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Black liberation theology maintains that African Americans must be liberated from multiple forms of bondage — social, political, economic and religious. This formulation views Christian theology as a theology of liberation -- "a rational study of the being of God in the world in light of the existential situation of an oppressed community, relating the forces of liberation to the essence of the gospel, which is Jesus Christ," writes James Hal Cone.

Black Liberation Theology contends that dominant cultures have corrupted Christianity, and the result is a mainstream faith-based empire that serves its own interests, not God's. Black Liberation Theology asks whose side should God be on - the side of the oppressed or the side of the oppressors. If God values justice over victimization, then God desires that all oppressed people should be liberated. According to Cone, if God is not just, if God does not desire justice, then God needs to be done away with. Liberation from a false god who privileges whites, and the realization of an alternative and true God who desires the empowerment of the oppressed through self-definition, self-affirmation, and self-determination is the core of Black Liberation Theology.[1]

Trinity United Church of Christ, Chicago is the church most frequently cited by press accounts, and by Cone as the best example of a church formally founded on the vision of Black liberation of theology.[2] This theology has recently become a matter of national debate as intense condemnation by the U.S. mainstream media of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, the most visible exponent of the theology[3], forced Senator Barack Obama to distance himself from his former pastor[4]

Contents

Development

Modern American origins of contemporary black liberation theology can be traced to July 31, 1966, when an ad hoc group of 51 black pastors, calling themselves the National Committee of Negro Churchmen (NCNC), bought a full page ad in the New York Times to publish their "Black Power Statement," which proposed a more aggressive approach to combating racism using the Bible for inspiration.[5]

In the minds of many African-Americans, Christianity was long associated with slavery and segregation.[6] Although Southern Baptists had condemned racism in the past, it was not until June 20, 1995 that the Southern Baptist Convention adopted a formal "Declaration of Repentance". This resolution declared that they "unwaveringly denounce racism, in all its forms, as deplorable sin" and "lament and repudiate historic acts of evil such as slavery from which we continue to reap a bitter harvest." The convention offered an apology to all African-Americans for "condoning and/or perpetuating individual and systemic racism in our lifetime" and repentance for "racism of which we have been guilty, whether consciously or unconsciously. [7][8] Christianity was long associated with racism. Therefore, there must then be a dialogue regarding the implications of racism in today's society and to what extent historical factors affect the plight of the black community. Cone argues that, "About thirty years ago it was acceptable to lynch a black man by hanging him from a tree; but today whites destroy him by crowding him into a ghetto and letting filth and despair put the final touches on death."

James Cone and Black Liberation Theology

James Cone first addressed this theology after Malcolm X’s proclamation in the 1950s against Christianity being taught as "a white man’s religion".[9] According to Black religion expert Jonathan Walton:
"James Cone believed that the New Testament revealed Jesus as one who identified with those suffering under oppression, the socially marginalized and the cultural outcasts. And since the socially constructed categories of race in America (i.e., whiteness and blackness) had come to culturally signify dominance (whiteness) and oppression (blackness), from a theological perspective, Cone argued that Jesus reveals himself as black in order to disrupt and dismantle white oppression."[10]

Black theology deals primarily with the African-American community, to make Christianity real for blacks. It explains Christianity as a matter of liberation here and now, rather than in an afterlife. The goal of black theology is not for special treatment. Instead, "All Black theologians are asking for is for freedom and justice. No more, and no less. In asking for this, the Black theologians, turn to scripture as the sanction for their demand. The Psalmist writes for instance, 'If God is going to see righteousness established in the land, he himself must be particularly active as 'the helper of the fatherless' [11] to 'deliver the needy when he crieth; and the poor that hath no helper.'[12]"[13]

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On God and Jesus Christ

Cone based much of his liberationist theology on God’s deliverance of Israel from Egypt in the Book of Exodus. He compared the United States to Egypt, predicting that oppressed people will soon be led to a promised land. For Cone, the theme of Yahweh’s concern was for “the lack of social, economic, and political justice for those who are poor and unwanted in society.”[14] Cone also says that the same God is working for the oppressed blacks of the 20th century, and that “God is helping oppressed blacks and has identified with them, God Himself is spoken of as ‘black’.” [15]

Cone saw Christ from the aspect of oppression and liberation. Cone uses the Gospel of Luke to illustrate this point: “the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the good news preached to them.[16]” “‘In Christ,’ Cone argues, ‘God enters human affairs and takes sides with the oppressed. Their suffering becomes his; their despair, divine despair.’”[17] Cone also argues that, "We cannot solve ethical questions of the twentieth century by looking at what Jesus did in the first. Our choices are not the same as his. Being Christians does not mean following 'in his steps.'" [Black Theology and Black Power, Page 139] [3]

