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Blood type (or blood group) is determined, in part, by the ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells.
.A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).^ These form the blood groups or blood types.
  • Blood Types, Rh, and Antibodies 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.cartage.org.lb [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood group A If you belong to the blood group A, you have A antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and B antibodies in your blood plasma.
  • Blood Groups, Blood Typing and Blood Transfusions 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Explain Different types of blood groups & about donors? - Yahoo! Answers India 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All blood cell types are affected.
  • Secondary aplastic anemia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system.^ AB0 blood grouping system .
  • Blood Groups, Blood Typing and Blood Transfusions 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These form the blood groups or blood types.
  • Blood Types, Rh, and Antibodies 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.cartage.org.lb [Source type: Academic]

^ These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins or glycolipids and depends mainly on the blood group.
  • Rare Blood Types 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues.^ There are many other antigens on the red cell surface.
  • Red Gold . Printable Page | PBS 24 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All the various types of blood cells .
  • Blood 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The differences are due to antigens present on the surface of the blood cells.

.Several of these red blood cell surface antigens that stem from one allele (or very closely linked genes), collectively form a blood group system.^ AB0 blood grouping system .
  • Blood Groups, Blood Typing and Blood Transfusions 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These form the blood groups or blood types.
  • Blood Types, Rh, and Antibodies 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.cartage.org.lb [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood group A If you belong to the blood group A, you have A antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and B antibodies in your blood plasma.
  • Blood Groups, Blood Typing and Blood Transfusions 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Explain Different types of blood groups & about donors? - Yahoo! Answers India 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents.^ Blood type - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents.
  • Compatible Blood Types - Web - WebCrawler 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC www.webcrawler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: Blood type is determined by the "alleles" that are inherit ed from the parents.

^ Everybody has a particular blood type which is inherited from your parents.

.A total of 30 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).^ AB0 blood grouping system .
  • Blood Groups, Blood Typing and Blood Transfusions 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Rh system is also important for blood transfusion.
  • Western Provice Blood Transfusion Service — Blood Groups & Compatibility 24 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.blood.org.za [Source type: Academic]

^ In humans the main blood group systems are the ABO system, the Rh system and the MN system.

[2]
.Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a different blood type from their own, and the mother can form antibodies against fetal RBCs.^ These form the blood groups or blood types.
  • Blood Types, Rh, and Antibodies 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.cartage.org.lb [Source type: Academic]

^ Blood types are based on specific antigens and antibodies related to RBC's.

^ But you do have antibodies against Type B blood.

.Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG, a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn, an illness of low fetal blood counts which ranges from mild to severe.^ How can the hemolytic disease of the newborn be prevented?

^ Often, pregnant women carry a fetus with a different blood type from their own, and sometimes the mother forms antibodies against the red blood cells of the fetus, which causes hemolysis of fetal RBCs, and which in turn can lead to low fetal blood counts, a condition known as hemolytic disease of the newborn.
  • Explain A+ blood type? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These activities cause low blood pressure.
  • Types of Blood Pressure Medications 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.americanheart.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Contents

Blood group systems

.A total of 30 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).^ AB0 blood grouping system .
  • Blood Groups, Blood Typing and Blood Transfusions 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Rh system is also important for blood transfusion.
  • Western Provice Blood Transfusion Service — Blood Groups & Compatibility 24 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.blood.org.za [Source type: Academic]

^ In humans the main blood group systems are the ABO system, the Rh system and the MN system.

[2] .A complete blood type would describe a full set of 30 substances on the surface of RBCs, and an individual's blood type is one of the many possible combinations of blood-group antigens.^ One of those antigens resides in our blood type.
  • Dietary supplements for each specific blood type - Patent 6291533 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Type AB blood is one of the rarest blood types.
  • Blood Type AB - OrganizedWisdom Health 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC organizedwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Individuals with type B blood can receive blood from donors of type B and type O blood.
  • Explain Different types of blood groups & about donors? - Yahoo! Answers India 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Across the 30 blood groups, over 600 different blood-group antigens have been found,[4] but many of these are very rare or are mainly found in certain ethnic groups.^ These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins or glycolipids and depends mainly on the blood group.
  • Rare Blood Types 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidently, these are the two most antigenic blood groups among dogs.
  • Animal Blood Types 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.prah.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Blood groups differ around the world .
  • Blood group antigens are surface markers on the red blood cell membrane -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Almost always, an individual has the same blood group for life, but very rarely an individual's blood type changes through addition or suppression of an antigen in infection, malignancy, or autoimmune disease.^ I have blood type A positive is this a rare blood type or not?
  • I have blood type A positive is this a rare blood type or not? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Individuals with type B blood can receive blood from donors of type B and type O blood.
  • Explain Different types of blood groups & about donors? - Yahoo! Answers India 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neither the A nor B antigen, you have type O blood.
  • Northwest Andrology & Cryobank - Donor Blood Type Information 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.nwcryobank.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5][6][7][8] .An example of this rare phenomenon is the case of Demi-Lee Brennan, an Australian citizen, whose blood group changed after a liver transplant.^ Demi-Lee - the first known transplant patient to switch blood groups .
  • The Miracle of Spontaneous Blood-Type Switch 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC thefutureofthings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other cases blood group genes do not produce their antigens because of rare suppressor or regulatory genes inherited at a different locus, e.g., in the Rh system one type of Rh null (a rare phenotype that lacks Rh antigens) results from suppressor genes that do not allow the functional Rh genes to produce their antigen products.
  • Inheritance of Blood Groups 24 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.ualberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The blood group may be included on identification tags or on tattoos worn by military personnel, in case they should need an emergency blood transfusion.
  • Blood groups - Psychology Wiki 24 September 2009 22:022 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[9][10] .Another more common cause in blood-type change is a bone marrow transplant.^ Read more Blood Type Diet .
  • Calories: Blood Type Diet 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.calories.net [Source type: General]

