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Blues
Stylistic origins African American folk music
Work songs
Spirituals
Cultural origins Late 19th century, southern United States
Typical instruments Guitar · Piano · Harmonica · Bass guitar · Drums · Saxophone · Vocals · Trumpet · Trombone
Mainstream popularity widespread since the early 20th century
Derivative forms Bluegrass · Jazz · R&B · Rock and roll · Rock music
Subgenres
Boogie-woogie · Classic female blues · Country blues · Delta blues · Electric blues · Fife and drum blues · Jump blues · Piano blues
(complete list)
Fusion genres
Blues rock · Jazz blues · Punk blues · Soul blues
Regional scenes
African blues · Atlanta blues · British blues · Canadian blues · Chicago blues · Detroit blues · East Coast blues · Kansas City blues · Louisiana blues · Memphis blues · New Orleans blues · Piedmont blues · St. Louis blues · Swamp blues · Texas blues · West Coast blues
Other topics
Blues genres · Blues musicians · Blues scale · Jug band · Origins
.Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre created primarily within the African-American communities in the Deep South of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads.^ See also: African American music: an introduction.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ This music form began over a century ago.
  • Rhythm And Blues | 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.playpiano.com [Source type: General]

^ The blues were a kind of musical cry-croons, work songs, and field hollers.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

[1] .The blues form ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues, and rock and roll is characterized by specific chord progressions—the twelve-bar blues chord progressions being the most common—and the blue note that for expressive purposes are sung or played flattened or gradually bent (minor 3rd to major 3rd) in relation to the pitch of the major scale.^ Freed began referring to the rhythm and blues music he played as " rock and roll ".

^ Can play most styles, especially blues, rock, funk/soul, jazz etc.

^ These form the blues chord progression.
  • Rhythm And Blues | 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.playpiano.com [Source type: General]

.The blues genre is based on the blues form but possesses other characteristics such as specific lyrics, bass lines and instruments.^ Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes.
  • Blues music - Listen free at Last.fm 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC lastfm.spiegel.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They sponser many activities to promote interest in blues and an appreciation for the huge debt that many other music forms owe to blues.
  • Nothin' but the Blues 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.t4p.com [Source type: General]

^ This project makes a solo instrument improvise randomly along a twelve bar blues chord progression with a straight back beat and a boogie-woogie bass line.
  • Scratch | Project | Rhythm & Blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC scratch.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Blues can be subdivided into several subgenres ranging from country to urban blues that were more or less popular during different periods of the 20th century.^ Less is often more in the Blues .
  • Nothin' but the Blues 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.t4p.com [Source type: General]

^ In some parts of the world, blues music has become more popular than in the states and has adapted to a more culturally relevant sound.
  • PodOmatic | Podcast - Texas Blues Cafe 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC texasblues.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the 20th century progressed, blues music integrated more and more intense rhythmic elements, setting the stage for the inevitable birth of rock-and-roll.
  • Nothin' but the Blues 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.t4p.com [Source type: General]

.Best known are the Delta, Piedmont, Jump and Chicago blues styles.^ Delta blues, Chicago blues, electric blues.
  • Real Radio Guide - Blues Radio Stations 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC radio.real.com [Source type: General]

^ Belongs to the founders of the Delta Blues style.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

^ In a nutshell, Delta Blues moved to Chicago.
  • The Beginning of Rock and Roll - Retroflections 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC tucsoncitizen.com [Source type: General]

.World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience.^ That Blues Music Page Chicago electric blues .
  • Blues Sites 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.netunes.com [Source type: General]

^ World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The stronger rhythm and slightly faster tempo was intensified by electric guitars after World War II. In more recent years, Texas blues has become more diverse, punchy, and hard-driving.
  • Nothin' but the Blues 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.t4p.com [Source type: General]

.In the 1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues rock evolved.^ In the 1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues rock evolved.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and call-and-response, and they form a repetitive effect called a groove .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ By the early 1960s, the music industry category previously known as rhythm and blues was being called soul music , and similar music by white artists was labeled blue eyed soul .

.The term "the blues" refers to the "the blue devils", meaning melancholy and sadness; an early use of the term in this sense is found in George Colman's one-act farce Blue Devils (1798).^ The term "the blues" refers to the "the blue devils", meaning in George Colman 's one-act farce Blue Devils (1798).
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The magazine changed the chart's name in its June 17, 1949, issue, having used the term rhythm and blues in news articles for the previous two years.
  • Music Essays - History of Rhythm and Blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.ukessays.com [Source type: General]

^ The magazine changed the chart’s name in its June 17, 1949, issue, having used the term rhythm and blues in news articles for the previous two years.
  • rhythm and blues (music) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

[2] .Though the use of the phrase in African American music may be older, it has been attested to since 1912, when Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted blues composition.^ See also: African American music: an introduction.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ The term "Blues" was first used to describe this music Around 1900.
  • Lessons in the Blues, Solo Guitar score with tab 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sologuitarist.net [Source type: General]

^ Blues Music : A tribute to the original American music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[3][4] In lyrics the phrase is often used to describe a depressed mood.[5]

Contents

Form

.During the first decades of the 20th century, blues music was not clearly defined in terms of a chord progression.^ The term "Blues" was first used to describe this music Around 1900.
  • Lessons in the Blues, Solo Guitar score with tab 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC sologuitarist.net [Source type: General]

^ During the first decades of the twentieth century, blues music was not clearly defined in terms of a chord progression .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The pattern of the blues is: a twelve bar musical patternone long line of four bars which is repeated, then a third line of four bars to rhyme with the first two lines that are always the same.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

[6] .By the early 1900s,due to the commercial success in the African-American community of singers such as first blues star Bessie Smith, twelve-bar blues became the standard.^ The early blues had 8, 10, or 16 bars.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ It is the first four bars of a blues in Bb.

^ Bessie Smith: the world's greatest blues singer.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

[7] .Other chord progressions, such as 8-bar forms, are still considered blues; examples include "How Long Blues", "Trouble in Mind", and Big Bill Broonzy's "Key to the Highway". There are also 16-bar blues, as in Ray Charles's instrumental "Sweet 16 Bars" and in Herbie Hancock's "Watermelon Man". Idiosyncratic numbers of bars are also encountered occasionally, as with the 9-bar progression in "Sitting on Top of the World" by Howlin Wolf.^ The early blues had 8, 10, or 16 bars.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ Big Bill Broonzy said of Charles' music: "He's mixing the blues with the spirituals...

^ Here's a 12 bar Blues example in the key of E: .
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

-
Chords played over a twelve-bar scheme: Chords for a blues in C:
I I or IV I I7
IV IV I I7
V V or IV I I or V
C C or F C C7
F F C C7
G G or F C C or G
.The basic twelve-bar lyric framework of a blues composition is reflected by a standard harmonic progression of twelve bars in a 4/4 time signature.^ Twelve bar blues .
  • Blues@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ Bechet takes the Gershwin song's 16-bar form and simple harmonic structure and treats it like an extension of the 12-bar blues.
  • A History of New Orleans Music in 100 Tracks (Part One) – Jazz.com | Jazz Music – Jazz Artists – Jazz News 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC jazz.com [Source type: General]

^ The pattern of the blues is: a twelve bar musical patternone long line of four bars which is repeated, then a third line of four bars to rhyme with the first two lines that are always the same.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

.The blues chords associated to a twelve-bar blues are typically a set of three different chords played over a twelve-bar scheme.^ The pattern of the blues is: a twelve bar musical patternone long line of four bars which is repeated, then a third line of four bars to rhyme with the first two lines that are always the same.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ Start playing all blues chords and practice the chords with arpeggios, 12 bar blues exercises and much more...

^ Slow Blues is often played in 12/8 time, that means twelve (12) quavers (or "eighth notes", 1/8) per bar.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

They are labeled by Roman numbers referring to the degrees of the progression. .For instance, for a blues in the key of C, C is the tonic chord (I) and F is the subdominant (IV).^ (I, IV and V for tonic, subdominant and dominant): .
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

^ In the key of G, the I-IV-V chords would be G, C, and D. The typical chords to play would be ' G C G G C C G G D C G G ".
  • Nothin' but the Blues 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.t4p.com [Source type: General]

^ Whatever key the song is in, the first ('I'), fourth ('IV') and fifth ('V') chords are used.
  • Nothin' but the Blues 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.t4p.com [Source type: General]

.The last chord is the dominant (V) turnaround, marking the transition to the beginning of the next progression.^ The last one or two meaures are embellished with a musical transition that leads nicely into the next verse.
  • Nothin' but the Blues 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.t4p.com [Source type: General]

.The lyrics generally end on the last beat of the tenth bar or the first beat of the eleventh bar, and the final two bars are given to the instrumentalist as a break; the harmony of this two-bar break, the turnaround, can be extremely complex, sometimes consisting of single notes that defy analysis in terms of chords.^ The pattern of the blues is: a twelve bar musical patternone long line of four bars which is repeated, then a third line of four bars to rhyme with the first two lines that are always the same.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ The two most common forms are the Chicago shuffle , with the bass drum on the second and fourth beat like 1- 2 -3- 4 and the Texas shuffle (double shuffle) emphasizing the first and third beat like 1 -2- 3 -4.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

^ Most Blues are played in 4/4 time (or beat), that means you have four (4) quarter notes (1/4 notes) per bar.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

.Much of the time, some or all of these chords are played in the harmonic seventh (7th) form.^ These are known as dominant seventh chords.
  • Blues Guitar Scales & Blues Guitar Chords | How To Play Blues Guitar | Learn Blues Guitar Lessons 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.50blues.com [Source type: General]

^ "The goal when we play live," says Bogart, "is to create a fusion of all these different musical styles with the blues and boogie genuinely at the core."
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

^ This music, sometimes called jump blues, set a pattern that became the dominant black popular music form during and for some time after World War II .
  • rhythm and blues (music) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

.The use of the harmonic seventh interval is characteristic of blues and is popularly called the "blues seven".[8] Blues seven chords add to the harmonic chord a note with a frequency in a 7:4 ratio to the fundamental note.^ Chapter 1: (06:59) Blues Rhythm In previous lessons, Hawkeye used simple down strums on all of the quarter notes in the 12 bar blues form.
  • Blues Rhythm - Online Guitar Lesson Video 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.jamplay.com [Source type: General]

^ Short version -- it depends on the song, how the chord at issue right then fits in that song, how you're going to use the "blues" notes to resolve back into the changes, etc.
  • Blues Scales and Funk questions 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC forum.saxontheweb.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most dominant major Blues (there's also a minor Blues), they are all played as seventh (7th) chords, sometimes except the tonic.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

At a 7:4 ratio, it is not close to any interval on the conventional Western diatonic scale.[9] .For convenience or by necessity it is often approximated by a minor seventh interval or a dominant seventh chord.^ These are known as dominant seventh chords.
  • Blues Guitar Scales & Blues Guitar Chords | How To Play Blues Guitar | Learn Blues Guitar Lessons 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.50blues.com [Source type: General]

^ In most dominant major Blues (there's also a minor Blues), they are all played as seventh (7th) chords, sometimes except the tonic.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

^ The diminished (flat) seventh is also used extensively for creating blues backing tracks and is an essential part of the dominant 7th chord, which will take you back to the root note.
  • Blues Guitar Scales & Blues Guitar Chords | How To Play Blues Guitar | Learn Blues Guitar Lessons 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.50blues.com [Source type: General]

A minor pentatonic scale; About this sound play
.In melody, blues is distinguished by the use of the flattened third, fifth and seventh of the associated major scale.^ As to Mercy Mercy, try a C MAJOR blues scale.
  • Blues Scales and Funk questions 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC forum.saxontheweb.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once you practice this, you can move on to the next stage that involves getting the typical sound of the Blues using the Blue note also known as the diminished fifth.
  • Blues Guitar Scales & Blues Guitar Chords | How To Play Blues Guitar | Learn Blues Guitar Lessons 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.50blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Actually some of us think of that A blues scale as a C major blues scale: C maj pent with b3 ( C D Eb E G A).
  • Blues Scales and Funk questions 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC forum.saxontheweb.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .These specialized notes are called the blue or bent notes.^ Unfortunately, the discussion of these topics typically leads to flame wars, name calling, personal attacks, and, in general, messages sent to Blues-L that stray far from the topic of the Blues.
  • BLUES-L FAQ 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.blues.net [Source type: General]

^ These are some of the notes and scales that will help you in mastering blues guitar and also give a solo performance – on stage – absolutely live!!
  • Blues Guitar Scales & Blues Guitar Chords | How To Play Blues Guitar | Learn Blues Guitar Lessons 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.50blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blue Note Music - specializing in fine handcrafted, vintage, acoustic guitars, banjos, mandolins, violins, folk and Blue Grass music videos and CD's.

.These scale tones may replace the natural scale tones, or they may be added to the scale, as in the case of the minor blues scale, in which the flattened third replaces the natural third, the flattened seventh replaces the natural seventh and the flattened fifth is added between the natural fourth and natural fifth.^ In melody , blues is distinguished by the use of the flattened third , fifth and seventh of the associated major scale .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ These scale tones may replace the natural scale tones, or they may be added to the scale, as in the case of the minor pentatonic melody, together with crushing —playing directly adjacent notes at the same time (i.e., diminished second)—and sliding , similar to using grace notes .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The blues scale is ubiquitous in modern popular music and informs many modal frames , especially the ladder of thirds used in rock music (e.g., in " A Hard Day's Night ").
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.While the twelve-bar harmonic progression had been intermittently used for centuries, the revolutionary aspect of blues was the frequent use of the flattened third, flattened seventh, and even flattened fifth in the melody, together with crushing—playing directly adjacent notes at the same time (i.e., diminished second)—and sliding, similar to using grace notes.^ In melody , blues is distinguished by the use of the flattened third , fifth and seventh of the associated major scale .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Can play drums at same time if needed.

^ These scale tones may replace the natural scale tones, or they may be added to the scale, as in the case of the minor pentatonic melody, together with crushing —playing directly adjacent notes at the same time (i.e., diminished second)—and sliding , similar to using grace notes .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[11] .The blue notes allow for key moments of expression during the cadences, melodies, and embellishments of the blues.^ The blue notes allow for key moments of expression during the cadences, melodies, and embellishments of the blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and call-and-response, and they form a repetitive effect called a groove.^ Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and call-and-response, and they form a repetitive effect called a groove .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The two most common forms are the Chicago shuffle , with the bass drum on the second and fourth beat like 1- 2 -3- 4 and the Texas shuffle (double shuffle) emphasizing the first and third beat like 1 -2- 3 -4.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

^ Other chords progressions are still called blues such as 8-bar forms, like " How Long Blues ", " Trouble in Mind ", and Big Bill Broonzy 's " Key to the Highway ".
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Characteristic of the blues since its Afro-American origins, the shuffles played a central role in swing music.^ The origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues Music : A tribute to the original American music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Characteristic of the blues since its Afro-American origins, the shuffles played a central role in swing music .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[12] .The simplest shuffles, which were the clearest signature of the R&B wave that started in the mid 1940s,[13] were a three-note riff on the bass strings of the guitar.^ You will have to start with an open E-string and when you reach the D-string, go onto the 2nd fret, which is also an E. You need to play both the notes simultaneously so that you can hear it.
  • Blues Guitar Scales & Blues Guitar Chords | How To Play Blues Guitar | Learn Blues Guitar Lessons 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.50blues.com [Source type: General]

^ TBH though, its loud drums, trumpets, and killa' bass accompanied by a melodic guitar riff...
  • Buck The World.... Go Get It!! [Archive] - Sidhe Forums 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.sidheinteractive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This last riff can be used on different string for scales which don't have open bass strings.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

.When this riff was played over the bass and the drums, the groove "feel" was created.^ TBH though, its loud drums, trumpets, and killa' bass accompanied by a melodic guitar riff...
  • Buck The World.... Go Get It!! [Archive] - Sidhe Forums 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.sidheinteractive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can play chords or riffs, but you need the right shuffle feeling.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

^ The drums played in a rolling shuffle-like style with emphasis on the second and fourth beats, creating simple syncopation.
  • American Rhythm and Blues Influence on Early Jamaican Musical Style 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC debate.uvm.edu [Source type: General]

.Shuffle rhythm is often vocalized as "dow, da dow, da dow, da" or "dump, da dump, da dump, da":[14] it consists of uneven, or "swung," eighth notes.^ Slow Blues is often played in 12/8 time, that means twelve (12) quavers (or "eighth notes", 1/8) per bar.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

^ The rhythm of this pattern is comprised of eighth notes, or eight strums per measure.
  • Blues Rhythm - Online Guitar Lesson Video 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.jamplay.com [Source type: General]

^ This creates the rhythm of an eighth note (bass note) followed by two sixteenth notes (strums).
  • Blues Rhythm - Online Guitar Lesson Video 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.jamplay.com [Source type: General]

.On a guitar this may be played as a simple steady bass or it may add to that stepwise quarter note motion from the fifth to the sixth of the chord and back.^ Chapter 1: (06:59) Blues Rhythm In previous lessons, Hawkeye used simple down strums on all of the quarter notes in the 12 bar blues form.
  • Blues Rhythm - Online Guitar Lesson Video 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.jamplay.com [Source type: General]

^ Definitely upgraded my piano playing & personal "sound", especially as I have learned to add favorite changes to all kinds of lovely new chord inversions, turnarounds & more interesting bass patterns.
  • Play Blues Piano | Learn Blues Piano, Blues Licks and More! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.playbluespiano.com [Source type: General]

^ You may notice that when you strum hard with your right hand, your left hand becomes tense even though it's just holding a simple chord.
  • Blues Guitar Scales & Blues Guitar Chords | How To Play Blues Guitar | Learn Blues Guitar Lessons 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.50blues.com [Source type: General]

An example is provided by the following guitar tablature for the first four bars of a blues progression in E:[15][16]
Blues shuffle or boogie in E major (About this sound Play ).
   E7                   A7                   E7                   E7
E |----------------|----------------|----------------|----------------|
B |----------------|----------------|----------------|----------------|
G |----------------|----------------|----------------|----------------|
D |----------------|2—2-4—2-5—2-4—2-|----------------|----------------|
A |2—2-4-2-5-2-4—2-|0—0-0—0-0—0-0—2-|2—2-4—2-5—2-4—2-|2—2-4—2-5—2-4—2-|
E |0—0-0—0-0—0-0—2-|----------------|0—0-0—0-0—0-0—2-|0—0-0—0-0—0-0—2-|

Lyrics

Robert Johnson, an influential Delta blues musician
.The lyrics of early traditional blues verses probably often consisted of a single line repeated four times; it was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the so-called AAB pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, and then a longer concluding line over the last bars.^ The early blues had 8, 10, or 16 bars.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ The pattern of the blues is: a twelve bar musical patternone long line of four bars which is repeated, then a third line of four bars to rhyme with the first two lines that are always the same.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ Also in the early 60's in London there was a small movement of interest in the traditional blues music from the old black bluesmen of America.

