# Blood pressure: Wikis

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A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure.
.Blood pressure (BP) is a force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs.^ Blood pressure is the force that the blood exerts on the veins and arteries while it circulates through the body.
• Normal Blood Pressure Readings - Natural Blood Pressure Medication 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blood pressure results from two forces.
• Lower Blood Pressure | Hypertension | High Blood Pressure Diet | Lower Cholesterol | Dr Fuhrman.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC drfuhrman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blood pressure is a measurement of the force exerted by blood as it flows through the arteries.
• High Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Endothelial Dysfunction - Life Extension Health Concern 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.During each heartbeat, BP varies between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure.^ (Systolic Pressure) 120 over (Diastolic Pressure) 80 .
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this mode, the system pressure displays in the systolic BP display area.
• Blood Pressure | SunTech Medical 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.suntechmed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Systolic Pressure -- Diastolic Pressure What is normal blood pressure?
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mean BP, due to pumping by the heart and resistance in blood vessels, decreases as the circulating blood moves away from the heart through arteries.^ The sound is caused by the blood starting to move through the closed artery.
• Clearwater,FL High blood pressure: Checking your blood pressure at home; ... 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: General]
• Home Blood Pressure Test - Yahoo! Health 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The pressure of the circulating blood decreases as blood moves through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins; the term blood pressure generally refers to arterial pressure, i.e., the pressure in the larger arteries, arteries being the blood vessels which take blood away from the heart.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ These actions reduce resistance to blood flow through the arteries.
• WHFoods: Hypertension (high blood pressure) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.It has its greatest decrease in the small arteries and arterioles, and continues to decrease as the blood moves through the capillaries and back to the heart through veins.^ The sound is caused by the blood starting to move through the closed artery.
• Clearwater,FL High blood pressure: Checking your blood pressure at home; ... 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: General]
• Home Blood Pressure Test - Yahoo! Health 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The pressure of the circulating blood decreases as blood moves through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins; the term blood pressure generally refers to arterial pressure, i.e., the pressure in the larger arteries, arteries being the blood vessels which take blood away from the heart.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Similar to the pressure created by water flowing through a garden hose, blood pressure refers to the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of our arteries and blood vessels.
• Blood Pressure | SunTech Medical 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.suntechmed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Gravity, valves in veins, and pumping from contraction of skeletal muscles, are some other influences on BP at various places in the body.^ When the arteries can no longer contract sufficiently because they are too stiff, additional stress is placed on the heart's main pumping chamber, the left ventricle.
• High Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Endothelial Dysfunction - Life Extension Health Concern 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The lymph system has no direct pump, it runs on body movement and muscle contractions, and indirectly relies on the heart to maintain force of pressure on lymph movement.
• Blood Pressure - Supplements for Cardiovascualer Support and Healthy Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wellnessresources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This sound develops because the left atrium of the heart has to contract harder to fill the enlarged, stiff left ventricle, which pumps blood to all of the body except the lungs.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term blood pressure usually refers to the pressure measured at a person's upper arm.^ Blood pressure is measured after a person sits or lies down for 5 minutes.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blood pressure is measured with an inflatable arm cuff and a pressure-measuring gauge.
• Low blood pressure (hypotension) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Usually taken while at rest, blood pressure is measured while a person is seated.
• Normal Blood Pressure Readings - Natural Blood Pressure Medication 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is measured on the inside of an elbow at the brachial artery, which is the upper arm's major blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.^ Blood pressure is a measure of the force of blood inside an artery.
• Clearwater,FL High blood pressure: Checking your blood pressure at home; ... 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: General]
• Home Blood Pressure Test - Yahoo! Health 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Blood pressure is the measurement of the blood that presses against the arteries and blood vessels.
• Levodyn: Natural Blood Pressure Remedy, Blood Pressure Reducer. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC levodyn.com [Source type: General]

^ The heart pumps blood throughout the body in vessels called arteries.
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A person's BP is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure, for example 120/80.

## Measurement

A medical student checking blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer and stethoscope.
.Arterial pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which historically used the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure.^ The most accurate method is direct measurement of arterial pressure by using an arterial cannula.
• Apparatus and method for measuring blood pressure - Patent 4427013 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Arterial pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which uses the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure (see Non-invasive measurement).
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Office measurement of blood pressure is most commonly done with a sphygmomanometer.
• Screening for High Blood Pressure: Recommendations and Rationale 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ahrq.gov [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Today BP values are still reported in millimetres of mercury (mmHg), though aneroid and electronic devices do not use mercury.^ Office blood pressure measurement (using an appropriate upper arm cuff with either mercury, calibrated aneroid, or validated electronic sphygmomanometer) is the standard screening test for hypertension.
• Screening for High Blood Pressure: Recommendations and Rationale 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ahrq.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood pressure values are reported in either kilopascals (kPa) or in millimetres of mercury (mmHg), despite many modern vascular pressure devices no longer using mercury.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Now electronic equipment is replacing the mercury filled devices, although the measurements used as still based around the older mercury system.

.For each heartbeat, BP varies between systolic and diastolic pressures.^ (Systolic Pressure) 120 over (Diastolic Pressure) 80 .
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pressure is measures as the ratio by systolic by diastolic.
• high blood pressure | high blood pressure home remedies| natural remedy for high blood pressure| natural cure for high blood pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.herbalcureindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Systolic Pressure -- Diastolic Pressure What is normal blood pressure?
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Systolic pressure is peak pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the end of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are contracting.^ The peak pressure exerted by this contraction is the systolic pressure.
• WHFoods: Hypertension (high blood pressure) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Systolic pressure represents the peak blood pressure that occurs when the heart contracts.
• Clearwater,FL High blood pressure: Checking your blood pressure at home; ... 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: General]
• Home Blood Pressure Test - Yahoo! Health 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It should be the lowest arterial pressure reading during the cardiac cycle.

.Diastolic pressure is minimum pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the beginning of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are filled with blood.^ This is your diastolic blood pressure .
• Home Blood Pressure Test - Yahoo! Health 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Blood pressure is the pressure of blood in your arteries (blood vessels).
• High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) | Health | Patient UK 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diastolic reading is the measure of the blood pressure taken after the contraction has occurred.

.An example of normal measured values for a resting, healthy adult human is 120 mmHg systolic and 80 mmHg diastolic (written as 120/80 mmHg, and spoken [in the US] as "one-twenty over eighty").^ Typical values for a resting, healthy adult human are approximately 120 mmHg (16 kPa) systolic and 80 mmHg (11 kPa) diastolic (written as 120/80 mmHg, and spoken as "one twenty over eighty") with large individual variations.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ In adults, a systolic pressure of between 90 and 120 mmHg and a diastolic pressure of less than 80 mmHg is considered normal.
• Normal Blood Pressure Readings - Natural Blood Pressure Medication 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The normal values range from person to person, however, the normal range comes as for systole; 120-140 and for diastole 80-90.
• High Blood Pressure - Symptoms, Causes, Natural Cure and Treatment 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC herbal-supplements-for-you.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Systolic and diastolic arterial BPs are not static but undergo natural variations from one heartbeat to another and throughout the day (in a circadian rhythm).^ These measures of arterial pressure are not static, but undergo natural variations from one heartbeat to another and throughout the day (in a circadian rhythm); they also change in response to stress, nutritional factors, drugs, or disease.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Typical values for a resting, healthy adult human are approximately 120 mmHg (16 kPa) systolic and 80 mmHg (11 kPa) diastolic (written as 120/80 mmHg, and spoken as "one twenty over eighty") with large individual variations.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Results : Unweigthed mean and standard deviations (sd) of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) 24-hr BP measurements were calculated for each pt.
• Oscar 2 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM) | SunTech Medical 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.suntechmed.com [Source type: Academic]

.They also change in response to stress, nutritional factors, drugs, disease, exercise, and momentarily from standing up.^ These measures of arterial pressure are not static, but undergo natural variations from one heartbeat to another and throughout the day (in a circadian rhythm); they also change in response to stress, nutritional factors, drugs, or disease.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ I stayed away from drugs because several sources say they create arterial structure changes/response changes that will cause the drugs to be life sentence.

^ A faster response system is needed under conditions of posture change, exercise, and moderate temperature changes.

Sometimes the variations are large. .Hypertension refers to arterial pressure being abnormally high, as opposed to hypotension, when it is abnormally low.^ Hypertension - or high blood pressure - is normal.
• Blood Pressure Reading - What is Blood Pressure reading 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bloodpressurereading.net [Source type: General]

^ Hypertension refers to arterial pressure being abnormally high, as opposed to hypotension, when it is abnormally low.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Low blood pressure (hypotension) .
• Low blood pressure (hypotension) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Along with body temperature, respiratory rate, and pulse rate, BP measurements are the most commonly measured physiological parameters.^ Along with body temperature, blood pressure measurements are the most commonly measured physiological parameters."
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Arterial pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which uses the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure (see Non-invasive measurement).
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Further, the measuring means is provided with means for measuring a patient's pulse rate when blood pressure is measured.
• Electronic sphygmomanometer with graphical output - Patent 4747412 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]
.Arterial pressures are usually measured non-invasively, without penetrating skin or artery.^ One of method to measure arterial pressure is through sphygmomanometer, which uses height of rising mercury to reflect circulating pressure.
• Blood Pressure Reading - What is Blood Pressure reading 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bloodpressurereading.net [Source type: General]

^ Arterial pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which uses the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure (see Non-invasive measurement).
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ It occurs when the artery in the arm is too stiff to be compressed by the blood pressure cuff, and as a result, blood pressure cannot be measured accurately.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Measuring pressure invasively, by penetrating the arterial wall to take the measurement, is much less common, and usually restricted to a hospital setting.^ Similar to the pressure created by water flowing through a garden hose, blood pressure refers to the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of our arteries and blood vessels.
• Blood Pressure | SunTech Medical 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.suntechmed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of method to measure arterial pressure is through sphygmomanometer, which uses height of rising mercury to reflect circulating pressure.
• Blood Pressure Reading - What is Blood Pressure reading 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bloodpressurereading.net [Source type: General]

^ Blood pressure is defined as that force which blood exerts on the arterial wall during its normal flow through them.
• high blood pressure | high blood pressure home remedies| natural remedy for high blood pressure| natural cure for high blood pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.herbalcureindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

### Noninvasive measurement

.The non invasive auscultatory and oscillometric measurements are simpler and quicker than invasive measurements, require less expertise in fitting, have virtually no complications, and are less unpleasant and painful for the person.^ Arterial pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which uses the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure (see Non-invasive measurement).
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, when you order Levodyn today - for less than \$50 a month - it comes backed by our no pressure money back guarantee.
• Levodyn: Natural Blood Pressure Remedy, Blood Pressure Reducer. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC levodyn.com [Source type: General]

^ The benefit of supplementing with pomegranate extract (rather than drinking the juice or eating the fruit) is that the extract, unlike the juice, contains virtually no sugar or calories, and requires no refrigeration to maintain optimal quality.
• High Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Endothelial Dysfunction - Life Extension Health Concern 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, noninvasive methods may yield somewhat lower accuracy and small systematic differences in numerical results.^ The blood pressure-lowering effect of mistletoe is small and may take weeks to become evident.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stressful experiences and aging may also result in lower l-arginine levels.
• WHFoods: Hypertension (high blood pressure) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the results of a preliminary trial suggest that red ginseng root (Panax ginseng radix rubra) has either no effect on, or may actually slightly lower, blood pressure in hypertensive people.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

.Non-invasive measurement methods are more commonly used for routine examinations and monitoring.^ One of method to measure arterial pressure is through sphygmomanometer, which uses height of rising mercury to reflect circulating pressure.
• Blood Pressure Reading - What is Blood Pressure reading 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bloodpressurereading.net [Source type: General]

