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The Boeing Company
Type Public (NYSEBA, TYO: 7661)
Founded Seattle, Washington (1916)
Headquarters Chicago, Illinois, US
Key people W. James McNerney, Jr., CEO
James A. Bell, CFO
J. Michael Luttig, General Counsel
Industry Aerospace and Defense
Products Commercial airliners
Military aircraft
Munitions
Space systems
Computer Services
Revenue US$60.9 Billion (FY 2008)[1]
Operating income US$3.93 Billion (FY 2008)[1]
Net income US$2.67 Billion (FY 2008)[1]
Total assets US$53.8 Billion (FY 2008)[2]
Total equity US$-1.29 Billion (FY 2008)[2]
Employees 157,555 (10-31-2009)[3]
Divisions Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Defense, Space & Security
Others
Subsidiaries Aviall, Inc.
Jeppesen
Boeing Aircraft Holding Company
Boeing Australia
Boeing Canada
Boeing Defence UK
Boeing Store
Website Boeing.com

The Boeing Company is a major aerospace and defense corporation, founded by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas of St. Louis in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois[4] since 2001. Boeing is the largest global aircraft manufacturer by revenue, orders and deliveries, and the third largest aerospace and defense contractor in the world based on defense-related revenue.[5] Boeing is the largest exporter by value in the United States.[6] Its stock is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

Contents

History

Before 1950s

Boeing was incorporated in Seattle, Washington by William E. Boeing, on July 15, 1916, as "Pacific Aero Products Co." following the June 15 maiden flight of one of the two "B&W" seaplanes built with the assistance of George Conrad Westervelt, a U.S. Navy engineer. Many of Boeing's early planes were seaplanes. On May 9, 1917, the company became the "Boeing Airplane Company". William E. Boeing had studied at Yale University and worked initially in the timber industry, where he became wealthy and acquired knowledge about wooden structures. This knowledge would prove invaluable in his subsequent design and assembly of airplanes.

Model of Boeing's first plane, the B&W, at Future of Flight Museum shop

In 1927 Boeing created an airline named Boeing Air Transport, which merged a year later with Pacific Air Transport and the Boeing Airplane Company. The company changed its name to United Aircraft and Transport Corporation in 1929 and acquired Pratt & Whitney, Hamilton Standard Propeller Company, and Chance Vought. United Aircraft then purchased National Air Transport in 1930.

In 1933 the revolutionary Boeing 247 was introduced, the first truly modern airliner. It was much faster, safer, and easier to fly than other passenger aircraft. For example, it was the first twin engine passenger aircraft that could fly on one engine. In an era of unreliable engines, this vastly improved flight safety. Boeing built the first sixty aircraft exclusively for its own airline operations. This badly hurt competing airlines, and was typical of the anti-competitive corporate behavior that the US government sought to prohibit at the time.

The Air Mail Act of 1934 prohibited airlines and manufacturers from being under the same corporate umbrella, so the company split into three smaller companies - Boeing Airplane Company, United Airlines, and United Aircraft Corporation, the precursor to United Technologies. As a result, William Boeing sold off his shares.

Shortly after, an agreement with Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was reached, to develop and build a commercial flying boat able to carry passengers on transoceanic routes. The first flight of the Boeing 314 Clipper was in June 1938. It was the largest civil aircraft of its time, with a capacity of 90 passengers on day flights, and of 40 passengers on night flights. One year later, the first regular passenger service from the US to the UK was inaugurated. Subsequently other routes were opened, so that soon Pan Am flew with the Boeing 314 to destinations all over the world.

In 1938, Boeing completed work on the Model 307 Stratoliner. This was the world’s first pressurized-cabin transport aircraft, and it was capable of cruising at an altitude of 20,000 feet (6,100 m). — above most weather disturbances.

Boeing 377 Stratocruiser

During World War II, Boeing built a large number of bombers. Many of the workers were women whose husbands had gone to war. In the beginning of March 1944, production had been scaled up in such a manner that over 350 planes were built each month. To prevent an attack from the air, the manufacturing plants had been covered with greenery and farmland items. During these years of war the leading aircraft companies of the US cooperated. The Boeing-designed B-17 bomber was assembled also by Lockheed Aircraft Corp. and Douglas Aircraft Co., while the B-29 was assembled also by Bell Aircraft Co. and by Glenn L. Martin Company.

After the war, most orders of bombers were canceled and 70,000 people lost their jobs at Boeing. The company aimed to recover quickly by selling its Stratocruiser, a luxurious four-engine commercial airliner developed from the B-29. However, sales of this model were not as expected and Boeing had to seek other opportunities to overcome the situation. The company successfully sold military aircraft adapted for troop transportation and for aerial refueling.