[17] Two of the first published blues songs, "Dallas Blues" (1912) and "St. Louis Blues" (1914), were 12-bar blues featuring the AAB structure. .W. C. Handy wrote that he adopted this convention to avoid the monotony of lines repeated three times.^ This operation was repeated three times.
  • Carrier for electrophotographic developer - Patent 7399568 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Blues was even more simple, just a line repeated three times): .
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

^ It was dissolved in chloroform, and reprecipitated in methanol, which operation was repeated three times, and the resultant precipitation was used for the following reaction.
  • Carrier for electrophotographic developer - Patent 7399568 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[18] .The lines are often sung following a pattern closer to a rhythmic talk than to a melody.^ {Threei} AIG more often fails such formation than follows them [10:58] {dino} ttek hl l .50 [10:58] {gnslng} .
  • RealityTrader Trading Log: November 2009 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.realitytrader.com [Source type: General]

^ {Threei} [10:58] {Threei} AIG more often fails such formation than follows them [11:00] {BillyD} lol [11:01] {strider} yeah.
  • RealityTrader Trading Log: November 2009 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.realitytrader.com [Source type: General]

.Early blues frequently took the form of a loose narrative.^ He transformed the blues of the Delta into an electric, distorted form of boogie, while, at the same time, emphasizing the narrative aspect.
  • A History of Rhythm'n'Blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ By the late 1940s, jump blues had developed into R&B which took the form of shorter, catchier songs.
  • Music Essays - History of Rhythm and Blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.ukessays.com [Source type: General]

.The singer voiced his or her "personal woes in a world of harsh reality: a lost love, the cruelty of police officers, oppression at the hands of white folk, [and] hard times."^ By the way, sunglasses can be worn at all times, black never goes out of style, and dry white toast is quite possibly the world's perfect food.
  • The Blues Brothers (1980) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Blues Brothers (1980) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC us.imdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is also hard at work on a reality TV show Romeo's World: Welcome to the Good Life and his animated children's series Gee Gee the Giraffe.

^ At such times the real world abandoned me and I lived in a luminous world immeasurably distant from the terrestrial one.
  • The Blind Owl 25 September 2009 8:11 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

[19]
.The lyrics often relate troubles experienced within African American society.^ Aitken sings in the standard blues holler style relating to the African American Blues tradition.
  • American Rhythm and Blues Influence on Early Jamaican Musical Style 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC debate.uvm.edu [Source type: General]

^ The guitar was used to to accompany the singer, who usually told a story about the bad life of the African-American people, often about himself.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

^ Before the Civil War, African-Americans who aspired to become musicians often had trouble finding appreciation or success in their performances because the audiences were mostly white, who couldn’t relate to the performers’ messages.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

For instance Blind Lemon Jefferson's "Rising High Water Blues" (1927) tells about the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927:
"Backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time
I said, backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time
And I can't get no hearing from that Memphis girl of mine."
However, although the blues gained an association with misery and oppression, the lyrics could also be humorous and raunchy as well:[20]
"Rebecca, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me,
Rebecca, Rebecca, get your big legs off of me,
It may be sending you baby, but it's worrying the hell out of me."
From Big Joe Turner's "Rebecca", a compilation of traditional blues lyrics
.Hokum blues celebrated both comedic lyrical content and a boisterous, farcical performance style.^ Because the distinction between rock and roll and rhythm and blues was not based on any hard-and-fast rules, most performers issued records that fit in both categories.
  • rhythm and blues (music) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ She was instrumental in both sculpting a powerful, emotional vocal style and in bridging the worlds of blues, pop and jazz.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ But the boisterous, uninhibited quality of his performance of "Jump, Jive, an' Wail" would be equally at home on Basin Street or in the heat of a Mardi Gras celebration….
  • A History of New Orleans Music in 100 Tracks (Part One) – Jazz.com | Jazz Music – Jazz Artists – Jazz News 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC jazz.com [Source type: General]

[21] .Tampa Red's classic "Tight Like That" (1928) is a sly wordplay with the double meaning of being "tight" with someone coupled with a more salacious physical familiarity.^ Hokum's most important artist was Tampa Red (It's Tight Like That, 1928).
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ As the recording industry grew, country blues performers like Bo Carter , Blind Lemon Jefferson , Lonnie Johnson , Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the African American community.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ If there has been more Congressional oversight conducted on an environmental issue in the last couple years, I'd like to know which one that is.
  • Weekly News 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC great-lakes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lyrical content of music became slightly simpler in post war-blues which focused almost exclusively on relationship woes or sexual worries.^ Post-war Gospel Music .
  • A History of Rhythm'n'Blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Chicago: Post-war Blues Guitar .
  • A History of Rhythm'n'Blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Memphis: Post-war Blues Crooning .
  • A History of Rhythm'n'Blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

.Many lyrical themes that frequently appeared in pre-war blues such as economic depression, farming, devils, gambling, magic, floods and dry periods were less common in post-war blues.^ Tampa Red 's common post war blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Chicago: Post-war Blues Guitar .
  • A History of Rhythm'n'Blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Memphis: Post-war Blues Crooning .
  • A History of Rhythm'n'Blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

[22]
.Author Ed Morales has claimed that Yoruba mythology played a part in early blues, citing Robert Johnson's "Cross Road Blues" as a "thinly veiled reference to Eleggua, the orisha in charge of the crossroads".[23] However, the Christian influence was far more obvious.^ Author Ed Morales has claimed that Yoruba mythology played a part in early blues, citing Robert Johnson 's " Cross Road Blues " as a "thinly veiled reference to Eleggua , the orisha in charge of the crossroads".
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Eddie James Jr. "Son" House (1902-1988) Main influence of Robert Johnson and Muddy Waters.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

^ But paying DJs to play certain records has been illegal since the early 1960s, when Cleveland-based DJ Alan Freed was indicted on charges of bribery.
  • Rhythm and Bullshit 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC afgen.com [Source type: General]

[24] .Many seminal blues artists such as Charley Patton or Skip James had several religious songs or spirituals in their repertoire.^ He asked several famous directors such as Clint Eastwood and Wim Wenders to participate in a series of documentary films for PBS called The Blues .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of the earliest blues musicians incorporated the blues into a wider repertoire that included traditional folk songs, vaudeville music, and minstrel tunes.

^ Wikipedia says that the style originated with black blues artists such as Robert Johnson, Elmore James, and Son House.
  • Blues music (album, Rolling Stones, artists, 60's) - City-Data Forum 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

[25] .Reverend Gary Davis[26] and Blind Willie Johnson[27] are examples of artists often categorized as blues musicians for their music, although their lyrics clearly belong to the spirituals.^ R&B music can be traced back to spirituals and blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Singers such as Blind Willie McTell and Blind Boy Fuller performed in the southeastern "delicate and lyrical" Piedmont blues tradition, which used an elaborate ragtime-based fingerpicking guitar technique.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of the earliest blues musicians incorporated the blues into a wider repertoire that included traditional folk songs, vaudeville music, and minstrel tunes.

History

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Origins

.The first publication of blues sheet music was Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" in 1912; W. C. Handy's "Memphis Blues" followed in the same year.^ The first publication of blues sheet music was Hart Wand 's " Dallas Blues " in 1912; W. C. Handy 's " Memphis Blues " followed in the same year.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1912, Handy produced his own composition titled “Memphis Blues” by Prince’s Orchestra and the Victor Military Band.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ By 1912, the sheet music industry published three popular blues-like compositions, precipitating the Tin Pan Alley adoption of blues elements: "Baby Seals' Blues" by "Baby" F. Seals (arranged by Artie Matthews ), "Dallas Blues" by Hart Wand and " The Memphis Blues " by W. C. Handy .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.The first recording by an African American singer was Mamie Smith's 1920 rendition of Perry Bradford's "Crazy Blues". But the origins of the blues date back to some decades earlier, probably around 1890.[28] They are very poorly documented, due in part to racial discrimination within American society, including academic circles,[29] and to the low literacy rate of the rural African American community at the time.^ Blues Music : A tribute to the original American music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The success of these records also led to the recording of rural Country blues singers.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ The first recording by an African American singer was Mamie Smith 's 1920 rendition of Perry Bradford 's earlier, probably during the late 19th century around 1890.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[30] .Chroniclers began to report about blues music in Southern Texas and Deep South at the dawn of the 20th century.^ Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre created within the African-American communities in the Deep South of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spirituals , work songs , field hollers , shouts and chants , and rhymed simple narrative ballads .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The rural circuit of blues musicians and their music is known as “Country” blues, and the movement began in the Mississippi Delta, as well as Southeastern Missouri and Southwestern Tennessee , south to the Gulf of Mexico (Awmiller, 26).
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ D.C. and Selby Minner created the Blues in the Schools program through the Oklahoma Arts Council , performing music in classrooms and talking to students about the music.
  • D.C. Minner's Down Home Blues Club 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dcminnerblues.com [Source type: General]

.In particular, Charles Peabody mentioned the appearance of blues music at Clarksdale, Mississippi and Gate Thomas reported very similar songs in southern Texas around 1901–1902. These observations coincide more or less with the remembrance of Jelly Roll Morton, who declared having heard blues for the first time in New Orleans in 1902; Ma Rainey, who remembered her first blues experience the same year in Missouri; and W.C. Handy, who first heard the blues in Tutwiler, Mississippi in 1903. The first extensive research in the field was performed by Howard W. Odum, who published a large anthology of folk songs in the counties of Lafayette, Mississippi and Newton, Georgia between 1905 and 1908.[31] The first non-commercial recordings of blues music, termed "proto-blues" by Paul Oliver, were made by Odum at the very beginning of the 20th century for research purposes.^ New Orleans – integration of southern pianists .
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ Handy made his own recording of these compositions with his Memphis Blues Band between 1917 and 1923.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ His Alabama Blues recording had a song that stated: .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.They are now utterly lost.^ But if they are allowed to grow hard, we know well that the possibility of one day bending them diminishes a great deal and is sometimes utterly lost.
  • Richard Angulo - Internet NetNews - BlogSpot 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ecademy.com [Source type: Original source]

[32] .Other recordings that are still available were made in 1924 by Lawrence Gellert.^ Our new Let's have A Party cd on Double Barrel Records is available now and will be available on iTunes and other sites soon.

.Later, several recordings were made by Robert W. Gordon, who became head of the Archive of American Folk Songs of the Library of Congress.^ American folk songs.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ They were large attractions that later made possible the recording of rural performers in the South ( Davis , 86).
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ By late 1958, Hendricks had announced his exit, and even guitarist Jimmy Oliver, who had managed to get several of his songs recorded during his four-year tenure with the group and was an unheralded mainstay of their sound, finally quit.
  • Downloads - Download Music - Download MP3s 17 September 2009 1:34 UTC www.mp3.com [Source type: General]

Gordon's successor at the Library was John Lomax. .In the 1930s, together with his son Alan, Lomax made a large number of non-commercial blues recordings that testify to the huge variety of proto-blues styles, such as field hollers and ring shouts.^ The precursors of rhythm and blues came from jazz and blues, which overlapped in the 1930s through musicians such as Leroy Carr , Cab Calloway , Count Basie , and T-Bone Walker .

^ Although it lasted three short years (1957-59), Lee Rupe's Ebb Records recorded a remarkable variety of music for such a little label.
  • The EBB Records Story Vol 2 Blues n Rhythm And Roc : Various Artists : Concord Music Group 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.concordmusicgroup.com [Source type: General]

^ They were large attractions that later made possible the recording of rural performers in the South ( Davis , 86).
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

[33] .A record of blues music as it existed before the 1920s is also given by the recordings of artists such as Lead Belly[34] or Henry Thomas[35] who both performed archaic blues music.^ Blues has evolved from an unaccompanied vocal music and oral individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ By the late 1950s, the swamp blues genre developed near Baton Rouge , with performers such as Lightnin' Slim , Sam Myers and Jerry McCain .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Hokum blues celebrated both comedic lyrical content and a boisterous, farcical performance style.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.All these sources show the existence of many different structures distinct from the twelve-, eight-, or sixteen-bar.^ All these Blues have again different substructures (i.e.
  • Rhythm Guitar - The Blues Basics - 12bar Blues Guitar 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.12bar.de [Source type: General]

^ "The goal when we play live," says Bogart, "is to create a fusion of all these different musical styles with the blues and boogie genuinely at the core."
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

^ According to Edward Dupris, many of these songs included "& overt references to African rhythmic structures, such as the African Rumba."
  • American Rhythm and Blues Influence on Early Jamaican Musical Style 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC debate.uvm.edu [Source type: General]

[36][37]
.The social and economic reasons for the appearance of the blues are not fully known.^ The social and economic reasons for the appearance of the blues are not fully known.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[38] .The first appearance of the blues is often dated after the Emancipation Act of 1863,[29] between 1870 and 1900, a period that coincides with Emancipation and, later, the development of juke joints as places where Blacks went to listen to music, dance, or gamble after a hard day's work.^ Juke Joint blues • R&B punk • rockabilly .

^ The pattern of the blues is: a twelve bar musical patternone long line of four bars which is repeated, then a third line of four bars to rhyme with the first two lines that are always the same.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ The blues scale is ubiquitous in modern popular music and informs many modal frames , especially the ladder of thirds used in rock music (e.g., in " A Hard Day's Night ").
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[39] .This period corresponds to the transition from slavery to sharecropping, small-scale agricultural production, and the expansion of railroads in the southern United States.^ Even for the blacks who left the Southern states, the cities of the North promised freedom, but mostly delivered a different kind of slavery.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

.Several scholars characterize the early 1900s development of blues music as a move from group performances to a more individualized style.^ Early country music was infused with the blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues has evolved from an unaccompanied vocal music and oral individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.They argue that the development of the blues is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the enslaved people.^ They pursued authentic blues talent and developed a very electric rhythm and blues style.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ As a result, they are becoming accustomed to people and have developed the bad habit of feeding in towns, according to Minchak.
  • Weekly News 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC great-lakes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to Lawrence Levine, "there was a direct relationship between the national ideological emphasis upon the individual, the popularity of Booker T. Washington's teachings, and the rise of the blues." Levine states that "psychologically, socially, and economically, African-Americans were being acculturated in a way that would have been impossible during slavery, and it is hardly surprising that their secular music reflected this as much as their religious music did."[40]
.There are few characteristics common to all blues music, because the genre took its shape from the idiosyncrasies of individual performances.^ There are few characteristics common to all blues music, because the of any particular musical structure."
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues has evolved from an unaccompanied vocal music and oral individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ All the Neals are skilled musicians, and Kenny has said that, between the Nevilles and the Neals, there are so many of us that we could be an entire music festival by ourselves.
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

[41] .However, there are some characteristics that were present long before the creation of the modern blues.^ From beyond the ditch, however, some low mud-brick houses are visible and the city begins there.
  • The Blind Owl 25 September 2009 8:11 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Victory at all costs - Victory in spite of all terrors - Victory, however long and hard the road may be, for without victory there is no survival.
  • The Delaware Valley Rhythm & Blues Society, Inc. is a non-profit organization dedicated to Classic Rhythm & Blues Music, Local History, Community Service, & Senior Dog Adoption 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.dvrbs.com [Source type: General]

^ There are few characteristics common to all blues music, because the of any particular musical structure."
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Call-and-response shouts were an early form of blues-like music; they were a "functional expression ...^ The blues has its principal expression in musical form.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ The blues has its primary expression in musical form.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ Early country music was infused with the blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

style without accompaniment or harmony and unbounded by the formality of any particular musical structure."[42] A form of this pre-blues was heard in slave ring shouts and field hollers, expanded into "simple solo songs laden with emotional content".[43]
.Blues has evolved from the unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves imported from West Africa (principally present-day Mali, Senegal, the Gambia and Ghana)[44][45] and rural blacks into a wide variety of styles and subgenres, with regional variations across the United States.^ Originally, slave music was purely vocal.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues has evolved from an unaccompanied vocal music and oral individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music , unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts.

.Though blues, as it is now known, can be seen as a musical style based on both European harmonic structure and the African call-and-response tradition, transformed into an interplay of voice and guitar,[46][47] the blues form itself bears no resemblance to the melodic styles of the West African griots, and the influences are faint and tenuous.^ The musical forms and styles that are now considered the "blues" as well as modern " country music " listeners.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blue Note Music - vintage guitars.

^ During the 1980s, blues also continued in both traditional and new forms.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[48][49] .In particular, no specific African musical form can be identified as the single direct ancestor of the blues.^ The blues has its principal expression in musical form.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ The blues has its primary expression in musical form.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ Two scales developed by the merge of European and African music: the deviant pentatonic scale of "spiritual" music and the expanded diatonic scale of "blues" music.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

[50] .However many blues elements, such as the call-and-response format and the use of blue notes, can be traced back to the music of Africa.^ Blue Note Music - vintage guitars.

