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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A board game is a game in which counters or pieces are placed, removed, or moved on a premarked surface or "board" according to a set of rules. Games may be based on pure strategy, chance or a mixture of the two and usually have a goal which a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies and most current board games are still based on beating opposing players in terms of counters, winning position or accrual of points (often expressed as in-game currency).

There are many different types and styles of board games. Their representation of a real life situation can range from having no inherent theme, such as Checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, such as Cluedo. Rules range from the very simple, such as in Tic-tac-toe, to ones which describe a game universe in great detail, such as in Dungeons & Dragons, although most of these are Role-playing games and the board is secondary to the game, serving to visualize the scenario. The length of time it takes to learn to play or master a game can vary greatly from game to game. Learning time does not necessarily correlate with the amount or complexity of rules; some games, such as chess and Go, have simple rules that can still lead to complex scenarios.

Contents

History

Senet is among the oldest known board games.
Another game board found in the Jiroft civilization.

Board games have been played in most cultures and societies throughout history; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations.[citation needed] A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. Some of these include:

Timeline

  • c. 3500 BC: Jiroft civilization The layout on the holes on the "eagle" is identical to the layout of some twenty-square boards used in ancient Egypt, where the game, known as Aseb, was sometimes put on the other side of case-style Senet boards.[citation needed]
  • c. 3500 BC: Senet found under Predynastic Egyptian burials;[1] also depicted in the tomb of Merknera.
  • c. 3000 BC: The Mehen board game from Predynastic Egypt, was played with lion-shaped gamepieces and marbles.
  • c. 3000 BC: Ancient backgammon set, found in the Burnt City in Iran[3]
  • c. 2560 BC: Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs)
  • c. 2500 BC: Paintings of Senet and Han being played depicted in the tomb of Rashepes[citation needed]
  • c. 2000 BC: Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). It has been suggested that the second of these is Tau.[citation needed]
  • c. 1500 BC: Painting of board game at Knossos.[4]
  • c. 500 BC: The Buddha games list mentions board games played on 8 or 10 rows.
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Chaturaji, played in India, starting position. Pieces with different colors (some shown as inverted) were used for each of four sides.
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Chaturanga: played in India.The position of the pieces at the start of a game.[10] Note that the Ràjas do not face each other; the white Ràja starts on e1 and the black Ràja on d8.
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Ashtāpada, the uncheckered 8x8 board, sometimes with special markers, on which Chaturanga was played.
  • c. 600 The earliest references to Chaturanga written in Subandhu's Vasavadatta and Banabhatta's Harsha Charitha early Indian books.[citation needed]
  • c. 600: The earliest reference to Chatrang written in Karnamak-i-Artakhshatr-i-Papakan.[citation needed]
  • c. 1930: Monopoly stabilises into the version that is currently popular.
  • 1957: Risk is released.
  • c. 1980: German-style board games begin to develop as a genre.

Many board games are now available as computer games, which can include the computer itself as one of several players, or as sole opponent. The rise of computer use is one of the reasons said to have led to a relative decline in board games.[citation needed] Many board games can now be played online against a computer and/or other players. Some websites allow play in real time and immediately show the opponents' moves, while others use email to notify the players after each move (see the links at the end of this article).[citation needed] Modern technology (the internet and cheaper home printing) has also influenced board games via the phenomenon of print-and-play board games that you buy and print yourself.

Some board games make use of components in addition to—or instead of—a board and playing pieces. Some games use CDs, video cassettes, and, more recently, DVDs in accompaniment to the game.[citation needed]

Psychology

While there has been a fair amount of scientific research on the psychology of older board games (e.g., chess, Go, mancala), less has been done on contemporary board games such as Monopoly, Scrabble, and Risk.[11] Much research has been carried out on chess, in part because many tournament players are publicly ranked in national and international lists, which makes it possible precisely to compare their levels of expertise. The works of Adriaan de Groot, William Chase, and Herbert Simon have established that knowledge, more than the ability to anticipate moves, plays an essential role in chess-playing. This seems to be the case in other traditional games such as Go and Oware (a type of mancala game), but data is lacking in regard to contemporary board games.[citation needed] Bruce Halpenny, a games inventor said when interviewed about his game, “With crime you deal with every basic human emotion and also have enough elements to combine action with melodrama. The player’s imagination is fired as they plan to rob the train. Because of the gamble they take in the early stage of the game there is a build up of tension, which is immediately released once the train is robbed. Release of tension is therapeutic and useful in our society, because most jobs are boring and repetitive.”[12]

Luck, strategy and diplomacy

One way to categorize board games is to distinguish those based primarily upon luck from those that involve significant strategy. Some games, such as chess, are almost entirely deterministic (the first person to make a move having a slight advantage), relying on the strategy element for their interest. Children's games, on the other hand, tend to be very luck-based, with games such as Candy Land and Snakes and ladders having no decisions to be made. Most board games involve both luck and strategy. A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in Risk or Monopoly, but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more diverse and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered.