^ In recent years, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become a commonly used tool for the diagnosis and management of hypertension.
• Oscar 2 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM) | SunTech Medical 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.suntechmed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thanks once again and I hope more & more people will use your method to become more healthy lah!
• Lower Blood Pressure Naturally With The Blood Pressure Miracle! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bloodpressuremiracle.com [Source type: General]
• Low Pressure Sex | Better Sex Through Lowering Blood Pressure Naturally! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC lowpressuresex.com [Source type: General]

#### Palpation method

.A minimum systolic value can be roughly estimated without any equipment by palpation, most often used in emergency situations.^ High blood pressure is often called the “silent killer” because most people don’ even know they have it and they can die without warning.
• Low Pressure Sex | Better Sex Through Lowering Blood Pressure Naturally! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC lowpressuresex.com [Source type: General]

^ The MAP level can be roughly estimated from the systolic and diastolic values according to the following formula: MAP=Diastolic+1/3(Systolic-Diastolic) .
• Apparatus and method for measuring blood pressure - Patent 4427013 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Unlike most diseases, hypertension often manifests itself without warning.
• Levodyn: Natural Blood Pressure Remedy, Blood Pressure Reducer. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC levodyn.com [Source type: General]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Historically, students have been taught that palpation of a radial pulse indicates a minimum BP of 80 mmHg, a femoral pulse indicates at least 70 mmHg, and a carotid pulse indicates a minimum of 60 mmHg.^ I have sometimes had readings below 100/70 so I know I no longer need to be on BP meds, at least for now.
• How I quickly lowered my blood pressure from 165/95 to 120/80… without drugs! « High Blood Pressure Cure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC janshighbloodpressurecure.com [Source type: General]

^ Typically, oscillations occur in the air pressure in cuff 101 at the frequency of the patient's pulse rate which is typically 60 to 80 Hertz.
• Apparatus and method for measuring blood pressure - Patent 4427013 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When standing the BP will have a fall of pulse pressure- that is the systolic will drop to 90 and the diastolic go up to 70.
• THE MADISON DOCTRINE Main page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.madisondoctrine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, at least one study indicated that this method often overestimates patients' systolic BP.[3] A more accurate value of systolic BP can be obtained with a sphygmomanometer and palpating for when a radial pulse returns.^ One of method to measure arterial pressure is through sphygmomanometer, which uses height of rising mercury to reflect circulating pressure.
• Blood Pressure Reading - What is Blood Pressure reading 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bloodpressurereading.net [Source type: General]

^ It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved sphygmomanometer for automatically displaying systolic and diastolic pressure values.

^ One of the more compelling studies is a 12 week, placebo controlled trial, which concluded that after the 12 weeks had elapsed those that took 60mg of CoQ10 twice per day had a mean reduction in systolic blood pressure.

[4] .The diastolic blood pressure can not be estimated by this method.^ Diastolic Blood Pressure (mm Hg) .
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is your diastolic blood pressure .
• Home Blood Pressure Test - Yahoo! Health 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Record this as your diastolic blood pressure .
• Clearwater,FL High blood pressure: Checking your blood pressure at home; ... 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: General]

[5] .Sometimes palpation is used to get an estimate before using the auscultatory method.^ One problem with this method is that it cannot be used to directly measure the mean arterial pressure which must be estimated from the systolic and diastolic values using the formula referred to above.
• Apparatus and method for measuring blood pressure - Patent 4427013 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

#### Auscultatory method

Auscultatory method aneroid sphygmomanometer with stethoscope
Mercury manometer
.The auscultatory method (from the Latin word for listening) uses a stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer.^ One of method to measure arterial pressure is through sphygmomanometer, which uses height of rising mercury to reflect circulating pressure.
• Blood Pressure Reading - What is Blood Pressure reading 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bloodpressurereading.net [Source type: General]

^ Readings were made using simultaneous same-arm measurement, each observer using a dual-head binaural stethoscope and a calibrated mercury sphygmomanometer.
• Oscar 2 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM) | SunTech Medical 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.suntechmed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The person checking your blood pressure will use a stethoscope to listen to your pulse.
• Blood pressure (high) | NHS Choices | Nursing Times 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nursingtimes.net [Source type: General]

.This comprises an inflatable (Riva-Rocci) cuff placed around the upper arm at roughly the same vertical height as the heart, attached to a mercury or aneroid manometer.^ Place your arm on a table so that the cuff is positioned at the same level as your heart.
• Amazon.com: Omron HEM-712C Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor with IntelliSense: Health & Personal Care 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The cuff is wrapped around the arm.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next, place your arm on a table so the cuff is positioned at the same level as your heart.
• Amazon.com: Omron HEM-712C Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor with IntelliSense: Health & Personal Care 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.The mercury manometer measures the height of a column of mercury, giving an absolute result without need for calibration, and consequently not subject to the errors and drift of calibration which affect other methods.^ One of method to measure arterial pressure is through sphygmomanometer, which uses height of rising mercury to reflect circulating pressure.
• Blood Pressure Reading - What is Blood Pressure reading 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bloodpressurereading.net [Source type: General]

^ Arterial pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which uses the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure (see Non-invasive measurement).
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ It's easy to learn and inexpensive compared to some other methods of blood pressure control without medication.

.The use of mercury manometers is often required in clinical trials and for the clinical measurement of hypertension in high risk patients, such as pregnant women.^ One of method to measure arterial pressure is through sphygmomanometer, which uses height of rising mercury to reflect circulating pressure.
• Blood Pressure Reading - What is Blood Pressure reading 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bloodpressurereading.net [Source type: General]

^ Office blood pressure measurement (using an appropriate upper arm cuff with either mercury, calibrated aneroid, or validated electronic sphygmomanometer) is the standard screening test for hypertension.
• Screening for High Blood Pressure: Recommendations and Rationale 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ahrq.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Arterial pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which uses the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure (see Non-invasive measurement).
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

.A cuff of appropriate size is fitted smoothly and snugly, then inflated manually by repeatedly squeezing a rubber bulb until the artery is completely occluded.^ Close the valve on the rubber inflating bulb.
• Home Blood Pressure Test - Yahoo! Health 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ OMRON HEM432C Manual Blood Pressure Monitor cuff arm size: (9 to 13 inches) .

^ LIFESOURCE UA704VL Mini Manual Blood Pressure Monitor cuff arm size: (14.2 to 17.7 inches) .

.Listening with the stethoscope to the brachial artery at the elbow, the examiner slowly releases the pressure in the cuff.^ At this point, the pressure valve is opened slightly, allowing the mercury to drop gradually while the physician listens to the heart pulse with a stethoscope.
• Normal Blood Pressure Readings - Natural Blood Pressure Medication 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It occurs when the artery in the arm is too stiff to be compressed by the blood pressure cuff, and as a result, blood pressure cannot be measured accurately.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It works like this: A blood pressure cuff is wrapped around your upper arm and inflated to stop the blood flow in your artery for a few seconds.
• U.S. Army HOOAH 4 HEALTH - PREVENTION: Preventing High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hooah4health.com [Source type: General]

.When blood just starts to flow in the artery, the turbulent flow creates a "whooshing" or pounding (first Korotkoff sound).^ The sound is caused by the blood starting to move through the closed artery.
• Home Blood Pressure Test - Yahoo! Health 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ First it opens up the arteries to allow improved blood flow.
• High Blood Pressure Natural Remedies : Cholesterol Foods : Diabetic Neuropathy Treatment : Foot Care in Diabetes : Heart Natural Remedies : Herbal Treatment for Angina 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hbextract.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Blood pressure is defined as that force which blood exerts on the arterial wall during its normal flow through them.
• high blood pressure | high blood pressure home remedies| natural remedy for high blood pressure| natural cure for high blood pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.herbalcureindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pressure at which this sound is first heard is the systolic BP. The cuff pressure is further released until no sound can be heard (fifth Korotkoff sound), at the diastolic arterial pressure.^ (Systolic Pressure) 120 over (Diastolic Pressure) 80 .
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last sound heard as more air is released from the cuff is the diastolic blood pressure.
• U.S. Army HOOAH 4 HEALTH - PREVENTION: Preventing High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hooah4health.com [Source type: General]

^ The pressure at which the practitioner first hears a pulse in the artery is the systolic pressure.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The auscultatory method has been predominant since the beginning of BP measurements but in other cases it's being replaced by other noninvasive techniques.[6]

#### Oscillometric method

The Oscillometric method was first demonstrated in 1876 and involves the observation of oscillations in the sphygmomanometer cuff pressure[7] which are caused by the oscillations of blood flow, i.e. the pulse.[8] .The electronic version of this method is sometimes used in long-term measurements and general practice.^ One of method to measure arterial pressure is through sphygmomanometer, which uses height of rising mercury to reflect circulating pressure.
• Blood Pressure Reading - What is Blood Pressure reading 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bloodpressurereading.net [Source type: General]

^ The more we promote long-term health via proper nutrition as opposed to short-term “results” with non-sense drug use, the healthier we’ll be as a society.
• How I quickly lowered my blood pressure from 165/95 to 120/80… without drugs! « High Blood Pressure Cure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC janshighbloodpressurecure.com [Source type: General]

^ There are presently several methods of measuring the various values of arterial blood pressure which are in common use.
• Apparatus and method for measuring blood pressure - Patent 4427013 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.It uses a sphygmomanometer cuff like the auscultatory method, but with an electronic pressure sensor (transducer) to observe cuff pressure oscillations, electronics to automatically interpret them, and automatic inflation and deflation of the cuff.^ One of method to measure arterial pressure is through sphygmomanometer, which uses height of rising mercury to reflect circulating pressure.
• Blood Pressure Reading - What is Blood Pressure reading 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bloodpressurereading.net [Source type: General]

^ Office blood pressure measurement (using an appropriate upper arm cuff with either mercury, calibrated aneroid, or validated electronic sphygmomanometer) is the standard screening test for hypertension.
• Screening for High Blood Pressure: Recommendations and Rationale 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ahrq.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Arterial pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which uses the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure (see Non-invasive measurement).
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

.The pressure sensor should be calibrated periodically to maintain accuracy.^ Objectives : The accuracy of blood pressure measuring devices is of prime importance and should be validated before devices are used clinically.
• Oscar 2 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM) | SunTech Medical 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.suntechmed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ First, if baroreceptors are subjected to a maintained high pressure, their mean firing rate returns to normal over a period of time (76, 93).

^ Objectives : Accuracy of blood pressure measuring devices is of prime importance and should be validated before devices are used clinically.
• Oscar 2 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM) | SunTech Medical 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.suntechmed.com [Source type: Academic]

.Oscillometric measurement requires less skill than the auscultatory technique, and may be suitable for use by untrained staff and for automated patient home monitoring.^ This is less than 2 weeks of use!
• High Blood Pressure Natural Remedies : Cholesterol Foods : Diabetic Neuropathy Treatment : Foot Care in Diabetes : Heart Natural Remedies : Herbal Treatment for Angina 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hbextract.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mehos BM, Saseen JJ & MacLaghlin EJ (2000) Effect of pharmacist intervention and initation of home blood pressure monitoring in patients with uncontrolled hypertension.
• http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514267419/html/b1725.html 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC herkules.oulu.fi [Source type: Academic]

^ I have used the Omron HEM-712C Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor for over a month.
• Amazon.com: Omron HEM-712C Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor with IntelliSense: Health & Personal Care 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.The cuff is inflated to a pressure initially in excess of the systolic arterial pressure, and then reduces to below diastolic pressure over a period of about 30 seconds.^ When the pressure decreases below 30 mm.

^ The upper reading is Systolic pressure and the below reading is Diastolic pressure.
• Blood Pressure Reading - What is Blood Pressure reading 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bloodpressurereading.net [Source type: General]

^ (Systolic Pressure) 120 over (Diastolic Pressure) 80 .
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When blood flow is nil (cuff pressure exceeding systolic pressure) or unimpeded (cuff pressure below diastolic pressure), cuff pressure will be essentially constant.^ Systolic Blood Pressure (mm Hg) .
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Systolic blood pressure and mortality.
• Systolic vs diastolic blood pressure and the burden of hypertension 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood pressure is described by two numbers—the systolic and the diastolic.