^ The roots of Caribbean music and R&B can be traced back to common roots in Africa.
  • American Rhythm and Blues Influence on Early Jamaican Musical Style 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC debate.uvm.edu [Source type: General]

^ Fusion is the combination of dances in such a way that allows dancers to use all the techniques, connections, and movements of many dances (in particular swing and blues, or blues and tango, or west coast and blues).
  • BluesCal.com - Blues Exchange Calendar - Blues Workshops Parties Events 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bluescal.com [Source type: General]

.That blue notes pre-date their use in blues and have an African origin is attested by English composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor's "A Negro Love Song", from his The African Suite for Piano composed in 1898, which contains blue third and seventh notes.^ Swinging The Origin of Blues The Blues is a style of music that evolved from southern African-American songs usually marked by a syncopated 4/4 rhythm, flatted thirds and sevenths, and a 12-bar structure.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The blues scale is ubiquitous in modern popular music and informs many modal frames , especially the ladder of thirds used in rock music (e.g., in " A Hard Day's Night ").
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ West African music used a pentatonic scale (that comprises only the first, second, third, fifth, and sixth tones of a diatonic scale).
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

[51] .The Diddley bow (a homemade one-stringed instrument found in parts of the American South in the early twentieth century) and the banjo are African-derived instruments that may have helped in the transfer of African performance techniques into the early blues instrumental vocabulary.^ Calvin was one of the most influential musicians in the House of God, Keith Dominion, an African American Holiness-Pentecostal church in which the electric steel guitar has been an important part of worship services since the late 1930's.
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

^ From distinctive sounds to literary eminence, African-American performers, artists and writers have transformed their respective fields.
  • Blues Music: News & Videos about Blues Music - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ As a child growing up in a small Mississippi town he was exposed to African-American culture, which still strongly reflected that of the early part of the twentieth century.

[52] .The banjo seems to be directly imported from western African music.^ The fusion of European folk music with African folk music was the most important source of innovation for music in the western world after the Ars Nova.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

.It is similar to the musical instrument that griots played (called halam or akonting by African peoples such as the Wolof, Fula and Madinka).^ By the early 1960s, the music industry category previously known as rhythm and blues was being called soul music , and similar music by white artists was labeled blue eyed soul .

^ In the aftermath of the Telecommunications Reform Act, the massive consolidation in radio has left fewer people making the decisions about what music will be played.
  • Rhythm and Bullshit 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC afgen.com [Source type: General]

^ In a sense, West Africans learned how to play music (the music in which rhythmic and timbric subtleties play a key factor) while they were learning to speak.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

[53] .However, in the 1920s, when country blues began to be recorded, the use of the banjo in blues music was quite marginal and limited to individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon.^ Blues has evolved from an unaccompanied vocal music and oral individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Early country music was infused with the blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues forms are used in the theme to the televised Batman , teen idol Fabian's hit, "Turn Me Loose", country music star Jimmie Rodgers ' music, and guitarist/vocalist Tracy Chapman 's hit "Give Me One Reason".
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[54]
.Blues music also adopted elements from the "Ethiopian airs", minstrel shows and Negro spirituals, including instrumental and harmonic accompaniment.^ R&B music can be traced back to spirituals and blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues music also adopted elements from the "Ethiopian airs", minstrel shows and Negro spirituals , including instrumental and harmonic accompaniment.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Click here to find out where to see Blues music in Buenos Aires.

[55] The style also was closely related to ragtime, which developed at about the same time, though the blues better preserved "the original melodic patterns of African music".[56]
.The musical forms and styles that are now considered the "blues" as well as modern "country music" arose in the same regions during the nineteenth century in the southern United States.^ United States rich with musical streets .
  • Blues Music: News & Videos about Blues Music - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The style of the blues is extremely original as well.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ The musical forms and styles that are now considered the "blues" as well as modern " country music " listeners.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Recorded blues and country can be found from as far back as the 1920s, when the popular record industry developed and created marketing categories called "race music" and "hillbilly music" to sell music by blacks for blacks and by whites for whites, respectively.^ R&B music can be traced back to spirituals and blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Early country music was infused with the blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The term R&B is essentially a shortened version of "Rhythm & Blues", but as a novice might discern, that which is called R&B bears little resemblance to the musical landscape created by Ruth Brown, Louis Jordan, Laverne Baker, Charles Brown and the Coasters.
  • Rhythm and Bullshit 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC afgen.com [Source type: General]

.At the time, there was no clear musical division between "blues" and "country," except for the ethnicity of the performer, and even that was sometimes documented incorrectly by record companies.^ Early country music was infused with the blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ As the recording industry grew, country blues performers like Bo Carter , Blind Lemon Jefferson , Lonnie Johnson , Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the African American community.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ A lot of the 1970s-era "outlaw" country music by Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings also borrowed from the blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[57][58] .Though musicologists can now attempt to define “the blues” narrowly in terms of certain chord structures and lyric strategies thought to have originated in West Africa, audiences originally heard the music in a far more general way: it was simply the music of the rural south, notably the Mississippi Delta.^ Blues Music : A tribute to the original American music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Swinging The Origin of Blues The Blues is a style of music that evolved from southern African-American songs usually marked by a syncopated 4/4 rhythm, flatted thirds and sevenths, and a 12-bar structure.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Delta Blues The Origin of Blues The Blues is a style of music that evolved from southern African-American songs usually marked by a syncopated 4/4 rhythm, flatted thirds and sevenths, and a 12-bar structure.

.Black and white musicians shared the same repertoire and thought of themselves as “songsters” rather than “blues musicians.” The notion of blues as a separate genre arose during the black migration from the countryside to urban areas in the 1920s and the simultaneous development of the recording industry.^ The complete Capitol/Black & White recordings.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ The blues genre is based on the blues form but possesses other Blues can be subdivided in several subgenres ranging from country to urban blues that were more or less popular during different periods of the 20th century.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ By the late 1950s, the swamp blues genre developed near Baton Rouge , with performers such as Lightnin' Slim , Sam Myers and Jerry McCain .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

“Blues” became a code word for a record designed to sell to black listeners.[59]
.The origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals.^ The origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues Music : A tribute to the original American music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ It replaced the term "race music", which originally came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world.

.The origins of spirituals go back much further than the blues, usually dating back to the middle of the 18th century, when the slaves were Christianized and began to sing and play Christian hymns, in particular those of Isaac Watts, which were very popular.^ R&B music can be traced back to spirituals and blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Musically, spirituals were a descendant of New England choral traditions, and in particular of Isaac Watts 's hymns , gatherings, which were called camp meetings .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[60] .Before the blues gained its formal definition in terms of chord progressions, it was defined as the secular counterpart of the spirituals.^ Despite the fast pace (that became even faster, louder and more percussive in the 1950s), boogie woogie remained faithful to the blues chord progression.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ These blues could be defined as secular sorrow songs.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ During the first decades of the twentieth century, blues music was not clearly defined in terms of a chord progression .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.It was the low-down music played by the rural Blacks.^ Unlike rural blues music, that was meant to be personal and documentary, rhythm'n'blues was becoming only "good-time music", ever more emancipated from the original social meaning of black music.
  • A History of Rhythm'n'Blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

.Depending on the religious community a musician belonged to, it was more or less considered as a sin to play this low-down music: blues was the devil's music.^ "The goal when we play live," says Bogart, "is to create a fusion of all these different musical styles with the blues and boogie genuinely at the core."
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

^ It's blues function as a sexual euphemism seems to have arisen with Blind Lemon Jefferson's 1928 song "Low-down Mojo".
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ The origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Musicians were therefore segregated into two categories: gospel and blues singers, guitar preachers and songsters.^ Pop history teaches that posthumous releases generally fall into one of two categories.
  • Aaliyah | American Rhythm and Blues Singer, Dancer, Model and Actress 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The versatile musician transformed a song by fellow Canadian Gordon Lightfoot ("The greatest blues musician of Canada") into a blues number.

^ This North Carolina native is a singer and guitar player with a sound heavily influenced by blues and roots music.
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.However, at the time rural Black music began to get recorded in the 1920s, both categories of musicians used very similar techniques: call-and-response patterns, blue notes, and slide guitars.^ Blue Note Music - vintage guitars.

^ The pattern of the blues is: a twelve bar musical patternone long line of four bars which is repeated, then a third line of four bars to rhyme with the first two lines that are always the same.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ The rural circuit of blues musicians and their music is known as “Country” blues, and the movement began in the Mississippi Delta, as well as Southeastern Missouri and Southwestern Tennessee , south to the Gulf of Mexico (Awmiller, 26).
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

.Gospel music was nevertheless using musical forms that were compatible with Christian hymns and therefore less marked by the blues form than its secular counterpart.^ The blues has its principal expression in musical form.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ The blues has its primary expression in musical form.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ Blues forms are used in the theme to the televised Batman , teen idol Fabian's hit, "Turn Me Loose", country music star Jimmie Rodgers ' music, and guitarist/vocalist Tracy Chapman 's hit "Give Me One Reason".
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[61]

Pre-war blues

.The American sheet music publishing industry produced a great deal of ragtime music.^ The American sheet music publishing industry produced a great deal of ragtime music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Get rid of the Blues with great American Roots music.

^ American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues .
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

.By 1912, the sheet music industry had published three popular blues-like compositions, precipitating the Tin Pan Alley adoption of blues elements: "Baby Seals' Blues" by "Baby" F. Seals (arranged by Artie Matthews), "Dallas Blues" by Hart Wand and "The Memphis Blues" by W. C. Handy.^ The first blues songs to be published, in 1912, were Baby Seals Blues , written by ragtime artist Artie Matthews, and Dallas Blues , written by white songwriter Hart Wand.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ In the 1890s/1900s, Tin Pan Alley was a source of vaudeville and Ragtime artists, where Irish and Jewish minorities resided in poor neighborhoods.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ In 1912, Handy produced his own composition titled “Memphis Blues” by Prince’s Orchestra and the Victor Military Band.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

[62]
Sheet music from "St. Louis Blues" (1914)
.Handy was a formally trained musician, composer and arranger who helped to popularize the blues by transcribing and orchestrating blues in an almost symphonic style, with bands and singers.^ In 1912, Handy produced his own composition titled “Memphis Blues” by Prince’s Orchestra and the Victor Military Band.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ Handy was a formally trained musician, composer and arranger who with ragtime and jazz, a merger facilitated using the Cuban habanera rhythm that had long been a part of ragtime; Handy's signature work was the " St. Louis Blues ".
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Aretha Franklin The Blues Before Robert Johnson Robert Johnson was a brilliant blues man whose recordings served to popularize the blues for a new generation of blues fans, but the work of earlier musicians who influenced Johnson's blues should not be overlooked by fans of Johnson's work.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

He became a popular and prolific composer, and billed himself as the "Father of the Blues"; however, his compositions can be described as a fusion of blues with ragtime and jazz, a merger facilitated using the Cuban habanera rhythm that had long been a part of ragtime;[23][63] Handy's signature work was the "St. Louis Blues".
.In the 1920s, the blues became a major element of African American and American popular music, reaching white audiences via Handy's arrangements and the classic female blues performers.^ See also: African American music: an introduction.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ She was also the greatest of the classic Blues singers of the 1920s.

^ See also: African American music: an introduction .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

.The blues evolved from informal performances in bars to entertainment in theaters.^ He attended tent minstrel shows, bar-b-que picnics and heard street musicians performing authentic traditional blues.

.Blues performances were organized by the Theater Owners Bookers Association in nightclubs such as the Cotton Club and juke joints such as the bars along Beale Street in Memphis.^ Folk Culture 2009 Beale Street Music Festival is the Biggest Event of the Memphis in May Festival An article on the concerts that will be a part of the Beale Street Music festival in Memphis, TN in May of 2009.

^ All of them had moved to New York, and none of them was a real blues musician (an itinerant, street performer from the South).
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues Music The Top Live Music Venues in Hartford, Connecticut In the city of Hartford,Ct,there are many clubs,theaters and concert halls where live music is regularly performed.Here is a guide that briefly describes the best of them.

.Several record companies, such as the American Record Corporation, Okeh Records, and Paramount Records, began to record African American music.^ Several record companies, such as the American Record Corporation , Okeh Records , and Paramount Records , began to record African American music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Although it lasted three short years (1957-59), Lee Rupe's Ebb Records recorded a remarkable variety of music for such a little label.
  • The EBB Records Story Vol 2 Blues n Rhythm And Roc : Various Artists : Concord Music Group 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.concordmusicgroup.com [Source type: General]

^ Hound Dog ", shares with several African American rock and roll performers).
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.As the recording industry grew, country blues performers like Bo Carter, Jimmie Rodgers (country singer), Blind Lemon Jefferson, Lonnie Johnson, Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the African American community.^ As the recording industry grew, country blues performers like Bo Carter , Blind Lemon Jefferson , Lonnie Johnson , Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the African American community.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Jefferson, Blind Lemon, 1897-1929.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Blind Lemon Jefferson's penitentiary blues: Golden classics .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

.Kentucky-born Sylvester Weaver was in 1923 the first to record the slide guitar style, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the sawed-off neck of a bottle.^ Kentucky-born Sylvester Weaver was in 1923 the first to record the slide guitar style, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the sawed-off neck of a bottle.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The first records featuring a blues guitar were Sylvester Weaver's instrumentals Guitar Blues/ Guitar Rag (1923), although the B side was played on a guitar-banjo, recorded in Louisville (Kentucky), and Charlie Jackson's Papa's Lawdy Lawdy Blues (1924), recorded in Chicago.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Sidney Bechet: Wild Cat Blues (1923) Reviewed by Dean Alger This was Sidney Bechet's first recording.
  • A History of New Orleans Music in 100 Tracks (Part One) – Jazz.com | Jazz Music – Jazz Artists – Jazz News 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC jazz.com [Source type: General]

[64] .The slide guitar became an important part of the Delta blues.^ The blues became a dialogue between a human being and his guitar.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Slide Guitar = The Real Blues - learn the basics of slide guitar and the blues.

^ Weider, Jim - master of traditional blues slide guitar.

[65] .The first blues recordings from the 1920s are categorized as a traditional, rural country blues and a more polished 'city' or urban blues.^ First recordings – 1920s .
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ The success of these records also led to the recording of rural Country blues singers.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ The first blues recordings from the 1920s are categorized as a traditional, rural country blues and a more polished 'city' or urban blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Country blues performers often improvised, either without accompaniment or with only a banjo or guitar.^ Country blues performers often improvised, either without Charley Patton and Son House .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The guitar and banjo are the main instruments that have defined the blues since its existence.
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ Charley Patton] PERFORMERS: Featuring music by Charley Patton and others, performed by him accompanying himself on guitar in part with other musicians, or sung and played by other musicians, in part accompanied by Patton.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

.Regional styles of country blues varied widely in the early 20th century.^ Early country music was infused with the blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The blues genre is based on the blues form but possesses other Blues can be subdivided in several subgenres ranging from country to urban blues that were more or less popular during different periods of the 20th century.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Groton Music of the Early 20th Century: A Wild Mix of Cultures A view of the music of the early 20th century through the perpective of certain major works of literature from that era.

.The (Mississippi) Delta blues was a rootsy sparse style with passionate vocals accompanied by slide guitar.^ Mississippi delta blues.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Kentucky-born Sylvester Weaver was in 1923 the first to record the slide guitar style, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the sawed-off neck of a bottle.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ In the 1940s/50s, a combined style of jazz and Mississippi Delta blues guitar playing arose from artists like BB King, T-Bone Walker, Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon, John Lee Hooker, Howlin’ Wolf, and Elmore James (Baker).
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

.The little-recorded Robert Johnson[66] combined elements of urban and rural blues.^ Aretha Franklin The Blues Before Robert Johnson Robert Johnson was a brilliant blues man whose recordings served to popularize the blues for a new generation of blues fans, but the work of earlier musicians who influenced Johnson's blues should not be overlooked by fans of Johnson's work.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ This feeling was immediately reinforced by some Robert Johnson recordings Gratzer heard soon afterward.

^ Robert Johnson Depression Means More Than Just Having the Blues Now and then, each of us gets the blues or feels sad and down.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.In addition to Robert Johnson, influential performers of this style included his predecessors Charley Patton and Son House.^ Early influential Country blues singers included Charley Patton, Blind Lemon Jefferson, Robert Johnson, and Lightnin’ Hopkins .
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ Charley Patton] PERFORMERS: Featuring music by Charley Patton and others, performed by him accompanying himself on guitar in part with other musicians, or sung and played by other musicians, in part accompanied by Patton.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ The registration per child is $165 for a 14-session semester, including the Open House performance.

.Singers such as Blind Willie McTell and Blind Boy Fuller performed in the southeastern "delicate and lyrical" Piedmont blues tradition, which used an elaborate ragtime-based fingerpicking guitar technique.^ Singers such as Blind Willie McTell and Blind Boy Fuller performed in the southeastern "delicate and lyrical" Piedmont blues tradition, which used an elaborate ragtime-based fingerpicking guitar technique.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Memphis, Texas -based William Daniel McFalls, also known as " Blues Boy Willie " is a performer of traditional blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Fusion is the combination of dances in such a way that allows dancers to use all the techniques, connections, and movements of many dances (in particular swing and blues, or blues and tango, or west coast and blues).
  • BluesCal.com - Blues Exchange Calendar - Blues Workshops Parties Events 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bluescal.com [Source type: General]

.Georgia also had an early slide tradition,[67] with Curley Weaver, Tampa Red, "Barbecue Bob" Hicks and James "Kokomo" Arnold as representatives of this style.^ Georgia also had an early slide tradition .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Early country bluesmen such as Skip James , Charley Patton , Georgia Tom Dorsey played country and urban blues and had influences from spiritual singing.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Unlike other southern bluesmen, whose playing was modal and in minor keys, Tampa Red's shimmering, clean style was influenced by ragtime and jug bands.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

[68]
.The lively Memphis blues style, which developed in the 1920s and 1930s near Memphis, Tennessee, was influenced by jug bands such as the Memphis Jug Band or the Gus Cannon's Jug Stompers.^ The lively Memphis blues style, which developed in the 1920s and 1930s near Memphis, Tennessee , was influenced by jug bands such as the Memphis Jug Band or the Gus Cannon's Jug Stompers .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues has evolved from an unaccompanied vocal music and oral individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The style of British blues developed in the UK, when bands such as The Animals , Fleetwood Mac , John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers , The Rolling Stones , The Yardbirds , and Cream and Irish musician Rory Gallagher performed classic blues songs from the Delta or Chicago blues traditions.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Performers such as Frank Stokes, Sleepy John Estes, Robert Wilkins, Joe McCoy and Memphis Minnie used a variety of unusual instruments such as washboard, fiddle, kazoo or mandolin.^ Estes, Sleepy John, 1899-1977.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Performers such as Frank Stokes , Blind Old Tom Anderson , Sleepy John Estes , Robert Wilkins , Big Boy Brazier , Joe McCoy and Memphis Minnie used a variety of unusual instruments such as washboard , fiddle , kazoo or mandolin .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Latimore), Sleepy John Estes (feat.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

.Memphis Minnie was famous for her virtuoso guitar style.^ Memphis Minnie was famous for her virtuoso guitar style.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Pianist Memphis Slim began his career in Memphis, but his distinct style was smoother and had some swing elements.^ Memphis Slim 12-13-2006, 02:27 PM Issac Hayes has some of the best music I have ever heard...
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

^ Memphis Slim 12-16-2006, 10:58 AM Some videos from You Tube.
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

^ Pianist Memphis Slim blues movement, which blended country music and electric blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Many blues musicians based in Memphis moved to Chicago in the late 1930s or early 1940s and became part of the urban blues movement, which blended country music and electric blues.^ Pianist Memphis Slim blues movement, which blended country music and electric blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Boogie-woogie was another important style of 1930s and early 1940s urban blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Early country music was infused with the blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[69][70][71]
Bessie Smith, an early blues singer, was known for her powerful voice.
.City or urban blues styles were more codified and elaborate as a performer was no longer within their local, immediate community and had to adapt to a larger, more varied audience's aesthetic.^ City or urban blues styles were more codified and elaborate as a contralto to accommodate her own interpretation was unsurpassed."
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ In 2003, Martin Scorsese made significant efforts to promote the blues to a larger audience.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[72] .Classic female urban and vaudeville blues singers were popular in the 1920s, among them Mamie Smith, Gertrude "Ma" Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Victoria Spivey.^ The Immortal Ma Rainey; [first of the great blues singers].
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Bessie Smith: the world's greatest blues singer.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Classic blues stars like Bessie Smith and Ma Rainey shared these stages and developed their reputation with touring… .
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Mamie Smith, more a vaudeville performer than a blues artist, was the first African-American to record a blues in 1920; her second record, "Crazy Blues", sold 75,000 copies in its first month.^ The record sold more than 750,000 copies that same year, rivaling the success of Blues singer Mamie Smith (no relation).

