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Blackwater fever
Classification and external resources
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ICD-10 B50.
ICD-9 084.8
MeSH D001742

Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria characterized by intravascular haemolysis, haemoglobinuria and kidney failure. Blackwater fever is caused by heavy parasitization of red blood cells with Plasmodium falciparum. There has been at least one case, however, attributed to Plasmodium vivax.[1]

Contents

Presentation

Within a few days of onset there are chills, with rigor, high fever, jaundice, vomiting, rapidly progressive anemia and the passage of dark red or black urine.

The cause of hemolytic crises in this disease is unknown. There is rapid and massive destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) with the production of hemoglobinemia (hemoglobin in the blood, but outside the RBCs), hemoglobinuria (hemoglobin in urine), intense jaundice, anuria (passage of less than 50 milliliter of urine in a day), and finally death in the majority of cases.

The most probable explanation for blackwater fever is an autoimmune reaction.

Treatment

The treatment is antimalarial chemotherapy, intravenous fluid and sometimes supportive care such as intensive care and dialysis.

Blackwater fever is a serious complication of malaria, but cerebral malaria has a higher mortality rate. Blackwater fever is much less common today than it was before 1950.[2] It may be that quinine plays a role in triggering the condition, and this drug is no longer commonly used for malaria prophylaxis. Quinine remains important for treatment of malaria.

Cultural references

References

  1. ^ Katongole-Mbidde E, Banura C, Kizito A (1988-03-19). "Blackwater fever caused by Plasmodium vivax infection in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 296 (6625): 827. PMID 3130932. 
  2. ^ Bruneel F, Gachot B, Wolff M, et al. (2002). "[Blackwater fever]" (in French). Presse médicale (Paris, France : 1983) 31 (28): 1329–34. PMID 12355996. 
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Blackwater fever
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 B50.
ICD-9 084.8
DiseasesDB 7751
MeSH D001742

Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria in which red blood cells burst in the bloodstream (haemolysis), releasing hemoglobin directly into the blood vessels and into the urine, frequently leading to kidney failure.

Contents

Symptoms

Within a few days of onset there are chills, with rigor, high fever, jaundice, vomiting, rapidly progressive anemia, and dark red or black urine.

Causes

The cause of hemolytic crises in this disease is unknown. There is rapid and massive destruction of red blood cells with the production of hemoglobinemia (hemoglobin in the blood, but outside the red blood cells), hemoglobinuria (hemoglobin in urine), intense jaundice, anuria (passing less than 50 milliliters of urine in a day), and finally death in the majority of cases.

The most probable explanation for blackwater fever is an autoimmune reaction apparently caused by the interaction of the malaria parasite and the use of quinine. Blackwater fever is caused by heavy parasitization of red blood cells with Plasmodium falciparum. There has been at least one case, however, attributed to Plasmodium vivax.[1]

Blackwater fever is a serious complication of malaria, but cerebral malaria has a higher mortality rate. Blackwater fever is much less common today than it was before 1950.[2] It may be that quinine plays a role in triggering the condition, and this drug is no longer commonly used for malaria prophylaxis. Quinine remains important for treatment of malaria except when the parasite is resistant to chloroquine, a problem that has been on the rise since 1990[3].

Treatment

The treatment is antimalarial chemotherapy, intravenous fluid and sometimes supportive care such as intensive care and dialysis.

Cultural references

References

  1. ^ Katongole-Mbidde E, Banura C, Kizito A (1988-03-19). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Blackwater fever caused by Plasmodium vivax infection in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome"]. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 296 (6625): 827. doi:10.1136/bmj.296.6625.827. PMID 3130932. 
  2. ^ Bruneel F, Gachot B, Wolff M, et al. (2002). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "[Blackwater fever]"] (in French). Presse médicale (Paris, France : 1983) 31 (28): 1329–34. PMID 12355996. 
  3. ^ Template:Cite http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12355996

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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