^ The most common blood types in dogs are 1-1 and 1-2.
  • Blood types for Cats & Dogs : Pet Health Supplies for Cats and Dogs 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.petwellbeingblog.com [Source type: General]

^ This is the most common blood type.
  • Eating Right for Your Blood Type, February 2005 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.truhealth.com [Source type: General]

.Bone-marrow transplants are performed for many leukemias and lymphomas, among other diseases.^ Having a bone marrow transplant.
  • Blood Type Test - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.skaggs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exempla Healthcare Online Library 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.exempla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CMV (Cytomegalovirus) A virus that may cause flu-like symptoms in the general population, but can cause severe disease in premature babies, bone marrow transplant recipients, and AIDS patients.

^ Hundreds of blood units are required in India for patients suffering from blood diseases like anaemia , accidental blood loss , excessive destruction of red blood cells , thalassemia , haemophilia , leukemia and bone marrow transplant & Rare Blood Disorders .
  • rare blood types - rarest blood type - blood types chart list 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.rarebloodtypes.org [Source type: Reference]

.If a person receives bone marrow from someone who is a different ABO type (e.g., a type A patient receives a type O bone marrow), the patient's blood type will eventually convert to the donor's type.^ People with type O blood can receive any type of plasma.
  • ACS :: Blood Component Transfusion - What it Involves 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A person with type O blood may receive blood from a person with type B blood.
  • Animation: Cytotoxic (Type II Hypersensitivity) 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC highered.mcgraw-hill.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals with type B blood can receive blood from donors of type B and type O blood.
  • Explain Different types of blood groups & about donors? - Yahoo! Answers India 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some blood types are associated with inheritance of other diseases; for example, the Kell antigen is sometimes associated with McLeod syndrome.^ Examples of blood type inheritance .
  • Blood Type, Blood Typing, Inheritance, Genetics, ABO 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.paternityangel.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Blood Type, Blood Typing, Inheritance, Genetics, 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.paternityangel.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Neither the A nor B antigen, you have type O blood.
  • Northwest Andrology & Cryobank - Donor Blood Type Information 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.nwcryobank.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The twins inherited my blood type.
  • Sandwalk: Genetics of ABO Blood Types 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC sandwalk.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .Certain blood types may affect susceptibility to infections, an example being the resistance to specific malaria species seen in individuals lacking the Duffy antigen.^ Blood-type antigens may also affect the level of inflammatory proteins in a person's blood.
  • Blood type study sheds light on biology of pancreatic cancer | HarvardScience 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC harvardscience.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ All blood cell types are affected.
  • Secondary aplastic anemia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Examples of blood type inheritance .
  • Blood Type, Blood Typing, Inheritance, Genetics, ABO 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.paternityangel.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Blood Type, Blood Typing, Inheritance, Genetics, 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.paternityangel.com [Source type: Reference]

[12] .The Duffy antigen, presumably as a result of natural selection, is less common in ethnic groups from areas with a high incidence of malaria.^ The Duffy antigen, presumedly as a result of natural selection , is less common in ethnic groups from areas with a high incidence of malaria.
  • Blood groups - Psychology Wiki 24 September 2009 22:022 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Duffy antigen, as a result of natural selection, is less common in ethnic groups from areas with a high incidence of malaria.
  • Explain A+ blood type? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, blood group substances are weak antigens, and antibody formation after transfusion occurs less than 3% of the time.
  • AllRefer.com - blood groups (Anatomy And Physiology) - Encyclopedia 24 September 2009 22:022 UTC reference.allrefer.com [Source type: Academic]

[13]

ABO blood group system

ABO blood group system - diagram showing the carbohydrate chains that determine the ABO blood group
.The ABO system is the most important blood-group system in human-blood transfusion.^ AB0 blood grouping system .
  • Blood Groups, Blood Typing and Blood Transfusions 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most important antigens are blood group antigens (ABO) and the Rh antigen.
  • Blood Type Test 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Blood Type Test - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Blood Type Test - Test Overview - Health.com 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Blood Type Test - [Medical Test] 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.peacehealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.skaggs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exempla Healthcare Online Library 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.exempla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information > Blood Type Test > Test Overview 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.stjohnsmercy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Blood Donors | Donate Blood to Save Lives 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC blood-donors.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ABO and Rhesus blood groups .
  • HSC Online 24 September 2009 22:022 UTC hsc.csu.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

.The associated anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies are usually "Immunoglobulin M", abbreviated IgM, antibodies.^ The associated anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies are usually " Immunoglobulin M ", abbreviated IgM , antibodies.
  • Blood groups - Psychology Wiki 24 September 2009 22:022 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The associated anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies are usually "Immunoglobulin M", abbreviated IgM, antibodies.
  • Explain A+ blood type? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The associated anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies are usually powerful IgM antibodies, which are usually produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria and viruses.
  • Explain Different types of blood groups & about donors? - Yahoo! Answers India 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.ABO IgM antibodies are produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria, and viruses.^ ABO IgM antibodies are produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria and viruses.
  • Explain A+ blood type? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The associated anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies are usually powerful IgM antibodies, which are usually produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria and viruses.
  • Explain Different types of blood groups & about donors? - Yahoo! Answers India 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ABO IgM antibodies are produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria and viruses .
  • Blood groups - Psychology Wiki 24 September 2009 22:022 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The "O" in ABO is often called "0" (zero/null) in other languages.^ The "O" in ABO is often called "0" (zero/null) in other languages.
  • Explain A+ blood type? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Blood groups - Psychology Wiki 24 September 2009 22:022 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These patterns of ABO , Rh, and Diego blood type distributions are not similar to those for skin color or other so-called "racial" traits.
  • Modern Human Variation: Distribution of Blood Types 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC anthro.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another test called an antibody screen is done to see whether a patient's plasma contains antibodies other than ABO and Rh.
  • ACS :: Blood Component Transfusion - What it Involves 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]
Phenotype Genotype
A AA or AO
B BB or BO
AB AB
O OO