^ Record over more than 70,000 Hip Hop Beats .
  • Dopetracks - home of the best hip hop beats, producers and underground emcees on earth. 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.dopetracks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It sold 200,000 copies the first year.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

[73] Ma Rainey, the "Mother of Blues", and Bessie Smith each "[sang] around center tones, perhaps in order to project her voice more easily to the back of a room." Smith would "...sing a song in an unusual key, and her artistry in bending and stretching notes with her beautiful, powerful contralto to accommodate her own interpretation was unsurpassed."[74] .Urban male performers included popular black musicians of the era, such Tampa Red, Big Bill Broonzy and Leroy Carr.^ As the recording industry grew, country blues performers like Bo Carter , Blind Lemon Jefferson , Lonnie Johnson , Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the African American community.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Other chords progressions are still called blues such as 8-bar forms, like " How Long Blues ", " Trouble in Mind ", and Big Bill Broonzy 's " Key to the Highway ".
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Aspiring black musicians sought escape in order to overcome this ritualistic lifestyle, and this era of suffering is commonly thought of as the birth of the blues (Awmiller, 27).
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

.Before WWII, Tampa Red was sometimes referred to as "the Guitar Wizard". Carr accompanied himself on the piano with Scrapper Blackwell on guitar, a format that continued well into the 50s with people such as Charles Brown, and even Nat "King" Cole.^ The virtuoso guitar of Scrapper Blackwell.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ CD $9.98 CD includes holiday classics featuring Michael Buble, Nat King Cole, Diana Krall, Ray Charles, Frank Sinatra & more!
  • The EBB Records Story Vol 2 Blues n Rhythm And Roc : Various Artists : Concord Music Group 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.concordmusicgroup.com [Source type: General]

^ Inspired by such popular artists as Michael Jackson, Ludacris, Chris Brown, and even Billy Ray Cyrus, Breje's rapidly becoming what's next and what's hot.

[65]
A typical boogie-woogie bassline
.Boogie-woogie was another important style of 1930s and early 1940s urban blues.^ Boogie-woogie was another important style of 1930s and early 1940s urban blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ City or urban blues styles were more codified and elaborate as a contralto to accommodate her own interpretation was unsurpassed."
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ It was Joe's boogie-woogie keyboard style that set the "down-home" rootsy feel on most of the "Motown" label's early doo-wop and blues infused recordings.
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

[75] .While the style is often associated with solo piano, boogie-woogie was also used to accompany singers and, as a solo part, in bands and small combos.^ The Cuban-born singer/guitarist cut his teeth in several rock bands contributing what Slate magazine describes as "spacey-yet-resounding solos".
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

^ Charles performed in our "Big Band Boogie Woogie" program in 2006 and continues to play regularly in Detroit.
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

^ He began to learn piano from a family of boogie woogie players who lived next door to his home in Norwalk, California at the age of 10.
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

.Boogie-Woogie style was characterized by a regular bass figure, an ostinato or riff and shifts of level in the left hand, elaborating each chord and trills and decorations in the right hand.^ Despite the fast pace (that became even faster, louder and more percussive in the 1950s), boogie woogie remained faithful to the blues chord progression.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Alabama's pianist Charles "Cow Cow" Davenport recorded Cow Cow Blues (1928), another precursor of boogie woogie, and, generally speaking, helped coin a blues style at the piano.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Picking up right where his ’04 smash “On Fire” left off, Banks serves up the 50-assisted “Hands Up” as his jump-off cut.
  • XXLmag.com - » Lloyd Banks Rotten Apple 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.xxlmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Boogie-woogie was pioneered by the Chicago-based Jimmy Yancey and the Boogie-Woogie Trio (Albert Ammons, Pete Johnson and Meade Lux Lewis).^ Born in Texas in 1931, Leon was inspired by the boogie woogie recordings of Meade Lux Lewis and Albert Ammons in 1940.
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

^ At the age of 17 he heard recordings by Albert Ammons, Meade Lux Lewis, and Pete Johnson, and never looked back.
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

^ Martijn was introduced to boogie-woogie at the early age of 15 and credits his influences as boogie-woogie legends Albert Ammons, Pete Johnson and Meade Lux Lewis.
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

[76] Chicago boogie-woogie performers included Clarence "Pine Top" Smith and Earl Hines, who "linked the propulsive left-hand rhythms of the ragtime pianists with melodic figures similar to those of Armstrong's trumpet in the right hand."[72] The smooth Louisiana style of Professor Longhair and, more recently, Dr. John blends classic rhythm and blues with blues styles.
.Another development in this period was big band blues.^ Another development in this period was big band blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The lively Memphis blues style, which developed in the 1920s and 1930s near Memphis, Tennessee , was influenced by jug bands such as the Memphis Jug Band or the Gus Cannon's Jug Stompers .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Tonight, the T Rogers Band and I are on around 8, headlining what promises to be another great night of loud, high energy blues!Our gig last night in Budapest was another stormer.
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[77] .The "territory bands" operating out of Kansas City, the Benny Moten orchestra, Jay McShann, and the Count Basie Orchestra were also concentrating on the blues, with 12-bar blues instrumentals such as Basie's "One O'Clock Jump" and "Jumpin' at the Woodside" and boisterous "blues shouting" by Jimmy Rushing on songs such as "Going to Chicago" and "Sent for You Yesterday". A well-known big band blues tune is Glenn Miller's "In the Mood". In the 1940s, the jump blues style developed.^ Another development in this period was big band blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ He formed the Jay McShann Orchestra in 1939, which defined the Kansas City sound.
  • American Music Research Foundation - blues, boogie woogie, jazz, ragtime, rhythm and blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.amrf.net [Source type: General]

^ A visceral style of singing (or, better, "shouting") the blues developed in the dancehalls of Kansas City.
  • A History of Rhythm'n'Blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

.Jump blues grew up from the boogie woogie wave and was stronly influenced by big band music.^ In Kansas City, the band of pianist Jay McShann, with bluesman Walter Brown on vocals (and the young Charlie Parker on sax), had a huge hit, Confessin' The Blues (1941), by blending boogie woogie, blues and jazz.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ His ethereal style is an amalgam of the Afro-Cuban rhythms of his heritage and the music that influenced him as a teenager: Chicago blues, jazz, r&b and psychedelic rock.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

^ This North Carolina native is a singer and guitar player with a sound heavily influenced by blues and roots music.
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.It uses saxophone or other brass instruments and the guitar in the rhythm section to create a jazzy, up-tempo sound with declamatory vocals.^ PERFORMERS: Muddy Waters, vocals and guitar, in part with other musicians.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ I've just set up a separate section in order to let THIS page load faster for those who are still using dial-up connections.
  • The Delaware Valley Rhythm & Blues Society, Inc. is a non-profit organization dedicated to Classic Rhythm & Blues Music, Local History, Community Service, & Senior Dog Adoption 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.dvrbs.com [Source type: General]

^ Blow up stuff using a weapon you created!
  • Blue's News - All the carnage that's fit to post! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bluesnews.com [Source type: General]

.Jump blues tunes by Louis Jordan and Big Joe Turner, based in Kansas City, Missouri, influenced the development of later styles such as rock and roll and rhythm and blues.^ Blues has evolved from an unaccompanied vocal music and oral individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The style of British blues developed in the UK, when bands such as The Animals , Fleetwood Mac , John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers , The Rolling Stones , The Yardbirds , and Cream and Irish musician Rory Gallagher performed classic blues songs from the Delta or Chicago blues traditions.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[78] .Dallas-born T-Bone Walker, which is often associated to the California blues style,[79] performed a successful transition from the early urban blues à la Lonnie Johnson and Leroy Carr to the jump blues style and dominated the blues-jazz scene at Los Angeles during the 1940s.^ T-Bone Walker: Blues Guitar Godfather - discusses the early blues/jazz recordings.

^ Boogie-woogie was another important style of 1930s and early 1940s urban blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ As the recording industry grew, country blues performers like Bo Carter , Blind Lemon Jefferson , Lonnie Johnson , Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the African American community.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[80]

1950s

.The transition from country to urban blues, that began in the 1920s, had always been driven by the successive waves of economic crisis and booms and the associated move of the rural Blacks to urban areas, the Great Migration.^ The transition from country to urban blues, that began in the 1920s, Gospel music, became a component of the R&B wave.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ He was always a great educator and supporter of the blues, and passed on his passion to his daughter, Carroline Shines.

^ In the mid seventies he moved to Chicago and experienced the urban blues scene first hand.

.The long boom in the aftermath of World War II induced a massive migration of the African American population, the Second Great Migration, which was accompanied by a significant increase of the real income of the urban Blacks.^ Before World War II , the boundaries between blues and jazz were less clear.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The history of R&B isn't easily contained within the boundaries of the post-World War II era, when it began gathering popularity.
  • Downloads - Download Music - Download MP3s 17 September 2009 1:34 UTC www.mp3.com [Source type: General]

.The new migrants constituted a new market for the music industry.^ The Urban Music Awards today announced that it has entered into a licensing agreement to create a brand new Television show that is set to take the music industry by storm.

^ "We are very excited about Chiba as a huge star in the entertainment industry, not just in music", says IGP Media, Marketing & Media Director, Brian Lassiter.

^ The first service of its kind, Digiwaxx Media is at the forefront of the urban marketing industry with continuous changes to its platform to forecast and usher in new consumer and industry trends.

.The name race record disappeared and was succeeded by Rhythm and Blues.^ The EBB Records Story Vol 2 Blues n Rhythm And Roc : Various Artists : Concord Music Group Concord Music Group .
  • The EBB Records Story Vol 2 Blues n Rhythm And Roc : Various Artists : Concord Music Group 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.concordmusicgroup.com [Source type: General]

This rapidly evolving market was mirrored by the Billboard Rhythm and Blues Chart. .This marketing strategy reinforced trends within urban blues music such as the progressive electrification of the instruments, their amplification and the generalization of the blues beat, the blues shuffle, that became ubiquitous in R&B. This commercial stream had important consequences for blues music which, together with Jazz and Gospel music, became a component of the R&B wave.^ The transition from country to urban blues, that began in the 1920s, Gospel music, became a component of the R&B wave.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues has evolved from an unaccompanied vocal music and oral individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[81]
Muddy Waters, described as "the guiding light of the modern blues school"[82]
After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago,[83] Memphis,[84] Detroit[85][86] and St. Louis.[87] .Electric blues used electric guitars, double bass (slowly replaced by bass guitar), drums, and harmonica played through a microphone and a PA system or a guitar amplifier.^ In his teens he began playing the harmonica and guitar.

^ Bottom Line Blues Band, The - four piece cover band with a standard line up: drums, bass, guitar, keyboard and vocals.

^ Peter Narvaez - Original acoustic blues (vocals, fingerstyle guitar, harmonica, mandolin) from St. John's, Newfoundland.

.Chicago became a center for electric blues from 1948 on, when Muddy Waters recorded his first success: "I Can't Be Satisfied".[88] Chicago blues is influenced to a large extent by the Mississippi blues style, because many performers had migrated from the Mississippi region.^ Experienced performer of traditional blues both acoustic and electric.
  • Blues News: NZ Blues Directory 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.blues.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Kentucky-born Sylvester Weaver was in 1923 the first to record the slide guitar style, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the sawed-off neck of a bottle.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Howlin' Wolf,[89] Muddy Waters,[90] Willie Dixon,[91] and Jimmy Reed[92] were all born in Mississippi and moved to Chicago during the Great Migration.^ All of the Chicago protagonists were born in the South, mostly in Mississippi.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ In the 1940s/50s, a combined style of jazz and Mississippi Delta blues guitar playing arose from artists like BB King, T-Bone Walker, Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon, John Lee Hooker, Howlin’ Wolf, and Elmore James (Baker).
  • http://harwich.edu/depts/history/HHJ/MArm.html 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC harwich.edu [Source type: General]

^ (BH: they took their name from the Mississippi John Hurt song " Coffee Blues " that contains a line that strongly supports this secondary meaning "I wanna see my baby 'bout a lovin' spoonful , my lovin' spoonful") By the time Muddy Waters (BH: probably meant Willie Dixon who wrote the song Spoonful in the late fifties, performed by himself and Howlin' Wolf) had got a hold of the word, I think it began to have that meaning.
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

.Their style is characterized by the use of electric guitar, sometimes slide guitar, harmonica, and a rhythm section of bass and drums.^ Kentucky-born Sylvester Weaver was in 1923 the first to record the slide guitar style, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the sawed-off neck of a bottle.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Drums, Guitar & Bass amps , Y amaha electric piano, H ammond organ .
  • 'UNION STREET BLUES' JAZZ CLUB, OPEN MIC / BAND LIVE MUSIC, NEAR PENN STATE MIDDLETOWN HARRISBURG PA, BLUES CLUB / JAZZ CLUB 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC unionstreetblues.net [Source type: General]

^ Bottom Line Blues Band, The - four piece cover band with a standard line up: drums, bass, guitar, keyboard and vocals.

.J. T. Brown who played in Elmore James's bands,[93] or J. B. Lenoir's[94] also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ This is a constant communication from lead to follow (and vice versa) that uses the dancers' knowledge of more than one dance to flow from one dance to another within a song/dance.
  • BluesCal.com - Blues Exchange Calendar - Blues Workshops Parties Events 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bluescal.com [Source type: General]

^ Then he could just sit back and relax, knowing that he didn't have to worry about a thing—he had more than enough.
  • Richard Angulo - Internet NetNews - BlogSpot 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ecademy.com [Source type: Original source]

.Little Walter and Sonny Boy Williamson (Rice Miller) are well known harmonica (called "harp" by blues musicians) players of the early Chicago blues scene.^ Williamson, Sonny Boy, 1910-1965.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Little Walter and Sonny Boy Williamson (Rice Miller) are well known harmonica (called " harp " by blues musicians) players of the early Chicago blues scene.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ John Lee " Sonny Boy" Williamson (who moved to Chicago from Tennessee in 1937) integrated the blues harmonica into the blues singing, so that the two became one continuous voice.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

.Other harp players such as Big Walter Horton were also influential.^ Other harp players such as Big Walter Horton Waters were known for their deep, "gravelly" voices.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Horton, Big Walter, 1917 - 1981 .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Little Walter and Sonny Boy Williamson (Rice Miller) are well known harmonica (called " harp " by blues musicians) players of the early Chicago blues scene.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Muddy Waters and Elmore James were known for their innovative use of slide electric guitar.^ In 1946 Muddy Waters cut the first records of Chicago's electric blues.
  • A History of Rhythm'n'Blues 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ SoulManX 12-16-2006, 03:54 PM He was best with his muddy waters band which starred, Luther "guitar Jr" Johnson and jerry portnoy.
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

^ PERFORMERS: Muddy Waters, vocals and guitar, in part with other musicians.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

.Howlin' Wolf and Muddy Waters were known for their deep, "gravelly" voices.^ From Maxwell Street to the south side, he sopped up the blues gravy served by the likes of Muddy Waters, Howlin’ Wolf, Buddy Guy and many others.

^ Other harp players such as Big Walter Horton Waters were known for their deep, "gravelly" voices.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues Paradise : Links to classic musicians Sonny Boy Williamson I and II, Muddy Waters, Little Walter, Robert Johnson and Howlin' Wolf as well as links to many more contemporary blues artists.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Bassist and composer Willie Dixon played a major role on the Chicago blues scene.^ Bassist and composer Willie Dixon played a major role on the Chicago blues scene.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ HUGE blues fan - in fact once in concert I saw Muddy waters, willie dixon and big twist and the mellow fellows (anyone remember him?
  • Blues music (album, Rolling Stones, artists, 60's) - City-Data Forum 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

^ In the mid seventies he moved to Chicago and experienced the urban blues scene first hand.

.He composed and wrote many standard blues songs of the period, such as "Hoochie Coochie Man", "I Just Want to Make Love to You" (both penned for Muddy Waters) and, "Wang Dang Doodle" and "Back Door Man" for Howlin' Wolf.^ If you want to learn the Blues, this course is it.