.It is essential that the cuff size is correct: undersized cuffs may yield too high a pressure, whereas oversized cuffs yield too low a pressure.^ Essential high blood pressure .
• Blood pressure (high) | NHS Choices | Nursing Times 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nursingtimes.net [Source type: General]

^ My doctor informed me, given my family history it may be time to consider high blood pressure medication, if I couldn't control my pressure with diet and exercise.
• Levodyn: Natural Blood Pressure Remedy, Blood Pressure Reducer. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC levodyn.com [Source type: General]

^ If your parents or grandparents had high blood pressure, your risk may be increased.
• U.S. Army HOOAH 4 HEALTH - PREVENTION: Preventing High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hooah4health.com [Source type: General]

.When blood flow is present, but restricted, the cuff pressure, which is monitored by the pressure sensor, will vary periodically in synchrony with the cyclic expansion and contraction of the brachial artery, i.e., it will oscillate.^ OMRON Replacement cuffs designed for: various OMRON blood pressure monitors .

^ Your blood pressure also may be monitored.
• Low blood pressure (hypotension) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The various causes of high blood pressure are: .
• Home Remedies for High blood pressure - Treatment & Cure - Natural Remedy for High blood pressure – High blood pressure Diet 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC natural-homeremedies.com [Source type: General]

.The values of systolic and diastolic pressure are computed, not actually measured from the raw data, using an algorithm; the computed results are displayed.^ The pressure is measures as the ratio by systolic by diastolic.
• high blood pressure | high blood pressure home remedies| natural remedy for high blood pressure| natural cure for high blood pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.herbalcureindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Systolic Pressure) 120 over (Diastolic Pressure) 80 .
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two numbers used to measure blood pressure, systolic and diastolic pressure.
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oscillometric monitors may produce inaccurate readings in patients with heart and circulation problems, that include arterial sclerosis, arrhythmia, preeclampsia, pulsus alternans, and pulsus paradoxus.^ The patient is then told he has a heart problem.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heart doctors sometimes prescribe Coumadin, Plavix, and aspirin for patients with some heart artery blockage after treatment.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This helps determine the correct treatment and identify any heart, brain or nervous system problems that may cause lower than normal readings.
• Low blood pressure (hypotension) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.In practice the different methods do not give identical results; an algorithm and experimentally obtained coefficients are used to adjust the oscillometric results to give readings which match the auscultatory results as well as possible.^ As a result, the day-night blood pressure difference was more pronounced during melatonin use.
• High blood pressure supplement, symptoms, natural and alternative high blood pressure vitamins, herbs, medication 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Test results showed that I had other nutritional deficiencies as well so take care of yourself as best as possible.
• Can low blood pressure be dangerous? – Paging Dr. Gupta - CNN.com Blogs 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pagingdrgupta.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ See for yourself the range of results obtained by ordinary people using Breatheasy.

.Some equipment uses computer-aided analysis of the instantaneous arterial pressure waveform to determine the systolic, mean, and diastolic points.^ The pressure is measures as the ratio by systolic by diastolic.
• high blood pressure | high blood pressure home remedies| natural remedy for high blood pressure| natural cure for high blood pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.herbalcureindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Systolic Pressure) 120 over (Diastolic Pressure) 80 .
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Systolic Pressure -- Diastolic Pressure What is normal blood pressure?
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since many oscillometric devices have not been validated, caution must be given as most are not suitable in clinical and acute care settings.^ Designed for clinical use in a professional setting including a physician's office, hospital, or other point of care environment.

.The term NIBP, for Non-Invasive Blood Pressure, is often used to describe oscillometric monitoring equipment.^ Why use a blood pressure meter?
• Topcom Europe - bloodpressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.topcom.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Home monitoring of the blood pressure is recommended.
• High blood pressure - Medical Look 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.medical-look.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood pressure monitoring guidelines .
• Automatic blood pressure monitor or blood pressure machine 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC healthy-ojas.com [Source type: General]

#### White-coat hypertension

.For some patients, BP measurements taken in a doctor's office may not correctly characterize their typical BP.[9] In up to 25% of patients, the office measurement is higher than their typical BP. This type of error is called white-coat hypertension (WCH) and can result from anxiety related to an examination by a health care professional.^ Task force V: White-coat hypertension.
• http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514267419/html/b1725.html 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC herkules.oulu.fi [Source type: Academic]

^ This is called white-coat hypertension.

^ This is called "white-coat hypertension," and it probably is caused by anxiety about the doctor visit.
• Clearwater,FL High blood pressure: Checking your blood pressure at home; ... 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: General]

[10] .The misdiagnosis of hypertension for these patients can result in needless and possibly harmful medication.^ B. TREATING THE LONG-STANDING HYPERTENSIVE. Needless to say, hypertensive patients are not a “one size fits all” group.
• THE MADISON DOCTRINE Main page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.madisondoctrine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Study results support a supplementation with Pycnogenol for mildly hypertensive patients.
• High blood pressure supplement, symptoms, natural and alternative high blood pressure vitamins, herbs, medication 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ D. A USER-FRIENDLY REGIME. Although these patients were on three different medications, the dosages of the drugs are small and promise not to cause major side effects.
• THE MADISON DOCTRINE Main page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.madisondoctrine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.WCH can be reduced (but not eliminated) with automated BP measurements over 15 to 20 minutes in a quiet part of the office or clinic.^ Slow breathing: clinically proven to produce significant and lasting reductions in high blood pressure using just 15 minutes a day .

^ However, office blood pressure measurements exhibit great variability and may not represent the patient's usual blood pressure outside the clinical setting.
• Screening for High Blood Pressure: Recommendations and Rationale 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ahrq.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Rest comfortably in a relaxed environment for at least 15 minutes prior to taking your blood pressure measurement.
• Amazon.com: Omron HEM-712C Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor with IntelliSense: Health & Personal Care 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[11]
Debate continues regarding the significance of this effect..October 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Some reactive patients will also react to many other stimuli throughout their daily lives, and require treatment.^ Other drugs are needed because many people have an absolute or relative contraindication to taking beta-blocker medications: a.
• THE MADISON DOCTRINE Main page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.madisondoctrine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heart doctors sometimes prescribe Coumadin, Plavix, and aspirin for patients with some heart artery blockage after treatment.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many conditions have been associated, some more strongly than others, with the presence of hypertension.

.In some cases a lower BP reading occurs at the doctor's office.^ People with mild to moderate high blood pressure should work with a doctor before attempting to use the information contained here, as blood pressure requires monitoring and in some cases the use of blood pressure-lowering drugs.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I worked in a doctors office for years and saw first hand all the problems of side effects with BP meds.
• Home Remedies for High blood pressure - Treatment & Cure - Natural Remedy for High blood pressure – High blood pressure Diet 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC natural-homeremedies.com [Source type: General]

^ It has some very interesting case studies from the doctor's patients.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]

#### Home monitoring

.Ambulatory blood pressure devices that take readings every half hour throughout the day and night have been used for identifying and mitigating measurement problems like white-coat hypertension.^ Blood pressure and hypertension in an elderly population.

^ Your blood pressure varies throughout the day.
• High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) | Health | Patient UK 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Take your blood pressure at home.

.Except for periods during sleep, home monitoring could be used for these purposes instead of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.^ Your blood pressure also may be monitored.
• Low blood pressure (hypotension) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Compare with other Blood Pressure Monitors .

^ These changes also effect blood pressure.

[13] .Home monitoring may also be used to improve hypertension management and to monitor the effects of lifestyle changes and medication related to BP.[14] Compared to ambulatory blood pressure measurements, home monitoring has been found to be an effective and lower cost alternative.^ Lifestyle changes that may be helpful .
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Buy : UK [change] » Blood Pressure Monitors .
• Blood Pressure Monitors 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.medisave.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ It can be successfully managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.
• High Blood Pressure Diets, Diets for Blood Pressure Treatments, Blood Pressure Diet Plans 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC gicare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][15][16]
.Aside from the white coat effect, BP readings outside of a clinical setting are usually slightly lower in the majority of people.^ White Coat” hypertension is one example of a condition when a faulty or skewed reading must be eliminated if there is going to be an accurate blood pressure reading.

^ However, the results of a preliminary trial suggest that red ginseng root (Panax ginseng radix rubra) has either no effect on, or may actually slightly lower, blood pressure in hypertensive people.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Manning G, Rushton L & Millar-Craig MW (1999) Clinical implications of white coat hypertension: an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring study.
• http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514267419/html/b1725.html 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC herkules.oulu.fi [Source type: Academic]

.The studies that looked into the risks from hypertension and the benefits of lowering BP in affected patients were based on readings in a clinical environment.^ In the room itself, note that the patient and family have a view into the electronic health record that is tied to the role of the person in the room (based on a sensor located at the room’s entrance).
• Innovation | Ted Eytan, MD 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.tedeytan.com [Source type: General]

^ In this study of several thousand older adults with hypertension, the incorporation of low-fat dairy foods into an already-healthy Mediterranean diet did a better job lowering blood pressure than the Mediterranean diet alone.
• WHFoods: Hypertension (high blood pressure) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers at the Kyorin University School of Medicine have discovered that Calpis sour milk is effective in lowering blood pressure in patients with hypertension.
• Treatment of Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

.When measuring BP, an accurate reading requires that one not drink coffee, smoke cigarettes, or engage in strenuous exercise for 30 minutes before taking the reading.^ One vial should be taken 30 minutes before bedtime.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First of all, avoid eating, smoking, and exercising for at least 30 minutes before taking a measurement.
• Amazon.com: Omron HEM-712C Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor with IntelliSense: Health & Personal Care 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ You should also stop drinking coffee 30 minutes before it is checked as well.

.A full bladder may have a small effect on BP readings, so if the urge to urinate exists, one should do so before the reading.^ It should be noted that this may only taken in very small doses but because of its potency it is still extremely effective.

^ Also ensure that your bladder is empty before the doctor takes a reading as this can alter the results.

^ The blood pressure-lowering effect of mistletoe is small and may take weeks to become evident.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

.For 5 minutes before the reading, one should sit upright in a chair with one's feet flat on the floor and with limbs uncrossed.^ One vial should be taken 30 minutes before bedtime.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remove tight-fitting clothing from your upper arm, and sit in a chair with your feet flat on the floor.
• Amazon.com: Omron HEM-712C Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor with IntelliSense: Health & Personal Care 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ If you smoke you should stop smoking around 30 minutes before you are due to have your blood pressure checked.

.The BP cuff should always be against bare skin, as readings taken over a shirt sleeve are less accurate.^ Such readings may be taken by nonskilled personnel, and yield reliable, accurate and reproducible results.

^ The cuff should make direct contact with your skin, but you should be able to easily fit your index finger between the cuff and your arm.
• Amazon.com: Omron HEM-712C Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor with IntelliSense: Health & Personal Care 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ I now check my own bp at home and it always 10-30% lower than when taken at gp’s .
• How I quickly lowered my blood pressure from 165/95 to 120/80… without drugs! « High Blood Pressure Cure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC janshighbloodpressurecure.com [Source type: General]

.During the reading, the arm that is used should be relaxed and kept at heart level, for example by resting it on a table.^ Before using Heart And Body Extract my energy level was very, very low I could only walk a few feet and I would then have to sit down.
• High Blood Pressure Natural Remedies : Cholesterol Foods : Diabetic Neuropathy Treatment : Foot Care in Diabetes : Heart Natural Remedies : Herbal Treatment for Angina 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hbextract.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While this risk is considerably elevated during use of hormone medication, it drops back to the original level within about five years after a woman has stopped taking hormones.
• Health News Updates: May 28, 2008 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.iwc.cc [Source type: General]

^ The second (bottom) number in a blood pressure reading, this refers to the amount of pressure in your arteries when your heart is at rest between beats.
• Low blood pressure (hypotension) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[17]
.Since BP varies throughout the day, measurements intended to monitor changes over longer time frames should be taken at the same time of day to ensure that the readings are comparable.^ In a healthy individual, this blood pressure reading is usually around 120/80 mmHg while at rest, although the reading fluctuates throughout the day and continues to change depending on a multitude of factors such as activity level, temperature, diet, emotional or physical state, and the use of various medications.
• Normal Blood Pressure Readings - Natural Blood Pressure Medication 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most doctors will rely on a number of readings before a diagnosis is made, as the numbers do fluctuate throughout the day based on factors that can influence the reading .
• Normal Blood Pressure Readings - Natural Blood Pressure Medication 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These measures of arterial pressure are not static, but undergo natural variations from one heartbeat to another and throughout the day (in a circadian rhythm); they also change in response to stress, nutritional factors, drugs, or disease.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

Suitable times are:
• immediately after awakening (before washing/dressing and taking breakfast/drink), while the body is still resting,
• immediately after finishing work.
.Automatic self-contained BP monitors are available at reasonable prices, some of which are capable of Korotkoff's measurement in addition to oscillometric methods, enabling irregular heartbeat patients to accurately measure their blood pressure at home.^ Compare with other Blood Pressure Monitors .