Cone’s view is that Jesus was black, which he felt was a very important view of black people to see. "It's very important because you've got a lot of white images of Christ. In reality, Christ was not white, not European. That's important to the psychic and to the spiritual consciousness of black people who live in a ghetto and in a white society in which their lord and savior looks just like people who victimize them. God is whatever color God needs to be in order to let people know they're not nobodies, they're somebodies." [18]

Stylistic differences in the Black religious community

Because of the differences in thought between the black and white community, most black religious leaders attempt to make their services more accessible to other African-Americans, who must identify with the faith in order to accept it. Another notable difference is Cone's suggestion as to what must occur if there is not reconcilition among the white community. He states, "Whether the American system is beyond redemption we will have to wait and see. But we can be certain that black patience has run out, and unless white America responds positively to the theory and activity of Black Power, then a bloody, protracted civil war is inevitable." [Black Theology and Black Power, Page 143] [10]

Criticisms

Anthony Bradley of the Christian Post interprets that the language of "economic parity" and references to "mal-distribution" as nothing more than channeling the views of Karl Marx. He believes James Cone and Cornel West have worked to incorporate Marxist thought into the black church, forming an ethical framework predicated on a system of oppressor class versus a victim much like Marxism.[19]

Stanley Kurtz of the National Review claims that "A scarcely concealed, Marxist-inspired indictment of American capitalism pervades contemporary 'black-liberation theology'...The black intellectual's goal, says Cone, is to "aid in the destruction of America as he knows it." According to him such destruction requires both black anger and white guilt. He claimed the black-power theologian's goal is to tell the story of American oppression so powerfully and precisely that white men will "tremble, curse, and go mad, because they will be drenched with the filth of their evil."

See also

References

  1. ^ James H. Cone "A Black Theology of Liberation." Orbis, 1990 pg. 56-57
  2. ^ Wright's theology not "new or radical": Jonathan Walton states most black churches are not formally based on works of Cone like Trinity.
  3. ^ Wright's theology not "new or radical"
  4. ^ The 'Wright problem' By Charles Derber and Yale Magrass May 1, 2008
  5. ^ NPR A Closer Look at Black Liberation Theology by Barbara Bradley Hagerty
  6. ^ Terry Matthews, A Black Theology of Liberation RELIGION 166: Religious Life in the United States
  7. ^ David T. Moon, Jr., [1] Journal of Southern Religion Reviews, 2002
  8. ^ SBC renounces racist past - Southern Baptist Convention Christian Century, July 5, 1995
  9. ^ This Far by Faith from PBS
  10. ^ Wright's theology not "new or radical" Salon.com, May 3, 2008
  11. ^ (Psalm 10:14)
  12. ^ (Psalm 72:12)
  13. ^ A Black Theology of Liberation
  14. ^ James H. Cone, A Black Theology of Liberation (hereafter Liberation) (Philadelphia: J. P. Lippencott, 1970),19.
  15. ^ Black Theology (by Ron Rhodes)
  16. ^ (Luke 7:22)
  17. ^ "Black Theology, Black Power, and the Black Experience"
  18. ^ James H. Cone, interviewed by Barbara Reynolds, USA Today, 8 November 1989, 11A
  19. ^ The Marxist roots of Black Liberation Theology

