Blockade of the Gaza Strip: Wikis

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The 2007 Siege or Blockade of Gaza started in June 2007 when Israel imposed a blockade on Gaza. This was supported by the governments of Egypt and the USA, among other nations.[1][2][3][4] The blockade consists of a land blockade along Gaza's borders with Egypt and Israel and a sea blockade maintained by the Israeli navy from three nautical miles offshore. It immediately followed the 2006-2007 economic sanctions against the Palestinian National Authority following the election of Hamas to the Palestinian government.

The blockade is controversial and has attracted criticism from many human rights organisations. US President Barack Obama has called for the blockade to be lifted, saying that if the blockade is too tight to allow reconstruction it will only harm Israel's long-term security.[5] The Pope has expressed his opposition to the blockade, telling Gazans: "Please be assured of my solidarity with you in the immense work of rebuilding which now lies ahead and my prayers that the embargo will soon be lifted." [6]

A September 2009 United Nations fact-finding mission found that the blockade of Gaza "amounted to collective punishment",[7] was likely a war crime and a crime against humanity and recommended that the matter be referred to the International Criminal Court.[8]



2000–2007 restrictions

The Al-Aqsa Intifada which broke out in September 2000 led to an Israeli military blockade of the Gaza Strip and closure of the Gaza International Airport. The economic effects were immense, in the order of some US$5,300m, and worsened after the creation of a ‘buffer zone’ in September 2001, that would seal all entry and exit points in the Palestinian Territories, ostensibly for security reasons. After 9 October, 2001, movement of people and goods across the ‘Green Line’ dividing the West Bank from Israel, and between the Gaza Strip and Israel, was halted, and a complete internal closure was effected on November 14, 2001.[9]. The worsening economic and humanitarian situation raised great concern abroad. According to the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), in January 2003

'(T)he Israeli blockade and closures over the past two years had pushed the Palestinian economy into such a stage of ‘de-development’ that as much as US $2,400m. had been drained out of the economy of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip’[10]

Over the period between 2000 and 2006 as a consequence of the Gaza conflict and Israel's ensuing military operations in the Strip, it is estimated that there was a loss of $42,846,895 in Gazan agricultural productivity, due to the destruction of land, trees, vegetables and greenhouses.[11]

The Israel Defence Forces left the Gaza Strip on Sept 1, 2005 as part of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan. An 'Agreement on Movement and Access' between Israel and the Palestinian Authority was brokered by Condaleeza Rice in November 2005 to improve Palestinian freedom of movement and economic activity in the Gaza Strip. Under its terms, the Rafah crossing with Egypt was to be reopened, with transits monitored by the Palestinian National Authority and the European Union. However, only people with Palestinian ID, or foreign nationals, by exception, in certain categories, subject to Israeli oversight, were permitted to cross in and out. All goods, vehicles and trucks to and from Egypt had to pass through the Israeli crossing at Kerem Shalom, under full Israeli supervision[12]. Goods were also permitted transit at the Karni crossing in the north. However, throughout 2006, the latter terminal remained only partially operational, costing Palestinians losses of $500,000 a day, as less than 10% of the Gaza Strip's minimal daily export targets were achieved. Basic food commodities were severely depleted, bakeries closed and food rationing was introduced.[13]

Hamas defeated Fatah in the 2006 elections but assumed power in Gaza alone. The new Gaza administration "strongly opposed" the 2005 border agreements and presence of EU monitors at the Rafah crossing.[14] Egypt and Israel partially sealed their border crossings with Gaza, on the grounds that Fatah had fled and was no longer providing security on the Palestinian side.[3] Egypt fearing a spill-over of Hamas-style militancy into their territory assisted in the blockade.[15] The sanctions were tightened in response to rocket attacks on southern Israel and Palestinian militant attacks on crossing points between Israel and Gaza.[16][17]

Breach of the Gaza-Egypt border

The breach of the Gaza-Egypt border began on January 23, 2008, after gunmen in the Gaza Strip set off an explosion near the Rafah Border Crossing, destroying part of the former Israeli Gaza Strip barrier. The United Nations estimates that as many as half the 1.5 million population of the Gaza Strip crossed the border into Egypt seeking food and supplies.[18] Egyptian troops at first stood permitted crossing[15] but later closed the border with the Gaza Strip 11 days later, on February 3, 2008.