1950s

The Boeing 707 (taken in 1964)

Boeing developed military jets such as the B-47 Stratojet and B-52 Stratofortress in the late-1940s and into the 1950s. During the early 1950s, Boeing used company funds to develop the 367-80 jet airliner demonstrator that lead to the KC-135 Stratotanker and Boeing 707 jetliner.

In the mid-1950s technology had advanced significantly, which gave Boeing the opportunity to develop and manufacture totally new products. One of the first was the guided short-range missile used to intercept enemy aircraft. By that time the Cold War had become a fact of life, and Boeing used its short-range missile technology to develop and build an intercontinental missile.

In 1958, Boeing began delivery of its 707, the United States' first commercial jet airliner, in response to the British De Havilland Comet, French Sud Aviation Caravelle and Soviet Tupolev Tu-104, which were the world’s first generation of commercial jet aircraft. With the 707, a four-engine, 156-passenger airliner, the US became a leader in commercial jet manufacture. A few years later, Boeing added a second version of this aircraft, the 720, which was slightly faster and had a shorter range.

1960s

Vertol Aircraft Corporation was acquired by Boeing in 1960,[7] and was reorganized as Boeing's Vertol division. The twin-rotor CH-47 Chinook, produced by Vertol, took its first flight in 1961. This heavy-lift helicopter remains a work-horse vehicle up to the present day. In 1964, Vertol also began production of the CH-46 Sea Knight.

In December 1960, Boeing announced the model 727 jetliner, which went into commercial service about three years later. Different passenger, freight and convertible freighter variants were developed for the 727. The 727 was the first commercial jetliner to reach 1000 sales, and a few years later the 1500 mark was reached.

Boeing 737-300

In 1967, Boeing introduced another short- and medium-range airliner, the twin-engine 737. It has become since then the best-selling commercial jet aircraft in aviation history. The 737 is still being produced, and continuous improvements are made. Several versions have been developed, mainly to increase seating capacity and range.

The roll-out ceremonies for the first 747-100 took place in 1968, at the massive new factory in Everett, about an hour's drive from Boeing's Seattle home. The aircraft made its first flight a year later. The first commercial flight occurred in 1970. The 747 has an intercontinental range and a larger seating capacity than Boeing's previous aircraft.

The 707 and 747 formed the backbone of many major airline fleets through the end of the 1970s.
TurboJET 929-100 (Jetfoil)

Boeing also developed hydrofoils in the 1960s. The screw driven USS High Point (PCH-1) was an experimental submarine hunter. The patrol hydrofoil USS Tucumcari (PGH-2) was more successful. Only one was built, but it saw service in Vietnam and Europe before running aground in 1972. Its innovative waterjet[citation needed] and fully submersed flying foils were the model for the later Pegasus class patrol hydrofoils and the model 929 Jetfoil ferries in the 1980s. The Tucumcari and later boats were produced in Renton. While the Navy hydrofoils were withdrawn by the end of the 1980s, the swift and smooth Boeing Jetfoils are still in service in Asia.

1970s

In the beginning of the 1970s, Boeing faced a new crisis. The Apollo program, in which Boeing had participated significantly during the preceding decade, was almost entirely canceled. Once more, Boeing hoped to compensate with sales of its commercial airliners. At that time, however, there was a heavy recession in the airlines industry so that Boeing did not receive any orders for more than a year. Boeing's bet for the future, the new 747, while delayed in production by three months because of problems with its Pratt & Whitney engines. Another problem was that in 1971, the U.S. Congress decided to stop the financial support for the development of the supersonic 2707, Boeing's answer to the British-French Concorde, forcing the company to discontinue the project. The company had to reduce the number of employees from over 80,000 to almost half, only in the Seattle area.

In January 1970, the first 747, a four-engine long-range airliner, flew its first commercial flight. This famous aircraft completely changed the way of flying, with its 450-passenger seating capacity and its upper deck. Boeing has delivered nearly 1,400 747s. The 747 has undergone continuous improvements to keep it technologically up-to-date. Larger versions have also been developed by stretching the upper deck.

The narrow body Boeing 757 replaced the 707 and 727

During the 1970s, Boeing also developed the US Standard Light Rail Vehicle which was used in San Francisco, Boston and Morgantown, WV.

