mi)
Surface area 436,400 km2 (168,500 sq mi)
Max. depth 2,206 m (7,238 ft)
Water volume 547,000 km3 (131,000 cu mi)
Illustration of the Black Sea, from NASA’s World Wind globe software

The Black Sea is an inland sea bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects it to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate eastern Europe and western Asia. The Black Sea also connects to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch.

The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2 (168,495.0 sq mi),[1] a maximum depth of 2,206 m (7,238 ft),[2] and a volume of 547,000 km³ (133,500 cu mi).[3] The Black Sea forms in an east-west trending elliptical depression which lies between Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine.[4] It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, the Caucasus Mountains to the east and features a wide shelf to the north-west. The longest east-west extent is about 1,175 km.

Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Burgas, Constanţa, Giresun, Istanbul, Kerch, Kherson, Mangalia, Năvodari, Novorossiysk, Odessa, Ordu, Poti, Rize, Samsun, Sevastopol, Sochi, Sukhumi, Trabzon, Varna, Yalta and Zonguldak.

The Black Sea has a positive water balance, which results in a net outflow of water 300 km³ per year through the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles into the Aegean Sea (part of the Mediterranean Sea). Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea as part of a 2-way hydrological exchange. The Black Sea outflow is cooler and less saline , and therefore floats over the warm, more saline Mediterranean inflow. The Black Sea also receives river water from large Eurasian fluvial systems to the north of the Sea, of which the Don, Dnieper and Danube are the most significant.

In the past, the water level has varied significantly. Depending on the water level in the basin, varying surrounding shelf and associated aprons are aerially exposed. At certain critical depths, it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established. It is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the global ocean system. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is a lake, operating independently of the global ocean system. Currently the Black Sea water level is relatively high, thus water is being exchanged with the Mediterranean. The Turkish Straits connect the Black and Aegean Seas and comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles.



The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows:[5]

On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara [A line joining Cape Rumili with Cape Anatoli (41°13'N)].

In the Kertch Strait. A line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia (45°02'N).


Modern names

Current names of the Sea are equivalents of the English name, "Black Sea", including Adyghe: (Хы ШIуцI), Greek Mavri Thalassa (Μαύρη Θάλασσα), Bulgarian Cherno more (Черно море), Georgian Shavi zghva (შავი ზღვა), Laz Ucha Zuğa, or simply Zuğa 'Sea', Romanian Marea Neagră, Russian Chornoye more (Чёрное море), Turkish Karadeniz, Ukrainian Chorne more (Чорне море), Ubykh [ʃʷad͡ʒa]. Such names have not yet been shown conclusively to predate the twelfth century, but there are indications that they may be considerably older.

Sunset on the Black Sea at Laspi
The estuary of the Veleka in the Black Sea. Longshore drift has deposited sediment along the shoreline which has led to the formation of a spit, Sinemorets, Bulgaria

The reason for this color term may be an ancient assignment of colors to the cardinal directions—black referring to the north, red referring to the south, and yellow to the east. Herodotus on one occasion uses Red Sea and Southern Sea interchangeably.[6] A somewhat similar view shows the Turkish name: 'Kara (Black)' and 'Ak (White)' are respectively used to denote 'North' and 'South' in Medieval Turkish, as in Akhun Empire, Akkoyunlu and Karakoyunlu Empires, and Akdeniz (lit., 'White Sea', referring to the Mediterranean which lies south of Anatolia[citation needed]). Another possible explanation comes from the colour of the Black Sea's deep waters. Being further north than the Mediterranean Sea and much less saline, the microalgae concentration is much richer, causing the dark colour. Visibility in the Black Sea is on average approximately five metres (5.5 yd), as compared to up to thirty-five metres (38 yd) in the Mediterranean.[citation needed]

The Black Sea is one of four seas named in English after common color terms — the others being the Red Sea, the White Sea and the Yellow Sea.

Historical names

Strabo's Geography (1.2.10) reports that in antiquity, the Black Sea was often just called "the Sea" (ho pontos). For the most part, Graeco-Roman tradition refers to the Black Sea as the 'Hospitable sea', Euxeinos Pontos (Εὔξεινος Πόντος). This is a euphemism replacing an earlier 'Inhospitable Sea', Pontos Axeinos, first attested in Pindar (early fifth century BCE,~475 BC). Strabo (7.3.6) thinks that the Black Sea was called "inhospitable" before Greek colonization because it was difficult to navigate, and because its shores were inhabited by savage tribes. The name was changed to "hospitable" after the Milesians had colonized southern shoreline, the Pontus, making it part of Greek civilization.