^ Part IV - Automated sphygmomanometry: self blood pressure measurement.
• http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514267419/html/b1725.html 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC herkules.oulu.fi [Source type: Academic]

^ Popular blood pressure monitors.
• Amazon.com: Omron HEM-712C Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor with IntelliSense: Health & Personal Care 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

### Invasive measurement

.Arterial blood pressure (BP) is most accurately measured invasively through an arterial line.^ Blood pressure is the measurement of the blood that presses against the arteries and blood vessels.
• Levodyn: Natural Blood Pressure Remedy, Blood Pressure Reducer. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC levodyn.com [Source type: General]

^ Blood pressure is a measurement of the force exerted by blood as it flows through the arteries.
• High Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Endothelial Dysfunction - Life Extension Health Concern 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The pressure of the circulating blood decreases as blood moves through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins; the term blood pressure generally refers to arterial pressure, i.e., the pressure in the larger arteries, arteries being the blood vessels which take blood away from the heart.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

.Invasive arterial pressure measurement with intravascular cannulae involves direct measurement of arterial pressure by placing a cannula needle in an artery (usually radial, femoral, dorsalis pedis or brachial).^ Arterial pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which uses the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure (see Non-invasive measurement).
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Sphygmomanometers are a class of medical instrument for measuring arterial blood pressure by an indirect method, i.e., where transducer instruments such as a needle, cannula, catheter, or the like are not directly inserted into the subject's artery.

^ It occurs when the artery in the arm is too stiff to be compressed by the blood pressure cuff, and as a result, blood pressure cannot be measured accurately.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This procedure can be done by any licensed doctor or a Respiratory Therapist.
.The cannula must be connected to a sterile, fluid-filled system, which is connected to an electronic pressure transducer.^ Now electronic equipment is replacing the mercury filled devices, although the measurements used as still based around the older mercury system.

^ Three leads 22 connect the transducer 20 to the electronic apparatus of the present invention which is thus continuously supplied with information identifying the instantaneous pressure in the occluding cuff 32.

^ It is highly concentrated within cells, where it acts to promote proper fluid balance and pressure in regards to the water systems within your body.
• Blood Pressure - Supplements for Cardiovascualer Support and Healthy Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wellnessresources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The advantage of this system is that pressure is constantly monitored beat-by-beat, and a waveform (a graph of pressure against time) can be displayed.^ "Blood pressure" signifies the resistance produced each time the heart beats and sends blood coursing through the arteries.
• WHFoods: Hypertension (high blood pressure) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is especially important that if you have diabetes or constantly suffer from either anxiety or stress you regularly get your blood pressure monitored.

^ You'll be able to live your life without constantly monitoring your blood pressure.
• Levodyn: Natural Blood Pressure Remedy, Blood Pressure Reducer. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC levodyn.com [Source type: General]

This invasive technique is regularly employed in human and veterinary intensive care medicine, anesthesiology, and for research purposes.
.Cannulation for invasive vascular pressure monitoring is infrequently associated with complications such as thrombosis, infection, and bleeding.^ Frying with more stable oils, such as olive oil, is not associated with an increased risk of high blood pressure.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The baroreceptors may lose their original sensitivity if the vascular changes associated with aging and/or blood pressure elevation reset the sensitivity (115, 154).

^ Reusing vegetable oils for frying, especially oils with high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (such as sunflower or safflower oil) has been associated with an increased risk of high blood pressure.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

Patients with invasive arterial monitoring require very close supervision, as there is a danger of severe bleeding if the line becomes disconnected. .It is generally reserved for patients where rapid variations in arterial pressure are anticipated.^ The first (top) number in a blood pressure reading, this is the amount of pressure your heart generates when pumping blood through your arteries to the rest of your body.
• Low blood pressure (hypotension) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The tendency for relatives of hypertensive patients to resemble each other's arterial pressures is similar at all levels of pressure.

.Invasive vascular pressure monitors are pressure monitoring systems designed to acquire pressure information for display and processing.^ CoQ10 seems to lower blood pressure by lowering cholesterol levels and stabilizing the vascular system via its antioxidant properties.
• WHFoods: Hypertension (high blood pressure) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A specially designed Blood Pressure Monitor Cuff for Arms 13" to 17" In Cir...

^ Home monitoring provides your healthcare professionals with better information to understand and manage your high blood pressure.
• Amazon.com: Omron HEM-712C Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor with IntelliSense: Health & Personal Care 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.There are a variety of invasive vascular pressure monitors for trauma, critical care, and operating room applications.^ Research indicates that there are a variety of foods for high blood pressure that can both reduce the risk of developing hypertension and lowering an existing elevated blood pressure...
• Health News Updates: May 28, 2008 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.iwc.cc [Source type: General]

^ If there is still doubt, a 24-hour blood pressure monitor may be used.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It takes only a couple of minutes to conduct a blood pressure check in the surgery, or there are home blood pressure monitors that are available that can be used.

These include single pressure, dual pressure, and multi-parameter (i.e. pressure / temperature). The monitors can be used for measurement and follow-up of arterial, central venous, pulmonary arterial, left atrial, right atrial, femoral arterial, umbilical venous, umbilical arterial, and intracranial pressures.

## Classification

.The following classification of blood pressure applies to adults aged 18 and older.^ Adults 18 years and older should have their blood pressure checked every year.

^ Blood pressure check Effects of age on blood pressure Blood pressure .

^ There are some guidelines that can help the medical community apply a standard approach dependent upon the blood pressure range they fit within.

.It is based on the average of seated BP readings that were properly measured during 2 or more office visits.^ But in general, as these guidelines are based on the average readings across a large population they can be considered as relatively accurate.

^ If a person has an initial high reading, blood pressure is measured again during the same visit and then measured twice on at least two other days to make sure that the high blood pressure persists.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To clarify, the systolic reading is derived from the contraction of the heart and is a measure of the maximum pressure on the arteries during the time when the left ventricle of the heart contracts.

[14][18]
Classification of blood pressure for adults
Category systolic, mmHg diastolic, mmHg
Hypotension
< 90
< 60
Normal
90 – 120
and 60 – 80
Prehypertension
121 – 139
or 81 – 89
Stage 1 Hypertension
140 – 159
or 90 – 99
Stage 2 Hypertension
≥ 160
or ≥ 100

## Normal values

.While average values for arterial pressure could be computed for any given population, there is often a large variation from person to person; arterial pressure also varies in individuals from moment to moment.^ Typical values for a resting, healthy adult human are approximately 120 mmHg (16 kPa) systolic and 80 mmHg (11 kPa) diastolic (written as 120/80 mmHg, and spoken as "one twenty over eighty") with large individual variations.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ The number and type of tests that are performed to look for organ damage and to determine the cause of high blood pressure vary from person to person.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Probably the most consistent findings in the studies of the influence of aging is the large variation in the older population for nearly every cardiovascular variable (18).

Additionally, the average of any given population may have a questionable correlation with its general health, thus the relevance of such average values is equally questionable. .However, in a study of 100 subjects with no known history of hypertension, an average blood pressure of 112/64 mmHg was found,[19] which is in the normal range.^ A placebo-controlled study of the effect of sour milk on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.
• Treatment of Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Normally, blood pressure declines at night.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Normal blood pressure .
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Various factors influence a person's average BP and variations.^ High blood pressure is caused by several different factors and varies from person to person.
• Levodyn: Natural Blood Pressure Remedy, Blood Pressure Reducer. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC levodyn.com [Source type: General]

^ Depending on various factors, the level at which blood pressure is considered high enough to be treated with medication can vary from person to person.
• High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) | Health | Patient UK 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Factors such as age and gender[20] influence average values. .In children, the normal ranges are lower than for adults and depend on height.^ Infants and children normally have much lower blood pressure than adults.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nurse said it was normal, only my lower number has never been higher than 70.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ From then on, my highest spike (when I overdose on sodium) has only reached 152/85....lower than my "normal" range on med's alone.
• Levodyn: Natural Blood Pressure Remedy, Blood Pressure Reducer. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC levodyn.com [Source type: General]

[21] .As adults age, systolic pressure tends to rise and diastolic tends to fall.^ The systolic pressure can be increased due to aging.
• High Blood Pressure - Symptoms, Causes, Natural Cure and Treatment 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC herbal-supplements-for-you.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOTE: Systolic pressure is the first (highest) reading given for a blood pressure measurement, diastolic is the second (lowest) reading, i.e.
• Treatment of Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures fell by 23 mmHg and 7 mmHg, respectively, in the active-treatment group (n=2,398), and by 13 mmHg and 2 mmHg, respectively, in the placebo group (n=2,297).
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .In the elderly, BP tends to be above the normal adult range,[23] largely because of reduced flexibility of the arteries.^ I lowered my BP to the normal range by eating less sodium, getting regular exercise and doing my best to reduce stress.
• Lower High Blood Pressure | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Initially when I was worked up they had to stop the treadmill because I went in with normal BP and in 2 minutes it was 220/118.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

.Also, an individual's BP varies with exercise, emotional reactions, sleep, digestion and time of day.^ This is what I took to get my BP down and then on to the maintenance dose of 2 teaspoonsful in 8oz water 3 times a day.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Blood pressure also varies with the time of day: It is highest in the morning and lowest at night during sleep.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Differences between left and right arm BP measurements tend to be random and average to nearly zero if enough measurements are taken. .However, in a small percentage of cases there is a consistently present difference greater than 10 mmHg which may need further investigation, e.g.^ Cardiac output may have been greater in younger subjects because of an age difference in the stress response to the invasive procedure itself.

^ Beta-blockers however, reduce time to exhaustion - nonselective beta-blockers to a greater extent than selective beta-blockers.
• Treatment of Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because a greater proportion of women develop hypertension as they age, there is a stronger association with hypertension in women with increasing age than in men (102).

for obstructive arterial disease.[24][25]
.The risk of cardiovascular disease increases progressively above 115/75 mmHg.^ Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases .
• High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) | Health | Patient UK 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Left untreated, hypertension significantly increases the risk of stroke and heart disease .
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The optimal blood pressure for minimizing the risk of cardiovascular problems (such as heart attack and heart failure) and stroke is below 115/75 mm Hg.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .In the past, hypertension was only diagnosed if secondary signs of high arterial pressure were present, along with a prolonged high systolic pressure reading over several visits.^ How is high blood pressure diagnosed?
• High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) | Health | Patient UK 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many types of hypertension can only be detected by monitoring your blood pressure at home, including: White-Coat Hypertension: blood pressure reading is high in your doctor's office but lower at home Masked Hypertension: blood pressure reading is low in doctor's office but higher at home Morning Hypertension: blood pressure reading is higher in the morning Additionally, many factors can affect your blood pressure, including physical exertion, emotional fluctuations, medications, and stress.
• Amazon.com: Omron HEM-712C Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor with IntelliSense: Health & Personal Care 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ NOTE: Systolic pressure is the first (highest) reading given for a blood pressure measurement, diastolic is the second (lowest) reading, i.e.
• Treatment of Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the UK, patients’ readings are considered normal up to 140/90 mmHg.^ WHO has defined borderline hypertension as a blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg, and essential hypertension as > 160/95 mmHg.