Attempt at easing restrictions

Under a ceasefire agreement between Israel and Hamas in June 2008, Israel agreed to lift its blockade of Gaza Strip. However, it was reported that in August 2008, Israel was still allowing in very few goods.[19] At Egypt's request, Israel did not always respond to Palestinian cease fire violations by closing the border.[20]

Blockade agreements

The Palestinians who negotiated the 2008 cease-fire believed that the commerce in Gaza was to be restored to the levels preceding Israel's withdrawal in 2005 and Hamas's electoral victory.[21][22] Israeli policy tied the easing of the blockade on success in reducing rocket fire[23]. Israel permitted a 20% increase in goods trucked into Gaza in the pre-lull period, up from 70 to 90 truckloads a day.[21], including not only humanitarian supplies but also clothes, shoes, refrigerators, and construction materials.[24] Fuel supplies increased from 55MW worth to 65MW worth.[24] BBC News reported in 11 November that Gaza was then receiving only 28% of the amount of goods traded before the Hamas takeover.[24]

Over the one month period from 4 November to 8 December, approximately 700 truck loads of goods went into Gaza, accounting for approximately 1/40th of estimated pre-blockade commerce.[22][25]

Israel stated that food imports into the Strip were restricted by its inability to operate at border checkpoints.[24] It accused Hamas of exacerbating fuel shortages by leading labor union strikes by power plant workers.[24] It has also accused Hamas of underfunding the Gaza health care system, and then blaming the situation on Israel despite supposed free trade of medical supplies. However, shipments of permitted aid including medicines have expired due to the time taken to get permission to pass through border crossings requiring their destruction.[26] Israel states that some people claiming to require medical attention in Israel were in fact planning terrorist attacks, therefore forcing the government to impose travel restrictions.[24]

Israel also accused Hamas of continued weapons smuggling into Gaza via tunnels to Egypt, pointing to the fact that rocket attacks had not ceased, and noted that Hamas would not continue negotiating the release of Israeli hostage Gilad Shalit, who had been held by Hamas since 2006.[27] Hamas' decision alienated it from the government of Egypt, which had linked the opening of the Gaza-Egypt border crossing with Shalit's release.[28] In the early stage of the cease-fire, Israeli officials had stated that they found “a certain sense of progress” on Shalit's release.[29]

The UN recorded seven IDF violations of the ceasefire between June 20 and June 26, and three violations by Palestinian groups not affiliated with Hamas between June 23 and 26.[30] On December 18, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, the military wing of Hamas, reported 185 Israeli violations during the lull period.[31] The Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center reported a total of 223 rockets and 139 mortar shells fired from Gaza during the lull, including 20 rockets and 18 mortar shells before November 4.[32] It noted that "Hamas was careful to maintain the ceasefire" until November 4, when the ceasefire was "seriously eroded."[33] Rocket fire decreased by 98 percent in the four and a half months between June 18 and November 4 when compared to the four and half months preceding the ceasefire.[34] Hamas denied responsibility for the rocket fire during the 'lull'. However, Human Rights Watch reported that while Hamas security forces demonstrated an ability to curb rocket fire, while some people detained for rocket firing were released without explanation.[35]

In January 2009, after the first phase of the Gaza War‎, Israel said it would allow in some humanitarian aide, but will continue its economic blockade in order to weaken the power of Hamas.[3] In June 2009, on the second anniversary of the blockade, 38 United Nations and non-governmental humanitarian organisations issued a joint press release calling for "free and uninhibited access for all humanitarian assistance in accordance with the international agreements and in accordance with universally recognised international human rights and humanitarian law standards".[36] As of July 2009, Israel said it is making the humanitarian relief efforts in Gaza one of its top priorities.[37] The amount of goods Israel allows into Gaza is one quarter of the pre- blockade flow.[36]