It is also possible that the name Axeinos arose by popular etymology from a Scythian Iranic axšaina- 'unlit,' 'dark'; the designation "Black Sea" may thus date from Antiquity.

One Bulgarian understanding of the name is that the sea used to be quite stormy. The Black Sea deluge theory is based on that idea.[citation needed]

In naval science, the Black Sea is thought to have received its name because of its hydrogen sulphide layer that begins about 200 metres below the surface, and supports a unique microbial population which produces black sediments probably due to anaerobic methane oxidation.[citation needed]

Geology and bathymetry

Bay of Sudak

The geological origins of the basin can be traced back to two distinct relict back arc basins which were initiated by the splitting of an Albian volcanic arc and the subduction of both the Paleo-and Neo-Tethys Oceans, but the timings of these events remain controversial.[7][8] Since its initiation, compressional tectonic environments led to subsidence in the basin, interspersed with extensional phases resulting in large-scale volcanism and numerous orogenies, causing the uplift of the Greater Caucasus, Pontides, Southern Crimea and Balkanides mountain ranges. The ongoing collision between the Eurasian and African plates and westward escape of the Anatolian block along the North Anatolian Fault and East Anatolian Faults dictates the current tectonic regime,[9] which features enhanced subsidence in the Black Sea basin and significant volcanic activity in the Anatolian region.[10] It is these geological mechanisms which, in the long term, have caused the periodic isolations of the Black Sea from the rest of the global ocean system.

The modern basin is divided into 2 sub-basins by a convexity extending south from the Crimean Peninsula. The large shelf to the north of the basin is up to 190 km wide, and features a shallow apron with gradients between 1:40 and 1:1000. The southern edge around Turkey and the western edge around Georgia, however, are typified by a shelf that rarely exceeds 20 km in width and an apron that is typically 1:40 gradient with numerous submarine canyons and channel extensions. The Euxine abyssal plain in the centre of the Black Sea reaches a maximum depth of 2,212 m (7,257.22 ft) just south of Yalta on the Crimean Peninsula.[11]

The littoral zone of the Black Sea is often referred to as the Pontic littoral.

Hydrology and hydrochemistry

The Black Sea is the world’s largest meromictic basin where the deep waters do not mix with the upper layers of water that receive oxygen from the atmosphere. As a result, over 90% of the deeper Black Sea volume is anoxic water. The current hydrochemical configuration is primarily controlled by basin topography and fluvial inputs, which result in a strongly stratified vertical structure and a positive water balance. The upper layers are generally cooler, less dense and less salty than the deeper waters, as they are fed by large fluvial systems, whereas the deep waters originate from the warm, salty waters of the Mediterranean. This influx of dense water from Mediterranean is balanced by an outflow of fresher Black Sea surface-water into the Marmara Sea, maintaining the stratification and salinity levels.

The surface water has an average salinity of 18 to 18.5 parts per thousand (compared to 30 to 40 for the oceans) and contains oxygen and other nutrients required to sustain biotic activity. These waters circulate in a basin-wide cyclonic shelfbreak gyre known as the Rim Current which transports water round the perimeter of the Black Sea. Within this feature, two smaller cyclonic gyres operate, occupying the eastern and western sectors of the basin. Outside the Rim Current, numerous quasi-permanent coastal eddies are formed due to upwelling around the coastal apron and ‘wind curl’ mechanisms. The intra-annual strength of these features is controlled by seasonal atmospheric and fluvial variations. The temperature of the surface waters varies seasonally from 8 °C (46 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F).

Directly beneath the surface waters the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) is found. This layer is composed of cool, salty surface waters, which are the result of localised atmospheric cooling and decreased fluvial input during the winter months. The production of this water is focussed in the centre of the major gyres and on the NW shelf and as the water is not dense enough to penetrate the deep waters, isopycnal advection occurs, dispersing the water across the entire basin. The base of the CIL is marked by a major thermocline, halocline and pycnocline at ~100–200 m and this density disparity is the major mechanism for isolation of the deep water.