^ Very few references list a high pressure as being normal for older adults, but in the past a blood pressure below 150/90 was considered normal for older adults.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A borderline hypertensive adult will present a resting blood pressure between 140/90 ?160/95 mmHg and often demonstrates hemodynamics of Stage I (154).

[27]
.Clinical trials demonstrate that people who maintain arterial pressures at the low end of these pressure ranges have much better long term cardiovascular health.^ Maintain blood pressure within the normal range Support systemic balance in the cardiovascular system responsible for regulating blood flow and healthy blood pressure Support healthy circulation responsible for adequate flow of blood to the heart & extremities Support healthy pumping action of the heart and the maintenance of a regular heartbeat Promote coronary artery health and integrity Support healthy energy levels and soothe common nervous tension Related Products: .
• Maintain Normal Blood Pressure Ranges & Circulatory System Health 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The more we promote long-term health via proper nutrition as opposed to short-term “results” with non-sense drug use, the healthier we’ll be as a society.
• How I quickly lowered my blood pressure from 165/95 to 120/80… without drugs! « High Blood Pressure Cure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC janshighbloodpressurecure.com [Source type: General]

^ Helps maintain blood pressure already within normal range, plus promotes complete cardiovascular health .
• Maintain Normal Blood Pressure Ranges & Circulatory System Health 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The principal medical debate concerns the aggressiveness and relative value of methods used to lower pressures into this range for those who do not maintain such pressure on their own.^ This can be a concern for those on prescription blood pressure medications.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is widely used in hospitals and doctors' offices to swiftly lower an excessively high blood pressure brought on by such conditions as renal failure and pregnancy-induced hypertension.
• Treatment of Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ High blood pressure is twice as common among people who are obese as among those who are not.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Elevations, more commonly seen in older people, though often considered normal, are associated with increased morbidity and mortality.^ Nevertheless, the prescription of antihypertensive drugs for the prevention of heart attacks continues and there is an increasing trend to prescribe them for people having only a marginal elevation above normal.
• Treatment of Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fish oil supplementation does not affect blood pressure in people with normal blood pressure, but relatively dramatic effects are seen in patients with high cholesterol levels and in patients with atherosclerosis.
• Treatment of Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.yourhealthbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, many older people with high blood pressure have high systolic pressure (140 mm Hg or more) with normal or low diastolic pressure (less than 90 mm Hg).
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

## Physiology

The physics of the circulatory system are very complex. .That said, there are many physical factors that influence arterial pressure.^ High blood pressure is a factor in hardening of the arteries ...

^ The body has many mechanisms to control blood pressure: The body can change the amount of blood the heart pumps, the diameter of arteries, and the volume of blood in the bloodstream.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are unable to do it manually, there are many digital blood pressure cuffs available in the market.
• Lower High Blood Pressure | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Each of these may in turn be influenced by physiological factors, such as diet, exercise, disease, drugs or alcohol, stress, obesity, and so-forth.^ These measures of arterial pressure are not static, but undergo natural variations from one heartbeat to another and throughout the day (in a circadian rhythm); they also change in response to stress, nutritional factors, drugs, or disease.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, the drop in blood pressure resulting from magnesium supplementation in people taking these drugs may result from overcoming a mild magnesium deficiency.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Why: of high blood pressure , heart attacks, strokes , elevated cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, renal disease, alcohol abuse and premature sudden death.
• Blood pressure symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[28]
Some physical factors are:
• Rate of pumping. .In the circulatory system, this rate is called heart rate, the rate at which blood (the fluid) is pumped by the heart.^ Blood from the heart pumps throughout the body.
• High Blood Pressure -- eCureMe.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ecureme.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Our hearts are the pumps in our systems.
• Can low blood pressure be dangerous? – Paging Dr. Gupta - CNN.com Blogs 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC pagingdrgupta.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The heart pumps blood throughout the body in vessels called arteries.
• IOH Diabetes and High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.isletsofhope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The volume of blood flow from the heart is called the cardiac output which is the heart rate (the rate of contraction) multiplied by the stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped out from the heart with each contraction).^ Intrinsic mechanisms of the cardiovascular system stabilize cardiac output via stroke volume and heart rate.

^ If heart rate is increased cardiac output will increase but this increase is not proportional to the increase in heart rate (125).

^ Heart rate and cardiac output remained unchanged.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The higher the heart rate, the higher the arterial pressure, assuming no reduction in stroke volume.^ This is the pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts.
• High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) | Health | Patient UK 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The endothelial cells that line your arteries send out signals that work with your heart and muscle contractions to create the ebb and flow of your blood pressure (systolic=higher number and diastolic=lower number).
• Blood Pressure - Supplements for Cardiovascualer Support and Healthy Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wellnessresources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are you suffering from issues related to angina pain, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, unbalanced cholestrol, irregular heart beat, clogged arteries?
• High Blood Pressure Natural Remedies : Cholesterol Foods : Diabetic Neuropathy Treatment : Foot Care in Diabetes : Heart Natural Remedies : Herbal Treatment for Angina 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hbextract.com [Source type: Original source]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
• Volume of fluid or blood volume, the amount of blood that is present in the body.^ Atrial receptors have a role in the regulation of the volume of body fluids (53, 128).

^ The amino acid arginine is needed by the body to make nitric oxide, a substance that allows blood vessels to dilate, thus leading to reduced blood pressure.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, extracellular volume is controlled by the amount of sodium retained by the body (136).

.The more blood present in the body, the higher the rate of blood return to the heart and the resulting cardiac output.^ Blood from the heart pumps throughout the body.
• High Blood Pressure -- eCureMe.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ecureme.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Narrowing returns more blood to the heart which may raise blood pressure.
• Slideshow: Low Blood Pressure Pictures on RxList.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If heart rate is increased cardiac output will increase but this increase is not proportional to the increase in heart rate (125).

.There is some relationship between dietary salt intake and increased blood volume, potentially resulting in higher arterial pressure, though this varies with the individual and is highly dependent on autonomic nervous system response and the renin-angiotensin system.^ As a result, blood pressure increases.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, arterial pressure will then increase, increasing afterload.

^ Blood volume may be increased also.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
• Resistance. .In the circulatory system, this is the resistance of the blood vessels.^ Blood has a pressure that is maintained within a normal range by various aspects of the circulatory system , such as the heart (pumps to increase/maintain pressure), walls of blood vessels (muscles constrict or dilate blood vessels to increase or reduce blood pressure), clotting (which maintains a closed system by preventing leakage, i.e.

^ Calcium constricts blood vessels which increases resistance and reduces the blood supply and oxygen to the heart.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shipping Returns Natural remedy to maintain normal blood pressure ranges and support circulatory system health.
• Maintain Normal Blood Pressure Ranges & Circulatory System Health 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The higher the resistance, the higher the arterial pressure upstream from the resistance to blood flow.^ The muscles of the small arteries enlarge, increasing the resistance to blood flow.
• THE MADISON DOCTRINE Main page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.madisondoctrine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, an increased blood flow and/or resistance to blood flow will raise blood pressure (35).

^ Evidence shows that the present levels of intake of mineral elements are not optimum for maintaining normal blood pressure but predispose to the development of arterial hypertension.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Resistance is related to vessel radius (the larger the radius, the lower the resistance), vessel length (the longer the vessel, the higher the resistance), as well as the smoothness of the blood vessel walls.^ Beta blocking agents with ISA tend to lower blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance without decreasing resting cardiac output (18).

^ The older young hypertensives demonstrated lower cardiac output and higher peripheral resistance as indicated by higher arterial pressure [ie.

^ Seek to lower the force that the muscles of the heart and the blood vessels encounter and thus seek to bring the size down to normal.
• THE MADISON DOCTRINE Main page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.madisondoctrine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Smoothness is reduced by the build up of fatty deposits on the arterial walls.^ Stevia extract, which is often used as a sweetener, relaxes arteries and helps to prevent the buildup of calcium on artery walls, which keeps them healthy and reduces blood pressure.
• Interactive Marketing Ezine at Vector Central 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.vectorcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pomegranate juice has also been shown to reduce systolic blood pressure by inhibiting enzymes that can put pressure on the arterial walls.
• Levodyn: Natural Blood Pressure Remedy, Blood Pressure Reducer. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC levodyn.com [Source type: General]

.Substances called vasoconstrictors can reduce the size of blood vessels, thereby increasing BP. Vasodilators (such as nitroglycerin) increase the size of blood vessels, thereby decreasing arterial pressure.^ As a result, blood pressure increases.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, arterial pressure will then increase, increasing afterload.

^ Blood pressure is the measurement of the blood that presses against the arteries and blood vessels.
• Levodyn: Natural Blood Pressure Remedy, Blood Pressure Reducer. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC levodyn.com [Source type: General]

.Resistance, and its relation to volumetric flow rate (Q) and pressure difference between the two ends of a vessel are described by Poiseuille's Law.
• Viscosity, or thickness of the fluid.^ The rate of fluid movement across exchange vessel walls is proportional to the difference between the hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures (100).

^ With the increased resistance, renal blood flow is impeded and glomerular filtration rate may decrease.

^ Smoking damages the heart and arteries, while the nicotine constricts blood vessels, increases heart rate, and raises blood pressure.
• Interactive Marketing Ezine at Vector Central 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.vectorcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the blood gets thicker, the result is an increase in arterial pressure.^ As a result, blood pressure increases.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, arterial pressure will then increase, increasing afterload.

^ Blood pressure is defined as that force which blood exerts on the arterial wall during its normal flow through them.
• high blood pressure | high blood pressure home remedies| natural remedy for high blood pressure| natural cure for high blood pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.herbalcureindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Certain medical conditions can change the viscosity of the blood.^ Of those conditions, the easiest to understand are the changes in the set point of blood pressure - either too low (hypotension) or too high (hypertension).
• THE MADISON DOCTRINE Main page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.madisondoctrine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reflex regulation system of baroreceptors [pressoreceptors] is able to control sudden changes in blood pressure with these conditions.

.For instance, low red blood cell concentration, anemia, reduces viscosity, whereas increased red blood cell concentration increases viscosity.^ Red blood cell Na+/H+ and Li+/Na+ exchange in patients with essential hypertension.

^ D concentration in the blood is not linked to a reduced risk of prostate cancer .
• Health News Updates: May 28, 2008 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.iwc.cc [Source type: General]

^ All things being equal, a low plasma volume would increase the concentration of positive colloid pressure drawing fluid from the interstitium to the capillary, increasing intravascular volume.

.Viscosity also increases with blood sugar concentration—visualize pumping syrup.^ For example, an increase in the amount of blood pumped out by the heart—which tends to increase blood pressure—causes dilation of blood vessels and an increase in the kidneys' excretion of salt and water—which tend to reduce blood pressure.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Decreased levels of potassium and magnesium, temporarily increased levels of blood sugar and cholesterol, an increased level of uric acid, sexual dysfunction in men, and digestive upset .
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sugar has been reported to increase blood pressure in animals 12 and humans in short-term trials.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

It had been thought that aspirin and related "blood thinner" drugs decreased the viscosity of blood, but studies found[29] that they act by reducing the tendency of the blood to clot instead.
.In practice, each individual's autonomic nervous system responds to and regulates all these interacting factors so that, although the above issues are important, the actual arterial pressure response of a given individual varies widely because of both split-second and slow-moving responses of the nervous system and end organs.^ Maintain blood pressure within the normal range Support systemic balance in the cardiovascular system responsible for regulating blood flow and healthy blood pressure Support healthy circulation responsible for adequate flow of blood to the heart & extremities Support healthy pumping action of the heart and the maintenance of a regular heartbeat Promote coronary artery health and integrity Support healthy energy levels and soothe common nervous tension Related Products: .
• Maintain Normal Blood Pressure Ranges & Circulatory System Health 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stroke volume is well regulated by the interaction of both preload and afterload.