Additional reading

  • Aldred, Joe Preaching With Power London: Cassells, 1998
  • Aldred, Joe Sisters with Power London: Continuum, 2000
  • Andersson, Efraim Churches at the Grassroots London: Lutterworth Press, 1968
  • Andrews, Dale P. Practical Theology for Black Churches Luisville: John Knox Press, 2002
  • Bailey, Randall C. and Grant, Jacquelyn (Eds.) The Recovery of Black Presence: An Interdisciplinary Exploration Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon, 1995
  • Black Theology: An International Journal Equinox Publishing Ltd., published three times per year. Dr Anthony Reddie, Ed, email: a.g.reddie@queens.ac.uk
  • Cone, James H. ‘Black Theology And The Black Church: Where Do We Go From Here?’
  • Wilmore, Gayraud and Cone, James H. (Eds.) Black Theology: A Documentary History, 1966-1979 Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1979. pp. 350–359
  • Cone, James H. Black Theology and Black Power (20th Anniversary Edition) New York: Harper SanFrancisco, 1989
  • Cone, James H. For My People: Black Theology and the Black Church New York: Orbis Books, 1984
  • Cone, James H. God of the Oppressed New York: Seabury Press, 1975
  • Cone, James H. My Soul Looks Back New York: Orbis Books, 1986
  • Cone, James H. The Spirituals and the Blues New York: Seabury Press, 1972
  • Cone, James H. and Wilmore, Gayraud S. Black Theology A Documentary History: Vol1. 1966-1979 New York: Orbis Books, 1992
  • Cone, James H. and Wilmore, Gayraud S. Black Theology A Documentary History: Vol2. 1980- 1992 New York: Orbis Books, 1993
  • Douglas, Kelly Brown The Black Christ New York: Orbis Books, 1994
  • Dube, Musa W. And Staley, Jeffrey L. John and Postcolonialism London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002
  • DuBois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk New York: Dover Publications 1994
  • Duffield, Ian K. (ed) Urban Christ: Responses to John Vincent Sheffield: UTU, 1997
  • Ela, Jean-Marc African Cry Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1986
  • Evans, Jr., James H. We Have Been Believers An African American Systematic Theology Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992
  • Felder, Cain Hope The African Heritage Study Bible Nashville, Tenn. The James C. Winston Publishing Company, 1993
  • Felder, Cain Hope Stony The Road We Trod: African American Biblical Interpretation Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991
  • Frazier, E. Franklin The Black Church in America New York: Shocken Books, 1964
  • Gerloff, Roswith I. H. A Plea for British Black Theologies Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1992
  • Grant, Paul and Patel, Raj (Eds.) A Time to Speak. Birmingham: A joint publication of ‘Racial Justice’ and the ‘Black Theology Working Group’ 1990
  • Grant, Paul and Patel, Raj (Eds.) A Time To Act: Kairos 1992 Birmingham: A joint publication of ‘Racial Justice’ and the ‘Black Theology Working Group’ 1992
  • Hood, Robert E. Must God Remain Greek?: Afro-Cultures and God-Talk Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990
  • Hood, Robert E. Begrimmed and Black: Christian Traditions on Blacks and Blackness Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1994
  • Hope, Marjorie and Young, James The South African Churches in a Revolutionary Situation Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1979
  • Hopkins, Dwight N. (Introducing) Black Theology of Liberation New York: Orbis book, 1999
  • Hopkins, Dwight N. Down, Up and Over: Slave Religion and Black Theology Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2000
  • Hopkins, Dwight N. and Cummings, George Cut Loose Your Stammering Tongue: Black Theology and the Slave Narratives New York: Orbis Books, 1991
  • Hopkins, Dwight N. (Ed.) Black Faith and Public Talk: Critical Essays on James H. Cone’s Black Theology and Black Power New York: Orbis Books, 1999
  • Jagessar, Michael N. and Anthony G. Reddie (eds.) Postcolonial Black British Theology Peterborough, Epworth: 2007
  • Jagessar, Michael N. and Anthony G. Reddie (eds.) Black Theology in Britain: Reader London, Equinox: 2007
  • Jennings, Theodore W. Good News to the Poor Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1990
  • Jones, William R. Is God A White Racist? Boston: Beacon Press, 1998
  • Kalilombe, Patrick A. Doing Theology at the Grassroots Gweru, Zimbabwe: Mambo Press, 1999
  • Lincoln, C. Eric The Black Church in the African American Experience Durham, N.Y.: Duke University Press, 1990
  • Paris, Peter J. The Spirituality of African Peoples Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995
  • Pinn, Anne and Anthony B. Black Church History Fortress Press, 2002
  • Pinn, Anthony B. Why Lord?: Suffering and Evil in Black Theology New York: Continuum, 1995
  • Pinn, Anthony B. Terror and Triumph: The Nature of Black Religion Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003
  • Reddie, Anthony Faith, Stories and the Experience of Black Elders London: Jessica Kingsley, 2001
  • Reddie, Anthony Nobodies to Somebodies: Practical Theology for Education and Liberation Peterborough: Epworth Press, 2003
  • Reddie, Anthony Acting in Solidarity Peterborough: DLT, 2005
  • Reddie, Anthony Dramatizing Theologies London: Equinox, 2006
  • Reddie, Anthony Black Theology in Transatlantic Dialogue Basingstoke & New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006
  • Reddie, Richard S., Abolition! The Struggle to Abolish Slavery in the British Colonies. (Lion Hudson PLC: Oxford, 2007). ISBN 978-0-7459-5229-1
  • Rabateau, Albert Slave Religion Oxford University Press, 1978
  • Society for Biblical Literature Reading The Bible in The Global Village: Cape Town No.3 Atlanta: Society for Biblical Literature, 2002
  • Singleton III, Harry H. Black Theology and Ideology Collgeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 2002
  • Stewart III, Carlyle Fielding Black Spirituality and Black Consciousness Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 1999
  • Terrell, JoAnne Marie Power in the Blood?: The Cross in the African American Experience New York: Orbis books, 1998
  • Wilkinson, John Church in Black and White St. Andrews Press, 1994
  • Wilmore, Gayraud Black Religion and Black Radicalism New York: Orbis Books, 1973

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