1980s

In 1983, the economic situation began to improve. Boeing assembled its 1,000th 737 passenger airliner. During the following years, commercial aircraft and their military versions became the basic equipment of airlines and air forces. As passenger air traffic increased, competition was harder, mainly from Airbus, a European newcomer in commercial airliner manufacturing. Boeing had to offer new aircraft, and developed the single-aisle 757, the larger, twin-aisle 767, and upgraded versions of the 737. An important project of these years was the Space Shuttle, to which Boeing contributed with its experience in space rockets acquired during the Apollo era. Boeing participated also with other products in the space program, and was the first contractor for the International Space Station. At the same time, several military projects went into production, the Avenger air defense system and a new generation of short-range missiles. During these years, Boeing was very active in upgrading existing military equipment and developing new ones.

1990s

Air France 777-300ER

Boeing was one of seven competing companies that bid for the Advanced Tactical Fighter. Boeing agreed to team with General Dynamics and Lockheed, so that all three companies would participate in the development if one of the three company's design was selected. The Lockheed design was eventually selected and developed into the F-22 Raptor.[8]

In April 1994, Boeing introduced the most modern commercial jet aircraft at the time, the twin-engine 777, with a seating capacity of approximately 300 to 370 passengers in a typical three-class layout, in between the 767 and the 747. The longest range twin-engined aircraft in the world, the 777 was the first Boeing airliner to feature a "fly-by-wire" system and was conceived partly in response to the inroads being made by the European Airbus into Boeing’s traditional market. This aircraft reached an important milestone by being the first airliner to be designed entirely by using CAD techniques.[9] Also in the mid-1990s, the company developed the revamped version of the 737, known as the 737 "Next-Generation", or 737NG. It has since become the fastest-selling version of the 737 in history, and on April 20, 2006 sales passed those of the "Classic 737", with a follow-up order for 79 aircraft from Southwest Airlines.

In 1995 Boeing announced that the headquarters complex on East Marginal Way South would be demolished instead of being upgraded to match new seismic standards. Boeing scheduled demolition of the facility in 1996 and moved the headquarters to an adjacent building.[10] In 1997 Boeing's headquarter was located on East Marginal Way South, by King County Airport, in Seattle.[11]

In 1996, Boeing acquired Rockwell’s aerospace and defense units. The Rockwell business units became a subsidiary of Boeing, named Boeing North American, Inc. In August of the next year, Boeing merged with McDonnell Douglas in a US$13 billion stock swap under the name The Boeing Company. However this name had actually been Boeing's official name previously adapted on May 21, 1961.[12] Following the merger, the McDonnell Douglas MD-95 was renamed the Boeing 717, and the production of the MD-11 was limited to the freighter version. Boeing introduced a new corporate identity with completion of the merger, incorporating the Boeing logo type and a stylized version of the McDonnell Douglas symbol, which was derived from the Douglas Aircraft logo from the 1970s.

2000s

Boeing's headquarters in Chicago. Formerly the headquarters of Morton Salt

In September 2001, Boeing moved its corporate headquarters from Seattle to Chicago. Chicago, Dallas and Denver — vying to become the new home of the world’s largest aerospace concern — all had offered packages of multimillion-dollar tax breaks.[13] Its offices are located in Near North Side, Chicago.[4]

On October 10, 2001, Boeing lost to its rival Lockheed Martin in the fierce competition for the multi-billion dollar Joint Strike Fighter contract. Boeing’s entry, the X-32, was rejected in favor of Lockheed’s X-35 entrant. Boeing continues to serve as the prime contractor on the International Space Station and has built several of the major components.

After several decades of success, Boeing lost ground to Airbus and subsequently lost its position as market leader in 2003. Multiple Boeing projects were pursued and then canceled, notably the Sonic Cruiser, a proposed jetliner that would travel just under the speed of sound, cutting intercontinental travel times by as much as 20 percent. It was launched in 2001 along with a new advertising campaign to promote the company's new motto, "Forever New Frontiers", and to rehabilitate its image. However, the plane's fate was sealed by the changes in the commercial aviation market following the September 11 attacks and the subsequent weak economy and increase in fuel prices.

Subsequently, Boeing streamlined production and turned its attention to a new model, the 787 Dreamliner, using much of the technology developed for the Sonic Cruiser, but in a more conventional aircraft designed for maximum efficiency. The company also launched new variants of its successful 737 and 777 models. The 787 proved to be highly popular choice with airlines, and won a record number of pre-launch orders at a time in which Airbus was seen to be struggling with delays and cost overruns in producing its A380 superjumbo; at the same time, several airlines threatened to switch their A380 orders to Boeing's modernized version of the 747, the 747-8.[14] Airbus's response to the 787, the A350, received a lukewarm response at first when it was announced as an improved version of the A330, and only gained significant orders when Airbus promised an entirely new design. The 787 has encountered delays in coming to production, with the first flight not occurring until late 2009, more than two years late. Production will be increased to 10 Boeing 787s per month by 2013.[15]

In 2004, Boeing ended production of the 757 after 1055 were produced. More advanced, stretched versions of the 737 were beginning to compete against the 757, and the new 787-3 filled much of the top end of the 757 market. Also that year, Boeing announced that the 717, the last civil aircraft to be designed by McDonnell Douglas, would cease production in 2006. The 767 was in danger of cancellation as well, with the 787 replacing it, but orders for the freighter version extended the program.