^ He composed and wrote many standard blues songs of the period, such as " Hoochie Coochie Man ", " I Just Want to Make Love to You " (both penned for Muddy Waters) and, " Wang Dang Doodle " and " Back Door Man " for Howlin' Wolf.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The blues are almost always sad songs about being out of work, broke, hungry, far away from home, wanting to get on a train but having no ticket, or being lonely when someone you love is gone.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

.Most artists of the Chicago blues style recorded for the Chicago-based Chess Records and Checker Records labels.^ Most artists of the Chicago blues style recorded for the Chicago-based Chess Records and Checker Records labels.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ He was a session man, producer, composer and arranger at legendary Chicago label Chess Records in the 1960s, and can be heard on sax on a long list of ’50s-’60s oldies and blues cuts.
  • Chicago Rhythm and Blues Kings: A blues break from all those jingle bells | Kalamazoo Entertainment - - MLive.com 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.mlive.com [Source type: General]

^ His ethereal style is an amalgam of the Afro-Cuban rhythms of his heritage and the music that influenced him as a teenager: Chicago blues, jazz, r&b and psychedelic rock.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

.Smaller blues labels of this era included Vee-Jay Records and J.O.B. Records.^ Smaller blues labels of this era included Vee-Jay Records and J.O.B. Records .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Live Bands History of Motown Record Label: Berry Gordy and Rhythm and Blues Music Do you remember the hits of the 60's and 70's?

^ Record Labels Susan Tedeschi - Boston Native Who Brings Blues to Life Susan Tedeschi is one of those artists that is well known to her core group of fans.

.During the early 1950s, Chicago labels began with Sam Phillips' Sun Records company in Memphis, which recorded B. B. King and Howlin' Wolf before he moved to Chicago in 1960.[95] After Phillips discovered Elvis Presley in 1954, the Sun label turned to the rapidly expanding white audience and started recording mostly rock 'n' roll.^ During the early 1950s, the Chicagoean labels were concurenced by Sam Phillips ' Sun Records company in Memphis which recorded B. B. King and Howlin' Wolf before he moved to Chicago in 1960.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ This, of course, means that certain audiences don't consider them as real as his raw, gritty Specialty recordings, and if that's what you're looking for from Price, turn to their...
  • Downloads - Download Music - Download MP3s 17 September 2009 1:34 UTC www.mp3.com [Source type: General]

^ After leaving King and recording some more sides in the early '60s, they finally broke up by 1965.
  • Downloads - Download Music - Download MP3s 17 September 2009 1:34 UTC www.mp3.com [Source type: General]

[96]
.In the 1950s, blues had a huge influence on mainstream American popular music.^ Blues Music : A tribute to the original American music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ In the 1950s, blues had a huge influence on mainstream American popular music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.While popular musicians like Bo Diddley[85] and Chuck Berry,[97] both recording for Chess, were influenced by the Chicago blues, their enthusiastic playing styles departed from the melancholy aspects of blues.^ While popular musicians like Bo Diddley blues.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Most artists of the Chicago blues style recorded for the Chicago-based Chess Records and Checker Records labels.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Bessie Smith was one of the biggest African-American stars of the 1920s and was popular with both Whites and African-Americans, but by 1931 the Classic Blues style of Bessie Smith was out of style and the Depression, radio, and sound movies had all damaged the record companies' ability to sell records so Columbia dropped Smith from its roster.

.Chicago blues also influenced Louisiana's zydeco music,[98] with Clifton Chenier[99] using blues accents.^ Chicago blues also influenced Louisiana 's zydeco music, using blues accents.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ His ethereal style is an amalgam of the Afro-Cuban rhythms of his heritage and the music that influenced him as a teenager: Chicago blues, jazz, r&b and psychedelic rock.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

.Zydeco musicians used electric solo guitar and cajun arrangements of blues standards.^ Zydeco musicians used electric solo guitar and cajun arrangements of blues standards.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Bottom Line Blues Band, The - four piece cover band with a standard line up: drums, bass, guitar, keyboard and vocals.

Otis Rush, a pioneer of the 'West Side Sound'
.In the late 1950s, a new blues style emerged on Chicago's West Side pioneered by Magic Sam, Buddy Guy and Otis Rush on Cobra Records.^ In the late 1960s, the West Side style blues emerged in Chicago with Magic Sam , Magic Slim and Otis Rush .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blue Flame Cafe: Magic Sam - one of the originators of the West Side guitar style.

^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

[100] .The 'West Side Sound' had strong rhythmic support from a rhythm guitar, bass guitar and drums and as pefected by Guy, Freddie King, Magic Slim and Luther Allison was dominated by amplified electric lead guitar.^ Drums, Guitar & Bass amps , Y amaha electric piano, H ammond organ .
  • 'UNION STREET BLUES' JAZZ CLUB, OPEN MIC / BAND LIVE MUSIC, NEAR PENN STATE MIDDLETOWN HARRISBURG PA, BLUES CLUB / JAZZ CLUB 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC unionstreetblues.net [Source type: General]

^ In the late 1960s, the West Side style blues emerged in Chicago with Magic Sam , Magic Slim and Otis Rush .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Bottom Line Blues Band, The - four piece cover band with a standard line up: drums, bass, guitar, keyboard and vocals.

[101][102]
John Lee Hooker created his own blues style and renewed it several times during his long career.
.Other blues artists, such as John Lee Hooker had influences not directly related to the Chicago style.^ Other blues artists, such as John Lee Hooker boogie".
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ John Lee Hooker influence on those styles of music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Hooker, John Lee, 1917 -2001 .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

.John Lee Hooker's blues is more "personal", based on Hooker's deep rough voice accompanied by a single electric guitar.^ Other blues artists, such as John Lee Hooker boogie".
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Hooker, John Lee, 1917 -2001 .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ John Lee Hooker plays & sings the blues.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

Though not directly influenced by boogie woogie, his "groovy" style is sometimes called "guitar boogie". His first hit, "Boogie Chillen", reached #1 on the R&B charts in 1949.[103]
.By the late 1950s, the swamp blues genre developed near Baton Rouge, with performers such as Lightnin' Slim,[104] Slim Harpo,[105] Sam Myers and Jerry McCain.^ By the late 1950s, the swamp blues genre developed near Baton Rouge , with performers such as Lightnin' Slim , Sam Myers and Jerry McCain .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ In the late 1960s, the West Side style blues emerged in Chicago with Magic Sam , Magic Slim and Otis Rush .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The lively Memphis blues style, which developed in the 1920s and 1930s near Memphis, Tennessee , was influenced by jug bands such as the Memphis Jug Band or the Gus Cannon's Jug Stompers .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Strongly influenced by Jimmy Reed, Swamp blues has a slower pace and a simpler use of the harmonica than the Chicago blues style performers such as Little Walter or Muddy Waters.^ Chicago blues also influenced Louisiana 's zydeco music, using blues accents.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Hokum blues celebrated both comedic lyrical content and a boisterous, farcical performance style.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

Songs from this genre include "Scratch my Back", "She's Tough" and "I'm a King Bee".

1960s and 1970s

.By the beginning of the 1960s, genres influenced by African American music such as rock and roll and soul were part of mainstream popular music.^ See also: African American music: an introduction.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ See also: African American music: an introduction .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ By the beginning of the 1960s, genres influenced by African American music such as rock and roll and soul throughout the 1960s.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.White performers had brought African-American music to new audiences, both within the US and abroad.^ See also: African American music: an introduction.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ See also: African American music: an introduction .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre created within the African-American communities in the Deep South of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spirituals , work songs , field hollers , shouts and chants , and rhymed simple narrative ballads .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.However, the blues wave that brought artists such as Muddy Waters to the foreground had stopped.^ Other blues artists, such as John Lee Hooker boogie".
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues performers such as John Lee Hooker and Muddy Waters continued to perform to enthusiastic audiences, inspiring new artists steeped in traditional blues, such as New York-born Taj Mahal .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ From Maxwell Street to the south side, he sopped up the blues gravy served by the likes of Muddy Waters, Howlin’ Wolf, Buddy Guy and many others.

.Bluesmen such as Big Bill Broonzy and Willie Dixon started looking for new markets in Europe.^ Other chords progressions are still called blues such as 8-bar forms, like " How Long Blues ", " Trouble in Mind ", and Big Bill Broonzy 's " Key to the Highway ".
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Salon For Sale Eugene OR new hydro massage starting bid 2000 Salon for sale in PA Looking for ETS Starpower or Solaris newer the better What are they Worth??
  • For Sale - FOR SALON OWNERS ONLY [Archive] - tanTALK - Tanning Salon Business Owners Community 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC tantalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Thanks to John "JohnnyB" Bradford for this contribution to the list __________ This phrase can be found in: Big Bill Broonzy, C C Rider (1) & C C Rider (2) , Ma Rainey, Jelly Bean Blues & See See Rider Mississippi John Hurt, See See Rider , New!
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

.Dick Waterman and the blues festivals he organized in Europe played a major role in propagating blues music abroad.^ During this component of the unit, blues music should be played.
  • 97.05.04: Finding the Rhythm of Blues in Children�s Poetry, Art, and Music 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: General]

^ Bassist and composer Willie Dixon played a major role on the Chicago blues scene.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ A non-profit organization dedicated to Local History * Community Service * Senior Dog Adoption * Classic Rhythm & Blues Music * .
  • The Delaware Valley Rhythm & Blues Society, Inc. is a non-profit organization dedicated to Classic Rhythm & Blues Music, Local History, Community Service, & Senior Dog Adoption 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.dvrbs.com [Source type: General]

.In the UK, bands emulated US blues legends, and UK blues-rock-based bands had an influential role throughout the 1960s.^ Brilliant Blue - indie rock guitar band based in Bristol.

^ Also an accomplished songwriter, Walker has conducted tours throughout the US. His home base is in Austin, where he has spent the last ten years playing among the best blues musicians in the world while establishing himself as a unique and compelling performer.
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ McDonald, Forrest - dedicated to the blues/rock music of guitarist/songwriter Forrest McDonald and his band.

[106]
Blues legend B.B. King with his guitar, "Lucille".
.Blues performers such as John Lee Hooker and Muddy Waters continued to perform to enthusiastic audiences, inspiring new artists steeped in traditional blues, such as New York–born Taj Mahal.^ Blues performers such as John Lee Hooker and Muddy Waters continued to perform to enthusiastic audiences, inspiring new artists steeped in traditional blues, such as New York-born Taj Mahal .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Hooker, John Lee, 1917 -2001 .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ John Lee Hooker plays & sings the blues.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

.John Lee Hooker blended his blues style with rock elements and playing with younger white musicians, creating a musical style that can be heard on the 1971 album Endless Boogie.^ Other blues artists, such as John Lee Hooker boogie".
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ John Lee Hooker influence on those styles of music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Hooker, John Lee, 1917 -2001 .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

.B. B. King's virtuoso guitar technique earned him the eponymous title "king of the blues". In contrast to the Chicago style, King's band used strong brass support from a saxophone, trumpet, and trombone, instead of using slide guitar or harp.^ Southbound Train - electric blues band featuring slide guitar.

^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Kentucky-born Sylvester Weaver was in 1923 the first to record the slide guitar style, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the sawed-off neck of a bottle.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Tennessee-born Bobby "Blue" Bland, like B. B. King, also straddled the blues and R&B genres.^ Our cover artist, Bobby Tench, is a musician who has played and recorded with so many people that his biography reads like a Who’s Who of British blues.
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues music was born and continued to thrive because white people liked it.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

.During this period, Freddie King and Albert King often played with rock and soul musicians (Eric Clapton, Booker T & the MGs)and had a major influence on those styles of music.^ John Lee Hooker influence on those styles of music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ His ethereal style is an amalgam of the Afro-Cuban rhythms of his heritage and the music that influenced him as a teenager: Chicago blues, jazz, r&b and psychedelic rock.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

^ Eric Clapton , known for his performances with the Blues Breakers and Cream , made a comeback in the 1990s with his album Unplugged , important component of blues music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.The music of the Civil Rights[107] and Free Speech movements in the US prompted a resurgence of interest in American roots music and early African American music.^ See also: African American music: an introduction.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ See also: African American music: an introduction .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ See also: Roots music : an American journey.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

.As well as Jimmi Bass Music festivals such as the Newport Folk Festival[108] brought traditional blues to a new audience, which helped to revive interest in prewar acoustic blues and performers such as Son House, Mississippi John Hurt, Skip James, and Reverend Gary Davis.^ Traditional music at Newport, 1964.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Mississippi John Hurt: Last sessions.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Mississippi John Hurt--today!
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

[107] .Many compilations of classic prewar blues were republished by the Yazoo Records.^ Our cover artist, Bobby Tench, is a musician who has played and recorded with so many people that his biography reads like a Who’s Who of British blues.
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ She is featured on the Vent Records CD, Alabama Blues Showcase: A Compilation of Alabama Blues Artists and on a German release by Taxim Records called Blues from the Heart of Dixie which showcases contemporary Alabama blues musicians.

^ Country Blues Guitar Discography An extensive list of prewar fingerstyle blues recordings.

.J. B. Lenoir from the Chicago blues movement in the 1950s recorded several LPs using acoustic guitar, sometimes accompanied by Willie Dixon on the acoustic bass or drums.^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Singers such as Blind Willie McTell and Blind Boy Fuller performed in the southeastern "delicate and lyrical" Piedmont blues tradition, which used an elaborate ragtime-based fingerpicking guitar technique.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Drums, Guitar & Bass amps , Y amaha electric piano, H ammond organ .
  • 'UNION STREET BLUES' JAZZ CLUB, OPEN MIC / BAND LIVE MUSIC, NEAR PENN STATE MIDDLETOWN HARRISBURG PA, BLUES CLUB / JAZZ CLUB 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC unionstreetblues.net [Source type: General]

.His songs, originally distributed in Europe only,[109] commented on political issues such as racism or Vietnam War issues, which was unusual for this period.^ The music of the Civil Rights commented on political issues such as racism or Vietnam War issues, which was unusual for this period.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Disc one (THE SUN) is the original 12-song album issued last May.

^ The songs tackled issues of politics and revolution as well as containing powerful tribute tracks to his mother.

His Alabama Blues recording had a song that stated:
I never will go back to Alabama, that is not the place for me (2x)
You know they killed my sister and my brother,
and the whole world let them peoples go down there free
.White audiences' interest in the blues during the 1960s increased due to the Chicago-based Paul Butterfield Blues Band and the British blues movement.^ White audiences' interest in the blues during the 1960s increased due to the Chicago-based Paul Butterfield Blues Band and the British blues movement.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Corky Siegel's Planet : Member of a famous chicago blues band in the 60-70's.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Most artists of the Chicago blues style recorded for the Chicago-based Chess Records and Checker Records labels.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.The style of British blues developed in the UK, when bands such as The Animals, Fleetwood Mac, John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, The Rolling Stones, The Yardbirds, and Cream and Irish musician Rory Gallagher performed classic blues songs from the Delta or Chicago blues traditions.^ The style of British blues developed in the UK, when bands such as The Animals , Fleetwood Mac , John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers , The Rolling Stones , The Yardbirds , and Cream and Irish musician Rory Gallagher performed classic blues songs from the Delta or Chicago blues traditions.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Gallagher, Rory - Irish blues and rock guitarist .

^ Gallagher, Rory - Irish blues and rock guitarist.

[110] .Many of Led Zeppelin's earlier hits were renditions of traditional blues songs.^ Many of Led Zeppelin 's earlier hits were renditions of traditional blues songs.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Music Forum, 40 replies Instrumental Blues songs and/or good guitar blues songs , Music Forum, 19 replies Music News, Led Zeppelin to sell music online.
  • Blues music (album, Rolling Stones, artists, 60's) - City-Data Forum 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]
  • Blues music - Page 2 - City-Data Forum 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The British and blues musicians of the early 1960s inspired a number of American blues rock fusion performers, including Canned Heat, the early Jefferson Airplane, Janis Joplin, Johnny Winter, The J. Geils Band, Ry Cooder, and The Allman Brothers Band.^ The British and blues musicians of the early 1960s inspired a number of American blues rock fusion performers, including Canned Heat , the early Jefferson Airplane , Janis Joplin , Johnny Winter , The J. Geils Band , Ry Cooder , James Montgomery Blues Band and The Allman Brothers Band .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ The style of British blues developed in the UK, when bands such as The Animals , Fleetwood Mac , John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers , The Rolling Stones , The Yardbirds , and Cream and Irish musician Rory Gallagher performed classic blues songs from the Delta or Chicago blues traditions.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ As the recording industry grew, country blues performers like Bo Carter , Blind Lemon Jefferson , Lonnie Johnson , Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the African American community.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.One blues rock performer, Jimi Hendrix, was a rarity in his field at the time: a black man who played psychedelic rock.^ His ethereal style is an amalgam of the Afro-Cuban rhythms of his heritage and the music that influenced him as a teenager: Chicago blues, jazz, r&b and psychedelic rock.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

^ It was a blah round for Hull, who didn't score any goals and only managed one shot on goal in Game Four - his second-to-last home game as a Blue.
  • St. Louis Blues@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ Our cover artist, Bobby Tench, is a musician who has played and recorded with so many people that his biography reads like a Who’s Who of British blues.
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Hendrix was a skilled guitarist, and a pioneer in the innovative use of distortion and feedback in his music.^ Hendrix was a skilled guitarist, and a pioneer in the innovative use of distortion and feedback in his music.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ My music is different, innovative and refreshing, because a lot of people are so used to hearing the same style on the radio right now.

[111] .Through these artists and others, blues music influenced the development of rock music.^ Blues Music Joe Bonamassa : Clues to the Blues Music You Choose Blues is a musical style that begs borrows and fuses all other styles together in one harmonious sound.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ His ethereal style is an amalgam of the Afro-Cuban rhythms of his heritage and the music that influenced him as a teenager: Chicago blues, jazz, r&b and psychedelic rock.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

^ This North Carolina native is a singer and guitar player with a sound heavily influenced by blues and roots music.
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[112]
.In the early 1970s, The Texas rock-blues style emerged, which used guitars in both solo and rhythm roles.^ After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago , also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Hokum blues celebrated both comedic lyrical content and a boisterous, farcical performance style.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ His ethereal style is an amalgam of the Afro-Cuban rhythms of his heritage and the music that influenced him as a teenager: Chicago blues, jazz, r&b and psychedelic rock.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

.In contrast with the West Side blues, the Texas style is strongly influenced by the British rock-blues movement.^ His ethereal style is an amalgam of the Afro-Cuban rhythms of his heritage and the music that influenced him as a teenager: Chicago blues, jazz, r&b and psychedelic rock.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

^ In the late 1960s, the West Side style blues emerged in Chicago with Magic Sam , Magic Slim and Otis Rush .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Can play most styles, especially blues, rock, funk/soul, jazz etc.