Black Sea Nasa May 25 2004.jpg

Below the pycnocline, salinity increases to 22 to 22.5 ppt and temperatures rise to around 8.5 °C (47.3 °F). The hydrochemical environment shifts from oxygenated to anoxic, as bacterial decomposition of sunken biomass utilises all of the free oxygen. Certain species of extremophile bacteria are capable of using sulfate (SO42−) in the oxidation of organic material, which leads to the creation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). This enables the precipitation of sulfides such as the iron sulphides pyrite, greigite and iron monosulphide, as well as the dissolution of carbonate matter such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3), found in shells. Organic matter, including anthropogenic artifacts such as boat hulls, are well preserved. During periods of high surface productivity, short-lived algal blooms form organic rich layers known as sapropels. Scientists have reported an annual phytoplankton bloom that can be seen in many NASA images of the region.[12] As a result of these characteristics the Black Sea has gained interest from the field of marine archaeology as ancient shipwrecks in excellent states of preservation have been discovered, such as the Byzantine wreck Sinop D, located in the anoxic layer off the coast of Sinop, Turkey.

Modelling shows the release of the hydrogen sulphide clouds in the event of an asteroid impact into the Black Sea would pose a threat to health—or even life—for people living on the Black Sea coast.[13]


The Black Sea supports an active and dynamic marine ecosystem, dominated by species suited to the brackish, nutrient-rich, conditions. As with all marine food webs, the Black Sea features a range of trophic groups, with autotrophic algae, including diatoms and dinoflagellates, acting as primary producers. The fluvial systems draining Eurasia and central Europe introduce large volumes of sediment and dissolved nutrients into the Black Sea, but distribution of these nutrients is controlled by the degree of physiochemical stratification, which is, in turn, dictated by seasonal physiographic development [14]. During winter, strong wind promotes convective overturning and upwelling of nutrients, while high summer temperatures result in a marked vertical stratification and a warm, shallow mixed layer [15]. Day length and insolation intensity also controls the extent of the photic zone. Subsurface productivity is limited by nutrient availability, as the anoxic bottom waters act as a sink for reduced nitrate, in the form of ammonia. The benthic zone also plays an important role in Black Sea nutrient cycling, as chemosynthetic organisms and anoxic geochemical pathways recycle nutrients which can be upwelled to the photic zone, enhancing productivity [16].


The main phytoplankton groups present in the Black Sea are dinoflagellates, diatoms, coccolithophores and cyanobacteria (see list below). Generally, the annual cycle of phytoplankton development comprises significant diatom and dinoflagellate-dominated spring production, followed by a weaker mixed assemblage of community development below the seasonal thermocline during summer months and a surface-intensified autumn production [15][17]. This pattern of productivity is also augmented by an Emiliania huxleyi bloom during the late spring and summer months.

  • Dinoflagellates: Annual dinoflagellate distribution is defined by an extended bloom period in subsurface waters during the late spring and summer. In November, subsurface plankton production is combined with surface production, due to vertical mixing of water masses and nutrients such as nitrite [14]. The major bloom-forming dinoflagellate species in the Black Sea is Gymnodinium sp.[18]. Estimates of dinoflagellate diversity in the Black Sea range from 193 species [19] to 267 species [20]. This level of species richness is relatively low in comparison to the Mediterranean Sea, which is attributable to the brackish conditions, low water transparency and presence of anoxic bottom waters. It is also possible that the low winter temperature <4oC of the Black Sea prevent thermophilous species from becoming established. The relatively high organic matter content of Black Sea surface water favour the development of heterotrophic (an organism which uses organic carbon for growth) and mixotrophic dinoflagellates species (able to exploit different trophic pathways), relative to autotrophs. Despite its unique hydrographic setting, there are no confirmed endemic dinoflagellate species in the Black Sea [20].
  • Diatoms: The Black Sea is populated by many species of marine diatom, which commonly exist as colonies of unicellular, non-motile auto- and heterotrophic algae. The life-cycle of most diatoms can be described as `boom and bust' and the Black Sea is no exception, with diatom blooms occurring in surface waters throughout the year, most reliably during March [14]. In simple terms, the phase of rapid population growth in diatoms is caused by the in-wash of Si-bearing terrestrial sediments, and when the supply of Si is exhausted, the diatoms begin to sink out of the photic zone and produce resting cysts. Additional factors such as predation by zooplankton and ammonium-based regenerated production also have a role to play in the annual diatom cycle [14][15]. Typically, Proboscia alata blooms during spring and Pseudosolenia calcar-avis blooms during the autumn [18].
  • Coccolithophores: Coccolithophores are a type of motile, autotrophic phytoplankton that produce CaCO3 plates, known as coccoliths, as part of their life cycle. In the Black Sea, the main period of coccolithophore growth occurs after the bulk of the dinoflagellate growth has taken place. In May, the dinoflagellates move below the seasonal thermocline, into deeper waters, where more nutrients are available. This permits coccolithophores to utilise the nutrients in the upper waters, and by the end of May, with favourable light and temperature conditions, growth rates reach their highest. The major bloom forming species is Emiliania huxleyi, which is also responsible for the release of dimethyl sulfide into the atmosphere. Overall, coccolithophore diversity is low in the Black Sea, and although recent sediments are dominated by E. huxleyi, Braarudosphaera bigelowii, Holocene sediments have also been shown to contain Helicopondosphaera and Discolithina species.
  • Cyanobacteria: Cyanobacteria are a phylum of picoplanktonic (plankton ranging in size from 0.2 - 2 micron) bacteria that obtain their energy via photosynthesis, and are present throughout the world's oceans. They exhibit a range of morphologiies, including filamentous colonies and biofilms. In the Black Sea, several species are present, and as an example, Synechococcus spp. can be found throughout the photic zone, although concentration decreases with increasing depth. Other factors which exert an influence on distribution include nutrient availability, predation and salinity [21].