In May 2005, Boeing announced its intent to form a joint venture, United Launch Alliance with its competitor Lockheed Martin. The new venture will be the largest provider of rocket launch services to the US government. The joint venture gained regulatory approval and completed the formation on December 1, 2006.[16]

On August 2, 2005, Boeing sold its Rocketdyne rocket engine division to Pratt & Whitney. On May 1, 2006, Boeing announced that it had reached a definitive agreement to purchase Dallas, Texas-based Aviall, Inc. for $1.7 billion and retain $350 million in debt. Aviall, Inc. and its subsidiaries, Aviall Services, Inc. and ILS formed a wholly owned subsidiary of Boeing Commercial Aviation Services (BCAS).[17]

On August 18, 2007, NASA announced that Boeing would be the manufacturing contractor for the liquid-fueled upper stage of the Ares I rocket. The stage, based on both Apollo-Saturn and Space Shuttle technologies, will be constructed at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, the same site where Boeing constructed the massive S-IC stage of the Saturn V rocket in the 1960s.

Unethical conduct

In May 2003, the US Air Force announced it would lease 100 KC-767 tankers to replace the oldest 136 of its KC-135s. The 10 year lease would give the USAF the option to purchase the aircraft at the end of the contract. In November 2003, responding to critics who argued that the lease was vastly more expensive than an outright purchase, the DOD announced a revised lease of 20 aircraft and purchase of 80.

In December 2003, the Pentagon announced the project was to be frozen while an investigation of allegations of corruption by one of its former procurement staffers, Darleen Druyun (who began employment at Boeing in January) was begun. The fallout of this resulted in the resignation of Boeing CEO Philip M. Condit and the termination of CFO Michael M. Sears.[18] Harry Stonecipher, former McDonnell Douglas CEO and Boeing COO, replaced Condit on an interim basis.

Druyun pleaded guilty to inflating the price of the contract to favor her future employer and to passing information on the competing Airbus A330 MRTT bid (from EADS). In October 2004, she was sentenced to nine months in jail for corruption, fined $5,000, given three years of supervised release and 150 hours of community service.

In March 2005, the Boeing board forced President and CEO Harry Stonecipher to resign. Boeing said an internal investigation revealed a "consensual" relationship between Stonecipher and a female executive that was "inconsistent with Boeing's Code of Conduct" and "would impair his ability to lead the company".[19] James A. Bell served as interim CEO (in addition to his normal duties as Boeing’s CFO) until the appointment of Jim McNerney as the new Chairman, President, and CEO on June 30, 2005.

Industrial espionage

In June 2003, Lockheed Martin sued Boeing, alleging that the company had resorted to industrial espionage in 1998 to win the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) competition. Lockheed claimed that the former employee Kenneth Branch, who went to work for McDonnell Douglas and Boeing, passed 25,000 proprietary documents to his new employers. Lockheed argued that these documents allowed Boeing to win 21 of the 28 tendered military satellite launches.

In July 2003, Boeing was penalized, with the Pentagon stripping $1 billion worth of contracts away from the company and awarding them to Lockheed Martin. Furthermore, the company was forbidden to bid for rocket contracts for a twenty-month period, which expired in March 2005.

In early September 2005, it was reported that Boeing was negotiating a settlement with the U.S. Department of Justice in which it would pay up to $500 million to cover this and the Darleen Druyun scandal.[20]

Late deliveries

After Italy purchased, in December 2002, four aerial refueling tankers from Boeing, the first was scheduled to be delivered in November 2008. The second was slated for delivery in December 2008, some three years late. Boeing expects the third and fourth tankers to be delivered at least 16 months and 12 months late, respectively. Boeing and Italy are negotiating on the penalty Boeing will have to pay for the late deliveries. According to Boeing, the factors contributing to the delay included design changes, expanded US flight testing, greater-than-expected challenges to software integration, and the complexity of getting the tanker ready for certification by the Federal Aviation Administration.[21]

Boeing's late delivery of a tanker to Japan in 2007 incurred a penalty "well under $5 million" according to Boeing.[21] Boeing delivered the third aircraft to Japan in March 2009 and the last aircraft is to be delivered in early 2010.[22]