Legal arguments

  • An occupying power is obliged to follow the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention, which seeks to protect the civilian population.[17] The Security Council held in 1979 that the Fourth Convention applies in the territories captured by Israel in 1967, including Gaza. Israel, however, has never accepted that the convention should formally apply in the occupied territories, arguing that the conventions refer to occupied state sovereign territories. However it has said that it will be bound by their "humanitarian provisions".[17] Since 2005 Israel asserts that it ended its occupation of Gaza when it disengaged from the coastal strip in 2005.[38][39]
  • After Israel's unilateral disengagement plan from the Gaza strip, Israel no longer occupied Gaza with troops. There have been a series of attacks by Israeli ground forces such as the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict. Israel has retained control over Gaza's airspace and coastline, and over its own border with the territory. Egypt has control of its border with Gaza (except for the tunnels). Israel and Egypt also control the flow of goods in and out. Israel controls fuel imports to Gaza and controls the electricity which it supplies to Gaza from the Israeli electrical grid.[17]
  • The 1977 additional protocols to the Fourth Convention protects civilian populations in time of conflicts that fall short of war. Israel has not signed these protocols but there is an expectation internationally that it should respect them.[17]. Hamas does not administer an internationally recognized state and also has not signed these protocols.

Egyptian arguments

Israeli arguments

  • Israel has declared Gaza a "hostile entity", and argues that it is not legally responsible for Gaza and not obliged to help a "hostile" territory beyond whatever is necessary to avoid a humanitarian crisis.[17]
  • Israel also argues that its right to self-defence cannot be ignored. In order to pressure the Hamas government in Gaza to stop rocket attacks aimed on Israeli towns[17]

Arguments of International Human rights organizations

  • Human Rights Watch argues that Israel is still an occupying power and is responsible for Gaza under the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention.[17]
  • Amnesty International also argues that: “The blockade constitutes collective punishment under international law and must be lifted immediately.” And that as the occupying power, Israel has a duty under international law to ensure the welfare of Gaza’s inhabitants, including their rights to health, education, food and adequate housing. [40]

Offshore blockade

Israel has combined the blockade of Gaza's land borders with a sea blockade of Gaza's ports. Israel has captured a number of vessels providing aid for Gaza, claiming that they may be providing goods that may be used to build arms. Cynthia McKinney and Mairead Maguire were captured by Israel attempting to sail to Gaza and deported. However, the supplies McKinney and Maguire were carrying on board were later delivered to Gaza over land by truck.

Effect on Gaza fishing industry

The sea blockade has caused the "near collapse" of the Gaza fishing industry. Israel allows fishermen to travel only 3 nautical miles off shore, reduced from 6 nm in 2007. One fisherman who went outside these limits was forced to strip down to his underwear and swim to the naval vessel. He was blindfolded, handcuffed and taken in for questioning. B'Tselem has released a report documenting the "continual shooting at, abuse of, and humiliation of" Palestinian fishermen. The Israeli Navy's response was that it was checking for smuggled weapons. The Navy reports they intercepted the craft entering Gaza from Egypt. B'Tselem has released a report documenting the "continual shooting at, abuse of, and humiliation of" Palestinian fishermen.[41]

According to the Fishing Under Fire Report 2009[42], since the declaration of the "ceasefire"(18/1/2009), till the end of 2009:

- 1 fisherman have been assassinated by the Israeli Navy

- at least 7 fishermen have been injured by gunfire (and at least another one sustained burns after shelling) in the sea, while another fisherman was reported by several media to be lightly injured by Israeli gunfire, but his name wasn't reported.

- at least 6 Palestinian civilians were injured on shore by Israeli navy (among them 4 children) and several others have been reportedly injured (among them another 5 fishermen have been reportedly injured on shore by Israeli shelling )

- 68 abductions of fishermen have been reported (at least 2 fishermen abducted twice) and 29 "confiscations" of fishing boats. Several fishing boats have been returned but with damages and equipment missing, and at least one hassaka (small fishing boat) was stolen again.

- 1 Greek boat of the Free Gaza Movement ("Spirit of Humanity", official name "Arion") was seized and confiscated and all the 21 passengers and crew abducted and later deported.