The third important factor in a game is diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. Two player games usually do not have diplomacy, with Lord of the Rings being a notable exception where players compete against an automatic opponent (see cooperative games). Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. An important facet of The Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. In Risk, one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against others. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal.

Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. The most popular is using dice, generally six-sided. These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, to how their forces fare in battle, such as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, such as in The Settlers of Catan. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that, when shuffled, create randomness. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on the questions a person gets. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less of a luck factor than many North American board games.

Common terms

Simple wooden "pawn-style" playing pieces
Wooden tokens from the Carcassonne board game.

Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games.

  • Game board (or simply board)—the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards would seem to be a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre, though card games that do not use a standard deck of cards (as well as games which use neither cards nor a game board) are often colloquially included. Most games use a standardized and unchanging board (chess, Go, and backgammon all have such a board), but many games use a modular board whose component tiles or cards can assume varying layouts from one session to another, or even as the game is played.
  • Game piece (or counter or token or bit or mover or pawn)—a player's representative on the game board. Each player may control one or more game pieces. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities. In some modern board games, such as Clue, there are other pieces that are not a player's representative, i.e. weapons. In some games, pieces may not represent or belong to a particular player.
  • Jump—to bypass one or more game pieces or spaces. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece. (See also: Game mechanic: capture)
  • Space (or square)—a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border. Alternately, a unique, atomic position on the board on which a game piece may be located while in play (in Go, for example, the pieces are placed on intersections of lines on the grid, not in the areas bounded by the grid lines as is seen in chess). (See also: Game mechanic: Movement)
  • Hex—in hexagon-based board games, this is the common term for a standard space on the board. This is most often used in wargaming, though some abstract strategy games such as Abalone use hexagonal layouts.
  • Card—a piece of cardboard on which instructions are given
  • Deck—a stack of cards
  • Capture—a method in which one removes another players game piece from the board, for example: in checkers if you jump another player's piece, that piece is captured.

Categories

There are a number of different categories that board games can be broken up into. The following is a list of some of the most common:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Piccione, Peter A. (July/August 1980). "In Search of the Meaning of Senet". Archaeology: 55–58. http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Piccione/index.html. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  2. ^ "''Okno do svita deskovych her''". Hrejsi.cz. 1998-04-27. http://www.hrejsi.cz/clanky/dama1.html. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  3. ^ "Iran's Burnt City Throws up World’s Oldest Backgammon". Persian Journal. December 4, 2004. http://www.iranian.ws/cgi-bin/iran_news/exec/view.cgi/2/4743. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  4. ^ Brumbaugh, Robert S. (1975). "The Knossos Game Board". American Journal of Archaeology 79 (2): 135–137. doi:10.2307/503893. http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Brumbaugh/index.html. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  5. ^ Rawson, Jessica (1996). Mysteries of Ancient China. London: British Museum Press. pp. 159–161. ISBN 0-7141-1472-3. 
  6. ^ "Confucius". Senseis.xmp.net. 2006-09-23. http://senseis.xmp.net/?Confucius. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  7. ^ "Varro: Lingua Latina X". Thelatinlibrary.com. http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/varro.ll10.html. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  8. ^ Games Britannia - 1. Dicing with Destiny, BBC Four, 1:05am Tuesday 8th December 2009
  9. ^ John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China
  10. ^ Murray 1913, p.80
  11. ^ Gobet, Fernand, de Voogt, Alex, & Retschitzki, Jean (2004). Moves in mind: The psychology of board games. Psychology Press. ISBN 1841693367. 
  12. ^ Stealing the show. Toy Retailing News - Volume 2 Number 4 - December 1976 - page 2

Further reading

  • Austin, Roland G. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. September 1940: 257–271
  • Bell, Robert Charles. The Boardgame Book. London: Bookthrift Company, 1979.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. ISBN 0-486-23855-5
    • Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983.
  • Falkener, Edward. Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them. Longmans, Green and Co., 1892.
  • Fiske, Willard. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games. Florentine Typographical Society, 1905.
  • Gobet, Fernand, de Voogt, Alex, & Retschitzki, Jean (2004). Moves in mind: The psychology of board games. Psychology Press. ISBN 1841693367. 
  • Murray, Harold James Ruthven. A History of Chess. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1913.
  • Murray, Harold James Ruthven. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Gardners Books, 1969.
  • Parlett, David. Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-212998-8
  • Rollefson, Gary O., "A Neolithic Game Board from Ain Ghazal, Jordan," Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 286. (May, 1992), pp. 1–5.
  • Sackson, Sid. A Gamut of Games. Arrow Books, 1983. ISBN 0-09-153340-6
    • Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-486-27347-4
  • Schmittberger, R. Wayne. New Rules for Classic Games. John Wiley & Sons, 1992. ISBN 0-471-53621-0

External links


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Pages in category "Board game"

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Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

For computer board games, see Board game (video games).