Rh blood group system

.The Rh system is the second most significant blood-group system in human-blood transfusion with currently 50 antigens.^ AB0 blood grouping system .
  • Blood Groups, Blood Typing and Blood Transfusions 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most important antigens are blood group antigens (ABO) and the Rh antigen.
  • Blood Type Test 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Blood Type Test - Test Overview - Health.com 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Blood Type Test - [Medical Test] 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.peacehealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.skaggs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Resources 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.tetonhospital.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information > Blood Type Test > Test Overview 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.stjohnsmercy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Rh system is also important for blood transfusion.
  • Western Provice Blood Transfusion Service — Blood Groups & Compatibility 24 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.blood.org.za [Source type: Academic]

.The most significant Rh antigen is the D antigen because it is the most likely to provoke an immune system response of the five main Rh antigens.^ Antigens are substances that evoke an immune response.
  • blood type dietThe Skeptic's Dictionary - Skepdic.com 11 September 2009 11:57 UTC skepdic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • blood type dietThe Skeptic's Dictionary - Skepdic.com 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An antigen is any substance to which the immune system can respond.
  • Blood group antigens are surface markers on the red blood cell membrane -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This antigen is capable of stimulating an immune response.
  • Blood Type - OrganizedWisdom Health 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC organizedwisdom.com [Source type: General]

.It is common for D-negative individuals not to have any anti-D IgG or IgM antibodies, because anti-D antibodies are not usually produced by sensitization against environmental substances.^ This prevents her from producing anti-Rh antibodies.

^ The associated anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies are usually powerful IgM antibodies, which are usually produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria and viruses.
  • Explain Different types of blood groups & about donors? - Yahoo! Answers India 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is common for RhD negative individuals not to have any anti-RhD IgG or IgM antibodies, because anti-RhD antibodies are not usually produced by sensitization against environmental substances.
  • Explain A+ blood type? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, D-negative individuals can produce IgG anti-D antibodies following a sensitizing event: possibly a fetomaternal transfusion of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with D positive RBCs.^ Anti-Rh+ antibodies may be produced in an individual with Rh- blood as a result of receiving a mismatched blood transfusion.
  • Human Blood: Rh Blood Types 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC anthro.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This prevents her from producing anti-Rh antibodies.

^ If you have Rh-positive blood, you can get Rh-positive or Rh-negative red blood cell transfusions.
  • ACS :: Blood Component Transfusion - What it Involves 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .Rh disease can develop in these cases.^ In rare cases, if Rh disease is not treated, the baby may die.
  • Blood Type Test - Yahoo! Health 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Blood Type Test - Test Overview - Health.com 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Blood Type Test - [Medical Test] 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.peacehealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Exempla Healthcare Online Library 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.exempla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information > Blood Type Test > Test Overview 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.stjohnsmercy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the baby is Rh positive (having inherited the trait from its father) and the mother Rh-negative, these red cells will cause her to develop antibodies against the RhD antigen.
  • Blood Groups 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They, too, may sometimes cause transfusion reactions and even hemolytic disease of the newborn in cases where there is no ABO or Rh incompatibility.
  • Blood Groups 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

[16]