The effect of pollution on Black Sea ecology

The ecology of the modern Black Sea is strongly influenced by anthropogenic activity, particularly as the restricted connection to the global ocean system inhibits ventilation and causes pollutants to accumulate in the basin. Since the 1960s, rapid industrial expansion along the Black Sea coast line and the construction of a major dam has significantly increased annual variability in the N:P:Si ratio in the basin. In coastal areas, the biological effect of these changes has been an increase in the frequency of monospecific phytoplankton blooms, with diatom bloom frequency increasing by a factor of 2.5 and non-diatom bloom frequency increasing by a factor of 6. The non-diatoms, such as the prymnesiophytes Emiliania huxleyi (coccolithophore), Chromulina sp., and the Euglenophyte Eutreptia lanowii are able to out-compete diatom species because of the limited availability of Si, a necessary constituent of diatom frustules [22]. As a consequence of these blooms, benthic macrophyte populations were deprived of light, while anoxia caused mass mortality in marine animals [23][24]. The decline in macrophytes was further compounded by overfishing during the 1970s, while the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis reduced the biomass of copepods and other zooplankton in the late 1980s. Perhaps because of the attendant ecological disruptions, an alien species—the warty comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi)—was able to establish itself in the basin, exploding from a few individuals to an estimated biomass of one billion metric tons.[25] The change in species composition in Black Sea waters also has consequences for hydrochemistry, as Ca-producing coccolithophores influence salinity and pH, although these ramifications have yet to be fully quantified. In central Black Sea waters, Si levels were also significantly reduced, due to a decrease in the flux of Si associated with advection across isopycnal surfaces. This phenomenon demonstrates the potential for localised alterations in Black Sea nutrient input to have basin-wide impacts.

Several attempts to raise awareness of these issues resulted in efforts to reduce pollution in the basin, and regulation has led to a partial recovery of the Black Sea ecosystem during the 1990s, and an EU monitoring exercise, 'EROS21', revealed decreased N and P values, relative to the 1989 peak [26]. Recently, scientists have noted signs of ecological recovery, in part due to the collapse of agriculture (and subsidized fertilizer usage) in much of the lower Danube basin and the construction of new sewage treatment plants in Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria in connection with membership in the European Union. Mnemiopsis leidyi populations have been checked with the arrival of another alien species which feeds on them.[27]


Short-term climatic variation in the Black Sea region is significantly influenced by the operation of the North Atlantic Oscillation, which is a term used to describe the climatic mechanisms resulting from the interaction between the north Atlantic and mid-latitude air masses.[28] While the exact mechanisms causing the North Atlantic Oscillation remain unclear,[29] it is thought the climate conditions established in western Europe mediate the heat and precipitation fluxes reaching Central Europe and Eurasia, regulating the formation of winter cyclones, which are largely responsible for regional precipitation inputs[30] and influence Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures (SST's).[31] The relative strength of these systems also limits the amount of cold air arriving from northern regions during winter.[32] Other influencing factors include the regional topography, as depressions and storms systems arriving from the Mediterranean are funneled through the low land around the Bosphorus, Pontic and Caucasus mountain ranges acting as wave guides, limiting the speed and paths of cyclones passing through the region[33]