A board game is a game that is played using a board and pieces that the game comes with. Some are also called war games because of the tactics involved. They are for more than one player. These were popular before the invention of those videogames. The typical board game involves a path, and pieces moving along them depending on the number rolled on the dice. However, this is far from true for all board games. For example, Checkers aka Draughts is considered a board game.

Origin and examples

Board games have been around since ancient Egypt and ancient India. Some of the most popular games today are Monopoly, Clue, Life, Risk, Scrabble, Chess, Pachisi (ancient Indian game), Parchessi (English version of Pachisi), Parques (Colombian version of Pachisi), Backgammon, Trivial Pursuit and Candy Land.

Styles

There are different type of styles:

  • Warfare: Risk
  • Murder mystery: Clue
  • Life decisions: Life
  • Market: Monopoly
  • Abstract strategy: Chess, Checkers, Go, Brain Chain
  • Race: Pachisi, Parques, Parcheesi, Ludo, Backgammon
  • Trivia: Trivial Pursuit
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Simple English

A board game is a game usually played with pieces on a board-like area. Board games may also involve dice, cards, money,Board chips,etc. Some examples of board games are chess, scrabble, checkers, backgammon, irensei, parqués and go. Chess & checkers are played on a 8x8 square board, consisting of 32 white & black squares.

Contents

Goosebumps Book Super Checker Game

  • Cards Play on Goosebumps Books 1-62.

Songs

  • Goosebumps Theme (from Goosebumps TV Series.)
  • Once Upon Halloween Disney Villains Theme Song! (from Disney's Once Upon A Halloween.)
  • Giant Bowser Battle (from Mario and Luigi Bowser's Inside Story.)
  • Ghostbusters Theme Song (from Ghostbusters Movie.)
  • Chucky's Song (from Child's Play.)
  • Butt-Ugly Martians Theme (from Butt Ugly Martians.)

Feature Villains on a Goosebumps Super Board Game

  • to Watching Video All the Villains of Goosebumps and Dorie's Classmates with Witchling with Ally Caitlyn of Evil Friend to Destroy Him for Hosting Villains as...Lord Darkar.
    • Dorie Reanne Mirabelle Ellie Caitlyn Todd Josie Penny Stewart Oliver Simon Belinda Amanda David Gia Justin Autumn Hanson Haley Yamauchi Carey Scooter Juilet Peter Shannon Phillip Keith Susie Melissa Mackenzie Nicholas Curly Bulldog Dead Peoples Dr. Brewer Clone Plant Dad Monster Blood Aunt Kathryn Dr. Fritz Evil Camera Mummy Mirror Max Slappy Mr. Wood Mr. Mortman Sabre Shadow Figure Haunted Mask Store Men Clarissa the Flies A Piano with Hands Dr. Shreek Mr. Toggle A Woman Ghost A Machine Wire Robot Werewolf Swamp Hermit Horror Gary the Bee Dirk-in-Bee Dirk Barry Marv and Karl The Bees Cuddles Sea Monster A Hammerhead Shark Scarecrow Giant Worm and His The Worms Ragina and Beth Ghost of the Beach Egypt Spider The Phantom Masked Mutant Larry Boyd Hairy Monster Black Caped Men A Executioner Cuckoo Bird of Clock Giant Evan Sponge Creature Dennis the Dummy Barking Ghosts King Jellyjam Coach Jellyjam The Lawn Gnomes Giant Praying Mantis Boy Wolf Girl Wolf The Older Mask Shopkeeper Mask Headless Ghost Abominable Snowman Shrunken Head Rocky the Dummy Amaz-O Egg Monster Beast from the East Mr. Saur Huge Monster Swamp Monster Viking Woman Two Pumpkin Heads Jack-O-Lanterns Count Nightwing Lizard Creeps The Snowman Vanessa the Evil Magic Crystal the Chicken Cole the Chicken Two Black Mens Furry Hand Creature Guy Blob Monster Della A Goldfish Werewolf Skin and the Werewolves Aunt Marta Uncle Colin Keith the Slimy Creature and Blue Blobs.

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