ABO and Rh distribution by country

ABO and Rh blood type distribution by nation (population averages)
Country Population[17]  O+  A+  B+ AB+  O-  A-  B- AB-
Australia[18] 21,262,641 40% 31% 8% 2% 9% 7% 2% 1%
Austria[19] 8,210,281 30% 33% 12% 6% 7% 8% 3% 1%
Belgium[20] 10,414,336 38% 34% 8.5% 4.1% 7% 6% 1.5% 0.8%
Brazil[21] 198,739,269 36% 34% 8% 2.5% 9% 8% 2% 0.5%
Canada[22] 33,487,208 39% 36% 7.6% 2.5% 7% 6% 1.4% 0.5%
Denmark[23] 5,500,510 35% 37% 8% 4% 6% 7% 2% 1%
Estonia[24] 1,299,371 30% 31% 20% 6% 4.5% 4.5% 3% 1%
Finland[25] 5,250,275 27% 38% 15% 7% 4% 6% 2% 1%
France[26] 62,150,775 36% 37% 9% 3% 6% 7% 1% 1%
Germany[27] 82,329,758 35% 37% 9% 4% 6% 6% 2% 1%
Hong Kong SAR[28] 7,055,071 40% 26% 27% 7% 0.31% 0.19% 0.14% 0.05%
Iceland[29] 306,694 47.6% 26.4% 9.3% 1.6% 8.4% 4.6% 1.7% 0.4%
India[30] 1,166,079,217 36.5% 22.1% 30.9% 6.4% 2.0% 0.8% 1.1% 0.2%
Ireland[31] 4,203,200 47% 26% 9% 2% 8% 5% 2% 1%
Israel[32] 7,233,701 32% 34% 17% 7% 3% 4% 2% 1%
Netherlands[33] 16,715,999 39.5% 35% 6.7% 2.5% 7.5% 7% 1.3% 0.5%
New Zealand[34] 4,213,418 38% 32% 9% 3% 9% 6% 2% 1%
Norway[35] 4,660,539 34% 42.5% 6.8% 3.4% 6% 7.5% 1.2% 0.6%
Poland[36] 38,482,919 31% 32% 15% 7% 6% 6% 2% 1%
Portugal[37] 10,707,924 36.2% 39.8% 6.6% 2.9% 6.0% 6.6% 1.1% 0.5%
Saudi Arabia[38] 28,686,633 48% 24% 17% 4% 4% 2% 1% 0.23%
South Africa[39] 49,320,000 39% 32% 12% 3% 7% 5% 2% 1%
Spain[40] 40,525,002 36% 34% 8% 2.5% 9% 8% 2% 0.5%
Sweden[41] 9,059,651 32% 37% 10% 5% 6% 7% 2% 1%
Turkey[42] 76,805,524 29.8% 37.8% 14.2% 7.2% 3.9% 4.7% 1.6% 0.8%
United Kingdom[43] 61,113,205 37% 35% 8% 3% 7% 7% 2% 1%
United States[44] 307,212,123 37.4% 35.7% 8.5% 3.4% 6.6% 6.3% 1.5% 0.6%
Population-weighted mean (total population = 2,261,025,244) 36.44% 28.27% 20.59% 5.06% 4.33% 3.52% 1.39% 0.45%
.Blood group B has its highest frequency in Northern India and neighboring Central Asia, and its incidence diminishes both towards the west and the east, falling to single digit percentages in Spain.^ Is it possible to have normal babied if both the mother and father have the same blood group say O+ve...

^ AB. Am i right in infering that if they are full siblings, their parents (my grandparents) would both have to be from the blood group B? .

[46][47] It is believed to have been entirely absent from Native American and Australian Aboriginal populations prior to the arrival of Europeans in those areas.[47][48]
.Blood group A is associated with high frequencies in Europe, especially in Scandinavia and Central Europe, although its highest frequencies occur in some Australian Aborigine populations and the Blackfoot Indians of Montana.^ Shortages occur for numerous reasons, including generational differences and behaviors associated with giving blood and an increased need for blood transfusions.
  • Blood Donation and Transfusion | HealthyWomen 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49][50]

Other blood group systems

.The International Society of Blood Transfusion currently recognizes 30 blood-group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems).^ Moving on to the ABO blood type system.

^ The Rh blood types (+ and -) are separate from the ABO blood types.

^ Blood grouping is essential for safe blood transfusions.
  • Information on Blood and Blood Types 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] Thus, in addition to the ABO antigens and Rh antigens, many other antigens are expressed on the RBC surface membrane. .For example, an individual can be AB, D positive, and at the same time M and N positive (MNS system), K positive (Kell system), Lea or Leb negative (Lewis system), and so on, being positive or negative for each blood group system antigen.^ So people can be classified according to both systems, for example AB positive or O negative.
  • Information on Blood and Blood Types 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are four main types of blood, and each type can be either Rh positive or negative: .
  • Blood Donation and Transfusion | HealthyWomen 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Rhesus factor is important during pregnancy, a baby's life can be endangered if it inherits a Rhesus positive blood type from its father while the mother is Rhesus negative.
  • Information on Blood and Blood Types 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the blood group systems were named after the patients in whom the corresponding antibodies were initially encountered.^ Another blood group system involves Rhesus factors.
  • Information on Blood and Blood Types 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Clinical significance

Blood transfusion

.Transfusion medicine is a specialized branch of hematology that is concerned with the study of blood groups, along with the work of a blood bank to provide a transfusion service for blood and other blood products.^ Blood grouping is essential for safe blood transfusions.
  • Information on Blood and Blood Types 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an emergency if there is no time for blood grouping the person in need of a transfusion would be given type O blood.
  • Information on Blood and Blood Types 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I hope this will answer many concerns about blood groups and type.

Across the world, blood products must be prescribed by a medical doctor (licensed physician or surgeon) in a similar way as medicines. .In the USA, blood products are tightly regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.^ This means we cannot make specific statements as to how food-based, non-drug, natural products may help to prevent or treat disease.

Main symptoms of acute hemolytic reaction due to blood type mismatch.[51][52]
.Much of the routine work of a blood bank involves testing blood from both donors and recipients to ensure that every individual recipient is given blood that is compatible and is as safe as possible.^ But even as willing as I am it doesn't seem to mean as much, less than 1% of the US population shares my blood type and its nearly the universal recipient.
  • Do you know your Blood Type? - Locker Room, Health 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faniq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If a unit of incompatible blood is transfused between a donor and recipient, a severe acute hemolytic reaction with hemolysis (RBC destruction), renal failure and shock is likely to occur, and death is a possibility.^ In any case, donor blood is always cross-matched with the recipient's blood to make sure there are no subtle difficulties.

Antibodies can be highly active and can attack RBCs and bind components of the complement system to cause massive hemolysis of the transfused blood.
.Patients should ideally receive their own blood or type-specific blood products to minimize the chance of a transfusion reaction.^ Goldenchild78: The only verifiable fact (to you) in your whole story is your own blood type, unfortunately.

.Risks can be further reduced by cross-matching blood, but this may be skipped when blood is required for an emergency.^ In any case, donor blood is always cross-matched with the recipient's blood to make sure there are no subtle difficulties.