.Major artists of the Texas style are Johnny Winter, Stevie Ray Vaughan, The Fabulous Thunderbirds, and ZZ Top.^ The rapper is currently top 5 among MySpace's "Top Hip-Hop Artists - Major," as well as top 10 on the overall "Top Artists - Major" charts.

^ In Session Albert King & Stevie Ray Vaughan Price: By Song Only .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Vaughan, Stevie Ray, 1954 - 1990 .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

.These artists all began their musical journey in the 1970s, but they did not achieve major international success until the next decade.^ Since the early 1970s, The Texas rock-blues style did not achieve major international success until the next decade.
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ From superstars like Romeo and Akon to unsigned and DIY artists, all types of musicians sell their music on AmieStreet.com.

^ John Landis said they Blues Brothers turned a new generation on to these old artists thus causing new music from them.
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

[113]

1980s to the 2000s

.Since the 1980s, there has been a resurgence of interest in the blues among a certain part of the African-American population, particularly around Jackson, Mississippi and other deep South regions.^ Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre created within the African-American communities in the Deep South of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spirituals , work songs , field hollers , shouts and chants , and rhymed simple narrative ballads .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the 1980s, there has been a resurgence of interest in the unexpected success of two particular recordings on the Jackson-based Malaco label: Z. Z. Hill 's Down Home Blues (1982) and Little Milton 's The Blues is Alright (1984).
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ As a child growing up in a small Mississippi town he was exposed to African-American culture, which still strongly reflected that of the early part of the twentieth century.

.Often termed "soul blues" or "Southern soul", the music at the heart of this movement was given new life by the unexpected success of two particular recordings on the Jackson-based Malaco label:[114] Z. Z. Hill's Down Home Blues (1982) and Little Milton's The Blues is Alright (1984).^ Blues music was the antithesis of city life, but the early recording of blues music was a New York affair.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the 1980s, there has been a resurgence of interest in the unexpected success of two particular recordings on the Jackson-based Malaco label: Z. Z. Hill 's Down Home Blues (1982) and Little Milton 's The Blues is Alright (1984).
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues has evolved from an unaccompanied vocal music and oral individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon .
  • Top20Blues.com - Blues Music Guide. 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC top20blues.com [Source type: General]

.Contemporary African-American performers who work this vein of the blues include Bobby Rush, Denise LaSalle, Sir Charles Jones, Bettye LaVette, Marvin Sease and Peggy Scott-Adams.^ Who can forget the steamy, rocking blues show brought on by Bobby Rush a few years ago.

^ Minner is an Oklahoma blues legend who started his career as a bassist working in the bands of Chuck Berry, Bo Didley, OV Wright and Freddie King.
  • D.C. Minner's Down Home Blues Club 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dcminnerblues.com [Source type: General]

^ Though most people immediately think of white performers in blackface, black minstrelsy performed by African-American entertainers was popular and influential.
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Texas blues guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan
During the 1980s, blues also continued in both traditional and new forms. .In 1986, the album Strong Persuader revealed Robert Cray as a major blues artist.^ Wikipedia says that the style originated with black blues artists such as Robert Johnson, Elmore James, and Son House.
  • Blues music (album, Rolling Stones, artists, 60's) - City-Data Forum 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

^ To start the year we have two major articles on UK artists who excel at different ends of the blues.
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues music (album, Rolling Stones, artists, 60's) .
  • Blues music (album, Rolling Stones, artists, 60's) - City-Data Forum 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

[115] .The first Stevie Ray Vaughan recording, Texas Flood, was released in 1983, and the Texas-based guitarist exploded onto the international stage.^ He made his recording debut in 1997 with the release of his first album, When It Rains It Pours.
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Washington state based Jake Records announces today the worldwide release of the new album from multi-platinum Hip Hop legends Digital Underground.

^ Currently Diablo is working with producer Tim Armstong (Rancid) recording his upcoming album, International Hardcore Superstar, for release in 2008.

.1989 saw a revival of John Lee Hooker's popularity with the album The Healer.^ Hooker, John Lee, 1917 -2001 .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ John Lee Hooker plays & sings the blues.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ John Lee Hooker in several of his songs, is simply a southern pronunciation of the word "children", thanks Alan Wexler for your contribution.
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

.Eric Clapton, known for his performances with the Blues Breakers and Cream, made a comeback in the 1990s with his album Unplugged, in which he played some standard blues numbers on acoustic guitar.^ Thats what D.C. wanted he understood he wasnt going to get wealthy playing blues, but at the end of the day what made it worthwhile was the recognition by his peers.
  • D.C. Minner's Down Home Blues Club 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dcminnerblues.com [Source type: General]

^ Asherson first heard the blues in his native city of London, England, and began to play the harmonica, guitar and piano in the '60's.

^ After moving to California, he started playing lead guitar and met Selby in a club in the Bay area, where she played acoustic blues.
  • D.C. Minner's Down Home Blues Club 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dcminnerblues.com [Source type: General]

.However, beginning in the 1990s, digital multitrack recording and other technological advances and new marketing strategies that include video clip production have increased costs, and challenge the spontaneity and improvisation that are an important component of blues music.^ Increased costs (health-related expenses, fuel and other basic living expenses) .
  • Travel To China, China Travel Guide, China Real Estate 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.qqbay.net [Source type: General]

^ In signifying, speakers spontaneously compose rhythmic and rhyming phrases in improvised counterpoint to the signified phrases of other speakers.
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ Our new Let's have A Party cd on Double Barrel Records is available now and will be available on iTunes and other sites soon.

[116]
.In the 1980s and 1990s, blues publications such as Living Blues and Blues Revue began to be distributed, major cities began forming blues societies, outdoor blues festivals became more common, and[117] more nightclubs and venues for blues emerged.^ Despite the fast pace (that became even faster, louder and more percussive in the 1950s), boogie woogie remained faithful to the blues chord progression.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Asherson first heard the blues in his native city of London, England, and began to play the harmonica, guitar and piano in the '60's.

^ By Christine Bude Nyholm   |  Published 5/22/2007 More topics: Chicago Blues Festival .
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[118]
.In the 1990s, blues performers explored a range of musical genres, as can be seen, for example, from the broad array of nominees of the yearly Blues Music Awards, previously named W. C. Handy Awards[119] or of the Grammy Awards for Best Contemporary and Traditional Blues Album.^ His debut CD - "Rise" released by Canadian Northern Blues label - received Blues Music Award nomination.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

^ There are two categories: Best Contemporary Blues Album & Best Traditional Blues Album that for the most part relate to this blog… I wanted to briefly mention one of this year’s Grammy nominees – Raisin’ Music’s Chicago Blues: A Living… .
  • Alltop - Top Blues News 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues Music "Mess of Blues" by Jeff Healy an overview of the album "Mess of Blues" by Jeff Healy By Sherrill Fulghum   |  Published 1/3/2009 More topics: Mess .

.Contemporary blues music is nurtured by several blues labels such as: Alligator Records, Ruf Records, Chess Records (MCA), Delmark Records, NorthernBlues Music, and Vanguard Records (Artemis Records).^ His debut CD - "Rise" released by Canadian Northern Blues label - received Blues Music Award nomination.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

^ Although it lasted three short years (1957-59), Lee Rupe's Ebb Records recorded a remarkable variety of music for such a little label.
  • The EBB Records Story Vol 2 Blues n Rhythm And Roc : Various Artists : Concord Music Group 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.concordmusicgroup.com [Source type: General]

^ She is featured on the Vent Records CD, Alabama Blues Showcase: A Compilation of Alabama Blues Artists and on a German release by Taxim Records called Blues from the Heart of Dixie which showcases contemporary Alabama blues musicians.

.Some labels are famous for their rediscovering and remastering of blues rarities such as Arhoolie Records, Smithsonian Folkways Recordings (heir of Folkways Records) and Yazoo Records (Shanachie Records).^ Although it lasted three short years (1957-59), Lee Rupe's Ebb Records recorded a remarkable variety of music for such a little label.
  • The EBB Records Story Vol 2 Blues n Rhythm And Roc : Various Artists : Concord Music Group 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.concordmusicgroup.com [Source type: General]

^ Live Bands History of Motown Record Label: Berry Gordy and Rhythm and Blues Music Do you remember the hits of the 60's and 70's?

^ Record Labels Susan Tedeschi - Boston Native Who Brings Blues to Life Susan Tedeschi is one of those artists that is well known to her core group of fans.

[120]
.Young blues artists today are exploring all aspects of the blues, from classic delta to more rock-oriented blues, artists born after 1970 such as John Mayer, Kenny Wayne Shepherd, Sean Costello, Shannon Curfman, Anthony Gomes, Shemekia Copeland, Jonny Lang, Corey Harris, Susan Tedeschi, JW-Jones, Joe Bonamassa, Michelle Malone, The White Stripes, North Mississippi Allstars, Everlast, The Black Keys, Bob Log III, Jose P and Hillstomp developing their own styles.^ The first blues songs to be published, in 1912, were Baby Seals Blues , written by ragtime artist Artie Matthews, and Dallas Blues , written by white songwriter Hart Wand.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues Music Joe Bonamassa : Clues to the Blues Music You Choose Blues is a musical style that begs borrows and fuses all other styles together in one harmonious sound.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ His ethereal style is an amalgam of the Afro-Cuban rhythms of his heritage and the music that influenced him as a teenager: Chicago blues, jazz, r&b and psychedelic rock.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

[121] .Memphis, Texas-based William Daniel McFalls, also known as "Blues Boy Willie" is a performer of traditional blues.^ PERFORMERS: Full text of three-way conversations among Memphis Slim, Big Bill Broonzy, and Sonny Boy Williamson; and the singers' biographies by Matthew Barton.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ PERFORMERS: Son House, vocals, guitar ; Leroy Williams, harmonica ; Willie Brown, guitar ; Joe Martin, mandolin, speech ; Al Wilson, guitar.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ She has performed in many blues festivals such as the Pensacola Blues Festival and Willie King’s Freedom Creek festival, and in 2006, she competed at the Blues Challenge for North Michigan in a Solo/Duo competition.

Musical impact

.Blues musical styles, forms (12-bar blues), melodies, and the blues scale have influenced many other genres of music, such as rock and roll, jazz, and popular music.^ It's 12-bar, bent-note melody is the anthem of a race bonding itself together with cries of shared self victimization.
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ His ethereal style is an amalgam of the Afro-Cuban rhythms of his heritage and the music that influenced him as a teenager: Chicago blues, jazz, r&b and psychedelic rock.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

^ Two scales developed by the merge of European and African music: the deviant pentatonic scale of "spiritual" music and the expanded diatonic scale of "blues" music.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

[122] .Prominent jazz, folk or rock performers, such as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Miles Davis, and Bob Dylan have performed significant blues recordings.^ Throughout the 1920s Smith recorded with many of the great Jazz musicians of that era, including Fletcher Henderson , James P. Johnson , Coleman Hawkins , Don Redman and Louis Armstrong .

^ And when digging for roots, you need go no further than the blues, soul and jazz, which are some of America's greatest original artforms By Nick Hutchinson   |  Published 3/17/2005 More topics: Duke Ellington .
  • Blues Music - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Can play most styles, especially blues, rock, funk/soul, jazz etc.

.The blues scale is often used in popular songs like Harold Arlen's "Blues in the Night", blues ballads like "Since I Fell for You" and "Please Send Me Someone to Love", and even in orchestral works such as George Gershwin's "Rhapsody in Blue" and "Concerto in F". Gershwin's second "Prelude" for solo piano is an interesting example of a classical blues, maintaining the form with academic strictness.^ It's like a state of mind, a state of love if you will.

^ In any event, since somehow miraculously I did not dissolve like a chunk of salt in the bathing pond of the bathhouse, I was certain that I had acquired a second life.
  • The Blind Owl 25 September 2009 8:11 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I've often heard the term used to mean that you're "working it hard" in whatever your doing...For example I've heard people working on road crews say, "you best be ballin' it and not just doggin' it"...
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

.The blues scale is ubiquitous in modern popular music and informs many modal frames, especially the ladder of thirds used in rock music (e.g., in "A Hard Day's Night").^ Among metaphors themes used in blues music, culinary themes are especially comon.
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ Among metaphors used in blues music, culinary themes are especially comon.
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ His ethereal style is an amalgam of the Afro-Cuban rhythms of his heritage and the music that influenced him as a teenager: Chicago blues, jazz, r&b and psychedelic rock.
  • Przemek Draheim's official website 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blues.pl [Source type: General]

Blues forms are used in the theme to the televised Batman, teen idol Fabian's hit, "Turn Me Loose", country music star Jimmie Rodgers' music, and guitarist/vocalist Tracy Chapman's hit "Give Me One Reason".
.R&B music can be traced back to spirituals and blues.^ Two scales developed by the merge of European and African music: the deviant pentatonic scale of "spiritual" music and the expanded diatonic scale of "blues" music.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ By the time the Depression stopped the flood, thousands of musicians had moved north, and transplanted their music (whether blues, spiritual or jazz) into the northern cities.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Career Unlike most of his peers in Southern soul, Carter's musical approach harkened directly back to acoustic country blues.
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

.Musically, spirituals were a descendant of New England choral traditions, and in particular of Isaac Watts's hymns, mixed with African rhythms and call-and-response forms.^ Two scales developed by the merge of European and African music: the deviant pentatonic scale of "spiritual" music and the expanded diatonic scale of "blues" music.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus the key elements of West African music were rhythm and timbre, not melody and harmony.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Needless to say, the development of negro spirituals picked up speed tremendously when the first black preachers started practicing, because then the preacher and its audience would simply turn their "call and response" relationship into musical interaction.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

.Spirituals or religious chants in the African-American community are much better documented than the "low-down" blues.^ Two scales developed by the merge of European and African music: the deviant pentatonic scale of "spiritual" music and the expanded diatonic scale of "blues" music.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ It's blues function as a sexual euphemism seems to have arisen with Blind Lemon Jefferson's 1928 song "Low-down Mojo".
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ But the Blues still fell short of the playoffs that year, but finishing 24 points better than the previous.
  • St. Louis Blues@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

.Spiritual singing developed because African-American communities could gather for mass or worship gatherings, which were called camp meetings.^ Two scales developed by the merge of European and African music: the deviant pentatonic scale of "spiritual" music and the expanded diatonic scale of "blues" music.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ The program highlights these established business leaders as role models to promote mentorship and professional development for young African-Americans.

^ For more information about KFC's commitment to the African-American community, please visit www.kfc.com/pride360.

.Early country bluesmen such as Skip James, Charley Patton, Georgia Tom Dorsey played country and urban blues and had influences from spiritual singing.^ Charley Patton, founder of the Delta blues.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Wikipedia says that the style originated with black blues artists such as Robert Johnson, Elmore James, and Son House.
  • Blues music (album, Rolling Stones, artists, 60's) - City-Data Forum 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

^ Charley Patton] PERFORMERS: Featuring music by Charley Patton and others, performed by him accompanying himself on guitar in part with other musicians, or sung and played by other musicians, in part accompanied by Patton.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

Dorsey helped to popularize Gospel music.[123] .Gospel music developed in the 1930s, with the Golden Gate Quartet.^ It was only later, in the 1930s, that some performers began to "export" gospel music to the night clubs.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ The sound of the gospel quartet had an influence on the parallel development of the pop vocal groups.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

.In the 1950s, soul music by Sam Cooke, Ray Charles and James Brown used gospel and blues music elements.^ Many metaphors used in the blues were derived from the process of cooking and other closely related culinary terms.
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ Brown skin is another skin color related term often used in blues songs.
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ Thanks to Andy James for this contribution; 2 - a spoon was/is used by addicts to liquefy heroine so it can be injected into a vein; 3 - a vague blues euphemism for sex.
  • Harry's Blues Lyrics Online, Blues Language page 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC blueslyrics.tripod.com [Source type: General]

.In the 1960s and 1970s, gospel and blues were these merged in soul blues music.^ Two scales developed by the merge of European and African music: the deviant pentatonic scale of "spiritual" music and the expanded diatonic scale of "blues" music.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ John Landis said they Blues Brothers turned a new generation on to these old artists thus causing new music from them.
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

^ The twelve-bar structure that eventually became the standard was an invention of these urban songwriters: the original blues music was largely free form.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

Funk music of the 1970s was influenced by soul; funk can be seen as an antecedent of hip-hop and contemporary R&B.
Duke Ellington straddled the big band and bebop genres. Ellington extensively used the blues form.[124]
.Before World War II, the boundaries between blues and jazz were less clear.^ She was instrumental in both sculpting a powerful, emotional vocal style and in bridging the worlds of blues, pop and jazz.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ The history of R&B isn't easily contained within the boundaries of the post-World War II era, when it began gathering popularity.
  • Downloads - Download Music - Download MP3s 17 September 2009 1:34 UTC www.mp3.com [Source type: General]

^ Capitol jazz performances between 2 covers] and The story of the blues .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

.Usually jazz had harmonic structures stemming from brass bands, whereas blues had blues forms such as the 12-bar blues.^ Swinging The Origin of Blues The Blues is a style of music that evolved from southern African-American songs usually marked by a syncopated 4/4 rhythm, flatted thirds and sevenths, and a 12-bar structure.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Delta Blues The Origin of Blues The Blues is a style of music that evolved from southern African-American songs usually marked by a syncopated 4/4 rhythm, flatted thirds and sevenths, and a 12-bar structure.