On March 1, 2008 the U.S. Air Force announced one of the largest military acquisition programs in U.S. history, saying the service had chosen Northrop Grumman over Boeing to replace its aging air refueling tanker fleet.[23] Northrop's partner in the deal is Boeing arch-rival Airbus and its parent company, European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company (EADS), the latter promised a plane assembly plant in Mobile, Alabama to support the bid.[23]

The 92 EU-US Agreement notes

Until the late 70s the US had an almost de facto monopoly in the Large Civil Aircraft (LCA) sector. The Airbus consortium (created in 1969) started competing effectively in the 80s. At that stage the US became concerned about the European competition and the alleged subsidies paid by the European governments for the developments of the early models of the Airbus family. This became a major issue of contention, as the European side was equally concerned by subsidies accruing to US LCA manufacturers through NASA and Defense programs.

The EU and the US started bilateral negotiations for the limitation of government subsidies to the LCA sector in the late 1980s. Negotiations were concluded in 1992 with the signature of the EC-US Agreement on Trade in Large Civil Aircraft which imposes disciplines on government support on both sides of the Atlantic which are significantly stricter than the relevant WTO rules: Notably, the Agreement regulates in detail the forms and limits of government support, prescribes transparency obligations and commits the parties to avoiding trade disputes.[24]

Subsidy disputes

In 2004 the EU and the US agreed to discuss a possible revision of the 1992 EU-US Agreement provided that this would cover all forms of subsidies including those used in the US, and in particular the subsidies for the Boeing 787; the first new aircraft to be launched by Boeing for 14 years. October 2004, the US began legal proceedings at the World Trade Organization by requesting WTO consultations on European launch investment to Airbus. The US also unilaterally withdrew from the 1992 EU-US Agreement.[25]

In October 2004, Boeing filed a complaint at the World Trade Organization (WTO), claiming that Airbus had violated a 1992 bilateral accord when it received what Boeing deems as “unfair” subsidies from several European governments. Airbus retaliated by filing another complaint, contesting that Boeing had also violated the accord when it received tax breaks from the U.S. Government. Moreover, the E.U. also complained that the investment subsidies from Japanese airlines violated the accord.

On January 11, 2005, Boeing and Airbus agreed that they would attempt to find a solution to the dispute outside of the WTO.

However, in June 2005, Boeing and the United States government reopened the trade dispute with the WTO, claiming that Airbus had received illegal subsidies from European governments. Airbus has also retaliated against Boeing, reopening the dispute and also accusing Boeing of receiving subsidies from the US government.[26]

Recent product development

The Boeing 787 rollout on July 8, 2007

Boeing has recently achieved several consecutive launches, beginning with the formal launch of the 787 for delivery to All Nippon Airways and Air New Zealand. Rollout of the first 787 occurred on July 8, 2007, with the first flight taking place on December 15, 2009.

Boeing also received the launch contract from the US Navy for the P-8 Multimission Maritime Aircraft, an anti-submarine warfare patrol aircraft. Several orders for the Wedgetail AEW&C airplanes are expected as well.

Boeing launched the 777 Freighter in May 2005 with an order from Air France. The freighter variant is based on the -200LR. Other customers include FedEx, Emirates Airline, and Air Atlanta Icelandic. Boeing has achieved above projected orders for its 787 Dreamliner, outselling the rival Airbus A350.

Boeing officially announced in November 2005 that it would produce a larger variant of the 747, the 747-8, in two models, commencing with the Freighter model for two cargo carriers with firm orders for the aircraft. The second model, dubbed the Intercontinental, would be produced for passenger airlines that Boeing expected would place orders in the near future. Both models of the 747-8 would feature a lengthened fuselage, new, advanced engines and wings, and the incorporation of other technologies developed for the 787.

Boeing has also introduced new extended range versions of the 737. These include the 737-700ER and 737-900ER. The 737-900ER is the latest and will extend the range of the 737-900 to a similar range as the successful 737-800 with the capability to fly more passengers, due to the addition of two extra emergency exits.

The record-breaking 777-200LR Worldliner, presented at the Paris Air Show 2005.

The 777-200LR Worldliner embarked on a well-received global demonstration tour in the second half of 2005, showing off its capacity to fly farther than any other commercial aircraft. On November 10, 2005, the 777-200LR set a world record for the longest non-stop flight. The plane, which departed from Hong Kong traveling to London, took a longer route, which included flying over the U.S. It flew 11,664 nautical miles (21,601 km) during its 22-hour 42-minute flight. It was flown by Pakistan International Airlines pilots and PIA was the first airline to fly the 777-200LR Worldliner.