Cross-matching involves mixing a sample of the recipient's serum with a sample of the donor's red blood cells and checking if the mixture agglutinates, or forms clumps. If agglutination is not obvious by direct vision, blood bank technicians usually check for agglutination with a microscope. .If agglutination occurs, that particular donor's blood cannot be transfused to that particular recipient.^ In any case, donor blood is always cross-matched with the recipient's blood to make sure there are no subtle difficulties.

In a blood bank it is vital that all blood specimens are correctly identified, so labeling has been standardized using a barcode system known as ISBT 128.
.The blood group may be included on identification tags or on tattoos worn by military personnel, in case they should need an emergency blood transfusion.^ AB. Am i right in infering that if they are full siblings, their parents (my grandparents) would both have to be from the blood group B? .

Frontline German Waffen-SS had blood group tattoos during World War II.
.Rare blood types can cause supply problems for blood banks and hospitals.^ Could my middle daughters problems be because of my blood type?

^ I know O - is rare blood type what do you think the odds would be for the two girls to have differant fathers.

.For example Duffy-negative blood occurs much more frequently in people of African origin,[53] and the rarity of this blood type in the rest of the population can result in a shortage of Duffy-negative blood for patients of African ethnicity.^ With a blood type diet limiting or eliminating the following foods can ensure that you obtain the best results from your diet.

Similarly for RhD negative people, there is a risk associated with travelling to parts of the world where supplies of RhD negative blood are rare, particularly East Asia, where blood services may endeavor to encourage Westerners to donate blood.[54]

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

.A pregnant woman can make IgG blood group antibodies if her fetus has a blood group antigen that she does not have.^ There's 4 blood group A B AB and O. Your blood type is base on if you have an antigen on your RBC (red blood cell).An example....

.This can happen if some of the fetus' blood cells pass into the mother's blood circulation (e.g.^ The mother has to be passing on either A or B, either of which is dominant over O. Unless there's weird Bombay syndrome stuff happening, this shouldn't be possible.

^ As for Anon #14, "agglutination" refers to the clumping of red blood cells that happens when there's a conflict in the ABO system.

a small fetomaternal hemorrhage at the time of childbirth or obstetric intervention), or sometimes after a therapeutic blood transfusion. This can cause Rh disease or other forms of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in the current pregnancy and/or subsequent pregnancies. If a pregnant woman is known to have anti-D antibodies, the Rh blood type of a fetus can be tested by analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma to assess the risk to the fetus of Rh disease.[55] .One of the major advances of twentieth century medicine was to prevent this disease by stopping the formation of Anti-D antibodies by D negative mothers with an injectable medication called Rho(D) immune globulin.^ The only risk comes from Rh disease (negative mother, positive baby), and that can easily be prevented now.

[56][57] Antibodies associated with some blood groups can cause severe HDN, others can only cause mild HDN and others are not known to cause HDN.[3]

Compatibility

Blood products

.In order to provide maximum benefit from each blood donation and to extend shelf-life, blood banks fractionate some whole blood into several products.^ I'm thinking I'm probably gonna go donate just to get the damn blood bank off my frickin' back for the next 2 months!
  • Do you know your Blood Type? - Locker Room, Health 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faniq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most common of these products are packed RBCs, plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). FFP is quick-frozen to retain the labile clotting factors V and VIII, which are usually administered to patients who have a potentially fatal clotting problem caused by a condition such as advanced liver disease, overdose of anticoagulant, or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
Units of packed red cells are made by removing as much of the plasma as possible from whole blood units.
Clotting factors synthesized by modern recombinant methods are now in routine clinical use for hemophilia, as the risks of infection transmission that occur with pooled blood products are avoided.

Red blood cell compatibility

  • Blood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, and their blood serum does not contain any antibodies against either A or B antigen. Therefore, an individual with type AB blood can receive blood from any group (with AB being preferable), but can donate blood only to another type AB individual.
  • Blood group A individuals have the A antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against the B antigen. Therefore, a group A individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups A or O (with A being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type A or AB.
  • Blood group B individuals have the B antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against the A antigen. Therefore, a group B individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups B or O (with B being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type B or AB.
  • Blood group O (or blood group zero in some countries) individuals do not have either A or B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, but their blood serum contains IgM anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies against the A and B blood group antigens. Therefore, a group O individual can receive blood only from a group O individual, but can donate blood to individuals of any ABO blood group (i.e. A, B, O or AB). If anyone needs a blood transfusion in a dire emergency, and if the time taken to process the recipient's blood would cause a detrimental delay, O Negative blood can be issued.
RBC Compatibility chart
In addition to donating to the same blood group; type O blood donors can give to A, B and AB; blood donors of types A and B can give to AB.
Red blood cell compatibility table[58][59]
Recipient[1] Donor[1]
O− O+ A− A+ B− B+ AB− AB+
O− Check markY
O+ Check markY Check markY
A− Check markY Check markY
A+ Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY
B− Check markY Check markY
B+ Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY
AB− Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY
AB+ Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY
Table note
1. Assumes absence of atypical antibodies that would cause an incompatibility between donor and recipient blood, as is usual for blood selected by cross matching.
An Rh D-negative patient who does not have any anti-D antibodies (never being previously sensitized to D-positive RBCs) can receive a transfusion of D-positive blood once, but this would cause sensitization to the D antigen, and a female patient would become at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn. If a D-negative patient has developed anti-D antibodies, a subsequent exposure to D-positive blood would lead to a potentially dangerous transfusion reaction. Rh D-positive blood should never be given to D-negative women of child bearing age or to patients with D antibodies, so blood banks must conserve Rh-negative blood for these patients. .In extreme circumstances, such as for a major bleed when stocks of D-negative blood units are very low at the blood bank, D-positive blood might be given to D-negative females above child-bearing age or to Rh-negative males, providing that they did not have anti-D antibodies, to conserve D-negative blood stock in the blood bank.^ O neg if i neeed blood so there's good chance i could bleed to death if i get into an accident...bummer.
  • Do you know your Blood Type? - Locker Room, Health 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faniq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The converse is not true; Rh D-positive patients do not react to D negative blood. This same matching is done for other antigens of the Rh system as C, c, E and e and for other blood group systems with a known risk for immunization such as the Kell system in particular for females of child-bearing age or patients with known need for many transfusions.