- Israel claims to have further reduced the fishing zone to 3 nautical miles, but in fact is attacking Palestinian fishermen and other civilians even on shore

The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs has estimated that Gaza fishermen need to journey at least 12-15 nautical miles from shore to catch larger shoals, and sardines in particular are 6 nm offshore. Shoals closer to shore have been depleted. The total catch in 1999 was nearly 4,000 tons in pre-blockade 1999. This was reduced to 2,700 tons in 2008. In the 90s, the Gaza fishing industry was worth $10 million annually or 4% of the total Palestinian economy; this was halved between 2001 and 2006. 45,000 Palestinians were employed in the fishing industry, employed in jobs such as catching fish, repairing nets and selling fish. Fish also provided much-needed animal protein to Gazans diet.[43]


United Nations

On January 24, 2008, the United Nations Human Rights Council released a statement calling for Israel to lift its siege on the Gaza Strip, allow the continued supply of food, fuel, and medicine, and reopen border crossings.[4]. According to the Jerusalem Post, this was the 15th time in less than two years the council condemned Israel for its human rights record regarding the Palestinian territories.[44] The proceedings were boycotted by Israel and the United States.

On December 15, 2008, following a statement in which he described the embargo on Gaza a crime against humanity, United Nations Special Rapporteur Richard A. Falk was prevented from entering the Palestinian territories by Israeli authorities and expelled from the region.[45]

In August 2009, U.N. human rights chief Navi Pillay criticised Israel for the blockade in a 34-page report, calling it a violation of the rules of war[46].

Aid groups

On March 7, 2008, several international aid groups, including Amnesty International, CARE International UK, and Oxfam, issued a report saying that the humanitarian situation in the Gaza Strip was more acute than at any time since the beginning of the Israeli occupation in 1967. They urged Israel to lift the blockade, characterizing it as collective punishment against the 1.5 million residents of the territory.[47]

According to the International Committee of the Red Cross, there had been scarcely any improvement in the situation a year after the Gaza war. The organization cites the ongoing blockade as hampering reconstruction efforts of homes, medical facilities, and infrastructure.[48]


After visiting Gaza in March, Irish foreign minister Michael Martin described the Israeli blockade of Palestinian-ruled Gaza as "inhumane and unacceptable" and called on the European Union and other countries to increase pressure on Israel to lift the blockade. Michael Martin was the first EU foreign minister to enter Gaza in over a year. [49]

United States

Secretary of State Hillary Clinton met Israeli Minister of Defence Ehud Barak in February 2010 and urged him to lift the blockade, however Israel made no concessions. The United States has long been pressing Israel to ease the restrictions on Gaza without success. [50]


  • Jimmy Carter - In June 2009, former President Jimmy Carter met met with Hamas leaders in Gaza for three hours. Before his meeting with former Palestinian Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh and other Hamas officials, President Carter spoke forcefully against the economic blockade of Gaza. "The responsibility for this terrible human rights crime lies in Jerusalem, Cairo, Washington, and throughout the international community. This abuse must cease; the crimes must be investigated; the walls must be brought down, and the basic right of freedom must come to you," Carter tells the crowd at an awards ceremony for UN refugee school pupils.[51]
  • Pope Benedict XVI - The Pope Benedict during his visit to Bethlehem in May 2009 specifically mentioned the plight of Gazans, saying: "Please be assured of my solidarity with you in the immense work of rebuilding which now lies ahead and my prayers that the embargo will soon be lifted." [6]

Hamas aid seizure during the Gaza War

During the Gaza War, the IDF accused Hamas of stealing the contents of 100 aid trucks and selling the aid to the highest bidders.[52] The United Nations accused Hamas of taking blankets, food and other goods from a UNRWA warehouse together with 10 trucks of aid. Hamas later returned the items to UNRWA.[53]

Israeli confiscation of humanitarian aid and basic supplies

Numerous aid agencies have reported that basic supplies have been seized by Israel. According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs "everything from wheelchairs, dry food items, and crayons, to stationary, soccer balls, and musical instruments" is being stopped. It was reported that the international aid group Mercy Corps, was blocked from sending 90 tons of macaroni and other foodstuffs. Israel was also reported to have prevented aid groups from sending in other items, such as paper, crayons, tomato paste and lentils. Because of an Israeli ban on the importation of construction materials (such as cement and steel) Gazans are having to rebuild their homes entirely with mud. Aid agencies say that food waits on trucks and in warehouses, and many basic items are rejected by Israel as "luxuries" or are turned down for unexplained reasons. Tin cans are banned because the tin might be melted down, making it hard for Gazan farmers to preserve their vegetables.[54][55]