^ These individuals do not have anything wrong with the physical makeup of their arteries and nervous system; their symptoms are due to a functional disorder.
• THE MADISON DOCTRINE Main page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.madisondoctrine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These responses are very effective in changing the variables and resulting BP from moment to moment.^ These measures of arterial pressure are not static, but undergo natural variations from one heartbeat to another and throughout the day (in a circadian rhythm); they also change in response to stress, nutritional factors, drugs, or disease.
• High Blood Pressure Remedies from the Earth Clinic Community. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ These changes in the heart may result in abnormal heart rhythms (see Abnormal Heart Rhythms: Introduction ) and heart failure (see Heart Failure ).
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regardless of the control systems used to adjust blood pressure, the resultant change in blood pressure is dependent on how these systems regulate [Q] or [TPR], or both.

### Mean arterial pressure

The mean arterial pressure (MAP) is the average over a cardiac cycle and is determined by the cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and central venous pressure (CVP),[30]
$\! MAP = (CO \cdot SVR) + CVP.$
.MAP can be approximately determined from measurements of the systolic pressure $\!^ Results of the exercise stimulus on blood pressure were expressed as changes in either systolic [SBP], diastolic [DBP], or mean [MAP], arterial pressure.

^ Significant results of the exercise stimulus on blood pressure were expressed as changes in either systolic [SBP], diastolic [DBP], or mean [MAP], arterial pressure are also reported.

^ Thus, approximately 70% of the studies that investigated SBP, DBP, and MAP reported significant reductions in blood pressure following the exercise intervention.

P_{sys}" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/2/2/8/64432763282007820.png" />  and the diastolic pressure $\! P_{dias}$  while there is a normal resting heart rate,[30]
$\! MAP \approxeq P_{dias} + \frac{1}{3} (P_{sys} - P_{dias}).$

### Pulse pressure

The up and down fluctuation of the arterial pressure results from the pulsatile nature of the cardiac output, i.e. the heartbeat. The pulse pressure is determined by the interaction of the stroke volume of the heart, compliance (ability to expand) of the aorta, and the resistance to flow in the arterial tree. .By expanding under pressure, the aorta absorbs some of the force of the blood surge from the heart during a heartbeat.^ Hawthorn leaf and flower extracts have been reported to have a mild blood pressure–lowering effect in people with early stage congestive heart failure .
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Conversely, to decrease blood pressure, the heart can pump less forcefully or rapidly, arterioles and veins can widen (dilate), and fluid can be removed from the bloodstream.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Middle?age men have higher blood pressures than middle?aged women, but during this time the rate in increase of systolic blood pressure is greater in women than in men (29).

.In this way the pulse pressure is reduced from what it would be if the aorta wasn't compliant.^ Reducing Anxiety Induced High Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate .
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]
The pulse pressure can be simply calculated from the difference of the measured systolic and diastolic pressures,[31]
$\! P_{pulse} = P_{sys} - P_{dias}.$

### Vascular resistance

.The larger arteries, including all large enough to see without magnification, are low resistance conduits (assuming no advanced atherosclerotic changes) with high flow rates that generate only small drops in pressure.^ Beta blocking agents with ISA tend to lower blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance without decreasing resting cardiac output (18).

^ Heart rate properties that affect flow include: 1) an increase in heart rate which will increase the contractile strength and, 2) transient changes in heart rate where the contractility decreases with lower rates and increases with higher rates (125).

^ Abdominal Aneurysm - hypotension Abdominal obesity metabolic syndrome - high blood pressure Absence of pulmonary artery - pulmonary hypertension Achalasia - addisonianism - alacrima syndrome - orthostatic hypotension Achalasia - Addisonianism - Alacrimia syndrome - orthostatic hypotension more causes...» See all 638 causes of Blood pressure symptoms .
• Blood pressure symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

### Vascular pressure wave

Modern physiology developed the concept of the vascular pressure wave (VPW). This wave is created by the heart during the systole and originates in the ascending aorta. .Much faster than the stream of blood itself, it is then transported through the vessel walls to the peripheral arteries.^ These unclogged arteries are able to transport blood through them easily and without much effort.
• Interactive Marketing Ezine at Vector Central 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.vectorcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It said that a study has found that giving diabetics cocoa with higher than normal levels of flavanols, a type ofantioxidant, improved blood flow through the arteries by 30%.
• Health News Updates: May 28, 2008 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.iwc.cc [Source type: General]

^ It works on gently scouring the plaque from the arteries removing it into the blood stream whereby it goes through the gastro-intestinal system out through the bowels and kidneys.
• High Blood Pressure Natural Remedies : Cholesterol Foods : Diabetic Neuropathy Treatment : Foot Care in Diabetes : Heart Natural Remedies : Herbal Treatment for Angina 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hbextract.com [Source type: Original source]

.There the pressure wave can be palpated as the peripheral pulse.^ Pulse wave velocity is also significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure (81).

^ In the dynamic response, the receptors fire with greatest frequency when the pressure is greatest during the arterial pulse wave and may cease to fire when pressure falls off.

As the wave is reflected at the peripheral veins it runs back in a centripetal fashion. .Where the crests of the reflected and the original wave meet, the pressure inside the vessel is higher than the true pressure in the aorta.^ Middle?age men have higher blood pressures than middle?aged women, but during this time the rate in increase of systolic blood pressure is greater in women than in men (29).

^ By old age, women have higher blood pressures than older men (56, 154).

^ People in high stress professions such as airline pilots and race drivers do not have higher levels of blood pressure than the general public.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This concept explains why the arterial pressure inside the peripheral arteries of the legs and arms is higher than the arterial pressure in the aorta,[32][33][34] and in turn for the higher pressures seen at the ankle compared to the arm with normal ankle brachial pressure index values.^ Middle?age men have higher blood pressures than middle?aged women, but during this time the rate in increase of systolic blood pressure is greater in women than in men (29).

^ By old age, women have higher blood pressures than older men (56, 154).

^ The older young hypertensives demonstrated lower cardiac output and higher peripheral resistance as indicated by higher arterial pressure [ie.

### Regulation

.The endogenous regulation of arterial pressure is not completely understood.^ The baroreceptor set point and central control mechanisms regulate mean arterial pressure [MAP], must also be considered.

Currently, three mechanisms of regulating arterial pressure have been well-characterized:
.
• Baroreceptor reflex: Baroreceptors detect changes in arterial pressure and send signals ultimately to the medulla of the brain stem.^ Because the receptor is sensitive to mean pressure and the rate of change in pressure, reflex responses are dependent upon mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure and heart rate (19, 40, 83, 133).

^ The baroreceptor set point and central control mechanisms regulate mean arterial pressure [MAP], must also be considered.

^ Results of the exercise stimulus on blood pressure were expressed as changes in either systolic [SBP], diastolic [DBP], or mean [MAP], arterial pressure.

.The medulla, by way of the autonomic nervous system, adjusts the mean arterial pressure by altering both the force and speed of the heart's contractions, as well as the total peripheral resistance.^ Either by altering flow, total peripheral resistance, or both (73, 124).

^ This conclusion is based on the fact that mean arterial pressure [MAP] is the product of cardiac output; [Q] = [heart rate X stroke volume], and total peripheral resistance [TPR], thus, [MAP = CO X TPR](35).

^ Secondly, some inhibitors will block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Drugs of both modes will decrease peripheral vascular resistance (149), with little, if any, effect on heart rate, cardiac output or body fluid volumes (18).

.The most important arterial baroreceptors are located in the left and right carotid sinuses and in the aortic arch.^ The chemoreceptors are located close to the arterial baroreceptors and within the central nervous system (125).

^ The carotid body is a small mass of tissue but receives a high volume of blood flow and is located close to the carotid baroreceptors (125).

^ It is sensitive to changes in the partial pressure of oxygen and pH. The bodies in the aortic arch respond in a similar fashion as the carotid, but their response is attenuated under comparison.

[35]
• .
• Renin-angiotensin system (RAS): This system is generally known for its long-term adjustment of arterial pressure.^ These include fluid shifts in the microvascular circulation and the renin?angiotensin system.

^ A few reports have even claimed that long-term coffee drinkers tend to have lower blood pressure than those who avoid coffee.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Efferent splanic activity and systemic arterial pressure.

.This system allows the kidney to compensate for loss in blood volume or drops in arterial pressure by activating an endogenous vasoconstrictor known as angiotensin II.
• Aldosterone release: This steroid hormone is released from the adrenal cortex in response to angiotensin II or high serum potassium levels.^ High blood pressure is a factor in hardening of the arteries ...

^ Drop Your Blood Pressure" program .

^ Drop Your Blood Pressure" program: .

.Aldosterone stimulates sodium retention and potassium excretion by the kidneys.^ Aldosterone is the most important determinant of sodium retention in the kidney.

^ Aldosterone causes the kidneys to retain salt (sodium) and excrete potassium.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The kidneys control blood pressure through the retention and excretion of extracellular fluid.

Since sodium is the main ion that determines the amount of fluid in the blood vessels by osmosis, aldosterone will increase fluid retention, and indirectly, arterial pressure.
.These different mechanisms are not necessarily independent of each other, as indicated by the link between the RAS and aldosterone release.^ Studies indicating marked differences in these intrinsic variables are probably also affected by superimposed disease or deconditioning (18, 88).

^ Perhaps what is most intriguing is the difference in the magnitude of response between the two races when other factors associated with hypertension are combined with race.

^ These views, positions, and publications are not endorsed by nor do they necessarily represent the views of the Deployment Health Clinical Center or any other US government agency or department.
• Health News Updates: May 28, 2008 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.iwc.cc [Source type: General]

.Currently, the RAS system is targeted pharmacologically by ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists.^ "Avapro is an angiotensin 2 receptor antagonist.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ang I is converted to the active octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and non-ACE pathways.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The aldosterone system is directly targeted by spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist.^ Of the three agents listed in Table 1, spironolactone is an aldosterone antagonist, while both amiloride and triamterene directly inhibit potassium secretion (18).

.The fluid retention may be targeted by diuretics; the antihypertensive effect of diuretics is due to its effect on blood volume.^ Antihypertensive and volume depleting effects of mild exercise on essential hypertension.

^ The kidneys control blood pressure through the retention and excretion of extracellular fluid.

^ Aldosterone will increase sodium absorption at the kidney, thus allowing for fluid retention and increasing plasma volume (125).

.Generally, the baroreceptor reflex is not targeted in hypertension because if blocked, individuals may suffer from orthostatic hypotension and fainting.^ That means if you suffer from high blood pressure or hypertension, your doctor won't prescribe the medication for you - because he or she will be worried about you suffering from a heart attack.
• Levodyn: Natural Blood Pressure Remedy, Blood Pressure Reducer. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC levodyn.com [Source type: General]

^ All centrally acting drugs may have typical side effects of sedation, dry mouth, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, and galactorrhea (18).

^ Peripheral neuron inhibitors are often combined with diuretics, and may share common side effects of orthostatic hypotension (18).

## Pathophysiology

### High arterial pressure

Overview of main complications of persistent high blood pressure.
.Arterial hypertension can be an indicator of other problems and may have long-term adverse effects.^ The older young hypertensives demonstrated lower cardiac output and higher peripheral resistance as indicated by higher arterial pressure [ie.

^ They may attempt to reduce symptoms using prescription drugs that can have other very negative side effects.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New generation vasodilation drugs such as the calcium antagonists and converting enzyme inhibitors may be used as monotherapy because they have fewer side effects with both short and long term use (18).

Sometimes it can be an acute problem, for example hypertensive emergency.
.All levels of arterial pressure put mechanical stress on the arterial walls.^ Evidence shows that the present levels of intake of mineral elements are not optimum for maintaining normal blood pressure but predispose to the development of arterial hypertension.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In that report, all 15 people who also had high blood pressure experienced a significant drop in blood pressure when put on a hypoallergenic diet .
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Over time, high blood pressure weakens artery walls, leading to a bulging blood vessel ...