Plasma compatibility

Plasma compatibility chart
In addition to donating to the same blood group; plasma from type AB can be given to A, B and O; plasma from types A and B can be given to O.
Recipients can receive plasma of the same blood group, but otherwise the donor-recipient compatibility for blood plasma is the converse of that of RBCs: plasma extracted from type AB blood can be transfused to individuals of any blood group; individuals of blood group O can receive plasma from any blood group; and type O plasma can be used only by type O recipients.
Plasma compatibility table[59]
Recipient Donor[1]
O A B AB
O Check markY Check markY Check markY Check markY
A Check markY Check markY
B Check markY Check markY
AB Check markY
Table note
1. Assumes absence of strong atypical antibodies in donor plasma
Rh D antibodies are uncommon, so generally neither D negative nor D positive blood contain anti-D antibodies. .If a potential donor is found to have anti-D antibodies or any strong atypical blood group antibody by antibody screening in the blood bank, they would not be accepted as a donor (or in some blood banks the blood would be drawn but the product would need to be appropriately labeled); therefore, donor blood plasma issued by a blood bank can be selected to be free of D antibodies and free of other atypical antibodies, and such donor plasma issued from a blood bank would be suitable for a recipient who may be D positive or D negative, as long as blood plasma and the recipient are ABO compatible.^ Everyone in the family who could donate then did, so that if we matched they could use it for him and we would know where it came from.
  • Do you know your Blood Type? - Locker Room, Health 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faniq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why does someone need a blood donor?
  • Do you know your Blood Type? - Locker Room, Health 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faniq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trust when you need to know you will not be able to tell them and they will type it any ways to makes sure they give you the right type and if it is an emergancy you will receive o- the universal donor.
  • Do you know your Blood Type? - Locker Room, Health 19 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faniq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Universal donors and universal recipients

With regard to transfusions of whole blood or packed red blood cells, individuals with type O Rh D negative blood are often called universal donors, and those with type AB Rh D positive blood are called universal recipients; however, these terms are only generally true with respect to possible reactions of the recipient's anti-A and anti-B antibodies to transfused red blood cells, and also possible sensitization to Rh D antigens. Exceptions include individuals with hh antigen system (also known as the Bombay blood group) who can only receive blood safely from other hh donors, because they form antibodies against the H substance.[60][61]
Blood donors with particularly strong anti-A, anti-B or any atypical blood group antibody are excluded from blood donation. The possible reactions of anti-A and anti-B antibodies present in the transfused blood to the recipients RBCs need not be considered, because a relatively small volume of plasma containing antibodies is transfused.
By way of example: considering the transfusion of O Rh D negative blood (universal donor blood) into a recipient of blood group A Rh D positive, an immune reaction between the recipient's anti-B antibodies and the transfused RBCs is not anticipated. However, the relatively small amount of plasma in the transfused blood contains anti-A antibodies, which could react with the A antigens on the surface of the recipients RBCs, but a significant reaction is unlikely because of the dilution factors. Rh D sensitization is not anticipated.
Additionally, red blood cell surface antigens other than A, B and Rh D, might cause adverse reactions and sensitization, if they can bind to the corresponding antibodies to generate an immune response. Transfusions are further complicated because platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) have their own systems of surface antigens, and sensitization to platelet or WBC antigens can occur as a result of transfusion.
With regard to transfusions of plasma, this situation is reversed. Type O plasma, containing both anti-A and anti-B antibodies, can only be given to O recipients. The antibodies will attack the antigens on any other blood type. Conversely, AB plasma can be given to patients of any ABO blood group due to not containing any anti-A or anti-B antibodies.

Blood group genotyping

In addition to the current practice of serologic testing of blood types, the progress in molecular diagnostics allows the increasing use of blood group genotyping. In contrast to serologic tests reporting a direct blood type phenotype, genotyping allows the prediction of a phenotype based on the knowledge of the molecular basis of the currently known antigens. This allows a more detailed determination of the blood type and therefore a better match for transfusion, which can be crucial in particular for patients with needs for many transfusions to prevent allo-immunization.[62][63]

Conversion

In April 2007 a method was discovered to convert blood types A, B, and AB to O, using enzymes. This method is still experimental and the resulting blood has yet to undergo human trials.[64][65] The method specifically removes or converts antigens on the red blood cells, so other antigens and antibodies would remain. This does not help plasma compatibility, but that is a lesser concern since plasma has much more limited clinical utility in transfusion and is much easier to preserve.