^ The twelve-bar structure that eventually became the standard was an invention of these urban songwriters: the original blues music was largely free form.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

.However, the jump blues of the 1940s mixed both styles.^ She was instrumental in both sculpting a powerful, emotional vocal style and in bridging the worlds of blues, pop and jazz.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

.After WWII, blues had a substantial influence on jazz.^ Blues music is a truly American artform that has considerably influenced rock n' roll and jazz.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Bebop classics, such as Charlie Parker's "Now's the Time", used the blues form with the pentatonic scale and blue notes.^ Two scales developed by the merge of European and African music: the deviant pentatonic scale of "spiritual" music and the expanded diatonic scale of "blues" music.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ West African music used a pentatonic scale (that comprises only the first, second, third, fifth, and sixth tones of a diatonic scale).
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Now might be a good time to send a note or e-mail to that person, letting him or her know how grateful you are for the way the Lord used them in your life.
  • Richard Angulo - Internet NetNews - BlogSpot 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ecademy.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bebop marked a major shift in the role of jazz, from a popular style of music for dancing, to a "high-art," less-accessible, cerebral "musician's music". The audience for both blues and jazz split, and the border between blues and jazz became more defined.^ Blues Music Joe Bonamassa : Clues to the Blues Music You Choose Blues is a musical style that begs borrows and fuses all other styles together in one harmonious sound.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Swinging The Origin of Blues The Blues is a style of music that evolved from southern African-American songs usually marked by a syncopated 4/4 rhythm, flatted thirds and sevenths, and a 12-bar structure.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The blues became a dialogue between a human being and his guitar.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

.Artists straddling the boundary between jazz and blues are categorized into the jazz blues sub-genre.^ By the time the Depression stopped the flood, thousands of musicians had moved north, and transplanted their music (whether blues, spiritual or jazz) into the northern cities.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Alternative Music I've Got the Blues: Top 10 Blues Artists of All Time The blues genre contributes to many other genres of music and is instrumental in the music evolution of our time.

^ Capitol jazz performances between 2 covers] and The story of the blues .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

[124][125]
.The blues' twelve-bar structure and the blues scale was a major influence on rock and roll music.^ Blues music is a truly American artform that has considerably influenced rock n' roll and jazz.
  • Blues Music - Associated Content - Topic 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Swinging The Origin of Blues The Blues is a style of music that evolved from southern African-American songs usually marked by a syncopated 4/4 rhythm, flatted thirds and sevenths, and a 12-bar structure.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Delta Blues The Origin of Blues The Blues is a style of music that evolved from southern African-American songs usually marked by a syncopated 4/4 rhythm, flatted thirds and sevenths, and a 12-bar structure.

.Rock and roll has been called "blues with a backbeat"; Carl Perkins called rockabilly "blues with a country beat". Rockabillies were also said to be twelve-bar blues played with a bluegrass beat.^ The twelve-bar structure that eventually became the standard was an invention of these urban songwriters: the original blues music was largely free form.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Musically, blues music is twelve-bars long in 4/4 time (although this may have been a later development).
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Their style was more polished, structured (twelve bars, no less and no more) and arranged (they fronted a band instead of playing the guitar).
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

."Hound Dog", with its unmodified twelve-bar structure (in both harmony and lyrics) and a melody centered on flatted third of the tonic (and flatted seventh of the subdominant), is a blues song transformed into a rock and roll song.^ Swinging The Origin of Blues The Blues is a style of music that evolved from southern African-American songs usually marked by a syncopated 4/4 rhythm, flatted thirds and sevenths, and a 12-bar structure.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Musically, blues music is twelve-bars long in 4/4 time (although this may have been a later development).
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ SDC was recently inducted into the Rock n' Roll Hall of Fame's "Warped Tour Exhibit."

.Jerry Lee Lewis's style of rock and roll was heavily influenced by the blues and its derivative boogie woogie.^ Despite the fast pace (that became even faster, louder and more percussive in the 1950s), boogie woogie remained faithful to the blues chord progression.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Alabama's pianist Charles "Cow Cow" Davenport recorded Cow Cow Blues (1928), another precursor of boogie woogie, and, generally speaking, helped coin a blues style at the piano.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ See also: Blues routes ; Boogie Woogie Revisited ; and The story of the blues .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

.His style of music was not exactly rockabilly but it has been often called real rock and roll (this is a label he shares with several African American rock and roll performers).^ See also: African American music: an introduction.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ See also: African American music: an introduction .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Delta Blues The Origin of Blues The Blues is a style of music that evolved from southern African-American songs usually marked by a syncopated 4/4 rhythm, flatted thirds and sevenths, and a 12-bar structure.

[126][127]
.Early country music was infused with the blues.^ Blues music was the antithesis of city life, but the early recording of blues music was a New York affair.
  • A History of Blues Music 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: General]

^ Pianist Kentucky Music: Sad Bastard Brothers Shawn Coots is the lyricist, vocalist and guitarist for Kentucky music group, Sad Bastard Brothers, which fuses old outlaw country with rock and blues.

^ See also: The Country blues and Martin Scorsese presents The blues: a musical journey.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

[128] .Jimmie Rodgers, Moon Mullican, Bob Wills, Bill Monroe and Hank Williams have all described themselves as blues singers and their music has a blues feel that is different to the country pop of Eddy Arnold.^ Blues Music Joe Bonamassa : Clues to the Blues Music You Choose Blues is a musical style that begs borrows and fuses all other styles together in one harmonious sound.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Mojo Fighting the Monday Morning Blues The Boomtown Rats' classic song summed up what we all feel: "Tell me why I don't like Mondays."
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ See also: The Country blues and Martin Scorsese presents The blues: a musical journey.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

.A lot of the 1970s-era "outlaw" country music by Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings also borrowed from the blues.^ Blues Music Joe Bonamassa : Clues to the Blues Music You Choose Blues is a musical style that begs borrows and fuses all other styles together in one harmonious sound.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ See also: The Country blues and Martin Scorsese presents The blues: a musical journey.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Career Unlike most of his peers in Southern soul, Carter's musical approach harkened directly back to acoustic country blues.
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

.When Jerry Lee Lewis returned to country after the decline of 1950s style rock and roll, he sang his country with a blues feel and often included blues standards on his albums.^ The Blues Continuum : John Mayer Sings the Blues Mayer returns from his blues adventure to make a glossy, mature new album.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The multistage event brings together some of the best performers in rock 'n' roll, along with dozens of artists in a variety of complementary styles.

^ Blues music is a truly American artform that has considerably influenced rock n' roll and jazz.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Many early rock and roll songs are based on blues: "That's All Right Mama", "Johnny B. Goode", "Blue Suede Shoes", "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin On", "Shake, Rattle, and Roll", and "Long Tall Sally". The early African American rock musicians retained the sexual themes and innuendos of blues music: "Got a gal named Sue, knows just what to do" ("Tutti Frutti", Little Richard) or "See the girl with the red dress on, She can do the Birdland all night long" ("What'd I Say", Ray Charles).^ The company name says it all!

^ See also: African American music: an introduction.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ See also: African American music: an introduction .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

In popular culture

The music of Taj Mahal for the 1972 movie Sounder marked a revival of interest in acoustic blues.
.Like jazz, rock and roll, heavy metal music, hip hop music, reggae, country music, and pop music, blues has been accused of being the "devil's music" and of inciting violence and other poor behavior.^ Blues music is a truly American artform that has considerably influenced rock n' roll and jazz.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Blues Music Joe Bonamassa : Clues to the Blues Music You Choose Blues is a musical style that begs borrows and fuses all other styles together in one harmonious sound.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Alternative Classical Country Dance / DJ Hip Hop / Rap Inspirational Jazz Pop R&B / Soul Rock World Login To Your Account Create a music store account Not yet a Fairmont President's Club Member? Enroll Now Make sure to enter EMI in the Promotion Code section to be sure you get notified of special music store offers!

[129] .In the early 20th century, the blues was considered disreputable, especially as white audiences began listening to the blues during the 1920s.^ By the early 1920s she was one of the most popular Blues singers in vaudeville.

^ Her rendition of " St. Louis Blues " with Armstrong is considered by most critics to be one of finest recordings of the 1920s.

[63] .In the early twentieth century, W.C. Handy was the first to popularize blues-influenced music among non-black Americans.^ Groton Music of the Early 20th Century: A Wild Mix of Cultures A view of the music of the early 20th century through the perpective of certain major works of literature from that era.

^ As a child growing up in a small Mississippi town he was exposed to African-American culture, which still strongly reflected that of the early part of the twentieth century.

^ The popular blues event is the biggest summer music event in the city.

.During the blues revival of the 1960s and '70s, acoustic blues artist Taj Mahal and legendary Texas bluesman Lightnin' Hopkins wrote and performed music that figured prominently in the popularly and critically acclaimed film Sounder (1972).^ D.C. and Selby Minner created the Blues in the Schools program through the Oklahoma Arts Council , performing music in classrooms and talking to students about the music.
  • D.C. Minner's Down Home Blues Club 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dcminnerblues.com [Source type: General]

^ John Landis said they Blues Brothers turned a new generation on to these old artists thus causing new music from them.
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

^ The Minners would later create the Blues in the Schools program through the Oklahoma Arts Council, performing music in classrooms and educating students about the blues.
  • D.C. Minner's Down Home Blues Club 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dcminnerblues.com [Source type: General]

.The film earned Mahal a Grammy nomination for Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture and a BAFTA nomination.^ Best Song Written for Motion Picture, Television or other media .
  • http://www.worldsend.com/news.html 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.worldsend.com [Source type: General]

^ Elsewhere was nominated for seven Grammy Awards with band getting trophies for Best Alternative Album and Best Urban Alternative Performance.

^ The Visit - Original Motion Picture Soundtrack .
  • The EBB Records Story Vol 2 Blues n Rhythm And Roc : Various Artists : Concord Music Group 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.concordmusicgroup.com [Source type: General]

[130] .Almost 30 years later, Mahal wrote blues for, and performed a banjo composition, claw-hammer style, in the 2001 movie release "Songcatcher," which focused on the story of the preservation of the roots music of Appalachia.^ D.C. and Selby Minner created the Blues in the Schools program through the Oklahoma Arts Council , performing music in classrooms and talking to students about the music.
  • D.C. Minner's Down Home Blues Club 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dcminnerblues.com [Source type: General]

^ The Minners would later create the Blues in the Schools program through the Oklahoma Arts Council, performing music in classrooms and educating students about the blues.
  • D.C. Minner's Down Home Blues Club 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dcminnerblues.com [Source type: General]

^ Moby The Doors Check into the Morrison Hotel This collection has varied musical themes with an emphasis on the blues roots of the players.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Perhaps the most visible example of the blues style of music in the late 20th century came in 1980, when Dan Aykroyd and John Landis released the film The Blues Brothers.^ As the brainchild of one of the most prolific artists of the 21st Century, T-Pain's Nappy Boy Digital is blazing a fresh trail in online music distribution.

^ John Landis said they Blues Brothers turned a new generation on to these old artists thus causing new music from them.
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

^ The original band reformed in 1988 for a world tour and again in 1998 for a sequel to the film, Blues Brothers 2000 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blues_Brothers_2000).
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

.The film drew many of the biggest living influenciers of the Rhythm and blues genre together, such as Ray Charles, James Brown, Cab Calloway, Aretha Franklin, and John Lee Hooker.^ Hooker, John Lee, 1917 -2001 .
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ John Lee Hooker plays & sings the blues.
  • Blues Discography - Individuals 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC libweb.uoregon.edu [Source type: General]

^ Memphis Slim 12-15-2006, 11:11 PM Ray Charles Miss Aretha Franklin John Lee Hooker are very greatful to the Blues Brothers.
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

.The band formed also began a successful tour under the Blues Brothers marquee.^ After the death of Belushi in 1982, the Blues Brothers have continued to perform with a rotation of guest singers and other band members.
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

^ The original band reformed in 1988 for a world tour and again in 1998 for a sequel to the film, Blues Brothers 2000 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blues_Brothers_2000).
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

^ W. C. Handy Preservation Band - W. C. Handy's Beale Street - Where the Blues Began .
  • bandVillage :: Paving the way for Independent Musicians 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bandvillage.com [Source type: General]

.1998 brought a sequel, Blues Brothers 2000 that, while not holding as great a critical and financial success, featured a much larger number of blues artists, such as B.B. King, Bo Diddley, Erykah Badu, Eric Clapton, Steve Winwood, Charlie Musselwhite, Blues Traveller, Jimmy Vaughn, Jeff Baxter.^ She is featured on the Vent Records CD, Alabama Blues Showcase: A Compilation of Alabama Blues Artists and on a German release by Taxim Records called Blues from the Heart of Dixie which showcases contemporary Alabama blues musicians.

^ John Landis said they Blues Brothers turned a new generation on to these old artists thus causing new music from them.
  • The Funk, Soul, R&B Thread. [Archive] - The Superhero Hype! Boards 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

^ He also worked with great artists such as Steve Miller, Barry Goldberg , Johnny Otis, Harvey Mandel and many other noteworthy musical giants.

.In 2003, Martin Scorsese made significant efforts to promote the blues to a larger audience.^ His tremendous efforts to promote the magic called the Blues have made him an Oklahoma favorite.
  • D.C. Minner's Down Home Blues Club 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dcminnerblues.com [Source type: General]

^ Black Poetry "Keeping the Blues Alive" Award Winners Named The Keeping the Blues Alive Awards recognize the significant contributions to blues music made by the people behind the scenes.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Paul Potts "Keeping the Blues Alive" Award Winners Named The Keeping the Blues Alive Awards recognize the significant contributions to blues music made by the people behind the scenes.

.He asked several famous directors such as Clint Eastwood and Wim Wenders to participate in a series of documentary films for PBS called The Blues.^ He had such a soulful feel, and you can't separate his vocals from his playing, said Jim Johnson , program director at KGOU and host of the station's weekend blues programming.
  • D.C. Minner's Down Home Blues Club 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dcminnerblues.com [Source type: General]

[131] .He also participated in the rendition of compilations of major blues artists in a series of high-quality CDs.^ She is featured on the Vent Records CD, Alabama Blues Showcase: A Compilation of Alabama Blues Artists and on a German release by Taxim Records called Blues from the Heart of Dixie which showcases contemporary Alabama blues musicians.

.Blues guitarist and vocalist Keb' Mo' performed his blues rendition of "America, the Beautiful" in 2006 to close out the final season of the television series The West Wing.^ Guitarist 5 Quick Ways to Beat the Blues Break out of those feelings of sadness and listlessness.
  • The Blues - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Those hamstring issues returned, but this time it was serious, requiring a 60-day DL stint that ended up keeping him out for the rest of the season.
  • River Avenue Blues, A New York Yankees blog 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC riveraveblues.com [Source type: General]

^ She has performed in many blues festivals such as the Pensacola Blues Festival and Willie King’s Freedom Creek festival, and in 2006, she competed at the Blues Challenge for North Michigan in a Solo/Duo competition.