.Higher pressures increase heart workload and progression of unhealthy tissue growth (atheroma) that develops within the walls of arteries.^ This is the pressure of the blood against the inner walls of arteries, which carry blood from the heart.

^ Each time the heart beats, the pressure in the arteries increases.
• Steeles.com - Taking Your Own Blood Pressure 20 November 2009 23:34 UTC www.steeles.com [Source type: General]

^ High blood pressure adds to the workload of the heart and arteries.
• Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
• Blood Pressure, Diet Advice: Maintain Normal Systolic, Diastolic Pressures: Healthy Eating to Avoid Hypertension 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.diet-i.com [Source type: General]

.The higher the pressure, the more stress that is present and the more atheroma tend to progress and the heart muscle tends to thicken, enlarge and become weaker over time.^ Middle?age men have higher blood pressures than middle?aged women, but during this time the rate in increase of systolic blood pressure is greater in women than in men (29).

^ Shrinks an enlarged heart Enjoy more energy, increased mobility with less tiredness.
• High Blood Pressure Natural Remedies : Cholesterol Foods : Diabetic Neuropathy Treatment : Foot Care in Diabetes : Heart Natural Remedies : Herbal Treatment for Angina 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.hbextract.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People in high stress professions such as airline pilots and race drivers do not have higher levels of blood pressure than the general public.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for strokes, heart attacks, heart failure and arterial aneurysms, and is the leading cause of chronic renal failure.^ Heart artery plaque is often the cause for hypertension.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kannel, W.B. Hypertension and other risk factors in coronary heart disease.

^ Baroreceptor function in chronic renal hypertension.

.Even moderate elevation of arterial pressure leads to shortened life expectancy.^ But in some rare instances, low blood pressure can be a sign of serious, even life-threatening disorders.
• Low blood pressure (hypotension) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ An increase in extracellular volume without compensation from the kidney has been shown to maintain elevated arterial pressure (136).

^ Complications Even moderate forms of low blood pressure can cause not only dizziness and weakness but also fainting and a risk of injury from falls.
• Low blood pressure (hypotension) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.At severely high pressures, mean arterial pressures 50% or more above average, a person can expect to live no more than a few years unless appropriately treated.^ High blood pressure can be treated .

^ The protocol specified below has been shown to reduce artery plaque by 50% over a two-year period as determined by accurate angiogram procedures.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High blood pressure is a factor in hardening of the arteries ...

[36]
.In the past, most attention was paid to diastolic pressure; but nowadays it is recognised that both high systolic pressure and high pulse pressure (the numerical difference between systolic and diastolic pressures) are also risk factors.^ What is the difference between high blood pressure and hypertension?
• Levodyn: Natural Blood Pressure Remedy, Blood Pressure Reducer. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC levodyn.com [Source type: General]

^ The rate of fluid movement across exchange vessel walls is proportional to the difference between the hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures (100).

^ Hypertension or high blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease, stroke and other cardiovascular conditions.
• Blood pressure symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.In some cases, it appears that a decrease in excessive diastolic pressure can actually increase risk, due probably to the increased difference between systolic and diastolic pressures (see the article on pulse pressure).^ The rate of fluid movement across exchange vessel walls is proportional to the difference between the hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures (100).

^ Middle?age men have higher blood pressures than middle?aged women, but during this time the rate in increase of systolic blood pressure is greater in women than in men (29).

^ A review of 24 intervention studies that used moderate sodium restrictions, (approximately 2 grams per day), produced a decrease of 5.4 mmHg systolic and 6.5 mmHg diastolic blood pressure (134).

### Low arterial pressure

.Blood pressure that is too low is known as hypotension.^ Low blood pressure (hypotension) is a disease that need be treated.

^ Low blood pressure Hyperparathyroidism ...
• Blood pressure symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurological causes of low blood pressure.
• Slideshow: Low Blood Pressure Pictures on RxList.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The similarity in pronunciation with hypertension can cause confusion. .Hypotension is a medical concern only if it causes signs or symptoms, such as dizziness, fainting, or in extreme cases, shock.^ Medical articles on signs and symptoms: .
• Blood pressure symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms related to Blood pressure symptoms: High blood pressure (266 causes), Low blood pressure (341 causes), Blood pressure symptoms (590 causes), Hypertension (266 causes), Hypotension (341 causes), Headache (2060 causes), Orthostatic hypertension, Giddiness (9 causes) .
• Blood pressure symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research the causes of related medical symptoms such as: Blood pressure Blood pressure disorders Blood (1417 causes) Blood disease Blood disorder Pressure (130 causes) more symptoms...» Causes of Similar Symptoms to Blood pressure symptoms .
• Blood pressure symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[18]
.When arterial pressure and blood flow decrease beyond a certain point, the perfusion of the brain becomes critically decreased (i.e., the blood supply is not sufficient), causing lightheadedness, dizziness, weakness or fainting.^ Aspartame causes high blood pressure.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glutamate causes blood pressure to skyrocket.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High blood pressure is not the only cause.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes the arterial pressure drops significantly when a patient stands up from sitting.^ These patients had serious hypertension with an average sitting systolic blood pressure between 160 and 219 mmHg.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of these are listed below : Physical examination Blood pressure - sitting and standing in both arms.
• Blood pressure symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Total body potassium was found to be significantly decreased in patients with essential hypertension (101), and those hypertensives that have supplemented the diet with potassium demonstrate decreases in systemic pressure (145).

.This is known as orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension); gravity reduces the rate of blood return from the body veins below the heart back to the heart, thus reducing stroke volume and cardiac output.^ Intrinsic mechanisms of the cardiovascular system stabilize cardiac output via stroke volume and heart rate.

^ If heart rate is increased cardiac output will increase but this increase is not proportional to the increase in heart rate (125).

^ Cardiac output is reduced via a decreased heart rate and myocardial contractility (149).

.When people are healthy, the veins below their heart quickly constrict and the heart rate increases to minimize and compensate for the gravity effect.^ Heart rate properties that affect flow include: 1) an increase in heart rate which will increase the contractile strength and, 2) transient changes in heart rate where the contractility decreases with lower rates and increases with higher rates (125).

^ If heart rate is increased cardiac output will increase but this increase is not proportional to the increase in heart rate (125).

^ This is because with an increase in heart rate: 1) there will be a decreased preload, and 2) an increased afterload.

.This is carried out involuntarily by the autonomic nervous system.^ Baroreceptors provide an effective means for detecting changes in blood pressure and bringing about appropriate responses, via the autonomic nervous system.
• blood pressure – FREE blood pressure information | Encyclopedia.com: Find blood pressure research 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Magnesium, Muscle Mag™ Magnesium is the top mineral for relaxing the circulatory system and smoothing out your nervous system's electrical signals to your heart.
• Blood Pressure - Supplements for Cardiovascualer Support and Healthy Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wellnessresources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This combination of events may be accompanied by problems in the autonomic nervous system and imbalances that can lead to excessive constriction of the blood vessels and hypertension.
• WHFoods: Hypertension (high blood pressure) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.The system usually requires a few seconds to fully adjust and if the compensations are too slow or inadequate, the individual will suffer reduced blood flow to the brain, dizziness and potential blackout.^ Rarely, blood flow to the brain is reduced by a disorder of the blood vessels at the base of the brain.
• Fainting: Low Blood Pressure: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This disturbance usually involves a reduction in blood flow to the brain.
• Fainting: Low Blood Pressure: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If blood pressure at rest stays at 140/90 or more, it means that the individual is suffering from hypertension.
• High Blood Pressure - High Blood Pressure Herbal Supplements 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.herbsmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Increases in G-loading, such as routinely experienced by aerobatic or combat pilots 'pulling Gs', greatly increases this effect. Repositioning the body perpendicular to gravity largely eliminates the problem.
Other causes of low arterial pressure include:
Shock is a complex condition which leads to critically decreased perfusion. .The usual mechanisms are loss of blood volume, pooling of blood within the veins reducing adequate return to the heart and/or low effective heart pumping.^ The blood then returns to your heart through the veins.
• Welcome To West LA Medical & Skincare - Dr. David P Melamed 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.westlamed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
• High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.nymedicaldoctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electrocardiography (ECG) (see Symptoms and Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Electrocardiography ) is usually performed to detect changes in the heart—particularly thickening (hypertrophy) of the heart muscle or heart enlargement.
• High Blood Pressure: Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 15 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted On July 29, 2008 11:41:40 AM ...: Increased sodium intake results in a higher blood volume, which in turn requires the heart to work harder to pump blood to all the tissues in the body.
• Lower High Blood Pressure | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Low arterial pressure, especially low pulse pressure, is a sign of shock and contributes to and reflects decreased perfusion.^ A reduction in body mass achieves a proportionate decrease of arterial pressure (154).

^ In animal studies oleuropein, one of the constituents of olive leaf , has decreased blood pressure and dilated arteries surrounding the heart, when given by injection or intravenously.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A decrease in the pressure at the renal artery, an activation of the sympathetic nerve fibers to the kidney, or a decrease in the amount of sodium passing through the distal tubule of the kidney, will prompt the release of renin.

.If there is a significant difference in the pressure from one arm to the other, that may indicate a narrowing (for example, due to aortic coarctation, aortic dissection, thrombosis or embolism) of an artery.^ These systems function to regulate blood pressure and all of these systems may age at different rates.

^ None of the studies that reported significant changes in blood pressure in borderline and essential hypertensives reported changes in the determinants, however, less than one-third of the studies in borderline hypertension even investigated the determinants.

^ Insulin may also elevate blood pressure by two other mechanisms.

## Other sites

.Blood pressure generally refers to the arterial pressure in the systemic circulation.^ Evidence shows that the present levels of intake of mineral elements are not optimum for maintaining normal blood pressure but predispose to the development of arterial hypertension.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These systems function to regulate blood pressure and all of these systems may age at different rates.

^ High blood pressure is a factor in hardening of the arteries ...

.However, measurement of pressures in the venous system and the pulmonary vessels plays an important role in intensive care medicine but requires an invasive central venous catheter.^ July 5, 2001 - Bethesda, MD, USA A marijuana-like substance that occurs naturally in the body may play a significant role in lowering blood pressure, according to research published in the new issue of Nature Medicine.
• Body's Natural 'Cannabis' May Play Role in Lowering Blood Pressure - NORML 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.norml.org [Source type: News]

^ Extremely high blood pressure (malignant hypertension) or rapidly worsening hypertension (accelerated hypertension) almost always requires treatment with conventional medicine.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Centrally acting sympatholytic agents lower blood pressure by decreasing the sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system (18).

### Venous pressure

Venous pressure is the vascular pressure in a vein or in the atria of the heart. .It is much less than arterial pressure, with common values of 5 mmHg in the right atrium and 8 mmHg in the left atrium.^ None of the studies that reported significant changes in blood pressure in borderline and essential hypertensives reported changes in the determinants, however, less than one-third of the studies in borderline hypertension even investigated the determinants.

^ Getting too much sodium chloride (table salt) in the diet coupled with diminished dietary potassium is a common cause of high blood pressure.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But much more important than that is to stop high blood pressure now!

### Pulmonary pressure

.Normally, the pressure in the pulmonary artery is about 15 mmHg at rest.^ Evidence shows that the present levels of intake of mineral elements are not optimum for maintaining normal blood pressure but predispose to the development of arterial hypertension.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A borderline hypertensive adult will present a resting blood pressure between 140/90 ?160/95 mmHg and often demonstrates hemodynamics of Stage I (154).

^ Mean arterial pressure also increases from 85 mmHg at age 25 to about 104 mmHg at age 75; an increase of 22 percent (99).

[37]
.Increased BP in the capillaries of the lung cause pulmonary hypertension, with interstitial edema if the pressure increases to above 20 mmHg, and to frank pulmonary edema at pressures above 25 mmHg.^ Individuals who are sodium sensitive will have an increase in blood pressure, regardless of their hypertensive status, when additional sodium is added to the diet (56).