History

The two most significant blood group systems were discovered by Karl Landsteiner during early experiments with blood transfusion: the ABO group in 1901[66] and in co-operation with Alexander S. Wiener the Rhesus group in 1937.[67] Development of the Coombs test in 1945,[68] the advent of transfusion medicine, and the understanding of hemolytic disease of the newborn led to discovery of more blood groups, and now 30 human blood group systems are recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT),[2] and across the 30 blood groups, over 600 different blood group antigens have been found,[4] many of these are very rare or are mainly found in certain ethnic groups. Blood types have been used in forensic science and in paternity testing, but both of these uses are being replaced by genetic fingerprinting, which provides greater certainty.[69]

Cultural beliefs and other claims

The Japanese blood type theory of personality is a popular belief that a person's ABO blood type is predictive of their personality, character, and compatibility with others. This belief is also widespread in South Korea.[70] Deriving from ideas of historical scientific racism, the theory reached Japan in a 1927 psychologist's report, and the militarist government of the time commissioned a study aimed at breeding better soldiers.[70] The fad faded in the 1930s due to its unscientific basis. The theory has long since been rejected by the scientists, but it was revived in the 1970s by Masahiko Nomi, a broadcaster who had no medical background.[70]

References

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  4. ^ a b "American Red Cross Blood Services, New England Region, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont". American Red Cross Blood Services - New England Region. 2001. http://www.newenglandblood.org/medical/rare.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-15. "there are more than 600 known antigens besides A and B that characterize the proteins found on a person's red cells" 
  5. ^ Dean, Laura. "The ABO blood group". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. online: NCBI. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=rbcantigen&part=ch05ABO. "A number of illnesses may alter a person's ABO phenotype" 
  6. ^ Stayboldt C, Rearden A, Lane TA (1987). "B antigen acquired by normal A1 red cells exposed to a patient's serum". Transfusion 27 (1): 41–4. PMID 3810822. 
  7. ^ Matsushita S, Imamura T, Mizuta T, Hanada M (November 1983). "Acquired B antigen and polyagglutination in a patient with gastric cancer". The Japanese Journal of Surgery 13 (6): 540–2. PMID 6672386. 
  8. ^ Kremer Hovinga I, Koopmans M, de Heer E, Bruijn J, Bajema I (2007). "Change in blood group in systemic lupus erythematosus". Lancet 369 (9557): 186–7; author reply 187. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60099-3. PMID 17240276. 
  9. ^ Demi-Lee Brennan has changed blood types and immune system Kate Sikora, The Daily Telegraph, January 25, 2008
  10. ^ Aust doctors hail teen's transplant 'miracle' Sean Rubinsztein-Dunlop, ABC News (Australia), January 24, 2008
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  13. ^ Kwiatkowski DP (August 2005). "How malaria has affected the human genome and what human genetics can teach us about malaria". American Journal of Human Genetics 77 (2): 171–92. doi:10.1086/432519. PMID 16001361. "The different geographic distributions of α thalassemia, G6PD deficiency, ovalocytosis, and the Duffy-negative blood group are further examples of the general principle that different populations have evolved different genetic variants to protect against malaria". 
  14. ^ "Your blood – a textbook about blood and blood donation" (PDF). pp. 63. http://www.bloddonor.dk/fileadmin/Fil_Arkiv/PDF_filer/Andre/Your_Blood__June_2006.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
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  17. ^ CIA World Factbook
  18. ^ Blood Types - What Are They?, Australian Red Cross
  19. ^ Austrian Red Cross - Blood Donor Information
  20. ^ Rode Kruis Wielsbeke - Blood Donor information material
  21. ^ Tipos Sanguíneos
  22. ^ Types & Rh System, Canadian Blood Services
  23. ^ Frequency of major blood groups in the Danish population.
  24. ^ Veregruppide esinemissagedus Eestis
  25. ^ Suomalaisten veriryhmäjakauma
  26. ^ "Les groupes sanguins (système ABO)" (in French). Centre Hospitalier Princesse GRACE - Monaco. C.H.P.G. MONACO. 2005. http://www.chpg.mc/go/article.php3?id_article=111. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  27. ^ de:Blutgruppe#Häufigkeit der Blutgruppen
  28. ^ Blood Donation, Hong Kong Red Cross
  29. ^ Blóðflokkar
  30. ^ Indian Journal for the Practising Doctor
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  32. ^ The national rescue service in Israel
  33. ^ "Voorraad Erytrocytenconcentraten Bij Sanquin" (in Dutch). http://www.sanquin.nl/Sanquin-nl/erygrafiek.nsf/All/Voorraad-Erytrocytenconcentraten-Bij-Sanquin.html. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  34. ^ What are Blood Groups? - NZ Blood
  35. ^ Norwegian Blood Donor Organization
  36. ^ Regionalne Centrum Krwiodawstwa i Krwiolecznictwa we Wroclawiu
  37. ^ Portuguese Blood Institute (assuming Rh and AB antigens are independent)
  38. ^ Fequency of ABO blood groups in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia
  39. ^ South African National Blood Service - What's Your Type?
  40. ^ Federación Nacional de Donantes de Sangre/La sangre/Grupos
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  42. ^ Turkey Blood Group Site.
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  44. ^ Blood Types in the U.S.
  45. ^ RACIAL & ETHNIC DISTRIBUTION of ABO BLOOD TYPES, BLOODBOOK.COM
  46. ^ Blood Transfusion Division, United States Army Medical Research Laboratory (1971). Selected contributions to the literature of blood groups and immunology. 1971 v. 4. United States Army Medical Research Laboratory, Fort Knox, Kentucky. http://books.google.com/books?id=ALilcA7Acd0C. "... In northern India, in Southern and Central China and in the neighboring Central Asiatic areas, we find the highest known frequencies of B. If we leave this center, the frequency of the B gene decreases almost everywhere ..." 
  47. ^ a b Encyclopaedia Britannica (2002). The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.. ISBN 0852297874. http://books.google.com/books?id=fpdUAAAAMAAJ. "... The maximum frequency of the B gene occurs in Central Asia and northern India. The B gene was probably absent from American Indians and Australian Aborigines before racial admixture occurred with the coming of the white man ..." 
  48. ^ Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember (1973). Anthropology. Appleton-Century-Crofts. http://books.google.com/books?id=fvpFAAAAMAAJ. "... Blood type B is completely absent in most North and South American Indians ..." 
  49. ^ Laura Dean, MD (2005). Blood Groups an Red Cell Antigens. National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States Government. ISBN 1932811052. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=rbcantigen. "... Type A is common in Central and Eastern Europe. In countries such as Austria, Denmark, Norway, and Switzerland, about 45-50% of the population have this blood type, whereas about 40% of Poles and Ukrainians do so. The highest frequencies are found in small, unrelated populations. For example, about 80% of the Blackfoot Indians of Montana have blood type A ..." 
  50. ^ (PDF) Technical Monograph No. 2: The ABO Blood Group System and ABO Subgroups. Biotec. March 2005. http://www.biotec.com/pdf/Technical%20Monograph%20No.%202%20-%20ABO%20system%20and%20subgroups.pdf. "... The frequency of blood group A is quite high (25-55%) in Europe, especially in Scandinavia and parts of central Europe. High group A frequency is also found in the Aborigines of South Australia (up to 45%) and in certain American Indian tribes where the frequency reaches 35% ..." 
  51. ^ Possible Risks of Blood Product Transfusions from American Cancer Society. Last Medical Review: 03/08/2008. Last Revised: 01/13/2009
  52. ^ 7 ADVERSE REACTIONS TO TRANSFUSION Pathology Department at University of Michigan. Version July 2004, Revised 11/5/08
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  54. ^ Bruce, MG (May 2002). "BCF - Members - Chairman's Annual Report". The Blood Care Foundation. http://www.bloodcare.org.uk/html/resources_chairman_2001.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-15. "As Rhesus Negative blood is rare amongst local nationals, this Agreement will be of particular value to Rhesus Negative expatriates and travellers" 
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  57. ^ "Pregnancy - routine anti-D prophylaxis for D-negative women". NICE. May 2002. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/TA41/?c=91520. 
  58. ^ "RBC compatibility table". American National Red Cross. December 2006. http://chapters.redcross.org/br/northernohio/INFO/bloodtype.html. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  59. ^ a b Blood types and compatibility bloodbook.com
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  61. ^ Universal acceptor and donor groups
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  65. ^ Liu Q, Sulzenbacher G, Yuan H, Bennett E, Pietz G, Saunders K, Spence J, Nudelman E, Levery S, White T, Neveu J, Lane W, Bourne Y, Olsson M, Henrissat B, Clausen H (2007). "Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells". Nat Biotechnol 25 (4): 454. doi:10.1038/nbt1298. PMID 17401360. 
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  67. ^ Landsteiner K, Wiener AS. An agglutinable factor in human blood recognized by immune sera for rhesus blood. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1940;43:223-224.
  68. ^ Coombs RRA, Mourant AE, Race RR. A new test for the detection of weak and "incomplete" Rh agglutinins. Brit J Exp Path 1945;26:255-66.
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Further reading