Mediterranean connection during the Holocene

The Bosporus, taken from the International Space Station
Map of the Dardanelles

The Black Sea is connected to the World Ocean by a chain of two shallow straits, the Dardanelles and the Bosporus. The Dardannelles are 55 m (180.45 ft) deep and the Bosporus is as shallow as 36 m (118.11 ft). By comparison, at the height of the last Ice age, sea levels were more than 100 m (328.08 ft) lower than they are now. There's also evidence that water levels in the Black Sea, too, were considerably lower at some point during the post-glacial period. Thus, for example, archeologists found fresh-water snail shells and man-made structures in roughly 328 feet (100 m) of water off the Black Sea coast of modern Turkey. Therefore it is agreed that the Black Sea has been a landlocked freshwater lake (at least in upper layers) during the last glaciation and for some time after.

In the aftermath of the Ice Age, water levels in the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea rose independently until they were high enough to exchange water. The exact timeline of this development is still subject to debate. One possibility is that the Black Sea filled first, with excess fresh water flowing over the Bosporus sill and eventually into the Mediterranean Sea. There are also catastrophic scenarios, such as the "deluge theory" put forward by William Ryan and Walter Pitman.

Deluge hypothesis

In 1997, William Ryan and Walter Pitman from Columbia University published a hypothesis according to which a massive flood through the Bosporus occurred in ancient times. They claim that the Black and Caspian Seas were vast freshwater lakes, but then about 5600 BC, the Mediterranean spilled over a rocky sill at the Bosporus, creating the current communication between the Black and Mediterranean Seas. Subsequent work has been done both to support and to discredit this hypothesis, and archaeologists still debate it. This has led some to associate this catastrophe with prehistoric flood myths.[34]


Medieval map of the Black Sea
Ivan Aivazovsky. Black Sea Fleet in the Bay of Theodosia, just before the Crimean War

The Black Sea was a busy waterway on the crossroads of the ancient world: the Balkans to the West, the Eurasian steppes to the north, Caucasus and Central Asia to the East, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia to the south, and Greece to the south-west. The oldest processed gold in the world, arguably left by Old Europeans, was found in Varna, and the Black Sea was supposedly sailed by the Argonauts. The land at the eastern end of the Black Sea, Colchis, (now Georgia), marked for the Greeks an edge of the known world. The steppes to the north of the Black Sea have been suggested as the original homeland (Urheimat) of the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language, (PIE) the progenitor of the Indo-European language family, by some scholars (see Kurgan; others move the heartland further east towards the Caspian Sea, yet others to Anatolia). Numerous ancient ports line Black Sea's coasts, some older than the pyramids[35].

The Black Sea was a significant naval theatre of World War I and saw both naval and land battles during World War II.


Ancient trade routes in the region are currently being extensively studied by scientists, as the Black Sea was sailed by Hittites, Carians, Thracians, Greeks, Persians, Cimmerians, Scythians, Romans, Byzantines, Goths, Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Slavs, Varangians, Crusaders, Venetians, Genovese, Tatars, Ottomans, and Russians. Perhaps the most promising areas in deepwater archaeology are the quest for submerged prehistoric settlements in the continental shelf and for ancient shipwrecks in the anoxic zone, which are expected to be exceptionally well preserved due to the absence of oxygen. This concentration of historical powers, combined with the preservative qualities of the deep anoxic waters of the Black Sea, has attracted increased interest from marine archaeologists who have begun to discover a large number of ancient ships and organic remains in a high state of preservation.

Holiday resorts and spas

Photo of the Black Sea near Gagra, Abkhazia, Russian Empire taken in 1915
Cities of the Black Sea

In the years following the end of the Cold War, the popularity of the Black Sea as a tourist destination has been steadily increasing. Overall, tourism at Black Sea resorts has become one of the region's growth industries.[36] The following is a list of well-known Black Sea resorts:

}} 1 Abkhazia has been a de facto independent republic since 1992, although remains a de jure autonomous republic of Georgia.