Realizing that increasing numbers of passengers have become reliant on their computers to stay in touch, Boeing introduced Connexion by Boeing, a satellite based Internet connectivity service that promised air travelers unprecedented access to the World Wide Web. The company debuted the product to journalists in 2005, receiving generally favorable reviews. However, facing competition from cheaper options, such as cellular networks, it proved too difficult to sell to most airlines. In August 2006, after a short and unsuccessful search for a buyer for the business, Boeing chose to discontinue the service.[27][28]

BCT/FCS Modernization

Graphic representation of the XM1202 Mounted Combat Systems

Boeing jointly with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), were the prime contractors in the U.S. military's Future Combat Systems program.[29] The FCS program was canceled in June 2009 with all remaining systems swept into the BCT Modernization program.[30]

Boeing will work jointly with SAIC in the BCT Modernization program like the FCS program but the U.S. Army will play a greater role in creating baseline vehicles and will only contract others for accessories.

Titanium joint venture with Russia

On August 11, 2006, Boeing announced an agreement to form a joint-venture with the large Russian titanium producer, VSMPO-Avisma for the machining of titanium forgings.[31] On December 27, 2007 Boeing and VSMPO-Avisma created a joint venture Ural Boeing Manufacturing and signed a contract on titanium products deliveries until 2015, with Boeing planning to invest 27 billion dollars in Russia over the next 30 years.[32]

Future concepts

In May 2006, four concept designs being examined by Boeing were outlined in the The Seattle Times based on corporate internal documents.[33] The research aims in two directions: low-cost airplanes, and environmental-friendly planes. Codenamed after the well-known Muppets a design team known as the Green Team concentrated primarily on reducing fuel usage. All four designs illustrated rear-engine layouts.

  • "Fozzie" employs open rotors and would offer a lower cruising speed.
  • "Beaker" has very thin, long wings, with the ability to partially fold-up to facilitate easier taxiing.
  • "Kermit Kruiser" has forward swept wings over which are positioned its engines, with the aim of lowering noise below due to the reflection of the exhaust signature upward.
  • "Honeydew" with its delta wing design, resembles a marriage of the flying wing concept and the traditional tube fuselage.

As with most concepts, these designs are only in the exploratory stage intended to help Boeing evaluate the potentials of such radical technologies.[33]

Shift in Defense Priorities

Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates' shift in defense spending to "make tough choices about specific systems and defense priorities based solely on the national interest and then stick to those decisions over time"[34] hit Boeing especially hard, because of their heavy involvement with canceled Air Force projects.[35]

Environment

Environmental record

Researchers at the University of Massachusetts have listed Boeing as the thirteenth-largest corporate producer of air pollution in the United States based on 2002 data.[36] According to the Center for Public Integrity, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has linked Boeing to more than twenty Superfund toxic waste sites.[37] In 2006, the UCLA Center for Environmental Risk Reduction released a study showing that Boeing's Santa Susana Field Laboratory in Ventura, California had been contaminated with toxic and radioactive waste. The study found that air, soil, groundwater, and surface water at the site all contained radionuclides, toxic metals, and dioxins; air and water additionally contained perchlorate, TCE, and hydrazines, while water showed the presence of PCBs as well.[38]

Jet biofuels

The airline industry is responsible for about 11 percent of greenhouse gases emitted by the U.S. transportation sector.[39] Aviation's share of the greenhouse gas emissions is poised to grow, as air travel increases and ground vehicles use more alternative fuels like ethanol and biodiesel.[39] Boeing estimates that biofuels could reduce flight-related greenhouse-gas emissions by 60 to 80 percent.[39] The solution would be blending algae fuels with existing jet fuel.[39]

Boeing executives said the company is informally collaborating with leading Brazilian biofuels maker Tecbio, Aquaflow Bionomic of New Zealand and other fuel developers around the world. So far, Boeing has tested six fuels from these companies, and will probably have gone through 20 fuels "by the time we're done evaluating them."[39] Boeing is joining other aviation-related members in the Algal Biomass Organization (ABO).[40]

Air New Zealand and Boeing are researching the jatropha plant to see if it is a sustainable alternative to conventional fuel.[41] A two-hour test flight using a 50-50 mixture of the new biofuel with Jet A-1 in the number one position Rolls Royce RB-211 engine of 747-400 ZK-NBS, was successfully completed on 30 December 2008. The engine was then removed to be scrutinised and studied to identify any differences between the Jatropha blend and regular Jet A1. No effects to performances were found.