External links


Simple English

Blood type or blood group is a medical term. It describes the type of blood a person has. This blood type is based on whether or not there are substances on the outside of red blood cells that can cause an allergic reaction when it comes into contact with certain other blood cells. These substances are called antigenic substances or also antigens.

When a blood transfusion or an organ donation takes place, it is important to know what type of blood the donor (who gives blood) and the receiver (who needs blood) have, so that the receiver's blood does not have an allergic reaction to the donor's blood. This can be very dangerous for the receiver.

There are many different blood group systems. Of these systems, the ABO blood group system in combination with the Rhesus blood group system are the most important. In this system the presence or absence of the A-antigen, the B-antigen and the RhD-antigen are determined.

ABO System

In a laboratory, blood is tested for antigens. When a certain antigen is found, there are also always particular antibodies found. These antibodies will attack any antigens that it does not recognise.

Group A (with the A-antigen) has Anti-B antibodies
Group B (with the B-antigen) has Anti-A antibodies
Group AB (with both A and B-antigens) has no antibodies
Group O (with no antigens) has anti-A and anti-B antibodies

The blood is thus tagged as being A positive, O negative for instance, where the letter refers to the ABO blood group and "positive" or "negative" refers to whether or not the RhD-antigen of the Rhesus blood group system was found.

Compatibility

File:Blood
Which group can donate blood to which other type of blood group
  • Group O have no antigens, but have anti-A and anti-B. This means that they can only receive blood from other people in group O, but they can give to any ABO group.
  • Group A have anti-B antibodies, so they can only receive blood from people within group A or O (with A being the best). These two groups do not have the B-antigen. They can donate blood to people from group A or AB.
  • Group B have anti-A antibodies, so they can only receive blood from people within group B or O. They can donate to groups B or AB.
  • Blood group AB have no antibodies, so they can receive blood from any bloodgroup. However, they can only donate blood to other people with blood group AB.

People with type O negative blood are often called universal donors because they can give blood to any other bloodgroup. People with type AB positive blood are called universal recipients because they can receive blood from any other bloodgroup.

Of course, before a transfusion takes place, the blood is also tested thoroughly for all sorts of other things that might cause problems for the receiver.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Blood type, which are similar to those in the above article.








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