Regional organizations

Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)      members      observers
Community of Democratic Choice (CDC)      members      observers
Black Sea Forum for Partnership and Dialogue (BSF)      members      observers

See also the Balkans Regional organizations and Post-Soviet Regional organizations

See also


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  2. ^ Maximum Depth—"Europa - Gateway of the European Union Website". Environment and Enlargement - The Black Sea: Facts and Figures. 
  3. ^ "Unexpected changes in the oxic/anoxic interface in the Black Sea". Nature Publishing Group. 1989-03-30. Retrieved 2006-12-02. 
  4. ^ Socio-economic indicators for the countries of the Black Sea basin. (2001). In UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library. Retrieved 2 December 2006 from
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  12. ^ Black Sea Becomes Turquoise Retrieved 2 December 2006.
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  15. ^ a b c Oguz, T. and A. Merico (2006). "Factors controlling the summer Emiliania huxleyi bloom in the Black Sea: A modeling study." Journal of Marine Systems 59(3-4): 173-188.
  16. ^ Friedrich, J., C. Dinkel, et al. (2002). "Benthic Nutrient Cycling and Diagenetic Pathways in the North-western Black Sea." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 54(3): 369-383.
  17. ^ Eker, E., L. Georgieva, et al. (1999). "Phytoplankton distribution in the western and eastern Black Sea in spring and autumn 1995." Ices Journal of Marine Science 56: 15-22.
  18. ^ a b Eker-Develi, E. and A. E. Kideys (2003). "Distribution of phytoplankton in the southern Black Sea in summer 1996, spring and autumn 1998." Journal of Marine Systems 39(3-4): 203-211.
  19. ^ Krakhmalny, A. F. (1994). "Dinophyta of the Black Sea (Brief history of investigations and species diversity)." Algologiya 4: 99-107.
  20. ^ a b Gomez, F. and L. Boicenco (2004). "An annotated checklist of dinoflagellates in the Black Sea." Hydrobiologia 517(1): 43-59.
  21. ^ Uysal, Z. (2006). "Vertical distribution of marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. in the Black, Marmara, Aegean, and eastern Mediterranean seas." Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 53(17-19): 1976-1987.
  22. ^ Humborg, C., V. Ittekkot, et al. (1997). "Effect of Danube River dam on Black Sea biogeochemistry and ecosystem structure." Nature 386(6623): 385-388.
  23. ^ Sburlea, A., L. Boicenco, et al. (2006). "Aspects of eutrophication as a chemical pollution with implications on marine biota at the Romanian Black Sea shore." Chemicals as Intentional and Accidental Global Environmental Threats: 357-360.
  24. ^ Gregoire, M., C. Raick, et al. (2008). "Numerical modeling of the central Black Sea ecosystem functioning during the eutrophication phase." Progress in Oceanography 76(3): 286-333.
  25. ^ Woodard, Colin, Ocean's End: Travels Through Endangered Seas, New York: Basic Books, 2000, pp. 1–28
  26. ^ Lancelot, C., J. Staneva, et al. (2002). "Modelling the Danube-influenced north-western continental shelf of the Black Sea. II: Ecosystem response to changes in nutrient delivery by the Danube River after its damming in 1972." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 54(3): 473-499.
  27. ^ Woodard, Colin, "The Black Sea's Cautionary Tale," Congressional Quarterly Global Researcher, October 2007, pp. 244–245
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  36. ^ "Bulgarian Sea Resorts". Retrieved 2007-02-02. 


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  • Neal Ascherson, Black Sea (Vintage 1996), ISBN 0-09-959371-8
  • Özhan Öztürk. Karadeniz: Ansiklopedik Sözlük (Black Sea: Encyclopedic Dictionary). 2 Cilt (2 Volumes). Heyamola Publishing. Istanbul.2005 ISBN 975-6121-00-9.
  • Rüdiger Schmitt, "Considerations on the Name of the Black Sea", in: Hellas und der griechische Osten (Saarbrücken 1996), pp. 219–224
  • West, Stephanie. "‘The Most Marvellous of All Seas’: the Greek Encounter with the Euxine", Greece & Rome, Vol. 50, Issue 2 (2003), pp. 151–167.

External links

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



Wikipedia has an article on:


Proper noun

The Black Sea


The Black Sea

  1. An inland sea between southeastern Europe, Caucasus and Asia Minor



Simple English

File:Black Sea
Map of the Black Sea

The Black Sea is a sea in Eurasia between Europe, Caucasus, and Anatolia. Many big rivers connect to the Black Sea, like Don, Danube, and Dnieper rivers.

It is connected to the Atlantic ocean through the Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea, and many straits. 90% of the sea has no oxygen, and the water has salt in it. During the last ice age, the Black Sea was a freshwater lake.


In Greek mythology, the Argonauts traveled on the sea. The sea was very important to trade for many countries in ancient history. It was also important during World War I and World War II.

mrj:Шим тангыж

rue:Чорне море

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