^ WHO has defined borderline hypertension as a blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg, and essential hypertension as > 160/95 mmHg.

^ People with hypertension who do not have this nighttime blood pressure decline are at increased risk of developing and dying from heart disease.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

[38]

### Fetal blood pressure

.In pregnancy, it is the fetal heart and not the mother's heart that builds up the fetal BP to drive its blood through the fetal circulation.^ Blood pressure reductions through slow breathing last a little longer each day, building up until they last around the clock within a few short weeks.

^ When your heart rate and blood pressure rise, your breathing rate goes up in unison.

^ The weakening of the heart muscle that can leave you with blood backing up in your legs - or worse - your lungs?

.The BP in the fetal aorta is approximately 30 mmHg at 20 weeks of gestation, and increases to ca 45 mmHg at 40 weeks of gestation.^ With the static response, firing rate will be minimal at a pressure of 20 to 50 mmHg, below which no firing will occur, and the frequency of the firing will increase as the pressure increases above this threshold (19, 40, 83, 133).

^ It only takes 15 minutes a day and I can easily lower my BP about 20-30 points after one session.

[39]
The average BP for full-term infants:
Systolic 65–95 mm Hg
Diastolic 30–60 mm Hg [40]

## References

.
1. Pickering, TG; Hall, JE; Appel, LJ et al.^ Schnall PL, Schwartz JE, Landesbergis PA, et al.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Burke V, Hodgson JM, Beilin LJ, et al.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He J, Whelton PK, Appel LJ, et al.
• Harris Teeter - High Blood Pressure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]

(2005). .^ Aspartame causes high blood pressure.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High blood pressure.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Heart Association's 2006 Update ...

Hypertension 45 (5): 142–61. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000150859.47929.8e. PMID 15611362. Retrieved 2009-10-01.

## Footnotes

1. ^ Klabunde, Richard (2005). Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 93–4. ISBN 978-0781750301.
2. ^ Booth, J (1977). "A short history of blood pressure measurement". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 70 (11): 793–9. PMID 341169. PMID 341169. PMC 1543468. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
3. ^
4. ^ Interpretation - Blood Pressure - Vitals, "University of Florida". Retrieved on 2008-03-18.
5. ^ G8 Secondary Survey, "Manitoba". Retrieved on 2008-03-18.
6. ^ (Pickering et al. 2005, p. 146) See Blood Pressure Measurement Methods.
7. ^ (Pickering et al. 2005, p. 147) See The Oscillometric Technique.
8. ^ Laurent, P (2003-09-28). "Blood Pressure & Hypertension". Retrieved 2009-10-05.
9. ^ Elliot, Victoria Stagg (2007-06-11). "Blood pressure readings often unreliable". American Medical News (American Medical Association). Retrieved 2008-08-16.
10. ^ Jhalani, Juhee; Tanya Goyal, Lynn Clemow, et al (2005). "Anxiety and outcome expectations predict the white-coat effect". Blood Pressure Monitoring 10 (6): 317–9. doi:10.1097/00126097-200512000-00006. PMID 16496447. PMID 16496447. Retrieved 2009-10-03.
11. ^ (Pickering et al. 2005, p. 145) See White Coat Hypertension or Isolated Office Hypertension.
12. ^ (Pickering et al. 2005, p. 146) See Masked Hypertension or Isolated Ambulatory Hypertension.
13. ^ a b Mancia G, De Backer G, Dominiczak A, et al (June 2007). "2007 Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)". Eur Heart J 28 (12): 1462–536. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehm236. PMID 17562668.
14. ^ a b Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al (December 2003). "Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure". Hypertension 42 (6): 1206–52. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000107251.49515.c2. PMID 14656957.
15. ^ Niiranen, TJ; Kantola IM, Vesalainen R, et al (2006). "A comparison of home measurement and ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure in the adjustment of antihypertensive treatment". Am J Hypertens 19 (5): 468–74. doi:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2005.10.017. PMID 16647616.
16. ^ Shimbo, Daichi; Thomas G. Pickering, Tanya M. Spruill, et al (2007). "Relative utility of home, ambulatory, and office blood pressures in the prediction of end-organ damage" (). Am J Hypertens 20 (5): 476–82. doi:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2006.12.011. PMID 17485006. PMC 1931502.
17. ^ National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Tips for having your blood pressure taken.
18. ^ a b "Diseases and Conditions Index - Hypotension". National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
19. ^ Pesola GR, Pesola HR, Nelson MJ, Westfal RE (January 2001). "The normal difference in bilateral indirect BP recordings in normotensive individuals". Am J Emerg Med 19 (1): 43–5. doi:10.1053/ajem.2001.20021. PMID 11146017.
20. ^ Reckelhoff, Jane F. (1 May 2001). "Gender Differences in the Regulation of Blood Pressure". Hypertension 37 (5): 1199–208. PMID 11358929. PMID 11358929.
21. ^ National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Blood Pressure Tables for Children and Adolescents.  (Note that the median BP is given by the 50th percentile and hypertension is defined by the 95th percentile for a given age, height, and gender.)
22. ^ (Pickering et al. 2005, p. 145) See Isolated Systolic Hypertension.
23. ^ "...more than half of all Americans aged 65 or older have hypertension." (Pickering et al. 2005, p. 144)
24. ^ Eguchi K, Yacoub M, Jhalani J, Gerin W, Schwartz JE, Pickering TG (February 2007). "Consistency of blood pressure differences between the left and right arms". Arch Intern Med 167 (4): 388–93. doi:10.1001/archinte.167.4.388. PMID 17325301.
25. ^ Agarwal R, Bunaye Z, Bekele DM (March 2008). "Prognostic significance of between-arm blood pressure differences". Hypertension 51 (3): 657–62. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.104943. PMID 18212263.
26. ^ Appel LJ, Brands MW, Daniels SR, Karanja N, Elmer PJ, Sacks FM (February 2006). "Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association". Hypertension 47 (2): 296–308. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000202568.01167.B6. PMID 16434724.
27. ^ "Hypertension: management of hypertension in adults in primary care". NICE Clinical Guideline 34. London, England: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). June 2006. Retrieved 2008-09-15.
28. ^ [1]
29. ^ Rosenson RS, Wolff D, Green D, Boss AH, Kensey KR (February 2004). "Aspirin. Aspirin does not alter native blood viscosity". J. Thromb. Haemost. 2 (2): 340–1. PMID 14996003.
30. ^ a b Klabunde, RE (2007). "Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts - Mean Arterial Pressure". Retrieved 2008-09-29.  Archived version 2009-10-03
31. ^ a b Klabunde, RE (2007). "Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts - Pulse Pressure". Retrieved 2008-10-02.  Archived version 2009-10-03
32. ^ Messerli FH, Williams B, Ritz E (2007). "Essential hypertension". Lancet 370 (9587): 591–603. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61299-9. PMID 17707755.
33. ^ O'Rourke M (1 July 1995). "Mechanical principles in arterial disease". Hypertension 26 (1): 2–9. PMID 7607724.
34. ^ Mitchell GF (2006). "Triangulating the peaks of arterial pressure". Hypertension 48 (4): 543–5. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000238325.41764.41. PMID 16940226.
35. ^ Klabunde, RE (2007). "Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts - Arterial Baroreceptors". Retrieved 2008-09-09.  Archived version 2009-10-03
36. ^ Textbook of Medical Physiology, 7th Ed., Guyton & Hall, Elsevier-Saunders, ISBN 0-7216-0240-1, page 220.
37. ^ What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? From Diseases and Conditions Index (DCI). National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Last updated September 2008. Retrieved on 6 April, 2009.
38. ^ Chapter 41, page 210 in: Cardiology secrets By Olivia Vynn Adair Edition: 2, illustrated Published by Elsevier Health Sciences, 2001 ISBN 1560534206, 9781560534204
39. ^ Struijk PC, Mathews VJ, Loupas T, et al (October 2008). "Blood pressure estimation in the human fetal descending aorta". Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 32 (5): 673–81. doi:10.1002/uog.6137. PMID 18816497.
40. ^ Sharon, S. M. & Emily, S. M.(2006). Fundations of Maternal-Newborn Nursing. (4th ed p.476). Philadelphia:Elsevier.

# Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Travel health article)

### From Wikitravel

Travel topics : Travel health
##### Contents
Health is an issue that affects all travellers, and especially those to off-the-beaten path destinations.
General common-sense rules apply to all travel. .Consult with your doctor beforehand if you have preexisting conditions, verify what insurance coverage you have when away from home, carry a sufficient supply of any medications, and bring copies of your prescriptions in case of loss.^ Your doctor may advise against selenium if you are taking certain drugs.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you allow your doctor to put you on drug therapy ...

^ You cannot go back to your old lifestyle after discontinuing your medications because your blood pressure will quickly go back up again.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If crossing an international border, confirm in advance that your medications can be brought with you - what's legal in your home country may not be in another.^ Your doctor may advise against selenium if you are taking certain drugs.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HealthCheckUSA will also have a trained professional visit your home to take the necessary samples at additional cost, if desired, and you will receive the report with your results in the mail.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You should be prepared to increase your medication if you discontinue these blood pressure reducing methods.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

## First Aid

.Basic precautions are important to travel, and a minimal first aid kit should be carried by all travellers.^ Here are some tips to help you get through the all-important first week...
• Health News Updates: May 28, 2008 15 September 2009 7:43 UTC health.iwc.cc [Source type: General]

For more in-depth information see:

## Environmental Hazards

.Different locations on the Earth may offer unique hazards to travellers, including dangers due to sun and altitude.^ This information may not be copied in part and the information may not be included in any material that is offered for sale.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For more in-depth information see:

Malaria is an important concern in many areas of the world that requires special precautions. .Other parts of the world include their own unique disease worries.^ Other deadly diseases include liver failure, cancer, pancreatitis, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other deadly diseases include liver failure, cancer, pancreatitis and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For more in-depth information see:

## Conditions

Sometimes travel is necessary to have a medical condition treated by a specialist. Other times it is to see family and friends. Those travelling with a health condition may need to take special precautions when travelling. :
.
^ Aspartame causes high blood pressure.
• Hypertension, High Blood Pressure Control, Heart Palpitations,Arrhythmias, Mitral Valve Prolapse and Blood Testing. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.biblelife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High blood pressure is a serious threat ...

^ High blood pressure can be treated .

# Simple English

File:Digital Blood Pressure
A digital blood pressure meter showing a blood pressure of 122 systolic and 65 diastolic, read as "122 over 65" or 122/65 mmHg.

Blood pressure is the pressure made by the blood inside blood vessels. Unless otherwise stated, "blood pressure" refers to systemic arterial blood pressure. This is the pressure in larger arteries delivering blood to body parts other than the lungs, for example the brachial artery in the arm. The blood pressure changes. Blood pressure is higher in arteries than it is in other blood vessels. Blood pressure is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).

Systolic pressure is the first number given in blood pressure readings. It is the peak pressure in the arteries during the cardiac cycle (when the heart is pumping). The diastolic pressure is the second number given in a blood pressure reading, and it is the pressure at the resting phase of the cardiac cycle (when the heart is relaxing). The mean arterial pressure (the average pressure) and pulse pressure (the difference between the systolic and diastolic) are other important values.

To measure blood pressure, doctors use a device called a sphygmomanometer.

Typical values for a resting, healthy adult human are about 110 mmHg systolic and 70 mmHg diastolic (written as 110/70 mmHg).[1] This can be very different for each person. Blood pressure readings change naturally during the day (in a circadian rhythm); they also change because of stress, drugs, disease or even because of what you eat. The American Medical Association says that even the stress of having your blood pressure taken can make it higher. They call this "white coat hypertension".[2]

## References

1.
2. "Home Monitoring of High Blood Pressure". www.americanheart.org. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
Find more information on Blood pressure by searching one of Wikipedia's sister projects:

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# Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

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