Political contributions

Boeing lobby expenditures in 2007 thus far total $4.14 million.[42] In 2006, total of $9.12 million was spent. Boeing received $15.3 billion in long-term loan guarantees in 2007 and 2008 from the Export-Import Bank of the United States in spite of being one of the top companies in the Federal Contractor Misconduct Database.[43]

Taxes paid

In April 2009, BusinessWeek magazine reported that Boeing was one of 25 US companies that paid the least US taxes. Based on the magazine's analysis of company financial records for 2005 to 2008, Boeing paid an average annual tax rate of 3.2 percent, much less than the standard 35 percent corporate tax rate.[44]

Divisions

The two largest divisions are Boeing Commercial Airplanes and Boeing Defense, Space & Security (BDS). BDS is Boeing's defense, space, and security division.[45]

Employment numbers

Employment By location

Employment By location[3]
Alabama 2,971
Arizona 4,853
California 24,499
Kansas 2,586
Missouri 15,594
Pennsylvania 5,900
Texas 5,727
Washington 72,352
Other Locations 22,591
Total Company 157,073

Employment by group (division)

Employment By group (division)[3]
Defense, Space, and Security 68,341
Commercial Airplanes 59,958
Engineering, Operations & Technology 17,960
Finance & Shared Services 8,619
Human Resources & Administration 1,012
Corporate 1,183
Total Company 157,073

Corporate governance

Current board of directors

Chief executive officer

1933–1939 Clairmont L. Engtvedt
1939–1944 Philip G. Johnston
1944–1945 Clairmont L. Egtvedt[46]
1945–1968 William M. Allen
1969–1986 Thornton “T” A. Wilson
1986–1996 Frank A. Shrontz[47]
1996–2003 Philip M. Condit
2003–2005 Harry C. Stonecipher
2005 James A. Bell (acting)
2005– W. James McNerney, Jr.

Chairman of the board

1916–1934 William E. Boeing
1934–1939 Clairmont L. Egtvedt (acting)
1939–1966 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1968–1972 William M. Allen
1972–1987 Thornton "T" A. Wilson
1988–1996 Frank A. Shrontz
1997–2003 Philip M. Condit
2003–2005 Lew Platt
2005– W. James McNerney, Jr.

President

1922–1925 Edgar N. Gott[48]
1926–1933 Philip G. Johnson
1933–1939 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1939–1944 Philip G. Johnson
1944–1945 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1945–1968 William M. Allen
1968–1972 Thornton “T” A. Wilson
1972–1985 Malcolm T. Stamper
1985–1996 Frank A. Shrontz
1996–1997 Philip M. Condit
1997–2005 Harry Stonecipher
2005 James A. Bell (acting)
2005– W. James McNerney, Jr.