There is no official list of items that are being confiscated by Israel. American Near East Refugee Aid, Save the Children, World Vision, and Mercy Corps have tried to get a definitive list from Israel but without success. An Israeli military spokesperson said that each item was decided on an individual basis and that food was being let through daily. However, the amount of food entering Gaza is 25% of the June 2007 figures. A UN study has found that Gazan families are eating fewer meals a day and mainly relying on carbohydrates such as rice and flour because protein foods are expensive or unavailable. Chicken eggs have doubled in price due to the destruction of chicken coops during the Gaza war.[6]

Mark Regev, spokesman for Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert stated "We want to make sure that reconstruction for the people of Gaza is not reconstruction for the Hamas regime." U.S. State Department spokesman Robert Wood said on February 25 that "Aid should never be used as a political weapon. We'll try to push to get into Gaza as many supplies as possible." [55]

The Olmert cabinet had decided in March that that food and medical supplies to Gaza would be allowed through "unfettered". But this has not been implemented by Israel's Defense Ministry, which controls the border crossings.[6]

UN report suggesting war crimes and crimes against humanity

A UN Fact Finding mission lead by South African Judge Richard Goldstone suggested that the blockade was a war crime and possibly a crime against humanity:

"Israeli acts that deprive Palestinians in the Gaza Strip of their means of subsistence, employment, housing and water, that deny their freedom of movement and their right to leave and enter their own country, that limit their rights to access a court of law and an effective remedy, could lead a competent court to find that the crime of persecution, a crime against humanity, has been committed."[8]

The Goldstone report recommended that the matter be referred to the International Criminal Court it the situation has not improved in six months.