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Notes

  1. ^ "The Evolution of Differing Blues Styles". How To Play Blues Guitar. http://how-to-play-blues-guitar.com/the-blues/the-evolution-of-different-blues-styles/. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  2. ^ The "Trésor de la Langue Française informatisé" provides this etymology to the word blues and George Colman's farce as the first appearance of this term in the English language, see http://atilf.atilf.fr/dendien/scripts/fast.exe?mot=blues
  3. ^ Davis, Francis. The History of the Blues. New York: Hyperion, 1995.
  4. ^ Eric Partridge, A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English, 2002, Routledge (UK), ISBN 0-415-29189-5
  5. ^ Tony Bolden, Afro-Blue: Improvisations in African American Poetry and Culture, 2004, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-02874-0
  6. ^ Bob Brozman (2002). "The evolution of the 12-bar blues progression,". http://www.bobbrozman.com/tip_evol12bar.html. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 
  7. ^ Samuel Charters in Nothing But The Blues, pg. 20.
  8. ^ "Ellen Fullman, "The Long String Instrument", MusicWorks, Issue #37 Fall 1987". http://www.deepmedia.org/ellenfullman/mw85/fullman_article.pdf. 
  9. ^ "A Jazz Improvisation Almanac, Outside Shore Music Online School". http://www.outsideshore.com/school/music/almanac/html/Music_Theory/Jazz_Scales/Blues_And_Bebop_Scales/Blues_Scale.htm. 
  10. ^ Ewen, pg. 143
  11. ^ Grace notes were common in the Baroque and Classical periods, but they acted as ornamentation rather than as part of the harmonic structure. For example, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 21 has a flatted fifth in the dominant. In these periods, this was a technique for building tension for resolution into the perfect fifth; in contrast, a blues melody uses the flatted fifth as part of the scale.[citation needed]
  12. ^ Kunzler, pg. 1065
  13. ^ Barry Pearson, in Nothing but the blues, pg. 316
  14. ^ David Hamburger, Acoustic Guitar Slide Basics, 2001, ISBN 1-890490-38-5.
  15. ^ "Lesson 72: Basic Blues Shuffle by Jim Burger". http://www.wholenote.com/default.asp?src=l&l=72&p=1. Retrieved November 25 2005. 
  16. ^ Wilbur M. Savidge, Randy L. Vradenburg, Everything About Playing the Blues, 2002, Music Sales Distributed, ISBN 1-884848-09-5, pg. 35
  17. ^ Ferris, pg. 230
  18. ^ Father of the Blues: An Autobiography. by W.C. Handy, edited by Arna Bontemps: foreword by Abbe Niles. Macmillan Company, New York; (1941) page 143. no ISBN in this first printing
  19. ^ Ewen, pgs. 142–143
  20. ^ Komara, pg. 476
  21. ^ Allan F. Moore (2002). The Cambridge companion to blues and gospel music. Cambridge University Press. p. 32. ISBN 0521001072. 
  22. ^ Oliver, pg. 281
  23. ^ a b Morales, pg. 277
  24. ^ Mark A. Humphrey, in Nothing but the blues, pgs. 107-149
  25. ^ Calt, Stephen; Nick Perls, Michael Stewart. Album notes for Ten years of black country religion 1926–1936 [vinyl back cover]. New York: Yazoo Records (L-1022).
  26. ^ "Reverend Gary Davis". Reverend Gary Davis. 2009. http://culturalequity.org/alanlomax/ce_alanlomax_profile_reverend_gary_davis.jsp. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  27. ^ Michael Corcoran. "The Soul of Blind Willie Johnson". Austin American-Statesman. http://www.austin360.com/music/content/music/blindwilliejohnson_092803.html. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  28. ^ David Evans, in Nothing but the blues, pg. 33
  29. ^ a b Kunzler, pg. 130
  30. ^ Bruce Bastin, in Nothing but the blues, pg. 206
  31. ^ David Evans, in Nothing but the blues, pgs. 33-35
  32. ^ John H. Cowley, in Nothing but the blues, pg. 265
  33. ^ John H. Cowley, in Nothing but the blues, pgs. 268-269
  34. ^ "Lead Belly foundation". http://www.leadbelly.org/re-homepage.html. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  35. ^ Dave Oliphant. "Henry Thomas". The handbook of texas online. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/TT/fthxc.html. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  36. ^ Garofalo, pgs. 46–47
  37. ^ Oliver, pg. 3
  38. ^ Philip V. Bohlman, "Immigrant, folk, and regional music in the twentieth century", in The Cambridge History of American Music, ed. David Nicholls, 1999, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-45429-8, pg. 285
  39. ^ Oliver, Paul (1984). Blues Off the Record:Thirty Years of Blues Commentary. New York: Da Capo Press. pp. 45–47. ISBN 0-306-80321-6. 
  40. ^ Lawrence W. Levine, Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom, Oxford University Press, 1977, ISBN 0-19-502374-9, pg. 223
  41. ^ Southern, pg. 333
  42. ^ Garofalo, pg. 44
  43. ^ Ferris, pg. 229
  44. ^ The rough guide to African Blues CD booklet
  45. ^ Blues imported from West-Africa
  46. ^ Morales, pg. 276 Morales attributes this claim to John Storm Roberts in Black Music of Two Worlds, beginning his discussion with a quote from Roberts: "There does not seem to be the same African quality in blues forms as there clearly is in much Caribbean music."
  47. ^ "Call and Response in Blues". How To Play Blues Guitar. http://how-to-play-blues-guitar.com/blues-concepts/call-and-response/. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  48. ^ Samuel Charters, in Nothing But the Blues, page 25
  49. ^ Oliver, pg. 4
  50. ^ Barbara Vierwo, Andy Trudeau. The Curious Listener's Guide to the Blues. Stone Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-399-53072-X. 
  51. ^ From the Erotic to the Demonic: On Critical Musicology.. Oxford University Press. 2003. p. 182. "A blues idiom is hinted at in "A Negro Love-Song", a pentatonic melody with blue third and seventh in Colridge-Taylor's African Suit of 1898, many years before the first blues publications." 
  52. ^ Bill Steper (1999). "African-American Music from the Mississippi Hill Country: "They Say Drums was a-Calling"". The APF Reporter. http://www.aliciapatterson.org/APF1902/Steber/Steber.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  53. ^ Samuel Charters, in Nothing but the blues, pg. 14-15
  54. ^ Samuel Charters, in Nothing but the blues, pg. 16
  55. ^ Garofalo, pg. 44 Gradually, instrumental and harmonic accompaniment were added, reflecting increasing cross-cultural contact. Garofalo cites other authors that also mention the "Ethiopian airs" and "Negro spirituals".
  56. ^ Schuller, cited in Garofalo, pg. 27
  57. ^ Garofalo, pgs. 44–47 "As marketing categories, designations like race and hillbilly intentionally separated artists along racial lines and conveyed the impression that their music came from mutually exclusive sources. Nothing could have been further from the truth... In cultural terms, blues and country were more equal than they were separate." Garofalo claims that "artists were sometimes listed in the wrong racial category in record company catalogues."
  58. ^ Charles Wolfe in Nothing but the Blues, pgs. 233-263
  59. ^ Golding, Barrett. "The Rise of the Country Blues". NPR. http://www.honkytonks.org/showpages/countryblues.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-27. 
  60. ^ Mark A. Humphrey in Nothing but the blues, pg. 110
  61. ^ Mark A. Humphrey in Nothing but the blues, pgs. 107-149
  62. ^ Garofalo, pg. 27; Garofalo cites Barlow in "Handy's sudden success demonstrated [the] commercial potential of [the blues], which in turn made the genre attractive to the Tin Pan Alley hacks, who wasted little time in turning out a deluge of imitations." (parentheticals in Garofalo)
  63. ^ a b Garofalo, pg. 27
  64. ^ "Kentuckiana Blues Society". http://members.aye.net/~kbsblues/awards.htm#Weaver. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  65. ^ a b Clarke, pg. 138
  66. ^ Clarke, pg. 141
  67. ^ Clarke, pg. 139
  68. ^ Calt, Stephen; Nick Perls, Michael Stewart. Album notes for The Georgia Blues 1927–1933 [vinyl back cover]. New York: Yazoo Records (L-1012).
  69. ^ Phoenix Delray (2008-08-17). "The history of Memphis blues music". http://www.articlesbase.com/art-and-entertainment-articles/the-history-of-memphis-blues-music-489628.html. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  70. ^ Kent, Don. Album notes for 10 Years In Memphis 1927–1937 [vinyl back cover]. New York: Yazoo Records (L-1002).
  71. ^ Calt, Stephen; Nick Perls, Michael Stewart. Album notes for Memphis Jamboree 1927–1936 [vinyl back cover]. New York: Yazoo Records (L-1021).
  72. ^ a b Garofalo, pg. 47
  73. ^ Hawkeye Herman, General background on African American Music, Blues Foundation, Essays: What is the blues?http://www.blues.org/blues/essays.php4?Id=3
  74. ^ Clarke, pg. 137
  75. ^ Piero Scaruffi (2005). "A brief history of Blues Music". http://www.scaruffi.com/history/blues.html. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  76. ^ Oliver, Paul. Album notes for Boogie Woogie Trio [vinyl back cover]. Copenhagen: Storyville (SLP 184).
  77. ^ Piero Scaruffi (2003). "Kansas City: Big Bands". http://www.scaruffi.com/history/jazz7.html. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  78. ^ Garofalo, pg. 76
  79. ^ Komara, pg. 120
  80. ^ Mark A. Humphrey, in Nothing but the blues, pgs. 175-177
  81. ^ Barry Pearson in Nothing but the blues, pgs. 313-314
  82. ^ Dicaire (1999), p. 79
  83. ^ Komara, pg. 118
  84. ^ Mark A. Humphry, in Nothing but the blues, pg. 179
  85. ^ a b Herzhaft, pg. 53
  86. ^ Pierson, Leroy. Album notes for Detroit Ghetto Blues 1948 to 1954 [vinyl back cover]. St. Louis: Nighthawk Records (104).
  87. ^ Piero Scaruffi (2003). "A brief history of Rhythm'n'Blues". http://www.scaruffi.com/history/rb.html. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  88. ^ Mark A. Humphrey, in Nothing but the blues, pg. 180
  89. ^ Piero Scaruffi (1999). "Howlin' Wolf". http://www.scaruffi.com/vol1/wolf.html. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  90. ^ Piero Scaruffi (1999). "Muddy Waters". http://www.scaruffi.com/vol1/waters.html. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  91. ^ Piero Scaruffi (1999). "Willie Dixon". http://www.scaruffi.com/vol1/dixon.html. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  92. ^ Piero Scaruffi (1999). "Jimmy Reed". http://www.scaruffi.com/vol1/reed.html. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  93. ^ Piero Scaruffi (1999). "Elmore James". http://www.scaruffi.com/vol1/james.html. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  94. ^ Piero Scaruffi (2003). "J. B. Lenoir". http://www.scaruffi.com/vol1/lenoir.html. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  95. ^ Mark A. Humphrey, in Nothing but the blues, pg. 187
  96. ^ Barry Pearson, in Nothing but the blues, pg. 342
  97. ^ Herzhaft, pg. 11
  98. ^ Herzhaft, pg. 236
  99. ^ Herzhaft, pg. 35
  100. ^ Koroma, pg. 49
  101. ^ "Blues". Encyclopedia of Chicago. http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/151.html. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  102. ^ C. Michael Bailey (2003-10-04). "West Side Chicago Blues". All about Jazz. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=11835. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  103. ^ Lars Bjorn, Before Motown, 2001, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0-472-06765-6, pg. 175
  104. ^ Herzhaft, pg 116
  105. ^ Herzhaft, pg. 188
  106. ^ Jim O'Neal in Nothing but the blues, pgs 347-387
  107. ^ a b Koroma, pg. 122
  108. ^ Koroma, pg. 388
  109. ^ Jim O'Neal, in Nothing but the blues, pg. 380
  110. ^ "A Short Blues History". History of Rock. http://www.history-of-rock.com/blues.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  111. ^ Garofalo, pgs. 224–225
  112. ^ "History of heavy metal: Origins and early popularity (1960s and early 1970s)". 2006-09-18. http://infernality.blogspot.com/2006/09/origins-and-early-popularity-1960s-and.html. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  113. ^ Koroma, pg. 50
  114. ^ Stephen Martin (2008-04-03). "Malaco Records to be honored with blues trail marker". Mississippi development authority. http://www.visitmississippi.org/press_news/Malaco%20Blues%20Marker%20April%208.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  115. ^ Piero Scaruffi (2005). "The History of Rock Music: 1976–1989, Blues, 1980-81". http://www.scaruffi.com/history/cpt416.html. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  116. ^ Mary Katherine Aldin, in Nothing but the blues, pg. 130
  117. ^ A directory of the most significant blues festivals can be found at http://blues.about.com/od/bluesfestivals/
  118. ^ A list of important blues venues in the U.S. can be found at http://blues.about.com/cs/venues/
  119. ^ "Blues Music Awards information". http://www.blues.org/bluesmusicawards/. Retrieved November 25 2005. 
  120. ^ A complete directory of contemporary blues labels can be found at http://blues.about.com/cs/recordlabels/
  121. ^ Blues Babies.741.com
  122. ^ Jennifer Nicole (2005-08-15). "The Blues: The Revolution of Music". http://www.googobits.com/articles/p6-2006-the-blues--the-revolution-of-music.html. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  123. ^ Phil Petrie. "History of gospel music". http://afgen.com/gospel1.html. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
  124. ^ a b "The Influence of the Blues on Jazz". Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz. http://www.jazzinamerica.org/pdf/1/Influence%20of%20Jazz%20on%20Blues.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  125. ^ Peter Van der Merwe (2004). Roots of the classical: the popular origins of western music. Oxford University Press. p. 461. ISBN 0198166478. 
  126. ^ "The Blues Influence On Rock & Roll". http://www.lclark.edu/~ria/the_bl~1.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  127. ^ "History of Rock and Roll". Zip-Country Homepage. http://www.zip-country.com/Rock.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  128. ^ "Country music". Columbia College Chicago. 2007–2008. http://www.colum.edu/CBMR/Styles_and_Genres/Country_Music.php. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  129. ^ SFGate
  130. ^ "Sounder"Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 11-02-2007.
  131. ^ "The Blues" (2003) (mini) at the Internet Movie Database

References

  • Barlow, William (1993). "Cashing In". Split Image: African Americans in the Mass Media: 31. 
  • Bransford, Steve. "Blues in the Lower Chattahoochee Valley" Southern Spaces 2004
  • Clarke, Donald (1995). The Rise and Fall of Popular Music. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-11573-3. 
  • Lawrence Cohn, ed (1993). .Nothing But the Blues: The Music and the Musicians.^ Friday’s session was an Open House Blues Café where the young musicians showcased their talent with a music performance and art show.

    ^ The program is a mixture of hands on music instruction taught by professional musicians , a life-skills curriculum, and blues history lessons.

    Abbeville Press. ISBN 1558592717.
     
  • Dicaire, David (1999). Blues Singers: Biographies of 50 Legendary Artists of the Early 20th Century. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0606-2. 
  • Ewen, David (1957). Panorama of American Popular Music. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-648360-7. 
  • Ferris, Jean (1993). America's Musical Landscape. Brown & Benchmark. ISBN 0-697-12516-5. 
  • Garofalo, Reebee (1997). Rockin' Out: Popular Music in the USA. Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 0-205-13703-2. 
  • Herzhaft, Gérard, Paul Harris and, Brigitte Debord (1997). Encyclopedia of the Blues. University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 1-557-28452-0. 
  • Komara, Edward M. (2006). Encyclopedia of the blues. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92699-8. 
  • Kunzler, Martin (1988) (in German). Jazz Lexikon. Rohwolt Taschenbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-499-16316-0. 
  • Morales, Ed (2003). The Latin Beat. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81018-2. 
  • Oliver, Paul and Richard Wright (1990). Blues fell this morning: Meaning in the blues. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37793-5. 
  • Schuller, Gunther (1968). Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504043-0. 
  • Southern, Eileen (1997). The Music of Black Americans. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-393-03843-2. 
  • "Muslim Roots of the Blues". SFGate. .http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2004/08/15/INGMC85SSK1.DTL.^ HOT Rap ] -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- Eminem - Conglomerate (Tim Westwoods Show Freestyle) ( 2oo9 ) http://ul.to/d14s9x http://www20.zippyshare.com/v/35081460/file.html ============================================= .
    • MZHipHop - |Black Music | Hip Hop | Rap | R&B | 25 September 2009 8:11 UTC www.mzhiphop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ludacris & Young Jeezy - Drinkin’ N Drivin’ (Remix) ( 2oo9 ) http://ul.to/bt30h5 http://www9.zippyshare.com/v/87797504/file.html ============================================= .
    • MZHipHop - |Black Music | Hip Hop | Rap | R&B | 25 September 2009 8:11 UTC www.mzhiphop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ By Dr. Dre) (Dirty) ( 2oo9 ) http://ul.to/kcbm51 http://www12.zippyshare.com/v/47687884/file.html ============================================= .
    • MZHipHop - |Black Music | Hip Hop | Rap | R&B | 25 September 2009 8:11 UTC www.mzhiphop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved August 24 2005
    .
     

Further reading

  • Brown, Luther. "Inside Poor Monkey's" Southern Spaces June 22 2006.
  • Oakley, Giles (1976). .The Devil's Music: a History of the Blues.^ A non-profit organization dedicated to Local History * Community Service * Senior Dog Adoption * Classic Rhythm & Blues Music * .
    • The Delaware Valley Rhythm & Blues Society, Inc. is a non-profit organization dedicated to Classic Rhythm & Blues Music, Local History, Community Service, & Senior Dog Adoption 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.dvrbs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Classic Rhythm & Blues Music, Local History, Community Service, & Senior Dog Adoption .
    • The Delaware Valley Rhythm & Blues Society, Inc. is a non-profit organization dedicated to Classic Rhythm & Blues Music, Local History, Community Service, & Senior Dog Adoption 21 January 2010 4:38 UTC www.dvrbs.com [Source type: General]

    BBC. pp. 287 pages. ISBN 0-563-16012-8.
     
  • Oliver, Paul (1998). The Story Of The Blues (new edition ed.). Northeastern University Press. pp. 212 pages. ISBN 1-55553-355-8. 
  • Palmer, Robert (1981). Deep Blues. Viking. pp. 310 pages. ISBN 0-670-49511-5. 
  • Rowe, Mike (1973). Chicago Breakdown. Eddison Press. pp. 226 pages. ISBN 0-85649-015-6. 
  • Titon, Jeff Todd (1994). Early Downhome Blues: a Musical and Cultural Analysis (2nd edition ed.). University of North Carolina Press. pp. 318 pages. ISBN 0-8078-4482-9. 

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also blues

German

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /bluːs/

Noun

Blues m.
  1. blues (musical form)
This German entry was created from the translations listed at blues. .It may be less reliable than other entries, and may be missing parts of speech or additional senses.^ "Volunteer your time this holiday season to help others who have less than you do," said Dubin.
  • Beat the Holiday Blues 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: General]

^ It is understood that any and all embodiments of the present invention may be taken in conjunction with any other embodiment to describe additional even more preferred embodiments of the present invention.
  • CYCLIC MALONAMIDES AS INHIBITORS OF ASS PROTEIN PRODUCTION - Patent application 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That may be someone you would like to look up in addition to your other excellent selections.
  • Blues music (album, Rolling Stones, artists, 60's) - City-Data Forum 11 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

Please also see
Blues in the German Wiktionary. This notice will be removed when the entry is checked. (more information) April 2008

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Early blues musician Bessie Smith]] The blues is a form of music that started in the United States during the start of the 20th century. It was started by former African slaves from spirituals, praise songs, and chants. The first blues songs were called Delta blues. These songs came from the area near the mouth of the Mississippi River.

Contents

Chord pattern

Blues is based around a very simple pattern. “Blues is easy to play, but hard to feel”-Jimi Hendrix. A common form for the blues is a repeating 12 bar form (each bar has 4 beats). This is put together as 3 phrases or sections, each being 4 bars long. The basic blues only needs 3 chords, one based on the first note of the scale - the tonic chord, one based on the fourth note of the scale - the subdominant chord, and one based on the fifth note of the scale - the dominant chord. The first section or phrase of 4 bars only uses the tonic chord. A common variation is to use the subdominant chord in the second bar. The second phrase has 2 bars (8 beats) of subdominant chord then 2 bars of tonic chord. The third phrase has 1 bar (4 beats) of dominant chord, 1 bar of subdominant chord and finishes with 2 bars of tonic chord.

In a scale based on the note C (C is the 1st or tonic, F is the 4th or subdominant, and G is the 5th or dominant), the chord pattern of a 12 bar blues would be like this:

C C C C |C C C C or F F F F |C C C C |C C C C |
F F F F |F F F F |C C C C |C C C C |
G G G G |F F F F |C C C C |C C C C |

Melodic pattern

The melody of the simplest blues scales are based on the minor pentatonic scale for example C Eflat G A Bflat C, with extra notes (called "blue notes") added like this C Eflat Gflat G A Bflat C. Blue notes do not normally fit a scale, but they give the music a special feeling.

File:Blues Scale in
A blues scale starting on C

Lyric pattern

The lyrics (words)are usually about life, the bad things in life. They are to simple blues songs are also based around the form of 3 phrases. The first phrase is set over the first 4 bars of music. The second phrase words are a repetition of the first phrase, this always happens and emphasises the message. The third phrase completes the "story" and rhymes (ends with the same sound) as the first line. This verse from Robert Johnson's "Crossroad Blues" shows how these phrases work in a song:

''I went to the crossroads, fell down on my knees
I went to the crossroads, fell down on my knees
Asked the Lord above, have mercy now, save poor Bob if you please''

Blues influenced music

The blues have made a difference in newer American and Western popular music, such as jazz, bluegrass, rhythm and blues, rock and roll, hip-hop, and country music, as well as common pop songs.

Some blues musicians

Other websites

Find more information on Blues by searching one of Wikipedia's sister projects:

Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource

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News stories from Wikinews

pcd:Blues


rue:Блуз


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 23, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Rhythm and blues, which are similar to those in the above article.








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