See also


References

  1. ^ a b c Boeing Company (BA) annual SEC income statement filing via Wikinvest
  2. ^ a b Boeing Company (BA) annual SEC balance sheet filing via Wikinvest
  3. ^ a b c As of 2/3/2010 from Boeing Employment Numbers page
  4. ^ a b "Contact Us." Boeing. Retrieved on May 12, 2009.
  5. ^ "Defense News Top 100 for 2008". Defense News.
  6. ^ "Boeing says it's flying high despite recession". USA Today, March 27, 2009.
  7. ^ Boeing History 1957-1970
  8. ^ Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin F/A-22 Raptor, Stealth Fighter. Aerofax, 2005. ISBN 1-85780-158-X.
  9. ^ Norris, Guy and Mark Wagner. Boeing 777: The Technological Marvel. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-0890-X.
  10. ^ "Boeing to Raze Company Headquarters Building; Will Relocate to Adjacent Building." Boeing. August 4, 1995. Retrieved on May 13, 2009.
  11. ^ "REVISED MEETING ARRANGEMENTS AND MAP FOR THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING." Gas Industry Standards Board. April 30, 1999. Retrieved on May 13, 2009.
  12. ^ "The Boeing Log Book", various volumes, published by Boeing Historical Archives.
  13. ^ "Boeing Expected to Reveal New Home". Los Angeles Times. 2001-05-10. http://articles.latimes.com/2001/may/10/business/fi-61490. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  14. ^ Robertson, David (October 4, 2006). "Airbus will lose €4.8bn because of A380 delays". London: The Times Business News. http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/engineering/article659591.ece. 
  15. ^ "Boeing 787 first flight announced". BBC, 27 August 2009.
  16. ^ "Boeing and Lockheed Martin Complete United Launch Alliance Transaction (news release)". The Boeing Company. 2006-12-01. http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2006/q4/061201a_nr.html. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  17. ^ Boeing: Boeing Concludes Purchase of Aviall, Inc.
  18. ^ "Ex-Boeing CFO Pleads Guilty in Druyun Case", Washington Post, November 16, 2004.
  19. ^ Boeing CEO Stonecipher Resigns press release
  20. ^ Boeing, DOJ may reach settlement
  21. ^ a b Capaccio, Tony, and Toko Sekiguchi, "Boeing Delay On Italy, Japan Tankers May Harm Bid For U.S. Work", Bloomberg, 12 August 2008.
  22. ^ "Boeing KC-767J Aerial Refueling Tankers Join Active Air Wing in Japan". Boeing, 26 May 2009.
  23. ^ a b "Northrop Grumman gets $40B deal to replace Air Force tankers". CNN. 2008-03-01. http://www.cnn.com/2008/US/02/29/air.force.tankers/index.html. Retrieved 2009-02-10. 
  24. ^ Top margin 1
  25. ^ http://trade-info.cec.eu.int/doclib/docs/2005/july/tradoc_124112.pdf, Commissioner Mandelson
  26. ^ "Industrial Subsidies and the Politics of World Trade: The Case of the Boeing 7e7" (PDF). Canada-United States Trade Center. pp. 17. http://igeographer.lib.indstate.edu/pritchard.pdf. 
  27. ^ "Boeing exits in-flight broadband". BBC News. 17 August 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/5261562.stm. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  28. ^ "Boeing to Discontinue Connexion by Boeing Service (news release)". The Boeing Company. 17 August 2006. http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2006/q3/060817a_nr.html. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
  29. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2007/12/06/ST2007120602927.html
  30. ^ "Future Combat System (FCS) Program to Army Brigade Combat Team Modernization". US DoD, 23 June 2009.
  31. ^ "Boeing and VSMPO-AVISMA Announce Titanium Agreement", Boeing, 11 August 2006.
  32. ^ (Russian) Корпорация ВСМПО-АВИСМА
  33. ^ a b Dominic Gates (18 May 2006). "Clean engines, wings that fold: Boeing dreams of futuristic jets". The Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/businesstechnology/2002973147_boeingconcepts05.html. 
  34. ^ Military Budget Reflects a Shift in U.S. Strategy
  35. ^ Pentagon budget cuts slam Boeing, raise stakes on tanker win
  36. ^ "Top Corporate Air Polluters in the United States". Political Economy Research Institute. 2002. http://www.peri.umass.edu/Toxic-100-Table.265.0.html. 
  37. ^ Center for Public Integrity
  38. ^ Center for Environmental Risk Reduction, UCLA
  39. ^ a b c d e Ángel González (2007-08-30). "To go green in jet fuel, Boeing looks at algae". The Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/boeingaerospace/2003858756_boeingenergy30.html. Retrieved 2009-01-27. 
  40. ^ First Airlines and UOP Join Algal Biomass Organization, Green Car Congress, 19 June 2008.
  41. ^ Air NZ sees biofuel salvation in jatropha.
  42. ^ Lobbying database, Boeing Co.
  43. ^ Boeing: Flying High in the Friendly Export Subsidies Sky
  44. ^ "US Companies That Paid The Least Taxes," BusinessWeek, April 23, 2009
  45. ^ a b "Boeing in Brief". Boeing. http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/aboutus/brief.html. 
  46. ^ Clairmont L. Egtvedt biography, Boeing.
  47. ^ Frank Shrontz biography, Boeing.
  48. ^ Edgar N. Gott biography, Boeing.

Further reading

  • Greider, William. 'One World, Ready or Not: The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism. London: Penguin Press, 1997. ISBN 0-7139-9211-5.

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Noun

Singular
Boeing

Plural
Boeings

Boeing (plural Boeings)

  1. (aviation) An American aerospace company, which created many commercial airplanes.

Anagrams


Simple English

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
The Boeing Company

Type Public (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661)
Founded Seattle, Washington (1916)
Headquarters Chicago, Illinois, US
Area served Commercial airliners
Military aircraft
Munitions
Space systems
Computer Services
Key people W. James McNerney, Jr., CEO
James A. Bell, CFO
J. Michael Luttig, General Counsel
Industry Aerospace and Defense
Owner Declan Mulholland
Employees 157,555 (10-31-2009)
Subsidiaries Aviall, Inc.
Jeppesen
Boeing Aircraft Holding Company
Boeing Australia
Boeing Canada
Boeing Defence UK
Boeing Store
Website Boeing.com

Boeing is a company that makes airplanes, rockets, and space hardware. It is based in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Some kinds of Boeing products are:

File:Boeing Everett
Boeing's larget manufacturing plant in Everett, Washington.

Their main manufacturing plants are near where the company was founded in Seattle, Washington.

References








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