See also


  1. ^ "Amid Gaza violence, a new task for Obama". USA Today. 2008-12-29. 
  2. ^ "Israeli Troops Mobilize as Gaza Assault Widens". ABC News. 2008-12-28. 
  3. ^ a b "Gaza Straining At Egypt's Door". The Washington Post. 2007-06-18. Archived from the original on 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  4. ^ "Gaza aid groups recycle border wall rubble for water and housing projects". Haaretz. 2008-12-05. 
  5. ^ Sharp, Heather (2009-06-16). "Scant movement on Gaza blockade". BBC. 
  6. ^ a b c d Prusher, Ilene R. (2009-05-13). "Pope's urging brings Gaza blockade to forefront". Christian Science Monitor. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b
  9. ^ 'Palestinian goods were subsequently denied passage through the West Bank border crossings with Jordan. Gaza’s Rafah crossings with Egypt and Israeli transit facilities. Thousands of truck-loads of goods were impounded in Israeli ports.After 14 November, the Israeli army imposed an almost complete internal closure on the territories. The economic blockade deprived the PA of the taxes in goods and salaries of those Palestinians employed in Israel'. Lucy Dean (ed.)The Middle East and North Africa, 2004, Routledge, London 2003 p.924
  10. ^ Lucy Dean (ed.),The Middle East and North Africa, 2004, Routledge 2003 p.925
  11. ^ Ilmas Futehally The plowshare over the sword,’ Haaretz, 31/01/2009
  12. ^ Tanya Reinhart, The Road to Nowhere, Verso, London 2006 pp.134-5
  13. ^ Report of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People.Sixty-first session, Supplement No.35 (A/61/35). October 2005-October 2006, United Nations Publications, New York, p.8
  14. ^ Fatah, Hamas fight for border control, JPost
  15. ^ a b Palestinians flood into Egypt after blowing up border wall, The Guardian, January 23, 2008.
  16. ^ Associated Press (2008-05-22). "Truck bomb destroys Gaza-Israel pedestrian crossing". USA Today. 
  17. ^ "Gazans make new border wall hole: Palestinians have bulldozed down part of the Gaza-Egypt border wall again, hours after Egyptian troops blocked holes recently made by militants". BBC News. 2008-01-25. 
  18. ^ Aleem Maqbool (2008-08-19). "Truce barely eases Gaza embargo". BBC. 
  19. ^
  20. ^ a b Gaza Truce May Be Revived by Necessity. By Ethan Bronner. The New York Times. Published December 19, 2008.
  21. ^ a b Jimmy Carter on "An Unnecessary War". By John Nichols. The Nation. Published 1/08/2009.
  22. ^ Truce barely eases Gaza embargo. By Aleem Maqbool. BBC News. Published 19 August 2008.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Guide: Gaza under blockade. By Heather Sharp. BBC News. Published 11 November 2008.
  24. ^ Olmert aide supports free Gaza. By Dion Nissenbaum. McClatchy Newspapers. Published 8 December 2008
  25. ^ Egyptian authorities forced to burn expired Gaza aid Ma'an News Agency July 10, 2009. Accessed 2009-07-12. Archived 2009-07-23.
  26. ^ ElKhodary, Taghreed (December 28, 2008). "Israeli Attacks in Gaza Strip Continue for Second Day". New York Times. Archived from the original on December 30, 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2008. 
  27. ^ Hamas says not interested in renewing Shalit negotiations By Avi Issacharoff and Amos Harel. Ha'aretz. Published 12 August 2008.
  28. ^ Implementing the lull arrangement. Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center'. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
  29. ^ FACTBOX-Israel, Palestinians trade blame for truce violations Reuters. 26 Jun 2008
  30. ^ "Official Statistics About the lull Zionist Violations From the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades Information Office" - "إحصائية رسمية صادرة عن المكتب الإعلامي لكتائب القسام حول الانتهاكات الصهيونية للتهدئة". Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades Information Office. 2008-12-18. Archived from the original on 2009-01-17. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  31. ^
  32. ^ Six Months of the Lull Arrangement Intelligence Report Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Israel Intelligence Heritage & Commemoration Center (IICC) December 31, 2008
  33. ^ Summary of Rocket Fire and Mortar Shelling in 2008. (pdf) Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center. Retrieved January 14, 2009. pp. 5-7. Drop in rocket fire calculated from data provided in report.
  34. ^ BRONNER, ETHAN (2008-12-19). "Gaza Truce May Be Revived by Necessity". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-12. 
  35. ^ a b "Statement by Humanitarian Organisations, NGOs and UN Organisations On the Second Anniversary of the Gaza Blockade". United Nations. 2009-06-17. Retrieved 2009-07-09. 
  36. ^ "Cynthia McKinney, 20 Others, Held by Israel - | WXIA | Atlanta, GA". Archived from the original on 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 
  37. ^ International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Vol. 7, No. 29, January 28, 2008.
  38. ^ Israeli MFA Address by Israeli Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel), January 22, 2008.
  39. ^ Amnesty International Israel's Gaza blockade continues to suffocate daily life 18/1/2010 [1]
  40. ^ "Report: Israel Navy harassing and humiliating Gaza fishermen". Haaretz/Associated Press. 2007-02-26. 
  41. ^ Fishing Under Fire Report 2009[2]
  42. ^ Frykberg, Mel. "How Israel's naval blockade denies Gazans food, aid". Christian Science Monitor. 
  43. ^ "UNHRC slams Israel's actions in Gaza". The Jerusalem Post. 2008-01-25. 
  44. ^ Isabel Kershner (2008-12-15). "U.N. Rights Investigator Expelled by Israel". New York Times. 
  45. ^ (AP) — GENEVA - U.N. human rights chief Navi Pillay has accused Israel of violating the rules of war with its blockade stopping people and goods from moving in and out of the Gaza Strip. Accessed 2009-08-14. Archived 2009-08-16.
  46. ^ Tim Butcher (2008-03-07). "Human crisis in Gaza 'is worst for 40 years'". Daily Telegraph. 
  47. ^ Gaza: one year after war, still no prospect of decent life
  48. ^ "Irish FM urges EU to pressure Israel to end Gaza blockade". Haaretz. 2010-03-05. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 
  49. ^ "Clinton presses Israel to ease Gaza blockade". Reuters. 2010-02-27. 
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^,7340,L-3669218,00.html
  53. ^ "US envoy's visit could ease Gaza blockade". Christian Science Monitor. 2009-06-10. 
  54. ^ a b MClatchy Newspapers, February 26, 2009, "Israel Blocks Pasta Shipment to Gaza, and Tensions Boil" Accessed 2009-07-12. Archived 2009-07-23.

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